Particle Reinforced Composite


ParticleReinforced Composite



A particle has no long dimension.  Particle composites consist of particles of one    
material dispersed in a matrix of a second material. Generally spherical, ellipsoidal, polyhedral, or irregular in shape. Added to a liquid matrix that later solidifies in some process. The particles may be treated to be made compatible with the matrix, or they may be incorporated without such treatment. Particles are most often used to extend the strength or other properties of inexpensive materials by the addition of other materials.

Types of Particle Reinforced Composite 
Large Particle 
³LARGE´ indicate that particle-matrix interaction cannot particlebe treated on the atomic or molecular level.  Involves large particles that are harder or stiffer than matrix.  The reinforcing particles tend to restrain movement of the matrix phase in the vicinity of each particle  The matrix transfer some of the applied stress to the particles, which bear a friction at the load.  Bonding at the interface is necessarily important.

Types of Particle Reinforced Composite 
Dispersion-strengthened Dispersion Small particles (10 to 100 nm)  Matrix bears most of the applied load  Particles hinder or impede motion of dislocations  Plastic deformation is restricted  Improves yield and tensile strength.  Most of MMCs fall in this category  Metal, metallic compound, ceramic particle, whisker or etc., is uniformly dispersed in matrix medium.

Orientation and Geometry 
Approximately in the same dimension in all
direction. (Equiaxed).  Uniformly distributed  Generally spherical, ellipsoidal, polyhedral, or irregular in shape

Particle and Fiber variables 
For any composite, regardless of the selection of matrix and
disperse phase (material and type), there are many options that will affect properties:

Each option will impart different benefits to the final part.
Also surface coatings on the dispersed phase

LargeLarge-Particle vs. Dispersion-Strengthened Composites Dispersion-

Shear X

Strong Particle >500 nm Dispersion Strengthened
Stress field of dispersion

Dislocation shears through the dispersion

Strong Particle <100 nm

Dislocation stopped


Particulate Reinforcement Processing 
The process where the particulate reinforcement form
being formed  Examples of the particulate processing:
A. Powder Processing 1. Spray drying processing (Liquid) 2. Vortex Disintegrator Drying (Semi-solid) (Semi3. Fluid Bed and Flash Drying (Moist powder) 4. Microwave Vaccum Drying (Wet powder) 5. Spray Congealing (Liquid melts)

B. Granulation 1. Spray Drying Granulation Granulation (Liquid) 2. High Shear Granulation ± continuous (Powder) 3. Fluid Bed Granulation (Powder) 4. High Shear Granulation- Batch (dry ingredients ) GranulationC. Pelletizing 1. Layering from Liquids & Powder 2. Wet & Melts Granulation Pelletizing D. Others Processing 1. Pulverized Process 2. Particle size reduction through hammer mill 3. Particle size reduction through roller mills 4. Steam Drying of Fibrous Particulates

E.g.1: Powder ± Spray Drying 
From liquid feeds  One of the most important
continuous drying techniques for converting solutions, emulsions, and slurries into powders.  The liquid feed is atomized into droplets which are directed into a controlled flow of hot air.  Particles are formed as moisture evaporates from each droplet.

Spray Dryer

E.g. 2: Granulation - Spray Drying Granulation 
From liquid feed  Is a continuous process where the
desired mechanism of particle growth is layering and simultaneous drying of the liquid feed on the surface of the smaller granules and nuclei particles.  Air temperatures are high to achieve the required drying rates.  High density, free flowing granules are produced from solution and slurry feeds.  most suited for inorganic feeds

Spray Dryer Granulator

E.g. 3: Pelletizing
(A)Layering from liquids  A solution or suspension of the active
component is sprayed onto inert cores consisting of crystals or non-pareil seeds. non Is a multi-layer spray coating process which can multibe performed in fluid beds, the Precision CoaterŒ or the Roto-ProcessorŒ. Roto-

Pellet ProcessorŒ


E.g. 4: Size Reduction Through Hammer Mill Hammer mills

Hopper Rotor 

is a machine whose purpose is to shred material into fine particles through

impact force.  essentially a steel drum: contains a vertical or horizontal cross shaped rotor on which pivoting hammers are mounted.  It reduces the particle size of materials by impacting a slow moving target with a rapidly moving hammer.  Particles produced using a hammer mill will generally be spherical in shape with a surface that appears polished

Process Description: The rotor is spun at a high speed inside the

drum while material is fed into a feed hopper Material is impacted by the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross and thereby is shredded and expelled through screens in the drum The design and placement of hammers is determined by operating parameters such as rotor speed, motor horsepower, and open area in the screen.

E.g. 5: Pulverized Process 
Is the process where material has been pounded,
crush, or grind to a powder or dust. 

Example of process: Pulverization of coal 
Is a method to improve burning efficiency and maximize
energy output 

Typically found in power generation, steel and iron

manufacturing, cogeneration, cement drying, and other industries that employ coal injection furnaces.

Typical pulverized fuel storage and firing system

Coal from Bunker to Pulverizer

Storage Bin

Dust Collector To Furnace

LargeLarge-particle Composites Composites Process
Processing methods of Large-particle Largecomposites Powder Forging Process Calcinations Process Cold Pressing Process Sintering Process

Powder Forging Process 
A powder blank is pressed to a simple shape
halfway between that of a forging billet and the required finished part.  ³Preform´ is sintered and then hot forged to finished size and shape in a closed die.  The amount of deformation involved is sufficient to give a final density very closely approaching that of the solid metal, and consequently, the mechanical properties are comparable with those of material forged from wrought bar.

Calcinations Process 
Thermal treatment process applied to ores and other
solid materials in order to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction.  Normally takes place at temperatures below the melting point of the product materials.  Calcination is to be distinguished from roasting, in which more complex gas-solid reactions take place between gasthe furnace atmosphere and the solids.  It is produced by grinding and intimately mixing clay and limelime-bearing minerals in the proper proportions, and then heating the mixture to about 1400 °C (2550°F) in a (2550° rotary kiln.

Cold Pressing Process 
Bonding operation in which an assembly is
subjected to pressure without the application of heat or drying air until the adhesive interface has solidified and reached proper shear proportions.  Used in conjunction with a sintering technique to fabricate metal, filament reinforced metal composites having uniaxially reinforced structures.

Sintering Process 
Bonding together of a porous aggregate of particles at    
high temperature. The thermodynamic driving force is the reduction in the specific surface area of the particles. The mechanism usually involves atomic transport over particle surfaces, along grain boundaries and through the particle interiors. Resulting densification, depending on the predominant diffusion pathway. Used in the fabrication of metal and ceramic components, the agglomeration of ore fines for further metallurgical processing and occurs during the formation of sandstones and glaciers.

DispersionDispersion-strengthened composites Process
Processing methods of dispersiondispersionstrengthened composites Powder working process Mechanical alloying process High pressure casting process Molten metal process Semi-solidification process Semi-

Powder working process
An alloy as a dispersing medium is pulverized and mixed with a dispersion strengthening material which is extruded at a high temperature under pressure to form a composites material.
Typical powder metallurgy process: (1) blending of the gas-atomized matrix alloy and reinforcement in powder form (2) compacting (cold pressing) the homogenous blend to roughly 80% density (3) degassing the preform to remove volatile contamination, water vapor and gasses (4) consolidation by vacuum hot pressing or hot isotactic pressing and subsequently extruded, rolled or forged

Mechanical alloying process
An alloy as dispersing medium is pulverized and mixed with a dispersion strengthening material, which is mechanically kneaded to form a composite material.





Mechanical alloying creates alloy without melting but by violently deforming mixtures of different powders. Inert oxides can be introduced uniformly into the microstructure. The elemental powders are milled together to produce solid solutions with uniform dispersions of oxide particles. The dispersion-strengthened alloyed powders are then consolidated using hotdispersionhotisotactic pressing and extrusion to produce a solid with a very fine grain structure. Heat treatment then induces recrystallisation, either into a coarse columnar grain structure or into a fine, equiaxed set of grains.



High pressure casting process 
A molten alloy as a dispersing medium is impregnated into a preform
of A dispersion strengthening material under pressure and then solidified To form a composite material.

Schematic view of a high pressure die casting machine

Molten metal process
alloy as a dispersing medium and then mixed with stirring to form a composite material. 

A dispersion strengthened material is added to a molten

Semisolidification process 
An alloy as a dispersing medium is rendered into a mixed
solidsolid-liquid phase slurry and added with a dispersion strengthening material, which is mixed with stirring to form a composite material.


Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforcement 
High specific stiffness, greater strength, and
good fracture properties: 
Influence by the microstructure of the reinforcement; such as size, shape, and spatial distribution of the reinforcement. 

Good corrosion resistance (for MMC) 
Lead to formation of interface between the matrix reinforcement, interfacial stresses as well as high dislocation density in the matrix

Advantages of Particulate Reinforcement 
Less extensive than fibrous reinforcements Isotropic properties Improves the machinability of the material. Compatible with most metalworking process and often fabricated to near net shape increase the modulus of the matrix decrease the permeability of the matrix decrease the ductility of the matrix Support higher tensile, compressive and shear stresses. Ability to tailor the mechanical properties through selection of reinforcement type and volume fraction along with the metal alloy


LargeLarge-particle Composites 
Cermets (not cements) are ceramic-metal composites cements) ceramic Cermented Carbide²cutting tools Carbide²  WC or TiC particles (incredibly hard)  Metal matrix (Co or Ni)  The particles will crack under the high stresses in cutting applications, so the matrix prevents crack propagation between particles by separating them.  Up to 90 volume percent of particles. 

Polymer/Carbon composites include 
Tires  Elastomer matrix with carbon black particles (15-30 vol%). (15 Improved tensile strength, tear and abrasion resistance, and toughness.  Small particles are optimal, <50 nm. 

Ceramic-ceramic composites include Ceramic Concrete is:  ~70 vol% sand and gravel particles (different sizes promotes
better packing).  Portland cement (ceramic/ceramic composite) is the binder once water is added. 

Improved tensile, compressive, and shear response by reinforcing with steel rods, bars (rebar), wires, or wire mesh (ceramic-ceramic(ceramic-ceramic-metal composite).  Steel is selected for thermal expansion coefficient  Not corroded during cement hardening  Strong composite/matrix bond is possible, especially if the steel
surface is contoured 

Pre stressing

LargeLarge-particle Reinforced Composites
‡ Examples: Spheroidite steel
matrix: ferrite ( E) (ductile) 60 Qm particles: cementite (Fe3 C) (brittle)
Adapted from Fig. 10.10, Callister 6e. (Fig. 10.10 is copyright United States Steel Corporation, 1971.)

WC/Co cemented carbide

matrix: cobalt (ductile) Vm : 10-15vol%! matrix: rubber (compliant)

particles: WC (brittle, hard) 600 Qm particles: Carbon Black (stiffer)

Adapted from Fig. 16.4, Callister 6e. (Fig. 16.4 is courtesy Carboloy Systems, Department, General Electric Company.)

Automobile tires

Adapted from Fig. 16.5, Callister 6e. (Fig. 16.5 is courtesy Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.)

0.75 Qm

DispersionDispersion-strengthening Composite 
Thoria dispersed nickel (Ni with up to 3 vol% ThO2    
particles) Sintered aluminum powder (Al matrix with Al2O3 coated Al flakes) Nanometer Al2O3 / Cu composite Particle aluminum metal matrix composites (PAMMCs) Oxides dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys
~ austenitic (Ni-based) alloys, which is strengthened by oxide (Nidispersion and by alpha phase precipitates ~ ferritic (Fe-based), strengthened by an oxide dispersion, which are (Fesuitable for gas turbine chambers, high temperature sensors and heaters, diesel engine components, and components of advanced energy conversion systems.


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