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08/07/2010

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Business Research Methods

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 9: Survey Research

Surveys
Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning

Respondents
Respondents are a representative sample of people

Gathering Information via Surveys
• • • • • Quick Inexpensive Efficient Accurate Flexible

Problems
• Poor Design • Improper Execution

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Random sampling error Total error

Systematic error (bias)

Random Sampling Error
• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample

Systematic Error
• Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error

Systematic error (bias) Respondent error

Sample Bias
• Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Nonresponse error Respondent error Response bias

Respondent Error
• A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction • Nonresponse bias • Response bias

Nonresponse Error
• Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate • Not-at-homes • Self-selection bias
• Over-represents extreme positions • Under-represents indifference

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Deliberate falsification Response bias Unconscious misrepresentation

Response Bias
• A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias

Social desirability bias

Acquiescence Bias
• A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.

Extremity Bias
• A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.

Interviewer Bias
• A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.

Auspices Bias
• Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study.

Social Desirability Bias
• Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error

Systematic error (bias) Respondent error

Administrative Error
• Improper administration of the research task • Blunders
• Confusion • Neglect • Omission

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating

Administrative Error
• Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers • Data processing error - incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage. • Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution. • Interviewer error - field mistakes

C S R M M C O O M E T F M H U O N

L E

A U S E

S R E T H

S V

I F Y I N E Y A R C H O D S T R UL N

G

D S T R U C T U A N D D I S QC I CQ A U T E I O TN I O S

E E MD P O AI S S E S D I F S

R A I C

Time Period for Surveys
• Cross-sectional • Longitudinal

Cross-Sectional Study
• A study in which various segments of a population are sampled • Data are collected at a single moment in time.

Longitudinal Study
• A survey of respondents at different times, thus allowing analysis of changes over time. • Tracking study - compare trends and identify changes
– consumer satisfaction

Consumer Panel
• A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record (in a diary) their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.

Total Quality Management and Customer Satisfaction Surveys
• Total quality management - A business philosophy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top organizational priority.

Stages in Tracking Quality Improvement
Initial quality improvement

Commitment and Exploration

Benchmarking

Continuous Quality Improvement

Commitment and Exploration Stage
• Management makes a commitment to total quality assurance • Business researchers explore external customers’ needs and problems. • Business researchers explore internal customers’ needs, beliefs, and motivations.

Benchmarking Stage
• Research establishes quantitative measures as benchmarks or points of comparison • Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of specific attributes • Employees actual performance and perceptions

Initial Quality Improvement Stage
• Tracking wave 1 measures trends • Establishes a quality improvement process within the organization. • Translate quality issues into the internal vocabulary of the organization. • Establish performance standards and expectations for improvement.

Continuous Quality Improvement
• Consists of many consecutive waves with the same purpose—to improve over the previous period. • Quality improvement management continues.

Determinants of the Quality of Goods
• • • • • • • Performance Features Conformance with specifications Reliability Durability Serviceability Aesthetic design

Determinants of Service Quality
• • • • • • Access Communication Competence Courtesy Reliability Credibility

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