PENALOSA, James Ryan S.

AB Political Science - III

Political Science 67 A

By Weiner, Myron

MYRON WEINER was one of the American political scientists whose professional life and writings consisted of work he did in and on India from the early 1960s until his death in 1999. He used his intimate grasp of politics in India to make comparative studies of politics and democratic processes in developing countries and to make seminal contributions to political theory as well. It was his book based on his Ph.D. dissertation, Politics of Scarcity: Public Pressure and Political Response in India (1962) that brought him to the notice of scholars in India and in the United States. Fairly soon after came Party Building in a New Nation: The Indian National Congress (1967). Other books on India and on more general themes came out subsequently. Two books in the 1990s, one on a specific Indian problem, The Child and the State in India: Child Labour and Educational Policy in Comparative Perspective (1991) and the other on a global issue, The Global Migration Crisis (1995) were widely acclaimed. The first, particularly, generated a great deal of public discussion in the country because of the author's uncompromising position that poverty and low incomes were not the main causes of the persistence of child labour in India, but the deep-rooted norms of hierarchy shared by bureaucrats, educators, trade unionists, social activists - that is, the influential Indian middle class.1 SUMMARY: The integration problems faced by new nations should be viewed as part of an historical process of political development through which Western political systems have gone as well. It is during the transitional phase of political development, as governments begin to assume or attempt to assume more functions, that integration problems become most acute. The most common integration problems involve problems of national identity, territorial control, and the establishment of norms for the handling of public conflict, the relationship between governors and the governed, and the problems of organizing individuals for the achievement of common purposes. The major options available to governments faced with integration problems are explored.


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