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Chapter 6

_________ marks the break in the cell cycle between the end of mitosis and
beginning of the synthesis stage. Gap 1
A karyotype reveals: the number, shapes, and sizes of chromosomes in an
individual cell.
After replication, the region of contact between sister chromatids, which
occurs near the center of the two chromosome strands is called the
_____________. Centromere
Bacteria reproduce asexually, whereas most plants and animals reproduce
sexually. Which is the better method? Neither method is bettereach is
effective in different environments for different kinds of organisms.
Binary fission is to asexual reproduction as __________ is to __________.
dividing into two; genetically identical offspring
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in two important aspects. They are:
indefinite cell division and the loss of contact inhibition.
During the process of ____________ reproductive cells merge and create a
new individual with the proper human genome of 46 chromosomes.
Fertilization
Healthy individuals may have just one sex chromosome, as long as it is an
X chromosome. Why can't a person survive with a Y chromosome and no X
chromosome? The X chromosome has a full complement of genetic material, much
of which is vital to life; the Y chromosome is missing the vast majority of these
genes.
Hermaphrodites are organisms such as earthworms and garden snails that
produce both male and female _________. Gametes
How does crossing over introduce variation in meiosis? It positions alleles
next to each other that previously were not together.
If a cell containing 10 chromosomes divides by mitosis, how many
daughter cells will be produced? 2
If a cell containing 8 chromosomes divides by mitosis, how many
chromosomes will be in each daughter cell? 8
If DNA replication occurs by unwinding and rebuilding, then: the two
resulting DNA molecules each contain one original strand and one new strand.
In some species, sex is determined by environmental, rather than genetic,
factors. This is true of: turtles.
Joseph went to a copy center and used a copy machine to make a
duplicate set of 46 pages. Joseph then stapled every copied sheet to its

Chapter 6
original. This is similar to how a cell replicates its chromosomes in mitosis.
For what reason would a cell do something similar during mitosis? to keep
the copies and originals organized for later separation
Telomeres have been directly linked to aging in humans. If scientists were
able to develop treatments that could reverse the shortening of
telomeres, would they be able to reverse the aging of humans? No, cells
that have lost normal telomere function are cancerous.
The float in a toilet tank stops the filling of the tank when the water
reaches a certain level. If this float is damaged so that it sinks instead, the
water would overflow the tank after a flush. This scenario is similar to
which of the following cellular concepts? loss of contact inhibition
The rate at which mitosis occurs varies dramatically for different types of
cells. The most rapid cell division occurs: in the blood and the cells lining the
various tissues of organs.
Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes: during mitosis
and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more
prominent.
What is the definition of "female"? producing the larger, less motile gamete
Which is NOT true about a pair of homologous chromosomes? One of the
two homologous chromosomes is produced by the cell during DNA synthesis phase.
Which of the following does NOT occur during Prophase I of meiosis?
Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and move toward the poles.
Which of the following explains the fact that the Y chromosome carries
nonessential information? Women don't have a Y chromosome and are not
genetically disadvantaged.
Which of the following is NOT a method of sex determination that occurs
in nature? All of the above are naturally occurring examples of sex determination.
Which of the following is the BEST definition of a homologous
chromosome? one of two chromosomes of the same length and type inherited
from a father or mother
Which of the following is the direct product of DNA replication? Two sister
chromatids
Which of the following is TRUE about meiosis in men and women? Sperm
production results in four cells from one starting cell; for eggs, only one egg results
from one starting cell.
Which of the following is TRUE about prokaryotic reproduction? A single
circular DNA helix is replicated into two identical circular DNA helices.
Which of the following statements about telomeres is INCORRECT? They are
slightly shorter in prokaryotic cells than in eukaryotic cells.

Chapter 6
Which of the following statements about tumors is incorrect? They contain
cells with abnormally high contact inhibition.
Without histones, eukaryotic DNA most likely would be: much longer than it
is.