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Surfaces of Revolution

3. Given an axis of revolution, make sure that the


axis of revolution is the dependent variable. The
parametric equation of the variable of the axis of
revolution will be equal to itself.

RECALL:
~
Let R(u,
v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i be a vector valued
function where (u, v) D R2 .
The parametric surface S is the set of all points
(x, y, z) R3 such that

(a) Example 1: If you want to revolve about the


y-axis, express the function as either x = f (y)
or z = g(y). The parametric equation of y is
given by y = y.

x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)
z = z(u, v)

(b) Example 2: If you want to revolve about the


z-axis, express the function as either x = f (z)
or y = g(z). The parametric equation of z is
given by z = z.

Now, given a function y = f (x) where a x b, suppose S is obtained by rotating the curve y = f (x) about
the x-axis. Let be the angle of rotation.

4. For the rest of the variables, just augment one with


sin while the other with cos .
(a) Example 1: If revolving about the y-axis,
x = f (y) cos (or f (y) sin )
and
z = f (y) sin (or f (y) cos )
(b) Example 2: x = g(z) sin and y = g(z) cos .
From the graph, note that:
1. length of green line (radius of the circle) = f (x)

Examples

2. Given a point (x, y, z) on the surface:

1. Find the parametric equations of the surface of revolution generated by z = ey when revolved about
the z-axis.

(a) x-coordinate: x
(b) y-coordinate: = f (x) cos
= horizontal distance from the xz-plane.

Solution. Since we want to revolve about the zaxis, express the function as y = f (z).

(c) z-coordinate: = f (x) sin


= vertical distance from the xy-plane

z = ey y = ln z

Hence the parametric equation for the surface of


revolution generated by y = f (x) when revolved
about the x-axis is:

x= x
y = f (x) cos

z = f (x) sin

Hence the parametric equation of the SOR is given


by

x = ln z cos
y = ln z sin

z= z

If we want to revolve the function about the y-axis,


express the given function as x = g(y). Then the
parametric equation of the surface of revolution S
is given by:

x = g(y) cos
y= y

z = g(y) sin

2. y = x2 revolved about the x-axis

x=
y=

z=

x
x2 cos
x2 sin