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Zbornik radova HR konferencija 2015

Savremeni trendovi i kvalitet u upravljanju ljudskim resursima

Z b o r n i k

r a d o v a

Beograd, 2015. godine

Zbornik radova

Savremeni trendovi i kvalitet u upravljanju ljudskim resursima

Izdavač:

Visoka škola strukovnih studija za ekonomiju i upravu Centar za ekonomska istraživanja (CEIB) Beograd, Imotska 1 Telefon: + 381 11 78 54 719; +381-11-30-98-198

Za izdavača:

Prof. dr Slobodan Slović

Kompjuterska priprema:

Vladimir Knežević

Štampa:

Megraf plus, Beograd

Tiraž: 100

CIP – Каталогизација у публикацији, Народна библиотека, Београд

005.96(082)(0.034.2)

HR конференција Савремени трендови и квалитет у управљању људским ресурсима (2015 ; Београд) Zbornik radova / [HR konferencija] Savremeni trendovi i kvalitet u upravljanju ljudskim resursima, Beograd, 2015. – Beograd: Visoka škola strukovnih studija za ekonomiju i upravu, Centar za ekonomska istraživanja (CEIB), 2015 (Beograd : Megraf plus). 472 str. : ilustr. ; 30 cm

Tiraž 100. – Napomene i bibliografske reference uz tekst. – Bibliografija uz svaki rad. – Abstracts.

ISBN 978-86-86745-55-2

a) Менаџмент људских ресурса Зборници

COBISS.SR-ID 220575756

SADRŽAJ

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva ; PhD, Maja Kochoska

MANAGING MULTICULTURAL AND DIVERSE WORKFORCE AS ONE OF THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS

1. INTRODUCTION TO MULTICUTURALISAM AND DIVERSITY

18

2. PROBLEMS AND ADVANTAGES OF DIVERSITY

19

3. EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTICULTURAL TEAMS

21

4. MANAGEMENT OF MULTICULTURAL TEAMS

22

5. CONCLUSION

23

REFERENCES

24

dr Ana Jurčić; dr Vesna Milanović

UNDERSTANDING HOFSTEDE’S MODEL OF CULTURE MANIFESTATIONS AIMED TO IMPROVE THE PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

1. UVOD

26

2. HOFSTEDEOV MODEL KULTURNIH DIMENZIJA

26

3. KULTURA ILI KULTURE

28

4. HOFSTEDEOV MODEL KULTURNIH MANIFESTACIJA

28

5. SIMBOLI, HEROJI, RITUALI I VREDNOSTI

29

6. ZAKLJUČAK

30

LITERATURA

31

Doc. dr Atanas Kozarev

THE ROLE OF SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN THE PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES CONDUCTION IN THE SECURITY SECTOR

INTRODUCTION

34

1. DEFINING SECURITY MANAGEMENT, WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON TRANSITIONAL SOCIETIES

36

2. THE MODEL OF POLICE SERVICE SECURITY MANAGEMENT AND IT’S ROLE IN THE HUMAN RESOURSES MANAGEMENT PROCES

39

3. THE MODEL OF SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN HE INTELLIGENCE-SECURITY COMMUNITY AND ITS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

43

4. WHO IS THE REAL (OR PERCEIVED) MANAGER OF HUMAN RESOURCES POLICY IN THE SECURITY SECTOR IN TRANSITIONAL SOCIETIES?

44

5. DIRECTONS FOR THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE SECURITY SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

46

CONCLUSION

47

References

48

Assistant Professor Atanas Kozarev; Assistant Professor Biljana Todorova

MANAGING LOCAL SECURITY - CASE STUDY: REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Uvod

50

5

1.

Suština modela rada policije u zajednici

51

2. Karakteristike modela – rad policije u zajednici u Republici Makedoniji

54

3. Uloga lokalne zajednice u menađiranju lokalne policije

56

4. Praktična iskustva primene modela policiskog rada u zajednici

58

Zaključak

59

Conclusion

60

Literatura

62

Amela Hodžić, mag.ing.; doc.dr.sc. Saša Aksentijević; doc.dr.sc. Edvard Tijan

OBRAZOVANJE U FUNKCIJI PRILAGODBE PROMJENAMA NA TRŽIŠTU RADA

1. UVOD

63

2. UČEĆA ORGANIZACIJA I UPRAVLJANJE ZNANJEM

64

3. PROCES I FUNKCIJE OBRAZOVANJA U ORGANIZACIJAMA

66

4. KONCEPT CJELOŽIVOTNOG UČENJA

68

5. SUSTAV NAPREDOVANJA I NAGRAĐIVANJA

69

6. ZAKLJUČAK

72

LITERATURA

73

Amela Hodžić, mag.ing.; doc.dr.sc. Saša Aksentijević; doc.dr.sc. Edvard Tijan

RAZVOJ I UPRAVLJANJE KARIJERAMA

1. UVOD

75

2. FAZE RAZVOJA KARIJERE

77

3. PLANIRANJE I RAZVOJ PROFESIONALNE KARIJERE

80

4. EFIKASNA I NEEFIKASNA PROMOCIJA KADROVA

82

5. ULOGA ORGANIZACIJE U RAZVOJU KARIJERE

85

6. ZAKLJUČAK

87

LITERATURA

89

Master, Biljana Ilić; prof. dr, Dragan Mihajlović

UPRAVLJANJE LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA I OSNOVNI PARAMETRI RAZVOJA BANJSKOG TURIZMA SRBIJE

1. UVOD

92

2. Kadrovski potencijal u banjama Srbije

92

3. Razvojni parametri u Banjama Srbije

93

3.1 Prisustvo termo-mineralnih i klimatskih faktora

93

3.2 Medicinske indikacije

94

3.3 Smeštajni kapaciteti u banjama Srbije

95

3.4 Opremljenost objekata, prisustvo wellnessa i sportsko-rekreativni potencijali

95

3.5 Integrisani faktori banjskog turizma Srbije - osnovni pokazatelj razvijenosti

96

4. Unapređenje kvaliteta ljudskih resursa banjskog turizma

97

5. Smernice razvoja banjskog turizma

98

ZAKLJUČAK

99

LITERATURA

100

magistar pravnih nauka Biljana Tomić; master, Ivana A. Tomić

CANCELLATION OF THE EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT BY THE EMPLOYER (FOR JUSTIFIED REASON RELATING TO THE WORKING ABILITY OF THE EMPLOYEE AND HIS OR HER BEHAVIOR)

1. UVOD

102

2. NEOSTVARIVANJE REZULTATA RADA

102

6

3.

OSUDA ZA KRIVIČNO DELO

103

4. NEVRAĆANJE NA RAD U PROPISANOM ROKU

103

5. POSEBNA ZAŠTITA OD OTKAZA

104

LITERATURA

106

Msc Bojan Čučak; Msc Igor Janjić

COMPARISON OF LEADERSHIP STYLES IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY IN SERBIA

Introduc tion

108

Literature review of l eadership theories

108

Leadership step s assessment

110

Comments on fi ndings

110

Conclusion

111

Reference list

112

Daniela Karadakov M.Sc.

EDUCATION – INFLUENTIAL FACTOR ON THE GENERATION GAP IN THE WORKPLACE

1. INTRODUCTION

113

2. GENERATION GAP AT THE WORKPLACE

113

3. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE FIRST GENERATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

115

4. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE SECOND GENERATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

116

5. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE THIRD GENERATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE RE PUBLIC OF MACE DONIA

117

6. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE FOURTH GENERATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

117

7. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE FIFTH GENERATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

118

8. CONCLUSION

119

LITERATURE:

120

dr Dragan Đuranović; dr Daniela Nuševa

UTICAJ KULTURE NA MOTIVACIJU ZAPOSLENIH U MULTINACIONALNIM KOMPANIJAMA

1. UVOD

122

2. KOMPLEKSNOST StrategijE upravljanja ljudskim resursima multinacionalne ko mpanije

122

3. MEĐUZAVISNOST KULTURE I MOTIVACIJE ZAPOSLENIH U MULTINACIONALNIM KOMPANIJAMA

123

4. TEORIJE MOTIVACIJE U KONTEKSTU KULTURNIH SPECIFIČNOSTI U RADNOM OKRUŽENJU

125

5. ZAKLJU Č AK

126

Literatura

128

dr Dragoljub Tica dipl.el.ing.; Aleksandra Galonja; Andrej Kurtović

REDUKCION OF LASSES IN THE ELECTRICAL UTILITY

1. UVOD

130

2. SMANJENJE GUBITAKA U ELEKTRODISTRIBUCIJI

130

2.1. KOMERCIJALNI GUBICI

130

2.2. LJUDSKI RESURSI

131

7

2.3.

STRUKTURA LJUDSKIH RESURSA

132

2.4. GREŠKE U MERENJU

2.5. TEHNI Č KI GUBICI

3. MOGUĆNOST SMANJENJA GUBITAKA U ELEKTROVOJVODINI

3.1. SMANJENJE GUBITAKA NA VISOKOM NAPONU

3.2. SMANJENJE GUBITAKA NA SREDNJEM I NISKOM NAPONU

4.

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

132

133

133

133

133

135

135

dr Duško Tomić; dr Tatjana Ilić-Kosanović; Damir Ilić

SELEKCIJA KADROVA I NJIHOVA ULOGA U INŽENJERINGU PROTIVTERORISTIČKE ODBRANE

UVOD

1. SELEKCIJA KANDIDATA U INŽENJERINGU PROTIVTERORISTIČKE ODBRANE U SVETU

2. SELEKCIJA KANDIDATA U INŽENJERINGU PROTIVTERORISTIČKE ODBRANE U REPUBLICI SRBIJI

3.

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

138

138

140

141

142

M.sc.Tanja Krsteva; M.sc. Ivona Talevska; Ph.D. Dragan Pavlovic-Latas

THE CHANGING ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES

1. HR AS A STRATEGIC PARTNER

2. THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL

3. FOCUS ON OUTCOMES

4. KEY ELEMENTS OF HR

5. JOB DESIGN

6. COMPENSATION AND REWARDS CONCLUSION REFE RENCES

143

144

145

146

147

148

148

149

dr.sc. Drago Pupavac; dr.sc. Ozren Rafajac

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF STUDENTS OF SPECIALIZED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES

UVOD

1. PROBLEM I METODOLOGIJA ISTRAŽIVANJA

2. REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA I DISKUSIJA

3.

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

152

152

154

157

158

Dijana Trošelj, bacc. oec.; dr.sc. Drago Pupavac

HUMAN POTENTIAL ANALYSIS – PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL MODERN COMPANY

UVOD

1.

2. TEORIJSKI OKVIR I PROBLEM ISTRAŽIVANJA

3. REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA I DISKUSIJA

4.

160

160

161

168

168

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

Ass. Prof. PhD. Florida Veljanoska; PhD Candidate, Majlinda Axhiu; PhD Candidate Edi Kela

VIRTUAL VS FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION: WORKERS PERSPECTIVE

INTRODUCTION

8

170

1.

COMMUNICATION AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT

171

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

173

2.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FACE TO FACE AND CMCs

174

3.

RESEARCH RESULTS

176

CONCLUSION

178

REFE RENCES

180

prof. dr. sc. Gordana Marčetić

PLAĆA PREMA RADNOM UČINKU:

TEORIJSKI KONCEPTI I NJIHOVA PRIMJENA U PRAKSI

1.

UVOD

182

2.

TEORIJE MOTIVACIJE

183

3.

PRIMJENJIVOST MOTIVACIJSKIH TEORIJA NA MODELE PRP-a

185

4.

ZAKLJU Č AK

187

LITERATURA

189

MA, Gordana Rendulić; dr Vladimir Radovanović; dr Cariša Bešić

THE ROLE OF TEAM AND TEAMWORK IN MODERN ECONOMY

1.

UVOD

192

2.

POJAM TIMA I EFEKTI TIMSKOG RADA

192

3.

DIZAJNIRANJE EFIKASNOG TIMA

194

4.

TIMSKA ORGANIZACIJA

195

5.

VRSTE TIMOVA

196

6.

ZAKLJU Č AK

197

LITERATURA

198

Gordana Tasevska; Dijana Damevska

AN ORGANIZATION WITH RECOGNIZABLE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

INTRODUCTION

200

MODEL OF RECOGNIZABLE ORGANIZATION

200

TERMS AND DEFINITION OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR)

201

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS CHALLENGE IN BUILDING THEIR OWN IMAGE

202

ROLE IN CREATING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND SUPPORTING SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STANDARS AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

202

METHODOLOGY OF THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

204

REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONAIRE’S QUESTIONS

204

CONCLUSION

205

LITERATURE CONS ULTED:

206

 

Zdravković Ivana

LIQUIDATION OF THE COMPANY IN LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

1. POJAM LIKVIDACIJE

210

2. PRAVNE POSLEDICE POKRETANJA POSTUPKA LIKVIDACIJE

210

3. VRSTE LIKVIDACIJE

211

 

3.1. DOBROVOLJNA LIKVIDACIJA

211

3.2. PRINUDNA LIKVIDACIJA

213

4. ZAKLJU Č AK

214

LITERATURA

214

9

master, Ivana A. Tomić; magistar pravnih nauka, Biljana Tomić

PART-TIME WORK IN SERBIAN LABOR LEGISLATION

1.UVOD

2. RAD SA NEPUNIM RADNIM VREMENOM

3. OSTALE DUŽNOSTI POSLODAVCA U VEZI SA RADOM SA NEPUNIM RADNIM VREMENOM

4. UGOVOR O PRIVREMENIM I POVREMENIM POSLOVIMA

5. UGOVOR O DOPUNSKOM RADU LITERATURA

216

216

218

218

219

219

dipl. ing, Jadranka Halilović; M. Sc, Maria Sternickel

GENERATION Z AND THE WORK ENVIRONMENT:

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT STUDIES

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

2. GENERATIONS IN THE LABOR MARKET

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GEN Z – METHODOLOGY

4. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDYS

5. FINDINGS - OVERVIEW OF THE STUDYS

6.

SUMMARY

References

221

222

224

225

226

229

230

Jelena Bajić

UTICAJ INTERPERSONALNE KOMUNIKACIJE NA ZAPOSLENE:

USPEŠNI INTERNI PR U PRIVREDNIM ORGANIZACIJAMA

UVOD

1. INTERPERSONALNA KOMUNIKACIJA KAO INTEGRALNA SNAGA INTERNOG PR-A

2.PRIVREDNE ORGANIZACIJE I NJIHOVA ORGANIZACIONA KULTURA

3. INTERNI PR I ZAPOSLENI

4. POVERENJE I SARADNJA ZAKLJU Č AK Lite ratura:

235

236

237

238

240

241

242

dr Jelisaveta Vučković

MOTIVACIJA KAO INSTRUMENT UPRAVLJANJA LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA U ORGANIZACIJAMA TURISTIČKE PRIVREDE

1.

2. EFEKTI MOTIVACIJE U SAVREMENOM KORPORATIVNOM POSLOVANJU

3. UTICAJ MOTIVACIJE NA PERFORMANSE ZAPOSLENIH U TURIZMU

4. AKTIVNOSTI ORGANIZACIJA TURISTIČKE PRIVREDE

UVOD

U DOMENU MOTIVACIJE ZAPOSLENIH

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

244

244

246

247

253

254

MSc, Jelena Vujičić; dr, Goran Opačić; dr, Aleksandar Zorić

INTEGRATIVNO PSIHOLOŠKO TESTIRANJE U OBLASTI LJUDSKIH RESURSA:

KONCEPT, PRIMENA I JEDNO SAVREMENO REŠENJE

1.

2. INTEGRATIVNO PSIHOLOŠKO TESTIRANJE KAO PREDUSLOV NAUČNO ZASNOVANE SELEKCIJE

3. PRIKAZ JEDNOG KOMJUTERIZOVANOG SISTEMA ZA INTEGRATIVNO PSIHOLOŠKO TESTIRANJE

UVOD

10

256

256

258

4.

ZAKLJU Č AK

260

LITERATURA

261

dr Jelisaveta Todorovic

STRENGTHENING HIGHER EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL POLICY MAKING AND SOCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

1.UVOD

265

2. STRUKTURA ZAPOSLENIH U CENTRIMA ZA SOCIJALNI RAD

265

3. ISTRAŽIVANJE POTREBA TRŽIŠTA RADA ZA NOVIM OBRAZOVNIM PROFILIMA

266

LITERATURA

269

 

dr. Laura Južnik Rotar

ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SELF-EMPLOYMENT:

OPPORTUNITY FOR YOUTH UNEMPLOYED PEOPLE

1. INTRODUCTION

271

2. ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC PICTURE

272

3. PROMOTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THROUGH SELF-EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM

273

4. CONCLUSION

276

REFE RENCES

278

 

dr. Ljiljana S. Mihajlović; Miloš Nikolić

PLANIRANJE I RAZVOJ KARIJERE U KONTEKSTU UPRAVLJANJA LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA

1. UVOD

280

2. STRATEGIJA RAZVOJA KARIJERE

281

3. FAZE U RAZVOJU KARIJERE

282

4. ULOGA ORGANIZACIJE U RAZVOJU KARIJERE

284

5. ULOGA RUKOVODIOCA U PLANIRANJU I RAZVOJU KARIJERE

285

ZAKLJU Č AK

285

LITERATURA

286

 

doc. dr Ljubomir A. Miljoković; doc. dr Miodrag Jelenković; Mr. Dejana A. Miljković

MENADŽMENT SPORTSKIH DOGAĐAJA

1. Osnovne funkcije menadžmenta sportskih događaja su:

288

2. Funkcije koje obavljaju sportski menadžeri ili specijaliz ovane agencije

289

3.

Mrežna organizacija velikog sportskog događaja

290

4.

Faze procesa planiranja sportskog događaja

290

Zaklju č ak

293

Koriš ć ena literatu ra

294

Marija Urošević; Aleksandar Aleksić

MOTIVATION – DRIVING FORCE OF HR

1.

UVOD

295

2.

PSIHOLOŠKE POZICIJE ZAPOSLENIH

295

3.

PROCES MO TIVACIJE

296

4.

PRIRODA MOTIVACIJE

297

4.

MOTIVACIJA I PRO DUKTIVNOST RADA

299

5.

POTREBE ZAPOSLENIH

300

6.

ZAKLJU Č AK

300

LITERATURA

302

11

MSc, Nataša Aleksić; Phd student, Nikola Kovačević

QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES ON HIGH SCHOOLS

1. UVOD

304

2. POJAM I ZNAČAJ MENADŽMENTA LJUDSKIH RESURSA

305

2.1. Pojam ljudskih resursa

305

2.2. Zna č aj menadžmenta lju dskih resursa

307

3. SAVREMENI TRENDOVI U MENADŽMENTU LJUDSKIH RESURSA

307

4. VISOKO TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA STRUKOVNIH STUDIJA – VTŠSS

308

4.1

Poslovanje preduze ć a

308

4.2. Upravljanje promenama u Visoko – tehničkoj školi strukovnih studija

310

5. REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA

311

ZAKLJU Č AK

313

REFE RENCES

314

 

Prof.dr Nebojsa Denic; Mrs Boban Spasic; Mrs Momir Milic

HUMAN RESOURCES AS A FUNCTION SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

1. UVOD

316

2. UPRAVLJANJE KVALITETOM SOFTVERSKIH PROJEKATA

316

3. UPRALJANJE KVALITETOM I LJUDSKI RESURSI

317

4. UPRAVLJANJE KVALITETOM SOFTVERSKIH PROJETAKA I LJUDSKI RESURSI

318

 

5. ZAKLJU Č AK

320

6. LITERATURA

322

 

Mr. Neda Terzić; docent dr. Mladen Pečujlija; docent dr. Božana Nikolić

THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS PROVIDERS OD MEDICAL SERVICES FOR THE SATISFACTION OF RECIPIENTS OF MEDICAL SERVICES

1. UVOD

324

2. PREDMET I CILJ ISTRAŽIVANJA

324

3. OPIS ISTRAŽIVANJA I METODOLOGIJA ISTRAŽIVANJA

325

4. DESKRIPTIVNA STATISTIKA

325

 

5. DISKUSIJA

327

6. ZAKLJU Č AK

328

LITERATURA

329

 

dr Nebojsa Nikolic

PROPENSITY AND MOTIVES TO SERVE IN ACTIVE RESERVE

1. INTRODUCTION

332

2. NOTES ON RESEARCH ABOUT PROPENSITY TO SERVE IN AR

332

3. RESULTS ON PROPENSITY AND MOTIVES TO JOIN AR

333

4. CONCLUSION

335

REFE RENCES

336

 

Mr Olivera Stanišić Vještica

TALENT MANAGEMENT

1. UVOD

338

2. UPRAVLJANJE TALENTIMA/TALENT MENADŽMENT

338

ZAKLJU Č AK

343

LITERATURA

344

12

dr Svetislav Milenković; Mr Nikola Bošković; Ivana Marinković

INOVATIVNI UTICAJ ZNANJA NA „EMOTIVNO-ETIČKI“ TURIZAM

1.

2. INTEGRALNI ODNOSI „EMOTIVNO-ETIČKOG“ TURIZMA I RELEV ANTNOG ZNANJA

3. PRIMENA ZNANJA I INOVACIJA U „EMOTIVNO-ETIČKOM“ TURIZMU

4.

UVOD

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

346

346

350

352

352

dr. Slavomir Kaličanin; dr. Obren Kulić

CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR EMPLOYEES - KEY DETERMINANT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATIONS

1.

UVOD

2. POJMOVNO ODREĐENJE KONTNUIRANOG OBRAZOVANJA

3. OBRAZOVANJE U VRTLOGU GLOBALIZACIJE

4. FUNDAMENTALNE TRANSFORMACIJE NAŠEG DOBA I POTREBE ZA KONTINUIRANIM OBRAZOVANJEM

5. ZNANJE, OSNOVNA PREDPOSTAVKA ZA ODRŽIVI RAZVOJ I NAPREDAK

6.

ZAKLJU Č CI LITERATURA

354

354

356

357

357

358

358

Слободан Н. Брацановић

ИНВЕСТИЦИЈЕ У СВИЈЕТЛУ ОБЛИКОВАЊА НОВИХ РЕГИОНАЛНИХ ГРУПАЦИЈА У СВИЈЕТУ

1. УВОДНЕ ОДРЕДНИЦЕ

2. ОДРЕДИШНИ РЕГИОНАЛНИ ПРОЦЕСИ

3. ПРОМЈЕНА ВЛАДАЈУЋЕ НАУЧНЕ ПАРАДИГМЕ

4. ИНВЕСТИЦИЈЕ

5. ЗАКЉУЧНИ ОСВРТ ЛИТЕРАТУРА

360

361

363

364

367

368

mr Sonja Novak; dr Dragana Vukadinović; dr Jasmina Nedeljković

ZNAČAJ MENADŽERSKIH VEŠTINA ZA REFORMU SEKTORA ZDRAVSTVA

1.

2. PRIMENJENA METODOLOG IJA

3. ANALIZA I DISKUSIJA REZULTATA

4.

UVOD

ZAKLJU Č AK LITERATURA

370

371

372

374

375

dr Srećko Stamenković; prof. dr Biljana Ratković Njegovan

UTICAJ INTERAKTIVNE PRAVDE NA MENADŽMENT LJUDSKIH RESURSA U ORGANIZACIJAMA U SRBIJI

1.

2. INTERAKTIVNA PRAVDA

3. MENADŽMENT LJUDSKIH RESURSA

4. REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA I ANALIZA

5.

6. OGRANIČENJA I SMERNICE ZA BUDUĆA ISTRAŽIVANJA

7.

UVOD

DISKUSIJA

IMPLIKACIJE

13

377

378

379

380

383

383

384

8.

ZAKLJU Č AK

384

LITERATURA

385

dr Tanja Janković

THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM OF MONTENEGRO

1.UVOD

388

2. SEKTOR TURIZMA I UGOSTITELJSTVA U CRNOJ GORI

388

3. RAZVOJ LJUDSKIH RESURSA KAO PREDUSLOV USPJEŠNOSTI TURISTIČKOG POSLOVANJA

389

4. USKLAĐIVANJE PONUDE I TRAŽNJE ZA RADNOM SNAGOM NA TURISTI Č KOM TRŽIŠTUCRNE GORE

390

 

ZAKLJU Č AK

391

LITERATURA

392

Ph.D. Tatjana Mamula; M.Sc. Nikola Kužet

ULOGA I DOPRINOS KOUČING STILA LIDERA 21.VEKA

1. UVOD

394

2. ULOGA DOŽIVOTNOG UČENJA U LIDERSTVU 21. VEKA

394

3. ULOGA TRANSFORMACIONOG LIDERA U OSNAŽIVANJU INOVATIVNOSTI I KREATIVNOSTI ZAPOSLENIH

395

4. ZAŠTO JE LIDERIMA POTREBAN NOV NAČIN RAZMIŠLJANJA

396

5. ZAŠTO JE VAŽNA ULOGA I DOPRINOS KOUČING STILA LIDERA

397

6. REZULTATI KVALITATIVNOG ISTRAŽIVANJA U BIH

399

7. ZAKLJU Č AK

399

LITERATURA

400

 

PhD, Toni Soklevski

MODEL KOMPETENCIJE OPERATIVNIH MENADŽERA U MAKEDONIJI

1. INTRODUCTION

403

2. OPERATIONS MANAGERS

403

3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND RESEARCH DESIGN

404

4. MODEL OF COMPETENCE OF OPERATIONS MANAGERS IN MACEDONIA

406

5. LITERATURE

410

 

Vesna D. Jablanovic

HUMAN CAPITAL AND CHAOTIC ECONOMIC GROWTH MODEL

1. INTRODUCTION

412

2. THE MODEL

412

3. CONCLUSION

415

 

REFE RENCES

416

dr Vesna Milanović; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; doktorand Nikolina Vrcelj

INTERNAL MARKETING ORIENTATION AND EMPLOYEES RETENTION

1. UVOD

418

2. EVOLUCIJA INTERNE MARKETINŠKE ORIJENTACIJE

419

3. INTERNA MARKETINŠKA ORIJENTACIJA U LITERATURI INTERNOG MARKETINGA

420

4. INSTRUMENTI INTERNOG MARKETINGA – INTERNI MARKETINŠKI MIKS

421

ZAKLJU Č AK

422

LITERATURA

423

14

dr Petaković Vesna; dr Slović Slobodan

ZNAČAJ RAZVOJA KONCEPTA “ORGANIZACIJE KOJE UČE“

1. UVOD

427

2. POJAM, DEFINISANJE I KONCEPT “ ORGANIZACIJE KOJA UČI”

427

3. PROCES UČENJA U ORGANIZACIJAMA

429

4. POTENCIJALI ZA PODSTICANJE RAZVOJA KONCEPTA „ORGANIZACIJE KOJA UČI“

431

5. ZAKLJU Č AK

432

LITERATURA

433

Mr. Vesna Stojanović; Mr. Nada Lončar

WORK RELATED CAPABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT OF DISABLED PERSONS IN ACCORDANCE TO THE LEGISLATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

1. RADNA SPOSOBNOST, PROCENA MOGUĆNOSTI RADA I ZAPOŠLJAVANJA OSOBA SA INVALIDITETOM

436

2. ULOGA DRŽAVE U ZAPOŠLJAVANJU OSOBA SA INVALIDITETOM

437

3. ULOGA NACIONALNE SLUŽBE ZA ZAPOŠLJAVANJE

U ZAPOŠLJAVANJU OSOBA SA INVALIDITETOM

439

4.NADZOR NAD SPROVOĐENJEM OBAVEZE ZAPOŠLJAVANJA OSOBA SA INVALIDITETOM I OSLOBAĐANJE POSLODAVCA OD OVE OBAVEZE

441

5. POZITIVNI PRIMERI PRAKSE U ZAPOŠLJAVANJU OSOBA SA INVALIDITETOM – JEDNO ISTRAŽIVANJE

442

6. ZAKLJU Č AK

443

7. LITERATURA I PROPISI:

445

MSc, Žarko Rađenović; MSc, Dušan Perović

PRIMENA ZELENOG KONCEPTA U ORGANIZACIJAMA

1. UVOD

448

2. PROMENE U ORGANIZACIONOJ STRUKTURI

448

3. RAZVOJ VEŠTINA KOD ZAPOSLEN IH

450

4. PROMENE U ORGANIZACIONOJ KULTURI

452

5. ZAKLJU Č AK

453

LITERATURA

454

dr Zoran Tasić

KARAKTERISTIKE MENADŽMENTA LJUDSKIH RESURSA U ORGANIMA LOKALNE SAMOUPRAVE

1. UVOD

456

2. TVRDO I MEKO UPRAVLJANJE LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA

456

2.1. Tvrdo upravljanje ljudskim resursima

456

2.2. Meko upravljanje ljudskim resursima

457

3. PRINCIP HIJERARHIJE I SISTEM UPRAVLJANJA LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA

458

4. SUBJEKTI RADNOG (SLUŽBENIČKOG) ODNOSA U ORGANIMA LOKALNE SAMOUPRAVE

458

5. UOBIČAJENI POSLOVI U OBLASTI UPRAVLJANJA LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA U ORGANIMA LOKALNE SAMOUPRAVE

459

6. VOĐENJE I SADRŽAJ KADROVSKE EVIDENCIJE ZAPOSLENIH

460

7. VOĐENJE I SADRŽAJ PERSONALNIH DOSIJEA ZAPOSLENIH

460

8. ZAKLJU Č AK

461

LITERATURA

461

15

dr Zoran Lukić

PRIMJENA SAVREMENIH MODELA KOMUNIKACIJE U FUNKCIJI POBOLJŠANJA FUNKCIONISANJA MENADŽMENTA

UVOD

464

1. MENADŽMENT I MENADŽERI

464

1.1. Pojam menadžmenta, mena džera i funkcije menadžera

464

1.2. Menadžemnt ljudskih resursa

464

1.3. Funkcije menadž menta i menadžeri

466

2. KOMUNIKACIJA KAO RESURS MENADŽMENTA

466

2.1.Pojam komunikacije

466

2.2. Nivoi menadžersk e komunikacije

467

2.3. Savremene metode komuniciranja

467

2.4. Uspostavljanje m odela komunici ranja

468

ZAKLJU Č AK

470

LITERATURA

471

Master, Neda Terzićt; prof. dr, Mladen Pečujlija; Docent, Božana Nikolić

ZADOVOLJSTVO PACIJENATA PRIMARNE ZDRAVSTVENE ZAŠTITE DOMA ZDRAVLJA „NOVI SAD“, NOVI SAD

1. UVOD

474

2. PREDMET IS TRAŽIVANJA

474

3. OPIS ISTRAŽIVANJA I METODOLOGIJA ISTRAŽIVANJA

475

4. REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA

475

5. DESKRIPTIVNA STATISTIKA

476

6. MIŠLJENJE KORISNIKA ZDRAVSTVENE USLUGE O LIČNIM OSOBINAMA ZDRAVSTVENIH RADNIKA U SLUŽBI OPŠTE MEDICINE I SLUŽBI ZA ZDRAVSTVENU ZAŠTITU RADNIKA

477

7. ZADOVOLJSTVO KORISNIKA ZDRAVSTVENE USLUGE SA ZDRAVSTVENOM USLUGOM U SLUŽBI OPŠTE MEDICINE I SLUŽBE ZA ZDRAVSTVENU ZAŠTITU RADNIKA

477

8. DISKUSIJA

477

9. ZAKLJU Č AK

478

LITERATURA

479

16

MANAGING MULTICULTURAL AND DIVERSE WORKFORCE AS ONE OF THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGERS

UPRAVLJANJE MULTIKULTURNOM I DIVERZIFICIRANOM RADNOM SNAGOM KAO JEDAN OD NAJVEĆIH IZAZOVA MEĐUNARODNIH MENADZERA

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva 1 PhD, Maja Kochoska 2

Abstract: Today, MNC are faced with the challenge to lead multicultural and diverse workfo- rce consisted of employees with different cultural background. Managing multicultural and diverse workforce creates problems as well as advantages for MNC, thus emerging as one of the biggest challenges for international managers. The success of MNC at the global market is determined by its ability to manage the multiculturalism and diversity. The proper unde- rstanding and accepting of different cultural values can help international managers interpret them on the right way and thus overcome problems.

Key words: multiculturalism, diversity, cultural values.

Sadržaj: Danas, MNK su suočeni sa izazovom da vode multikulturnu i raznovrsnu radnu snagu sastavljenu od zaposlenih sa različitih kulturnih pozadina. Upravljanje multikulturnom i diverzificiranom radnom snagom stvara probleme, kao I prednosti za MNK, pojavljujuci se kao jedan od najvećih izazova međunarodnih menadžera. Uspeh MNK na globalnom tržištu je određen njenom sposobnosću da upravlja multikulturalizmom i diverziteta. Pravilno razume- vanje i prihvatanje različitih kulturnih vrednosti može pomoći međunarodnim menadžerima da ih tumače na pravi način i na taj način prevazići probleme.

Ključne reči: multikulturalizam, diverzitet, kulturne vrednosti.

1 abinovska@yahoo.com

2 Business Academy Smilevski, bul. Jane Sandanski 111, Skopje, maja.kocoska@gmail.com

17

Zbornik radova

Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

1. INTRODUCTION TO MULTICUTURALISAM AND DIVERSITY

The success of a MNC at the global arena is frequently determined by its ability to manage multiculturalism and diversity. Organizations are required to lead a workforce with different cultural background that consist of men, women, young and old, black, white, Latino, Asians, Arabs, Indi- ans etc. In researching multiculturalism and dive- rsity, we can distinguish two kinds of multicultura- lism: domestic and group multiculturalism [1]. Domestic multiculturalism. Almost eve- rywhere in the world, culturally different popula- tions can be found within the organization itself. For example, in Singapore there are four different cultural and linguistic groups: Chinese, Eurasian, Indian and Malay. In Switzerland, four distinct ethnic groups can be distinguished: French, Ge- rman, Italian and Romanian. In Belgium there are two linguistic groups: French and Flemish. In the United States millions of first-generation immi- grants brought their language together with their culture. In Los Angeles, for example, there are more Israelis than any other city outside of Israel and more Mexicans than in any other city in the world except Mexico. In Miami, more than half of the population is Latino, and most residents are fluent in Spanish. Even more Puerto Ricans live in New York than in Puerto Rico. In short, there is a significant multicultural diversity within indivi- dual organizations around the world and this trend will continue. The work force will be a signifi- cantly smaller percentage of white men and an increasing percentage of women, African Ameri- cans, Asians and Spaniards [1]. Group multiculturalism. Groups can be categorized in different ways. Four of the most common distinguish [1]:

1. Homogeneous groups – characteri- zed by members who have a similar history and in general perceive, inte-

18

Ana Binovska-Kocheva, PhD. Mrs. Ana Binovska-Kocheva is born on 29th January 1980. After the gradua-
Ana Binovska-Kocheva, PhD.
Mrs. Ana Binovska-Kocheva is born on
29th January 1980. After the gradua-
tion at the Faculty of Economics in
Skopje, department of Management,
she continues with the studies in the
area of MBA Management or more
specifically International Business. In
February 2015 she aquires the title
PhD in economic sciences at the
Faculty of Economics in Skopje.
Her working experience encompasses
more than 15 years experience in
different publuc companies, including
several years of experience in public
media (TV), marketing and sales. For
the past 7 years she is working in an
international company Vip operator,
member of Telekom Austria Group,
within the department Business Sales
with responsiblilities to attain, develop
and maintain long-term relationship
with customers such as Blizoo, Nestlé,
Sava insurance, DMM Dräxlmaier,
Lactalis MK, Kemet, and many other
national and international companies,
as well as public administration institu-
tions. As a result of this experience she
has gained a significant knowledge of
the Macedonian business environment.
She has participated in various pro-
fessional training programs for moti-
vation and leadership, team work,
communication with customers, wining
complex sales, C-level negotiations,
creating customers’ needs, managing
emotions in difficult situations, etc.

Zbornik radova

Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

rpret and evaluate events in similar ways. An example would be a group of German bankers that predict the economic outcome of a foreign investment.

2. Token groups - in which all members except one have the same background. An example of such a group is a group of Japanese retailers and a British lawyer who discuss the advantages and disadvantages of setting up operations in Bermuda.

3. Bicultural groups – two or more group members who represent each of the two different cultures. An example would be a group of four Mexicans and four Canadians who form a team to investigate the possibility of investing in Russia.

4. Multicultural groups - in which individuals have three or more ethnic backgro- unds. A good example is a group made up of three Americans, three Germans and three Chinese managers who oversee mining operations in Chile.

The effect of multiculturalism and diversity depends on the stage international co- mpany’s evolution. Cultural diversity has minimal effect on domestic enterprises, although domestic multiculturalism has significantly great impact. As companies begin to export to foreign customers and become international companies, they have to adapt their approach and products to those in the local market. For these international companies, the impact of multi- culturalism is significant. As companies become multinational companies, they often find that the price tends to dominate and the direct impact of culture can be reduced to a certain extent. For those who continue this international evolution and become global companies, the impact of culture again becomes extremely important [2].

impact of culture again becomes extremely important [2]. Figure 1: Locations of international cross-cultural

Figure 1: Locations of international cross-cultural interactions

Source: Adler, Nancy J.: International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 2 nd ed., PWS Kent Publishing, Boston, 1991, pp. 7-8.

2. PROBLEMS AND ADVANTAGES OF DIVERSITY

The bigger the diversity within a group is, the bigger the perception and commu- nication problems are. On the other hand, there are also significant advantages associated with effective implementation of multicultural, diverse groups. The cultural diversity within the team can cause many disadvantages [3]:

19

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Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

Maja Kochoska, PhD. Mrs. Maja Kochoska is born on 5th July 1979 in Skopje. She
Maja Kochoska, PhD.
Mrs. Maja Kochoska is born on 5th
July 1979 in Skopje. She holds a Ph.D
in economic sciences from the Faculty
of economics – Skopje, Department of
Marketing.
She has more than 8 years professional
experience in Higher Education Insti-
tutions in the field of Marketing and
Business. Since 2012 she works as
Assistant Professor at Business Aca-
demy Smilevski in Skopje.
She is an active member of the Organi-
zational and/or Program Board of
many events, conferences and sympo-
siums. For the past 2 years, she also
works as and assistant consultant of
DETRA Center where she has obtained
practical knowledge of organizational
processes, structure and communi-
cation.
She has participated in the process of
organizational transformation of seve-
ral Macedonians companies. In this
process she has applied SKITOP me-
thodology and has special experience in
the first phase which is called organi-
zational diagnosis. She also has experi-
ence in the area of strategic planning.

Perhaps the greatest weakness that stems from diversity is the lack of co- hesion resulting in unit’s inability to take concerted action, to be productive and to create a working environment that leads towards effectiveness and efficiency. These potential problems have their roots in people's attitudes. An example of such a problem in the attitudes in a diverse group can be the lack of trust in others.

The second potential problem is related to the perception. Unfortunately, when different cultural groups are created, their team members often carry preco- nceived stereotypes about the other cu- lture. At the initial meeting of a multi- cultural team, it is generally considered that engineers from economically de- veloped countries have more knowle- dge than those from less developed countries. This can result in problems related to the status, because some of these groups are seen as more compe- tent than the others and on this basis they receive a higher status. As dive- rsified groups work together, misconce- ptions are often corrected, but it gene- rally needs time.

Another closely related issue are the inaccurate prejudices. For example, it is well known that Japanese compa- nies depend on groups for decision making. Entrepreneurial behaviour, individualism and uniqueness, are usu- ally not encouraged. However, this ste-

reotype is proving to be incorrect in an increasing number of Japanese firms.

A potential problem with diversified groups is also the inaccurate commu- nication, which can be caused by numerous reasons. One of them is misu- nderstanding caused by words used by the speaker which are not sufficiently clear to other members.

The interpretation of situations also leads to misunderstandings. Many Japanese nod their heads while others talk, but this does not mean that they agree with what was said. With this gesture they just want to show that they are polite and listening carefully. In many societies, it is impolite to say "no" and if the listener believes that the other person wants a positive response, the listener will say

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Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

"yes" even though it is false. As a result, many American managers discover that the promises made by individuals from other cultures cannot be taken for granted in many cases, and the other individual believes that the American gets that.

Diversity can also lead to problems in communication due to wrongful use of the time. For example, many Japanese people will not agree on action on the spot. They will not act until they discuss the problem with their people, because they believe they are entitled to act independently. Many Latin managers refuse to be kept under strict timetable because they do not have the same sense of urgency as US managers. Although there are many potential problems to overcome in managing culturally diverse groups in today's MNC, there are also a multitude of benefits that can be obtained. There is growing evidence that different cultural groups can increase creativity, leading to better decision-making and result in more efficient and productive performance [4]:

The main benefit of diversity is the birth of more and better ideas. As group members come from many different cultures, they are often able to create a greater number of unique and creative solutions and suggestions.

The second biggest advantage is that culturally diversified groups can prevent groupthink (consensus reached because of social conformity and pressures on individual members of a group to conform to group norms). In diversified multi- cultural groups members do not think alike nor feel pressure to agree.

3. EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTICULTURAL TEAMS

Multicultural teams can potentially become the most effective and productive teams in an organization. Unfortunately, they frequently become the least productive. As shown in Figure 2, if intercultural groups are properly guided, they can be highly effective. Also if not handled properly, they can be substantially ineffective. In other words, diversified groups are more powerful than single culture groups. They can harm the organization, but if they are managed efficiently, they can be the best.

but if they are managed efficiently, they can be the best. Figure 2: Cross-culture vs. single

Figure 2: Cross-culture vs. single culture group effectiveness

Source: Adler, Nancy J.: International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 2nd ed., PWS Kent Publishing, Boston, 1991, pp. 7-8.

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Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

Multicultural teams are most effective when facing problems in terms of innovation. They are far less effective when they are assigned to routine procedures [5]. Highly pro- ductive and less-productive teams differ in the way they manage their diversity, and not in the presence or absence of diversity in the team, as it is commonly believed. When well-managed, diversity becomes an asset and a productive resource for the team. When ignored, diversity causes process problems that diminish the team’s productivity. Because diversity is more fre- quently ignored than well-managed, culturally diverse teams often perform below expe- ctations and below organizational norms.

4. MANAGEMENT OF MULTICULTURAL TEAMS

For effective management of diversified cultural groups, a number of specific directives have been identified. Some of the most useful are [6]:

1. Task-related selection. Team members must be selected according to their abilities associated with the task, and not solely based on their ethnicity. To maximize team effectiveness, members should be selected to be homogeneous in ability levels (thus facilitating accurate communication) and heterogeneous in attitudes (thus ensuring a wide range of solutions to problem). If the task is rou- tine, a homogeneous membership is preferred. If the task is an innovative, usually the multicultural membership is the best.

2. Recognizing Differences. Teams should not ignore or minimize cultural differences. Many barriers to intercultural communication stem from ignorance of cultural differences rather than from rejection of those differences. Team members must acknowledge their differences and be willing to work with them. Members should be aware of their own stereotypes, as well as the stereotypes of others and use this information to better understand the real differences that exist between them.

3. Establishing a Vision or Superordinate Goal. Members of diverse teams generally have more difficulty agreeing on their purpose and task than do members of homogenous teams. The team leader must help the group to identify and define its common goal - their vision or superordinate goal, goal that transcends individual differences.

4. Equalizing Power. Teams generally produce more and better ideas if all members participate. Members must have equal power in order everyone to participate in the process. Cultural domination is always counterproductive. In multinational teams, leaders must guard against vesting disproportionate power in host-country members, members of the same nationality as the employing organization, members from the most technologically advanced or economically developed countries, or members with ideologies most consonant with their own. Team leaders should manage the distribution of power according to each member’s ability to contribute to the task, not according to some preconceived gradient of relative cultural superiority.

5. Creating Mutual Respect. It is important that all members have a mutual respect for each other. Team leaders can enhance mutual respect by selecting members of equal ability and presenting their previous achievements and abilities

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Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

associated with tasks in front of the group. This helps minimizing rapid assessments based on ethnic stereotypes. Equal status, close contact, and coopera- tive efforts toward a common goal decrease prejudice.

6. Giving Feedback. Culturally diverse teams have more difficulties in agreeing collectively on what constitutes a good or bad idea or decision than do single- culture teams. Whereas single culture teams rapidly develop the decision criteria, based on members’ similar values, multicultural teams usually experience difficulty and delay before eventually reaching to an agreement. To encourage effective functioning, managers should give team members positive feedback on their process and output both as individuals and as a team. The positive external feedback allows members to see themselves as a team, and teaches them to value and celebrate diversity, to recognize the contributions of individual members and to believe in the collective assessment of the group.

5. CONCLUSION

Globalization and the advances in communication and transportation technology have reduced trade barriers and increased the interactions among people. People around the world drink Coca-Cola, eat in McDonald’s, use I-Phone or drive BMW. Therefore, it is extremely easy to overlook the differences between cultures. The cultural values remain de- eply embedded within people on subconscious level and may cause many misunderstandings and problems. Sometimes, they can even lead to failure of companies at the global arena. All activities of international managers, such as selection of production location, selection of strategy for entrance in foreign markets, selection of staff, and many others, are influenced by culture. In order to accept and adapt to other cultures, international managers must understand that, different ways of doing things are not necessarily negative or ine- ffective. Managers should be aware of their own stereotypes, as well as the stereotypes of others and use this knowledge to better understand the real differences that exist between them. The power within the team should be distributed according to the member’s ability to contribute to the task, and not according to preconceived prejudice and stereotypes. The role of the international manager is to select team members with equal abilities regardless of the cultural background as well as to find ways to enhance mutual respect between the members. Ppositive feedback is important to encourage effective functioning of the team, and to teach team members to value and celebrate diversity. The future success of a MNC relies on the ability of international managers to ma- nage diverse workforce that can introduce innovative ideas, perspectives and views to their work. With the support of skilful international managers, the challenges and problems from cultural diversity can be turned into a strategic organizational asset [7].

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Managing multicultural and diverse workforce as one of the biggest challenges of international managers

PhD, Ana Binovska-Kocheva; PhD, Maja Kochoska

REFERENCES

[1]

Luthans, F., Doh, Jonathan P. (2012) International Management: Culture, Strategy, and

[2]

Behavior, 8 th ed., McGraw-Hill, pp. 182-183. Luthans, F., Doh, Jonathan P. (2012) International Management: Culture, Strategy, and

[3]

Behavior, 8 th ed., McGraw-Hill, p. 181. Luthans, F., Doh, Jonathan P. (2012) International Management: Culture, Strategy, and

[4]

Behavior, 8 th ed., McGraw-Hill, pp. 183-184. Luthans, F., Doh, Jonathan P. (2012) International Management: Culture, Strategy, and

[5]

Behavior, 8 th ed., McGraw-Hill, pp. 185. Adler, N. J. (1991) International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 2 nd ed., PWS-Kent

[6]

Publishing, Boston, 1991, p. 137. Adler, N. J., Gundersen, A. (2008) International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 5 th ed.,

[7]

Thomson Learning, Inc., 2008, pp. 145 – 147. Srivastava, E., Agarwal, N. (2012) The Emerging Challenges in HRM, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Volume 1, Issue 6, July 2012.

24

UNDERSTANDING HOFSTEDE’S MODEL OF CULTURE MANIFESTATIONS AIMED TO IMPROVE THE PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

RAZUMEVANJE HOFSTEDEOVOG MODELA KULTURNIH MANIFESTACIJA U CILJU POBOLJŠANJA PROCESA UPRAVLJANJA LJUDSKIM RESURSIMA 3

dr Ana Jurčić, docent 4 ; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić, docent 5 ; dr Vesna Milanović, redovni profesor 6

Abstract: Nowadays, culture is not only the way we behave, or exclusively research field of humanities. In the world of global economy, culture is very important impact factor in the business area. Therefore, we are going to use one of the most important model, which was given by Hofstede, to study the culture as a factor of organizational theory, with aim to improve the process and the quality of human resource management. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate HR management process to all directors, managers and HR managers by impleme- nting Hofstede’s model as a means to minimize misunderstandings with or between employees.

Key words: Management, Human Resources, Culture, Hofstede

Sadržaj: Danas, kultura ne predstavlja samo obrazac po kojem se ponašamo, niti predmet istraživanja isključivo humanističkih nauka. U svetu globalne ekonomije, kultura je među vodećim faktorima koji se uvažavaju u poslovnom svetu. Zato, jedan od najznačajnijih modela za proučavanje kulture kao činioca organizacione teorije, a koji nam je dao Hofstede, kori- stimo i izučavamo s ciljem unapređenja samog procesa, ali i kvaliteta upravljanja ljudskim resursima. Cilj ovog rada je da svim rukovodiocima, menadžerima i HR menadžerima olakša upravljanje kadrovima tako što će uvažavanjem Hofstedeovog modela mogućnost nerazu- mevanja zaposlenih svesti na minimum.

Ključne reči: Upravljanje, ljudski resursi, kultura, Hofstede

3 Ovaj rad je podržan od strane Ministarstva prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije (projekat III 45003 i projekat III 44006).

4 Univerzitet Džon Nezbit (Megatrend univerzitet), Fakultet za međunarodnu ekonomiju, Bulevar umetnosti 29, ajurcic@megatrend.edu.rs

5 Univerzitet Džon Nezbit (Megatrend univerzitet), Fakultet za poslovne studije, Goce Delčeva 8, abucalina@megatrend.edu.rs

6 Univerzitet Džon Nezbit (Megatrend univerzitet), Fakultet za međunarodnu ekonomiju, Bulevar umetnosti 29, vmilanovic@megatrend.edu.rs

25

Zbornik radova

Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

i ć t; dr Andrea Bu č alina Mati ć ; dr Vesna Milanovi ć dr
dr Ana Jurčić Dr Ana Jurčić je docent na Katedri za menadžment Fakulteta za međunaro-
dr Ana Jurčić
Dr Ana Jurčić je docent na Katedri za
menadžment Fakulteta za međunaro-
dnu ekonomiju u Beogradu.
Doktorirala je 2013. godine na Faku-
ltetu za poslovne studije Megatrend
univerziteta u Beogradu. Kao stipendi-
sta američke vlade, 2010. godine
završila je program za usavršavanje i
razvoj nastavnog osoblja na Džordž
Vašington univerzitetu u Vašingtonu.
Jedan je od osnivača Centra za razvoj
karijere i savetovanje studenata Mega-
trend univerziteta u kojem radi kao
savetnik, a za tu poziciju prošla je
obuku pod pokroviteljstvom Minista-
rstva omladine i sporta RS. Volonterski
radi i kao facilitator Open World
programa profesionalnog usavršava-
nja koji finansira Kongres SAD.
Osim toga, ona je sertifikovani pre-
davač Triple S Learning programa
obuke za oblasti uspešna prodaja i
kvalitetna usluga, sertifikovani mode-
rator Interaktiviti fondacije iz Vaši-
ngtona za izvođenje kurseva pregova-
ranja, kao i sertifikovani nadzornik
testova sposobnosti Blumberg Instituta
iz Njujorka.
Predsednica
je
Nadzornog
odbora
Udruženja
Fulbrajtovih
stipendista
Srbije.

1. UVOD

Savremeni HR menadžeri uvek treba da imaju u vidu da je način na koji se ponašaju zapo- sleni i drugi menadžeri u kompaniji određen u velikoj meri podsvesnim pretpostavkama, vredno- stima i normama kulture koje su oni uneli u dati poslovni sistem. Kompanije i druge vrste organizacija u svakoj nacionalnoj zajednici organizovane su i funkcionišu po pravilima koja su duboko ukore- njena u nacionalnoj kulturi te zajednice. Ljudi u kompanijama ne mogu drugačije da se ponašaju nego onako kako im to obeležja, vrednosti i norme njihove kulture govore.

2. HOFSTEDEOV MODEL KULTURNIH DIMENZIJA

Godine 1954. dvoje Amerikanaca, socio- log Aleks Inkels (Alex Inkeles) i psiholog Danijel Levinson (Daniel Levinson) su nakon brojnih istra- živanja nacionalnih kultura predložili da se sledeća pitanja kvalifikuju kao zajednički osnovni proble-

mi širom sveta, a sa posledicama po funkcionisanje

društva, grupa u okviru tih društava i pojedinaca u okviru tih grupa:

odnos prema vlasti;

pojam o sebi, naročito odnos između pojedinca i društva;

pojedinačni koncept muškosti i ženskosti;

načini rešavanja konflikata, uključu- jući kontrolu agresije i izražavanje osećanja [1:280-282].

Može se reći da ove četiri kategorije sa kojima se susreće svaka ljudska zajednica, a koje su definisali Inkels i Levinson u stvari pre- dstavljaju prvi put objašnjene dimenzije kulture. Dimenzija je aspekt kulture koji se može me-

riti u odnosu na druge kulture.

Dvadeset godina kasnije, holandski istraživač, Geert Hofstede, svojim knjigama Culture's Consequences i Cultures and Organizations nesumnjivo je najviše doprineo razvoju

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Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

proučavanja kulturnih uticaja na organizacije. Geert Hofstede je profesor emeritus organi- zacione antropologije i internacionalnog menadžmenta, psiholog, naučnik i istraživač, koji je od 80-tih godina XX veka jedan od najpoznatijih autora na području multikulturnih orga- nizacionih istraživanja, a njegov model „nacionalne kulture“ jedan je od najpoznatijih istra- živačkih modela današnjice. Hofstedeovo definisanje dimenzija nacionalnih kultura proisteklo je kao rezultat empirijskog istraživanja pod radnim naslovom „Hermes“ koje je uključivalo oko 116.000 upitnika o vrednostima i stavovima vezanim za rad i radno mesto. Ovi upitnici su podeljeni IBM-ovim (International Business Machines) radnicima u pedeset zemalja i tri regije (koje obuhvataju nekoliko zemalja), na dvadeset jezika, kroz dva različita vremenska razdoblja, odnosno dva anketna kruga istraživanja (1967-1969 i 1971-1973). Reč je o velikoj bazi podataka sakupljenih na uzorku od oko 116.000 ispitanika, međutim, oni nisu jedinica ana- lize, odnosno Hofstede ne sprovodi statističku analizu na nivou pojedinaca, nego na nivou ze- malja. Nakon analitičke obrade podataka izvršena je korekcija uzorka iz kojeg su izbačene zemlje za koje nije sakupljen minimum od 50 ispitanika, pa ukupan broj analiziranih slu- čajeva u istraživanju iznosi četrdeset zemalja i tri regije: arapsko govorno područje, Istočna Afrika i Zapadna Afrika [2:46-48]. Predmet analiziranih varijabli u Hofstedeovom upitniku jesu vrednosti vezane za rad i radno mesto, s ciljem da se dobije slika o:

načinu upravljanja organizacijom; istražuje se prisutnost ili odsutnost savetovanja i dogovaranja nadređenih sa podređenima unutar kompanije;

organizacionoj klimi; utvrđuju se različiti osećaji koji se javljaju na radnom me- stu, ili stres uzrokovan radnim mestom i poslom koji se obavlja;

vrednostima u terminima „poželjnog“; proveravaju se reakcije koje mogu izazva- ti tvrdnje poput: „takmičenje među zaposlenima čće učini više negativnog ne- go pozitivnog“;

vrednostima u terminima „željenog“; ispituju se različiti individualni željeni aspekti rada i onog što se vezuje uz rad, poput plate, kooperacije, sigurnosti, itd.

[2:48-49].

Tako su prvobitno identifikovane četiri osnovne dimenzije po kojima se nacionalne kulture razlikuju i kreirana je osnova za sva dalja proučavanja uticaja nacionalne kulture na različite aspekte i komponente menadžmenta. Napretkom istraživanja i uz nova saznanja dodata je i peta dimenzija. Ujedno je potvrđena tačnost pionirskih poduhvata Inkelsa i Levi- nsona. U izdanju Hofstede-ove knjige Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, iz 2010. godine dodata je i šesta dimenzija. Danas, Hofstedeove dimenzije prema kojima se razlikuju nacionalne kulture su:

distanca moći;

izbegavanje nesigurnosti;

individualizam / kolektivizam;

muškost / ženskost;

dugoročna / kratkoročna orijentacija;

opuštanje / sputavanje.

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Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

3. KULTURA ILI KULTURE

Geert Hofstede koji je nesumnjivo najviše doprineo razvoju proučavanja kulturnih uticaja na organizacije definiše kulturu kao kolektivno programiranje uma koje članove jedne grupe razlikuje od drugih [3]. Jedno od njegovih najslikovitijih određenja kulture je ono koje kaže da je kultura „mentalni softver” po kome ljudi funkcionišu u svakodnevnom životu. Da bi definisao kulturu, Hofstede pravi analogiju između kulture i mentalnog programiranja [4:14]. Kulturu stvaraju ljudi interakcijom, određujući pritom i dalje interakcije. Kulturu je stvorio čovek, drugi ljudi je potvrđuju, konvencionalizuju i prenose je mladima ili pridošli- cama kako bi je i oni naučili. Kultura pruža ljudima smislen kontekst na osnovu kojeg će se oni susretati sa spoljašnjim svetom i razmišljati sami o sebi [5:18]. Često, razmišljanje o kulturi vodi razmišljanju o odnosu, interakciji između kultura.

Mnogi autori tvrde da bez postojanja više od jedne kulture ne bi bilo govora ni o toj jednoj, tj.

o kulturi uopšte. Razlike koje opažamo među ljudima po tome kako razmišljaju, osećaju i kako se ponašaju su ono zbog čega smo svesni postojanja kulture. Zbog toga je kulturu nemoguće razumeti kao koncept u jednini, naprotiv, uvek je reč o kulturama [6].

4. HOFSTEDEOV MODEL KULTURNIH MANIFESTACIJA

Hofstede smatra da kultura u odnosu na ljudski kolektivitet predstavlja isto ono što je ličnost za pojedinca. Kultura određuje jedinstvenost ljudske grupe na isti način na koji ličnost određuje jedinstvenost pojedinca. Izraz kultura se obično vezuje za društva (operaciona- lizovana kao nacionalne države ili etničke ili regionalne grupe unutar nacionalnih država ili uključujući više njih). U osnovi, termin se može primeniti na bilo koji ljudski kolektivitet ili kategoriju, smatra Hofstede: organizaciju, profesiju, starosnu grupu, čitav rod ili porodicu. Dalje, objašnjava Hofstede, svaka osoba u sebi nosi obrasce razmišljanja, osećanja i potencijalnog reagovanja koji su naučeni tokom životnog veka i koji se mogu smatrati menta- lnim programom pojedinca. Izvori nečijih mentalnih programa leže u društvenom okruženju u kome osoba raste i prikuplja životna iskustva. Većina vrednosti se stiče u ranom detinjstvu jer

je u tom periodu osoba najuspešnija u učenju i imitiranju. Dakle, programiranje počinje u po-

rodici i nastavlja se sa susedima, u školi, u društvu, na poslu i u društvenoj zajednici. Menta-

lni programi variraju koliko varira i društveno okruženje u kojima su stečeni. Uobičajen te- rmin za taj mentalni softver je kultura. Kultura se ne nasleđuje, već se uči. Ona dolazi iz nečijeg društvenog okruženja, a ne

iz nečijih gena [7].

Sva ljudska bića, bilo da se radi o ruskom profesoru ili australijskom aboridžinu, imaju zajednički i istovetni univerzalni nivo mentalnog softvera. Taj univerzalni nivo se na- sleđuje genima. Govoreći jezikom kompjutera, to je operativni sistem koji određuje nečije fi- zičke i osnovne psihološke funkcije. Ljudska sposobnost je da oseća strah, bes, ljubav, zado- voljstvo, tugu, potrebu da se druži sa drugima, da posmatra okruženje i da govori o tome sa drugim ljudima - sve to pripada ovom nivou mentalnog programiranja. Ipak ono što neko radi sa ovim osećanjima, kako neko izražava strah, zadovoljstvo, posmatranje itd., modifikovano je od strane kulture.

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Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

i ć t; dr Andrea Bu č alina Mati ć ; dr Vesna Milanovi ć Slika

Slika 1: Tri nivoa jedinstvenog ljudskog mentalnog programiranja

Ličnost pojedinca je, s druge strane, jedinstveni persona- lni set mentalnih programa koji se ne sreće kod drugih ljudskih bića u istom obliku. Ličnost pojedinca se kreira kroz osobine koje su delimi- čno nasleđene jedinstvenim setom gena, a delom su naučene. Nauče- ne osobine podrazumevaju da su modifikovane od strane uticaja ko- lektivnog programiranja (kulture) kao jedinstvenih ličnih iskustava.

5. SIMBOLI, HEROJI, RITUALI I VREDNOSTI

Kulturne razlike se manifestuju na različite načine. Od mnogih termina koji se ko- riste za definisanje manifestacija kulture, sledeća četiri zajedno, najbolje obuhvataju celoku- pan pojam: simboli, heroji, rituali i vrednosti. Na slici 2 su prikazani tako da se vidi njihova međuzavisnost, ali se istovremeno uka- zuje na to da simboli predstavljaju najpovršnije, a vrednosti najdublje manifestacije kulture.

Simboli su reči, pokreti, gestovi, slike ili objekti koji nose posebno značenje pri- padnicima iste (pod)kulture. Reči u jeziku ili žargonu pripadaju ovoj kategoriji, isto kao i haljina koja se nosi, frizura, Coca-Cola, zastave ili statusni simboli. Novi simboli se lako razvijaju, a stari nestaju. Takođe, simboli iz jedne kulturne grupe se lako i brzo kopiraju i prenose na drugu. To je razlog zašto simboli pre- dstavljaju spoljašnji, najpovršniji sloj na dijagramu manifestacija kulture [8:7].

Heroji su osobe, žive ili mrtve, stvarne ili imaginarne, koje poseduju karakte- ristike koje su visoko cenjene u određenoj kulturi, pa prema tome služe kao uzor. Čak i mašta ili crtani likovi, kao što su Betmen, ili Snupi u SAD-u, Asteriks u Francuskoj, Oli B. Bomel (gospodin Bambl) u Holandiji, mogu da posluže kao kulturološki heroji. U eri televizije, spoljašnji izgled pri izboru heroja postao je mnogo važniji nego što je bio ranije.

Rituali su kolektivne aktivnosti, logički neobjašnjive, ali u okviru date kulture mogu imati i suštinsku vrednost. Način pozdravljanja i ukazivanja poštovanja prema drugima, društveni ili verski obredi su neki od primera rituala [8:8].

Na slici 2 simboli, heroji i rituali su obuhvaćeni pod pojmom prakse. Kao takvi, vi- dljivi su za posmatrače spolja: njihova kulturološka značenja, međutim, nevidljiva su, baš kao i u modelu ledenog brega.

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Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

Jezgro kulture, kako pokazuje dijagram, čine vrednosti. Kulturne vrednosti su apstra- ktne ideje koje određuju šta se smatra važnim, vrednim i poželjnim u okviru date kulture. Kulturne norme su pravila ponašanja koja odražavaju vrednosti kulture. Kulturne vre- dnosti i norme svojim zajedničkim delovanjem oblikuju način na koji se članovi jedne kulture ponašaju unutar svog okruženja. Vodeći se ku- lturnim vrednostima, uočavamo razlike između:

dobrog/ lošeg,

prljavog/čistog,

ružnog/lepog,

neprirodnog/prirodnog,

paradoksalnog/logičnog,

iracionalnog/racionalnog

paradoksalnog/logi č nog, − iracionalnog/racionalnog Slika 2: Kružni dijagram manifestacija kulture kroz razli

Slika 2: Kružni dijagram manifestacija kulture kroz različite nivoe [9:11]

6. ZAKLJUČAK

Suština ovog modela s kojim bi svi HR menadžeri današnjice morali biti upoznati, leži u elementima koji čine kulturu i u činjenici da su neki od ovih elemenata veoma vidljivi (eksplicitni), dok se drugi teško (raz)otkrivaju (implicitni). Ideja koja stoji u osnovi ovog modela je da ponašanje zaposlenih u organizaciji, ima svoje skrivene segmente, a ono što menadžeri isprva opažaju je samo (baš kao i kod modela kulture) – vrh ledenog brega. Za efikasno upravljanje ljudskim resursima, menadžeri moraju razmišljati o činjenici da se ovaj vrh ledenog brega oslanja na mnogo veći deo ispod površine vode koji je, zbog toga, nevidljiv. Pored toga, Hofstedeov model kulturnih manifestacija ukazuje na to koliko je u nekim trenucima teško razumeti ljude različitog kulturološkog porekla - zato što možemo primetiti vidljive delove njihovog ledenog brega”, ali ne možemo odmah videti na čemu su oni utemeljeni. Model kulturnih manifestacija, u tom smislu, predstavlja važnu lekciju za menadžere novog doba na putu uspešnog vođenja kadrova.

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Understanding hofstede`s model of culture manifestations aimed to improve the process of human resource management

dr Ana Jurčićt; dr Andrea Bučalina Matić; dr Vesna Milanović

LITERATURA

[1]

Inkeles, A. (1998), National Character: A Psycho-Social Perspective, The Journal of Politics,

[2]

Vol. 60, No. 1, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science. Hofstede, G., (1983), National Cultures in Four Dimensions. A Research – based Theory of Cultural

[3]

differences among Nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13 (1/2). Hofstede, G., (2010), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition,

http://www.amazon.com/Cultures-Organizations-Software-Third-Edition/dp/0071664181

(11.01.2015.)

[4]

Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and Organizations. Software of the mind, McGraw-Hill Book Company, London.

[5]

Trompenaars, F. (1993), Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in

[6]

Business, Nicholas Brealey Publishing Ltd, London. Gillert, A. (2000), Intercultural learning T-kit, Council of Europe and European Commission, Strasbourg,

http://www.training-youth.net/INTEGRATION/TY/Publications/tkits/tkit4/serbian/index.html

(11.01.2013.)

[7]

HOFSTEDE: http://westwood.wikispaces.com/file/view/Hofstede.pdf (19.02.2015.)

[8]

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. (2005), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind,

[9]

Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival - second edition, McGraw - Hill Companies, UK. Hofstede, G. (2001), Cultures Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations - second edition, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

31

THE ROLE OF SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN THE PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES CONDUCTION IN THE SECURITY SECTOR

Doc. dr Atanas Kozarev, Dean of Faculty of Detectives and Criminology, European University, Skopje

Abstract: Nowadays, more than ever the security management has a special place in the process of human resources conduction in the security sector. This is how it determines a successful completion of basic security function in a given society. On the other side, contemporary security risks imply the need of a new security concept for security sector conduction which has to show compatibility to new threats that lie in wait for the international communities. Old pattern must be left aside and establish deeply in the trench of the latest security codes. In other words, this means that a change of a decennial paradigm typical for security service which by definition alongside in practice present the most conservative structure and it is not prone to variations, must happen. Due to slow release of heritage and resistance to changes their democratic core is very hard to shape and also, the reformation process is stopped and/or obstructed. New tendency of multiparty system has not changed the character in a radical manner “thanks” to the tendency of The Service to follow “their” law. In addition, it has been 16 years now how the question is asked if the service is apart from democratic changes, politics and parties? It is also asked if there is a real fundament of security management development theory and if the latter has tendency to be taken in practice. The answer of these questions is the main focus of interest of the author of this labor and also his tendency to enhance the academic community to think about this very sensitive and relevant for state security question.

Key words: security sector, human resources, management, academic community.

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The role of security management in the process of human resourcws conduction in the security sector Doc. dr Atanas Kozarev

INTRODUCTION

Transitional societies go through proce- sses that are in function of their democratization and Europeanization. However, this process is not easy, nor have been accelerated. Various challe- nges are emerging in the implementation of the vital strategic national interests. „Latency stre- ngthening of certain forms of extremism (fan vio- lence), human trafficking, money laundering and other types of criminal activity, which we can say that conditionally burden the Western Balkans during the last and early this decade, are additional burden and are becoming new challenges.“ 7 Transition is explained as „a legitimate process of reform, which has clearly defined obje- ctives that have been also assigned an institutional reform as a complex process of setting up a new network of political, economic and legal institu- tions. That process involves, primarily, creation or transformation of old institutions and redefining the internal and external institutional relations.“ 8 „However to be called this new system, the transi- tion is a crossing from a condition characterized by the absence of law to a state where it is more respected, from undemocratic to a democratic po- litical regime and from a non-market to a market economy.“ 9 Moreover, there are some differences in the approach and content of reforms in different countries. This is due to several factors: external, internal, political culture, historical development, the citizens’ level of awareness etc. The progress of „stable and effective democratic government depends not only on the structure of the state and politics: it depends on the orientation people have on the political process - the political culture - if the political culture is not able to support a demo- cratic system, the chances of success of this sy-

Atanas Kozarev, PhD BIOGRAFY Atanas Kozarev attended primary and secondary school in Strumica. He gained
Atanas Kozarev, PhD
BIOGRAFY
Atanas Kozarev attended primary and
secondary school in Strumica. He gained
academy knowledge on Faculty of secu-
rity, at University “St. Cyril and Metho-
dius” in Skopje as the best student in the
class in 1993/94.
In 2005 he finished Postgraduate study at
Academy at Ministry of Internal Affairs in
Sofia, Bulgaria and received academic
degree of Master in criminology.
On 12.05.2011 he defended his docto-
rate at Faculty of law “Iustinianus Pri-
mus” at University “St. Cyril and Me-
thodius in Skopje and received academic
degree of PhD in law sciences.
WORK EXPERIENCE
In the period of 1994-2008 he worked
in Ministry of Internal Affairs (Admini-
stration for security and counterinte-
lligence (ASCI) and Public Security
Bureau (PSB)). Since October 2008 he
became Teaching Assistant for Secu-
rity systems at Faculty of criminology
and detectives at First Private Unive-
rsity, European University Republic of
Macedonia.

7 Uljanov S., Đukanović D., Jović Ž.,Bezbednosni izazovi evrointegracije Zapadnog Balkana, Zbornik radova:

Evropska unija i Zapadni Balkan - izazovi i perspektive, Institute of International Politics and Economics, Beograd, 2014, p. 59.

8 Камбовски В., Реформата на институциите и нејзиното значење за развојот на Република Македонија, Зборник од научна расправа, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, 2008, p. 17.

9 Теоkarević J., Tranzicija i integracija, SLužbeni glasnik, Beograd, 2008, p. 78.

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Zbornik radova

The role of security management in the process of human resourcws conduction in the security sector Doc. dr Atanas Kozarev

stem are weak.“ 10 The „democratic political cultu- re of citizens implies their respect for the existing order and its institutions, because through their re- presentatives in parliament they participate in ma- king laws that are aimed at protecting citizens and the society in general.“ 11 The security sector is not an entity in itself, it is part of the social system (economic, po- litical, cultural etc.). Security theory talk about six fundamental global connections or political influe- nce over the security system and that „the conce- ption, organization and structure, content and ma- nner of implementation of security activities, co- ntent and manner of politicization, management and position of the subjects of the system of na- tional security.“ 12 Security sector reform, as newer term that is found in the works of European security theo- rists’ is multifaceted. Hence, it caused numerous effects such as organizational design of the secu- rity sector, and its functionality. Thus, from today's perspective, if it is looked on the security sector of the Republic of Macedonia, for example, it will be determined the existence of numerous institutions which in the former socialist system were science fiction. But today they and their members exercise significant powers in the security area. One of the final products of security sector reform is to stre- ngthen the theory and practice of security mana- gement. Considering the complex division of the security sector (key security institutions, non-go- vernment security institutions etc.) one can confi- dently state that the question of their management draws the attention of the academic, scientific and professional public. Security theorists themselves join to these modern movements and lay out the foundations of a new scientific discipline - security management. The role of security management to- day is important for effectively countering conte- mporary security risks and threats facing the national security sector of a country. „The strategic part of the contents of the methodology of inte- lligence services include: modern security mana- gement - intelligence network, critical exami-

mana- gement - intelligence network, critical exami- He is a member of Association of jurists of

He is a member of Association of jurists of Republic of Macedonia, Association of Criminalists of Republic of Macedonia, International Association of Crimi- nalists. Atanas Kozarev is President of NGO

“Center

of

democracy

and

security”

Skopje

SCIENCE AND RESEARCH

Atanas Kozarev is author of Violation and football hooliganism in Republic of Macedonia (penalty-legal, criminology and criminalities aspects), Skopje 2007. He participated at International Scient- ific and Expert Meetings:

International Conference – “Serbia and Regional Integrations” at Institute of International politics and economics, Belgrade 2009, (Regional cooperation and fight against organized crime – a global security challenge) First International scientific conference – Corporative Security, status and perspectives, at “Faculty of Legal and Business Studies” in Novi Sad 2008 (Private Security in the Republic of Ma- cedonia – Status and Perspectives). International Scientific – Expert Confe- rence, Employment of contemporary me- thods and resources in elimination of crime, Brčko 2008, (Role of special inve- stigative method in fight against orga- nized crime, with special attention on practice in Republic of Macedonia). International scientific conference “Se- curity systems in multiethnic countries – comparative aspect”, “VIII Days of Cri- minal Justice Sciences” at FACULTY OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SCIENCES, Sarajevo 2008, (Security System of Re- public of Macedonia – Challenges And Perspectives). Workshop of “Center of democracy and security”: Civil society and the reforms of Security sector, Strumica 2008.

10 G. Almond - S. Verba, The Civil Culture, Princeton, University Press, 1963, p. 498.

11 Masleša R., Teorije i sistemi sigurnosti, Magistrat, Sarajevo, 2001, p. 113.

12 Tatalović, Koncepti sigurnosti na početku 21. stolječa, Politička kultura, Zagreb, 2006, str. 148-149.

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Zbornik radova

The role of security management in the process of human resourcws conduction in the security sector Doc. dr Atanas Kozarev

nation and evaluation of the intelligence process, directing the recent intelligence - research practice of the crucial issues in political field; systematic involvement of intelligence results in wider social framework, functional relationship between poli- tics and intelligence services (support to the politi- cal process), dysfunction the relation between politics and intelligence services (so-called new pathologies in terms of policy and intelligence se- rvices), two-way communication of the key actors in the political and intelligence process (fe- edback), avoiding strategic surprises, etc.“ 13

1. DEFINING SECURITY MANAGEMENT, WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON TRANSITIONAL SOCIETIES

The term Management can be defined as „complex, interdisciplinary and ambiguous, refe- rring to both the processes and activities of mana- ging as well as the advocates and implementers of managerial functions within an organization, while also representing a specific discipline, i.e. a total knowledge and practice in that area“. 14 Weihrich and Koontz, also add the following elements to the definition of management:

1) as managers, people perform the ma- nagerial functions of planning, orga- nizing, staffing, leading and controlling;

2) management can be applied in any organization;

3) management applies to all organi- zational levels;

4) the purpose of all managers is the same: to create profits and

5) management deals with production; which implies means success and effi- ciency. 15 „The successful management of human resources is one of the key factors for the survival

human resources is one of the ke y factors for the survival International scientific conference “Glo-

International scientific conference “Glo- bal security challenges”, “VIII Days of Criminal Justice Sciences” at FACULTY OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SCIENCES, Sarajevo 2007 (Reforms of security sy- stem of Republic of Macedonia). He attended Training course “Manage- ment of Security related R&D in support of defence industrial Transformation, Fu- nded by NATO Science for Peace and Se- curity Programme”, Skopje, 2009. He attended Training of "Investigative inte- rviewing techniques, OSCE, Skopje 2007. He attended A Four – day Internal Au- ditor Training Course (ISO 9001:2000 /ISO 14001-2004) at American Quality and Environmental Group, Held in Skopje, 2008.

2014

1.Naučno - stručni skup „Nasilnički krimi- nalitet u aktuelnom vremenu i metodi su- prostavljanja“, Pravni fakultet – Internaci- onalni univerzitet Brčko, Distrikt, BiH, Brčko, 14.11. 2014 godina. „Policijska prevencija i nasilnički kriminal - realnost ili fikcija“, Zbornik radova, str.69-76. 2.Međunarodna naučna konferencija, „Menadžment 2014“, Fakultet za poslo- vno industrijski menadžment Union, Univerziteta u Beogradu, 25-25.04.2014 godina, Conference web page:

http://www.meste.org/konf/list.pdf - „Menadžiranje s klasificiranim informa- cijama u uslovi krize, sa posebnim osvrtom na aktuelni odel u ovoj oblasti u Republici Makedoniji“; - Glavinov A., Kozarev A., Taneski N., „Redefining system for crisis menage- ment in Republic of Macedonia“. 3.Vtora meǵunarodna naučna konfere- ncija: „Vlijanieto na naučno – tehnolo- škiot razvitok vo oblasta na pravoto, ekonomijata, kulturata, obrazovanieto i bezbednosta vo Republika Makedonija“, Univerzitet Evro-Balkan, Skopje, 30-

31.10.2014

.

13 Pajević M., Savremene obaveštajne teorije, Logos, Mostar, 2013, str. 214.

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