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Making a Difference - Dossier on Community Engagement on Nature Based Tourism in India (Hindi)

Making a Difference - Dossier on Community Engagement on Nature Based Tourism in India (Hindi)

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In 2008 through a collaborative project coordinated by African Safari Lodge (ASL) Foundation looking at community based efforts in nature based tourism, EQUATIONS got the opportunity to study three very interesting initiatives in India. While each have their unique contexts and histories and are on different stages of tourism development, they also have common features. These tourism initiatives are located in some of the most scenic and alluring places â Himalayan Homestays in Ladakh, Mountain Shepherd Initiative in Uttarakhand and Manas Maozigendri Jungle Camp in Assam.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org, www.equitabletourism.org/stage/readfull.php?AID=437

Keywords: Nature Based Tourism, Ladakh, Uttarakhand, Assam, Community Engagement, Nature, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, EQUATIONS
In 2008 through a collaborative project coordinated by African Safari Lodge (ASL) Foundation looking at community based efforts in nature based tourism, EQUATIONS got the opportunity to study three very interesting initiatives in India. While each have their unique contexts and histories and are on different stages of tourism development, they also have common features. These tourism initiatives are located in some of the most scenic and alluring places â Himalayan Homestays in Ladakh, Mountain Shepherd Initiative in Uttarakhand and Manas Maozigendri Jungle Camp in Assam.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org, www.equitabletourism.org/stage/readfull.php?AID=437

Keywords: Nature Based Tourism, Ladakh, Uttarakhand, Assam, Community Engagement, Nature, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, EQUATIONS

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Apr 13, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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n« ñVmdZm ............................................1
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ì. = ¤ ºri‹·i ·i-=i = ¤·
lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++, =¦io
:Š+ -·= «i·i...............................................+
:. =i · +i=i l=„i
=i+= =i¬i=i=··i ++ l-l+·, ¬== = i º=  ¬·+++
=i=i =· · «i·i ...........................................ì-
:. =º+ ·o+ = i =ir=
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................:+
^mJ - I n[aX¥ í`
ì. º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤
= +l+l+u=i º· º =i+ … º=  ¬ = i+ +i·= 
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................:·
:. º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+
=i·=i+ ·ªi= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................+·
:. l+= i=-i= ·-i = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= =i=i¤ º+·+
=i·= = ¬==i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i = +i= =i+= i·i + === 
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................-:
+. =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i, =·i=i -·==+
º+ += l= º+·+ º· l+l=·+ ·lr= i¤
·i. =i. l+=+ = =i· «i·i ................................-»
:. =i·= = : = i º+ ·+
+il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................:+
-. Š+i r= ¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ = i ¬i+-+= =i r´
¬+i=i = =i·i = «i·i .....................................».
:. := iº+·+
l+= i=-i= ·-i =  l=º º=  ºil·i-¤l== i+
º+ ¬il¤=  l-= =i
¬+i=i = =i·i = «i·i.....................................»:
·. := iº+·+ =·=, ºl·¤i= =¤i º=i+i = 
l+-=¤¤ =  l=º º=  ·i¤i
:Š+ -·= «i·i.............................................»:
+¤ :..· = º= i= + == i·i =i= = i-·· -+ «i·i =+il== º= 
=+Š= = i+= =, l=== º= l= ¬iuil·= º+·+ = =i=·il+= 
=i=i·i·i = i ¬·+++ l= +i =+i ¤i, =  ¬=== :Š+-·== i
=i·= = : l·=¤-º º+i=i = i ¬·+++ = ·+ = i =i= i l==i:
ri=il=  º·+=  ==r =  ¬º+ l+l-r =·= r, :l=ri= r ¬i· +
º+·+ l+= i= =  ¬==-¬== ¤·¤ º· r, -+= = = ==i+
=¬¤ =i r: +r º+·+ º+i= =i·= =  = = =r· ·-+i+ -¤i+i
º· i-¤= r - =rto ¤ |r¤t=¤t ¤|t¤ttt = t ¬t¤tn
n|¤¤t¢, :-tttoºs ¤ ¤= t¤t=t =  ¤¤tn ¤ ¬n¤ ¤
¤t+n ¤t¬t,¬t¤-ºt ¬¤= |n|¤t¡
:+ ¬·+++i = r· º+i= =  l+l-r =·= ¬i· :l=ri= = i
===+ = i = il-- = i =: - Š+i = i·¤ ·r l=  :+ º+i=i = i
-r¬i= r: ¬i· -·ri+ ¬º+ =i=+ Š+i =·+ ·o ¤: r· º+i=
= º+·+ =  =i·+= = -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i ·i==i· =  = º =
¬il¤=  =i= ·+ = i -¦ª+ ¤i: ¬i· =i+i º+i=i =, ºi= l== 
==iu+i = i ·o·o + =·¬¤ º· =r+ =.i· l·+i =+i ¤i: :+
º+i=i = -il== ==·i+i =¤i ¬·+ =ri+=  =i=i = i =i +r
=i+= i·i ¤i l=  º+·+ =  l+¤+ = ¬i= l+¤+ =+ = + =l+ª+
= ¬º+i -=i º· º+·+ = i l·-i =+ = · == =: ¬i· + -=
l+++¤ = ==lu= + ri= ·, l++= º¤ º+ ¬i··¤i+ ==
l=ai=i º· ¬iuil·= r:
=i=i·i·i ¬i· l= +i·+++ = i ºl= +i ui=i ¬i· =l·= ¤i: -+= 
·i-= = = : ¤+il=+i + ·l+uiº ¬i:: -+= = º=  ¤i =i=i = 
l+= i= + º+·+ º+i= = i == ==i =  =i¤ `===+` =+iº
·o+i: ºri‹·i == ·+i=i =  º+i= = ¬i= =  l·+ +r º=o =¦i
r: ·=·i ¤+i=i ¤i l=  + ¬º+ l=º ¬i+-+=  ¬==iº +
= -==iº =·i ºiº: l+º¤+, ¬==i =i=+i, = +··i º· = i=
= ·+i, º=u+ ·++-¤i, ·+ir+i + =i=·-+ = i = -==i
=‹·i+i, ¬l=l¤+i = i =.= ·=i, == oi+i =+i+i, ¤·i = i ·o-
=i= = ·+i - =i ¬i=i+ === r º· =io+i =i-= = ri=i r:
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i +i= ·i º· ·o+ =  l+¤+ = i =i= = ·+ = 
l=º +r º=  .== ·i = ·= ¤i, l=== l=  =i=i = i ¬i·=l+-+i=
=‹· ¬i· º+·= i = i ¬i= l¤= l= +i =i == :
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i= ·+ ¬i· =·+=i = =i= l+=·¤ = i
ºl= +i =i =+i: =: r: º+·+ = =‹·i=·i =  =i¤ =i=i =
¬iº=i ri‹· =i == =:: -+=  ºi·ºl·=  ·++=i+i = + ¬iº= =
l===== ·, º=  ·=· = i =r+i= l= +i = ·= ¤, =i º+·+ = 
¬i+ = =·= =º: º+·+ =  = i·¤ =i º= = i =+ ·+ -r r¬i
-== = i+·i r¬i +i += =i+´ -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ¬º+i =·==i
r: º·º·i¬i ¬i· ·il=-l·+i.=i =  l+¤+ = Š+i ===i r´ Š+i
º+·= i = i := =·=i+ = = = = i+·i l===i´ r=i· ¬·+++ =
¤ tºt¤+t
l+= == · ¬i+i l=  -¤i+i+ =i=i + º+i+=i= + ¬i· ===+
=+iº ·o+ = i ¬º+i ºl= +iº l+uil·= = i l=== l=  + +
l+¤+ = ==  l=  = i+ = =·=i+ -+=  l=º o=·+i=  ri == =
r ¬i· + ==+ ·r= -+ =·=i+i = i = = ·i=  == :
º=  ¬·+ =¦i ¤i l=  =‹· ¬i= i· ¬i· =r·+i= i¬i º+·+ = 
=·= º=  === + === º+·+ = i l+= i= = = l= +i =iº:
¬·+++ l= + =º º+i=i = ====i =  l+¤+ = ¬=i l+uil·=
ºl= +iº +ri =+i: =: r: º· =i=i = i +r º=i r l=  = =i +
= =i -·r +r ºl= +iº =+i+i º‹· =i: =l= + º·+=  º+i= = 
ºi= `º=  ¬== ¬+=+` ·+ = i =i¤ -il== ¤i - º=i º+·+
l=== ¬l=l¤ + -¤i+i+ =i=, ·i+i =  ¬+=+ = +la ri:
:= ==r = :+ ¬·+++i =  ¬l=l·Š=, r=+ = = =o =i
-il== l= º r: :Š+-·= (º+ ¬·+ -iu= =i¬i «i·i l=o)
l=+= :+ =¦i = i ºe=l= -ºr ri=i r: r=+ l+-=¤¤ =  l=º
º=  ·i¤i =i -il== l= +i r, l=== = i: =i := i º+·+;
º= l= ¬iuil·= º+·+ = i =i¤ = · == =i r:
:==  l=º r= =¦io, -·i·ioª· ¬i· =i+= =  = : =i=i = 
+l= ¬i=i·i r, l=·ri+ =i+i ==  =i+ ¬i· =i=i =  =i¤ ¤¤i
= ·+ = r=i·i =·· = i:
ì. lr=i=+i ¤·i = ¬i+i= =l+uiº, =¦io - -+i =º·
= ·.=·+·=i - :l·+i · -· =  =·-+ + r·=i=  ¬i· -= =i+ = 
l++i=i:
:. =i¬i=i=·· i === l-l+·, =i+= - r·º · l·.== =  =·-+,
=i+=-r·º · l·= =  =·=+, =i+= =i¬i.=i=··i
:= i· l·.== =i=i+·i + =i·.i · l··il·+= = i-l== =  =·-+:
:. ºri‹·i == ·+i= º+i=, -·i·ioª· - ºri‹·i == ·+i= º+ii=
=  =·-+ ¬i· =i=i + =i==i =i+ =  l++i=i:
=i+= = i ¬·+++ =i=i =¿ + º=  -+=+ -iu= =i =  = º =
l= +i: r= -+=  ¬i=i·i r:
:+ = ril++i = i ¬·+++ = ·+ ¬i· ¬iº=i l+¤i·i =  ¬i·i+-
º·i+ =  l=º r= ¬= i= + == i·i =i= = i-·· -+ ¬i· = i·
= i-· -+ =  ºl= ¬i=i· ·+Š= = ·= r:
sŠ¤ n-n ¿t¤
¬¤ = z««s
2
¤t¤ - = 
:ºtrt¬tt¤=  ¬·¤¤+
¤ tºt¤+t …
= ¤ ºri‹·i ·i-=i = i ·i+, =¦io, =i·= =  ·i+ =·= ¬i·
= -=i· =  º+i lr-= = i-¤= r, l=== i = = ¬+= = »-,:.ì
+= l= .=i r: -·i· = = +=+ ºri‹·i ¤o=i ¬i· ºi-¤= =
lr=i=+i ºri‹·i =  =i¤ +r ·i+ i-¤= r: =¦io º=  -i=
·l=-=i+ ¬+ r, l===  = i·¤ +ri =  =i==i =·=i+ =r=
==··-= ri= r: ¬i· =l·+i = =r= +i·i · · º‹·=i r: =·i
=  =i== = ==== : =ri+i ==  +r ¬+ ==  =  = i·¤ =ir·i
·i+i =  =º=  = +ri ·r=i:
ì
=¦io = i ·i l=.=i = =i·i =+i r
- = i·l== º+ =r:
= ¤i: +i= -i= ·l=-=i+ =  =i== = l+l+u º= i· =  =i+ ==
º+ º‹·-ºiu º+º= r, l=== l+-+ = i = = ==ºi+ º=il=+i
== l=  -+i=º·
:
=i -il== r: =¦io =  º+i ·i+ = :,::.
+= l= .=i. ·i+ = i-¤= rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ -+i=º· = i º= 
º=o ¬i+i= ¬+ r: ¬i· =r l== = i º=  =i+ ·ir i+ -=i+
r: +r ·i+ lr=i=+i·i· ºil·i-¤l== i = i ºl== º r, =ri = i
=+=r+i = i= i = = r ¬i· ¤· ·i+i :=i=  r l=+= =r=
¬lu=  ++-ºl= +ri ri=i: := -=i+ = i -¤iº+i ì»·ì =
·l¬¤ = i =i·oi ¬i· =.-= · ·iil·+i =¤i º+ = r·=i=  ¤i·i = 
=·¬¤ = -r r::
:
==== ì: =i+i = ì,-.. =i= -= -=i+ = 
¬·· ·r= r: ri=il=  =i·oi ¤i·i = lº== :-+ ·-= i =
º+·=  · l= = =  l=º ¬i= ·r r: -¤i+i+ =i=i = i :+ º+·= i
= = = oi= =i= ºi= +ri r¬i r:
+
= ··i+ =·= i· «i·i +r ¬+
-+i=º· =  =·¬¤ =  l=º ¬== = l¤i·r= l= +i =+i r:
+r ¬·+++ -+i =º· = ·.=·+·=i-=i·= · -· (º=.º=.=i.-
¬i:.·i.-¬i:.·i.) =  º+i=i =  l+¤+ = r, l===  ¬=== -+i
=º· = i -==  l+l-r ¬i+i=--¤= = =·¬¤ ri ·ri r ¬i·
º+·+ =  =l·+ -¤i+i+ º= l= º+ =-= l= =  =·¬¤ =  =i¤-
=i¤ -·r ·i==i· + ¬·+ ¬i=·+i =  ¬+=· º·i+ = ·+ = i
= il-- = i =i ·ri r: rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ =  =i+i = =r-
¡.
=  ¤ ¤rt‹ st
tttºt ¤ ¤t
=rto =   |r¤t=¤t ¤ r ¬t¤tnt = t
:ºtrt¬tt¤=  ¬·¤¤+
sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
¬i+i= =l+ui¬i = i l+= i= l= +i =i ·ri r, l=== l= 
º·=¬i =i++·i =  r== = =+l-+i =  += =i+ =  =·= -·r
¬i=·+i =  ¬+=· l== == :
s|ºrtn
rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ = lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i= =l+uiº ºr=i =i·
+¤ :..: = -r r:: rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ =, =ri ì: =i+ ==
r, === ºr= r·=i=  = =r ¬i+i= = i -ir¬i= = i =: =i l= 
-+i =º· = i º=  =r·+ºªi ¬i+i=i+ ¬+ r: +ri =r =  +i+i
·++-¤iº= i =  =.l·º º+·=  ¬i= ¤: :==  =i· =r ¬i+i=i = i
+r = i+= = ¬+ =  ¬·+ =i=i = =i ¤=i+i =+i: +==i+ ==+
=, ==== ì.. =r ¬i+i= l+= l== l= º =º r - rl==, -i=
¬i· =.-= i· ¬+i =:
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. = i -¤iº+i +¤ :... = = i =:, l=== i
=r+ -¦-+ ¤i -+i=º· , -==  ¬iri·i l-= i· ¬i· -== 
¬i+i=i+ ==·i+ ¬i· -==  ¬i+i= = i ==·i+ ¬iuil·=
=·¬¤ + -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i l+= i=: lr=i=+i =r ¬i+= =i
= i ++i= º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. º+ rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ =  =i+
=  l++il=+i =  =i¤ r: ¤¤i¬i = l+= = = · ¬i+i Š+il=  +ri
=  -¤i+i+ l++il=+i = i -+i =º· =  l-= i· =  = i·¤ =+l-+i
= i = i= i += =i+ ri ·ri ¤i: r· =i= ì: ºl=-= =+-i -+i
=º· =  ri¤i =i· =i= ¤: := º= i· =‹·= += =i+ ¬i· ¬il¤= 
==i =  = i·¤ =i= -+i-=º· = +io- ¤: :==  = i·¤, =·=
= =i=i + -+i =º· = i =i·+i -=  = · l·+i l=== := ·==
º=il= ¬i· ¬·+ º·=¬i º=il=+i =  l=º o=·i ¬i· =i =‹·
=+i:
-r¬i=i ¤¤i¬i = º= ¬+i = i l¤i·r= l= +i =+i =ri º=i
=·= = i =i++i = =‹·i =r+i = -+i =º· = i =i·i =i ·ri ¤i:
=ri =+-i ¤·i+ +i=i = i ¬·+lu=  ¤i= ·+i ·r+i º‹·. =i ¤i,
+ri º·=l¬+i = =¤i+ =  l=º oi= ·‹·= =+iº =º: =l= +
== = i= ¬i= =‹·i =i === = ¬i+i l=  = += º·=l¬+i =
=¤i+ =  l=º ·‹·= =+i+i = i= i +ri ¤i Š+il=  ¤·i+ = ·=
==+ =+l-+i = i l-= i· ¬=i =i =i·i ¤i: ºri‹·i = l+¤·¤
= ·= rº -+i=º· =  l=º º·=l¬+i = ¬+l=- =+l-+i = i
l-= i· = ·+i =·= +i ¬i:=Š= == ·i = i l-= i· = ·+ = = ri
+i·i ¬i=i+ ¤i: ¤l=  =i+ =  =i= +i·i=· l++ir o=i = ri
= ·= r, =+i-i+i = i oi ·+ = -+= i º= = i ¬i=·+i º· =iui
¬=· º‹·=i ¤i:
rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ =  r·=i=  =i+ = ¤¤i¬i =  ==+
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + = : º= ¬i=·+i =  l+= ·ºi =  l+¤+
= ¤¤i = i l=== =+l-+i =  += =i+ = i =·ºi: = i =i == :
:+ ¤¤i¬i = = il-- = i =: l=  =i+ +i= -+i=º· = += ·=
= ·+ =  ==iº -==  =i¤ l== == = · ·r+ =  l+= ·º · · :
¤¤ ¿=  n |¤¤t¢
= ) =r ¬i+i=i = i -¤iº+i
r·=i=  = -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤ l+¤i·-l+=¤ = =i=i + +r
=i+i l=  +ri = i =··· +il·+i = =r= = º+·=  ¬i= ·r= r:
-·r +r === = ¬i+i l=  ri=il=  -·r l-l+· ==i+ =  l=º
= = = i= =i l===i ¤i, -·r =r= = = ¬i=·+i +ri ri=i ¤i;
¬i· -i+· + =i:· =  = º = = i= = · =i -·r +i·i ¬i=·+i
l== == =i r: º=  ¬i· ==i+ ¤i l=  =r = ¬l=l¤ =r =+iº
=iº: =l= + ¤l=  ¬l=l¤ =ri = = = ri =i= º=i = =i == =
¤, =i º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + º= l= =i:· = i ==i+ l·+i:
:==  =i· :..ì =, =r = ++=i=i¤ ·i+i = := i º+·+ = 
¬+=· l+¤+ º· º=  = i+-i=i ¬i+il== = i =:: :=
= i+-i=i = -¤i+i+ =i+i, =¦io ¬i·i+i== lr= · +·º=·
= i-l==, =r-=¦io =  º+·+ l+=i=, +·· +i:·· =i:=  = ·
= i· +¤·, =¦io := i=il== = · +·º=· =º =  ºl=l+lu+i +
=i= l=+i ¬i· :== i ¬i+i=+ · =i-·· + :i·-·· +· +
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + l= +i: l+l=·+ =i=i¤ ¬+i = ¬iº
=i=i + ºl·=il¤= l= +i l=  -+=  ¬+=i· =r-¬i+i= = =i
ri +i ¤ilrº…
« =r-¬i+i= = i l+= i= ºr= = =i=· ¤·i = l= +i =i+i
¤ilrº ¬i· :+ ¤·i =  =ui· =  l=º ¤i‹·i º=i ===i:
« =r-¬i+i= º+·= i =  =i¤ ºi·ºl·=  º+ -¤i+i+ =¦ioi
=-= l= =i·=i:
« +ri º+·= i = i -¤i+i+ =i=+ l·+i =iº=i ¬i· ==i+·
=i -¤i+i+ · = = = i =iº=i:
« +r º= l= =ri+=  º¤il=+i º· ¬iuil·= ri=, == l= ,
=o -i¤i=+, l=== ¬+ = =i-= = = ¬i+ +i= ºi+i = i
=¤= = i =i == :
¬==… l+·+l=lo= ºl·=i¤i =+i· = i =: …
º=  ºi·ºl·=  =i=i¤ =¦ioi =r-¬i+i= º+·= i =  =i¤ ¬º+i
ºi·ºl·=  =i++ -=i ¬i· =·+ =i· =i, -·r ºi·ºl·=  =i=+
·=i, =i = = o¤ = l+= l== º= l=-=ri+=  +i=i+·¤ = 
=i·+= = -º=·u = ·i+i =iº=i:
=i=i = i =r ¬i+i=i = i :·=i = i l+= l== = ·+ =  l=º +¤
:..ì = º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i., +·· +i:·· =i:=  = · ¬i·
=· = + l=== · º=  =+·i¤ l= +i l=== :.. º+·= i = º=i
=+i l=  + rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ = · =  = ·= ==+ l= = º= i· = 
¬i+i=, =i=+ + ¬·+ =l+ui¬i = i ¬º¬i = ·= r:
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5
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
6
ºl=-= º+·= i + =r-¬i+i= =  º·i = == l·+i ¬i·
·++i-¤= · l= =, l-l+· ¬i+i=i +i ¬l=l¤ =ri = i +ri: :=i
º= i· -¤i+i+ =i=+, º= l= =i:· = i ¬i+-+= =i =¤i =o
-i¤i=+i = i =i =i·i == l==i: = = =i·i =i·i ºl=-= =
=i=i + -¤i+i+ r-=l-·º = =i rl¤ l·oi:: =i+ =  =lo+i
(+i·=i··) = i -+i= l= = =r-¬i+i=i =  l+= i= =  l=º
l+·+l=iri= =iº·· l+uil·= =+ l= + =+…
« ºl·+i· ºr= º=  = =·i ri º+·= i = i l= ·iº º· ·:
(Š+il=  ¬=i· ºl·+i· º=  = +i·i = =· · == = r, l===
=i= l+=·¤ = ¬==i+=i ¬i =iº=i):
« -+=  ºi= : = +i·i =+-i +ri ri+ ¤ilrº: (:==
ºl·+i· =  ¬il¤=  -=· = i º=i ¤==i r: +r =iº··
:=l=º ¬º+i+i =+i l=== l=  =·i= ºl·+i·i = i = i+·i
l== ==  ¬i· -·r -r¬i= = u++i+ ºl·+i·i =  =i¤
== i==i + = ·+i º‹· : u++i+ ºl·+i· =i :== =i= =+i
¤ir= ¤, -·r : =i= =i· =i= =+ = i ¬+=l= ¤i:
« º=  -i¤i=+ (··+i=. =  =i¤) ri+i ¬i+-+=  r:
ºi·ºl·=  ¤·i = = += º=  º·i r¬i = ·=i ¤i:
« ºl·+i· º+·+ ¬+ =  = i+ = ++i ri+i ¤ilrº:
« ºl·+i· =  =·-+ =r-¬i+i= =l+ui¬i = i ¤=i+ = 
l=º ¬i+il== ºl-·i¤ = i+= =i = -il== ri+ =  l=º
= +i· ri :
« = = ¬i=·+i = i ì. ºl=-= lr-=i º=  =·¬¤ = i¤ =
==i l= +i =iº=i l== =i+ -=· =  = i=i = -º+i= l= +i
=iº=i:
« +l· l= =i ºl·+i· + -+i=º· +i ¬·+ º·=·ii =i++·i
= i r·+i = i =i -==  =r-¬i+i= = i =i= l·= ·i=  ·i
=iº=i: (+r =iº·· º·=l¬+i =  =··i¤ r= ·i=i =+i)
== :..ì = r·=i=  = =r ¬i+i= = i+= = = i -r¬i= = i =:
(=i ¬iº¤il·=  = º = :..: = ¤il¤= l= +i =+i) =i = º·
l·º =º =iº··i =  ¬iui· º· + ºl·+i·i + +r = i+ = ·+ = i
=ir= l·oi+i: -·r º+·= i = =i ==i+ l== l=  + = = ¬º+
=r-¬i+i=i = i =r=· =+i == = r: == l= , ¬l=l¤+i +
==i+i l=  =l= + ¤· ·i+i = i =·r =r= ¤: ¬l=l¤+i = 
==i+i =  ¬iui· º· ºl-¬¤ l·+i =+i l=  = = =+i¬i ¬i·
== i: = =‹·i=·i = i =iº: =r-¬i+i=i = ri +r ºl-¬¤ l·º
=º: =+i=i =  ril=· -:+ ri·= =  º=  = =¤i·i + +r
ºi-i·i¤ l·+i: º=  =i· =+ = -+i-·+ =  =¦i ¬i· ¬==i =i¤i
º· =i ºl-·i¤ l·+i =+i: ¤l=  -¤i+i+ =i=i·i· =¦ioi =
º‹·-l=o == = ¤, =i· = º=  =¦ioi-¬==i -··= i- =i
=+i· l= +i =+i: ¬==i =ioi+ =  l=º = =· =+iº =º, Š+il= 
=¦ioi ·i·i = · º l·= i· · ¬i==i· º· ºiº =i= r: ¬==i =
+r ºl-¬¤ =r= =.= ·i ¤i Š+il=  -¤i+i+ =i= ¬==i + ¬i+
=  = i·¤ ¬l=l¤+i = =i= = ·+ = lr¤l= ¤i= ¤:
=+i¬i ¬i· == i: =  ºl-¬¤ =  =i¤-=i¤, =r-¬i+i=i = i
=lr=i¬i = i ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i l=  + º= =i+··i =  =i· =
=i¤ l=== ¬l=l¤+i =¤i -+=  ¬i¤·¤ =  l=º =i=·-= 
=i+·· =+ l= + =i == : :+ =i+··i = i =¤i = i =+i· = · = 
=r-¬i+i=i = ·i=i =+i:
:
=i= - = 
7
= ¤¤t …
« o= ¬i= º= = i º·-+ + = ·:
« ¬= º·-+ = ·+ +i= = º‹· + ºr+, == l=  = ¤i -= ·
+i l=+i =i= =  ·=i= .= ¬il·:
« ºi+i +i o=i =  ºi= -i¤ + = ·:
« oi+i º·i=+ +i= ¤·=¤i = oi+i + ¤o:
« ¬º+ oi+ +i= ¤·=¤i +i -=l=+i = i oi+ =  ==+i =
+ ·i=:
« oi+i º= i+ = r-=¬º + = ·:
« ¤i= ·= (=¦ioi ==) º· + =· :
« =r-¬i+i= = i ··i = =i=-=i= + = ·:
=r-¬i+i= -º=·u = ·i+ +i= ºl·+i·i = i ¬º+ ¤·i = i
=··== ¬i· ·++== =l+uiº ·+, == =i+ =  l=º =¦ :·+il·
=  l=º ==== =  ì:.. o¤ = ·+ º‹· : +r ·il- :+ ºl·+i·i = 
l=º = i= i =‹·i ¤i: º· º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + +r =l+uiº
=º= ·+ = i ==iº ºl·+i·i = i = ¤ º· ·i: :==  ¬l=l·Š=
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. «i·i l·º =º º= = i := -= º· l·+i
=+i l=  -= º=  =i= = i ¬+lu = =i·i l·+i =iº=i, ==
ºl·+i·i + = i= i ¬l=l¤+i =  .=l·+ º=i = =i l=+i ri=i: =i
º=i +ilº= ¬i+i, -= =i= =·¬¤ = i¤ = ==i = · l·+i =+i:
·i =i= =i· =r-¬i+i=i = rl¤ =‹·i ¬i· r·=i=  =  = i+= = =
u++i+ ºl·+i·i + =i =i= l=+i:
=i+i = º=  =i=i =i=i¤ =·+i= + = i ºl= +i = i =:: =i+ = i
º=  =i+l¤+ =+i+i =+i l=== ==iu+i = i l¤i·r= = ·= rº
+i=+i =+i: =: l=  ¬i· l= +-l= + =i+i = =r-¬i+i=
= i+= = ¤=i+i =i == =i r: := ºl= +i =  ¬iui· º·, +¤
:..: = ri r·=i=  =  ¬l=l·Š= rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ =  : ¬i·
-i= ¬+ =  : ¬·+ =i+i = := = i+= = = i l+-=i· l= +i =+i:
·=· =i= =  ¬= ==  -. = ¬lu=  ºl·+i· := = i+= = = =‹·
=º ¤: +¤ :..· = +r ui·¤i =.-= · ¬i· ==+i= ¬+i = =i
=i· º= ‹·+ ==i:
+r =l+i-¤= = ·+ =  l=º l=  =i+ = ==i =r-¬i+i= =l+ui
-º=·u = ·i+ +i= =i=i = i ¬i+ +i= º+·= i = =i= ¬+=·
l==, º=  ¤= i+ ºl= +i = i -r¬i= = i =: r: -¤i+i+
==·i+i = i ºi·=ilr= l= +i =i=i r l=  + ==i =r-¬i+i=
-º=·u = ·i+ +i=i = i =i=i·i·i =  l=º -l¤= l+¤+ = == :
:==  = i·¤, = = =i+i + º=  º= ·+iŠ= = i l++Š= l= +i r
=i ·+i+ ·o=i r l=  l= = ºl·+i· = º+·= i = i =i+i ¤ilrº:
=i == º+·=  =r ¬i+i= = i +i-¤· == · ¬i= r =i -·r
-º+Š= =r-¬i+i= = == l·+i =i=i r: +r ºl= +i r·=i=  =
¤=i: =i ·ri r: -i= ·i+ =  -= == =i+i = +r ºl= +i
== = +ri ·ri - =i+ =  =i= :== =r+i= +ri = · ·r ¤ ¬i·
·=·i, =r ¬i+i=i = i =i¤ = i ··i =  = i·¤ º+·=  º=  ==r
= ·=·i ==r =i+ =  l=º =+i· +ri ri= ¤ Š+il=  + == · =
ºr= ri = i= i ¤=  =i= r:
+i·i=· =i ºl= +i ¤==i r, -== +i+i ·++-¤iº=  º+·= i
= i +i= ¤· ·= · =i+ = == ·= r ¬i· -=º· ºl·+i· = i +i=
+ri l=oi ri=i: = : ==ri º· =r-¬i+i= º= -·=· = ··-··
=+ rº r ¬i· +r ··i = =i-= =i : l= .=i. ==  =i ri=i r,
l== º·= ºi· = · ºi+i º+·= i =  l=º =i-= = ri =i=i r:
··-··i=. =  =i+i = =r-¬i+i= =  =il== i ¬i· -r· = i-¤=
+i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  =i¤ =º=  =  =iu+ + ri+ =  = i·¤
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
8
==-+i ¬i· =‹· =i=i r: º=  ¬i· =-¤i r - +¤ º=il=º-+
= i· = ·.=·+-+ º· ·+·º=· ¬i=  rl== +-+= ºi= , =i
-+i·==  = º = = i= = ·=i r ¬i· º+·= i = i =i+= i·i ·+ = 
=i¤-=i¤ =r-¬i+i= = i ·++-¤i =i = ·=i r: +r =i·oi
¤i·i =  ++i¬i = i =-¤i r l== +·+=i+ l+=i= + =l·= l= +i
r, =i =i·oi ¤i·i =  rl== ·ir i+ -=i+ = +i+iº =i
¬i+il== = ·= r: º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. =¤i +¤ º=il=º-+
=  º=  ri ¬+ = = i+ = ·+ ¬i· = = =il== ºl·+i· ri+ = 
= i·¤ º=  ri =r-¬i+i= = ¬==i = ·i =¤i +i·i ¬i·¬¤ ri
=i=i r: = = ==+ =, =r-¬i+i= ºl·+i·i + +¤ º=il=º-+
=  l=º ¬== ¬i· lr=i=++ ri=-· .= =  l=º ¬== = =·
=+i+ -r = · l·º r: º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. =i=i = i ===i+
= i = il-- = · ·ri r l=  + ¬i· ¬lu=  = =· =+i+ = i ==iº
-·ri = =·i = i -º+i= = ·: ==·++ = i := = =i =  = i·¤
= =i-= =i º=  ==i· i-¤l= º·i ri =i=i r == ¬º+ ¬iº
¬iº º+·=  º= º=  = =· = ·r+ === r, =i += l= =i +i+i
·++-¤iº=  =  =l·+ l= ·iº º· l·+i =i=i r: ¬i· == +i+i
·++-¤iº=  l= =i º+·=  = i === r =i :+ º+·= i = i =i
-++ +ri ºr¤ ¤ ¬i· -+=  ºi= +i+i ·++-¤iº=  = i +i= ¤·
+ri ri=i, = =·i oi=i = ·+i º‹·=i r:
=l= + = = ==ri º· ¤= +=i ºl= +i =l‹·+i =·i=  = = i=
= ·=i r, =ri º=  +i ·i ·+iŠ= =r ¬i+i= l+uil·= = ·+ = i
l=·=·i·i = == r +i +i+i ·++-¤iº=  ri ·+i+ ·o= r l= 
==i ¤·i = i =·i=· = i= l==: := ·++-¤i = +i+i
·++-¤iº=  ==i =r ¬i+i=i = i l·= i· ·o= r l=  l= = º+·= 
l== ¬i· l= = +ri:
=r ¬i+i= =  ===i+ =iui ºl·+i· = i l·º =i= r, l=== l= 
º=i i-¤l= + ¬iº l=  =i:· +i +i+i ·++-¤iº=  -+=  º=i = i
¬º+ ºi= ·o =: = =i-= =i º=i =i ==-+iº ¬i=i r ==
:.=·i+= = i º=  ==r ==r =  uu==  = l=+i º= l·º ri
=i= =º:
(o) º= l= =i:·
=ri º=  ¬i· r·=i=  = =r-¬i+i=i = i -¤ilº= l= +i =i ·ri
¤i, +ri =i+ =  ++i¬i = i º= l= =i:· =  = º = = i= = ·+ = 
l=º =i ºl-l¬= l= +i =i ·ri ¤i: ¤l=  ¬i+i= =l+ui¬i =
=i+ =  º= -·i ºl·+i·i = i ri = i+·i ri=i, º=.º=.=i.-
¬i:.·i. + ++i¬i = i º= l= =i:· =++ =  l=º ºl-¬¤ l·+i:
+r =i:· =r-¬i+i= = ¬i+ +i= º+·= i =  l=º =i -º=·u
r:
ºr=i ºl-¬¤ r·=i=  = :..ì = l·+i =+i, l=== · =i-·· +
:i·-·· +· ¬i· :··+-+= =·· = i· :l·=· · =i-·· + · +·º=·
(:=i=i·) + =r+i= l·+i: =i· = º=  ¬i· ºl-¬¤ r·=i= 
¬i· · ·+i· = +=i = =i ¬i+il== l= +i =+i: ·=·i ¬i· =i=·i
ºl-¬¤ =·= ¬i· = -=i· =  +·+=i+ =·¬¤ l+=i= =  =r+i=
= ¬i+il== l= º =º: ºr= =i= = ì: =i= ºl-l¬= rº ¬i·
·=· =i= = ::Ÿ: =i= =+ +i=i = = +i·i=· =‹·l= +i ¤i:
==i =i=i·i·i = i +·+=i+ l+=i= + º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i.
«i·i r-=i¬l·= º=i¤ º+ l·º =º:
:= ºl-¬¤ = i =¤+i ·l·+i º· ·i =: ¤i: ¬+ = i ++-ºl=+i
¬i· =i++·i =  l+¤+ = º+·= i = i =i+= i·i ·+ =  l+¤+ º·
ºl-¬¤ =r = ¬i+il== l= +i =+i: = ¬i - =+ ¬i· =ir·
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=i= - = 
9
=i= · ·++ril·=  ºl-¬¤, l=== º¬i-·-+ =i -il== ¤i:
=i· = ºl¬+i = i ºr¤i+ = ·+ =  l=º =-=i ··i º· l= =i= ·i
=: ¬i· ==·i+ = i ··=i+ =i ·i =:: +¤ :..: + :..+ = ·+.=
(i-ºl= = i º=  =· =·= i·i =-¤i) ¬i· ¬i= i-ºl= +¤
º=il=º-+ =  =i¤ l=== · lr=i¤= º·- =  i-ºl= ¬+ = :
¬l=l·Š= ºl-¬¤ ¬i+il== l= º =º: +r ¬+ =i -+i =º· = i
º=  =r·+º¤ ¬i+i= ¬+ r, =ri =r-¬i+i= = i = i+= = =i·
= ·+.= = i ==i·i·i =   =i¤ =i= l= +i =+i:
(=) º·i-· = = 
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + º·i-· = =  =  ºr= º· =i = i=
l= +i, l=== i +i= :=l=º º‹·i l=  :·r =+i «i·i -º+i= = ·= 
=i‹· l·º =º º·i-· =  = º‹· = =+i+i =i=i r: º·i-· = = 
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. =  = i+= = =  ¬=== -r +ri l= º =º
¤, =i·=  :·r ºr= = ri =r ·+· i-+ ºi=i= (º=.º+.ºi.) = 
¬=== -r l= +i =i ¤= i ¤i: º=.º+.ºi. =  = i+= = = 
¬=== rl== ¬+ = ·r+ +i= ==·i+i = i =i· ·++=i+
-¤ilº= = ·+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i: º=.º=.=i.-
¬i:.·i. + ·oi l=  + =i= = += ¤i+ + =i+· =¤ ·r r ¬i·
-·r ==i l=  :== = = =·+-+la = i =i == =i r: º·i-·
= =  = =‹· ºl·+i·i = i =i=+ º= i+ = i ºl-¬¤ l·+i =+i:
-·r =i=· º·i=il==  ri·· =-= ··i º· l·º =º ¬i· ºi·=ilr=
l= +i =+i l=  + º+·= i = i l=+·= +i·· = i =i== =¤+ = i
==iº ºi+i -=i== · + =i+ = · ·, l=== l=  ¬+ = =ii-·= 
= i = ‹·i + =‹· : = ‹· = i ¬== = ·+ = i ºl-·i¤ =i l·+i =+i:
= i+= = = i l=.·=·i·i = += ºl-¬¤ ·+ ¬i· ºr= = ¬lu= 
·il+·+ =‹·i+ ==  ri ¤i: =l= + ºl-¬¤ =  =i+=· = =  =
=i= +··= ¬i· l¤= ri =¤ ·r r Š+il=  º+·= i =  ºi= ¬i·
oi+i º= + = i :==i· = ·+ =  l=º ==+ +ri ri=i:
= = ¬+i = =i+ =  ºl·+i· =i·i-=i·i = º·i-· = =  ¤=i= r:
:== -+ ¤·i = =i ¬i=·+i ri=i r =i =r ¬i+i= = i =l+ui
+ri · ·r: º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. := ¤= +=i ºl= +i = i
ºi·=ir+ ·=i r º· +r ¤==i r +i +ri :== i l=·=·i·i º·i
=·r = ==·i+ º· ri r:
(¤) -=il·= iº + = +i -·ºi·
= i+= = =  ¬=== -=il·= i¬i º· =i ·+i+ l·+i =+i, ri=il= 
:= º· =r= +i·i =i· +ri l·+i =+i: ºl·+i· = = = +i -·ºi·
+= =i ¤·i = =+= ¤, =i º+·= i = i =l·+i = =¤= ¤:
-+= i ==ir ·i =: l=  + r·=  +=+ =  -·ºi· =+iº =i · l= =
= ·+ +i= =i= ¬º+ =i¤ = =i == : -·ri+ ·iº, ·ilº+i, =i=.
¬i· ·-=i+ =+iº =i º+·= i = i = i= i º=· ¬i= r: =r-
¬i+i= +i=i = i = r+i r l=  + +r -·ºi· =+i= · +i =i ¬º+
¤·i = ri =¤ ·= r (¤· = º·-+i ==i= ·), +i º·i-· = = 
=  =i·+= = =ri, = i= i º+·=  ·i-= = = = = r: =l=+i =
º·i-· = =  = +i·i l== i ri=i r, º· =·i =, == º+·= 
oi= =i· º· -+i=º· · =  = ·+ ¬i= r =i =r-¬i+i=i = +i·i
l==  i ri =i r :
(=) =i=·il+=  =i·--i+·
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. = i ==i=i· = il-- ·ri r l=  º+·+ =
ri+ +i= =i= -+ ºl·+i·i = i =i l== =i =r-¬i+i= -º=·u
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
10
+ri = ·+i ºi ·r r: º+·= i =  ==i+ l=º =º l=+= l+·-i
º+·=  ¤ir= ¤ l=  == + · =  = +ilº= ¬iº =i -·r +ri+ = 
l=º = = ¬·=i ·++-¤i l==: º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. == =
=r-¬i+i= =il== i = i =i=·il+=  =i·--i+· =+i+ =  l=º
ºi·=ilr= = · ·ri r: +r ºl·+i· -i+· =  -º+i= =  l=º º= 
-·=  = == = r: -i+· =  l=º = .:. -·=  l=+i =i=i r:
l=== i : ºl=-= lr-=i =·¬¤ = i¤ = ==i l= +i =i=i r:
ri=il=  -i+· =  =i·+= = = = ==iu+ +i= ºl·+i·i = i =i
=i=i·i·i = i =i= i l==i l=== =i= ¬º+ =i+ = -º=·u
==iu+i ¬i· º+·+ = i ==== =l+ui¬i = ¬º+i r=  ===
== : +r º+i= =r= ¬lu=  == = +ri ·ri - -= = +i·i
º+·=  + ri+ ¬i· = i+i = ºi+i = i = =i ri+ =  = i·¤: :·ri
·i =i+i = +r -i+· ==iº =º ¤:
|¤¤¬+
:= = i+= = =  ¬=== -r = ri +i+i ·++-¤iº= i = i -il==
l= +i =+i: ºl-¬¤ ·= ==+ =i +i+i ·++-¤iº= i = i ==i+i
=+i l=== l=  -¤i+i+ =i= +i+i ·++-¤iº= i = i =l== i = i
=== ==  ¬i· + ¬iº= = =+i= i =i·+ ¬i· º=  ·=· = + Š+i
-·=i· ·o= r := º· ¤¤i = · == : +i+i ·++-¤º= i = i
¬º+ º¤ =i+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i, l=== l=  =i= ·o
l=  + =r-¬i+i=i = i = = º¤l== = ·= r: +il++i + º+·= i
=  =i¤ =r-¬i+i= = i º¤ii· = ·+i +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  l=º
=i º=  ++i = i= ¤i ¬i· =i¤ ri ·-i-l+·-i º+·= i = i = =
++i ¬i· ¬== º- = ·+ = i =i= i =i: -r¬i= =, :..ì =,
== r·=i=  = =r-¬i+i= -r l= º =º =i =r = r· ==r º¤
==iº =º: º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + r=-i = il-- = i r l= 
+i+i =  ¬+ = = i·i=i· = ·+ +i=i ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤
º=  l·-=i =+i ·r l=== º+·+ ¬i· =··i¤ = i =i l·-=i =+i
·r=i: ¬=… =¦io =  ¤i· +i+i ·++-¤iº= , =i -¤i+i+ =i=i
= i ¬i= i·ii¬i ¬i· := º+i= =  -¦ª+i =  ºl= =+·+-i= ¤,
= i ºr¤i+ = i =: l=== l=  + lr=i=+i =r-¬i+i=i =  l+¤+
= =i+= i·i =‹·iº:
:==  l=º =r+ =ri+=  ·ri +==i:· … www.himalayan-
homestays.com l===  =i·+= = -+ ==il+= º+·= i == 
ºr¤i =i == =i ¤i, =i ºr= = ri ¬º+i +i+i = i +i=+i =+
= ·+i ¤ir= r: ¬i· l= · ==i º¤l== ·-=·i ¬i· =i=i·i =
º¤ ==iº =º ¤ l=+= +i+i ·++-¤iº= i = i =¤i ·i =: ¤i:
+r -+ º+·= i =  l=º ¤i =i =¦io = ¬i+ =  =i· l+= ·º
· ·= r: º+·=  =¤i = -il== ¤i· ·++-¤iº= i = = l= =i =i
º=  =  =i¤ ¬i·¬¤ = · == = r (=++ · · ¬iº···, -+i =º·
· ·=, =i··+ ºi= i=  º·+¤·, ¬i+·=· º-= º): r· =i= :+=
= º=  ·++-¤iº=  = i l=.·=·i·i ·i =i=i r l=  + +==i:· =
¬i+ +i= =+i=i = i =+i= ·: := l=·=·i·i =  l=º lº==
=i= = ·++-¤iº=  + l= =+ º+·=  -i= ¬i· l= = º= i· :=
= i+= = = i º¤l== l= +i: +i+i ·++-¤iº=  ¬º+i =+i¬i = 
l=º º=  ·++== -·=  r. :. == r ¬i· =i= i r. :.. ºl=
·+iŠ= ºl= ·il+ +il++i «i·i =r-¬i+i= =il==  = i =iu ri
== ·i =i=i r: = =i-= =i == = ¤ -=· =  º+·=  ¬i= r =i
·++-¤iº=  -+= i =i= =  ¬+=i· =l+uiº ·= r l===  l=º +
¬l=l·Š= -·=  == r: ri == =i r -·r ¬º+i ·=i:+i +i
¬º+i ¤i·· ==+i º‹· º· +r ¬l=l·Š= =+i¬i =  ¬=== ¬i=
= º = =i+i =i=i r:
= i= i º+·=  (·-i + l+·-i) =iº == i·i == r, l=== =r
¬i+i= = i ¬- =‹·i ri=i r: l=== l=  =i= +i+i = i ¤= i+
¬i· ¬i= ri·=i = i º= =·=i = =¤ == : :== -r·i ri·=i
¬i· +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  ¬l=l·Š= =i=i¤ :=i=  =  =r-
¬i+i= ¬i+i== i = i = =i+ = i =i= i l===i r: +ri ==  l= 
rl== +-+= ºi=  =  ··-··i= =  ·i+i = == =i+i =ri =i‹·i
=i+ =  l=º =‹·=  +ri r ¬i· :-: ¤· ¤== · =i+i º‹·=i r,
-+ =i+i = i =i := = i+= = = -il== l= +i =+i r: :=
ri=-· · =  = i +i= l·+i =+i r: ¤l=  +ri º+·=  -+i=º·
·o+ =  l=º ¬i+ = i =i= i · ·= r, · l= = ¬i· -+i=º· = i
=i‹· l·+i =+i r: ¬=… ==r :+ =r-¬i+i=i = i -º+i=
+·+=i+ ·-+ =  -¦ª+ =  l=º =i = · == = r: º=.º=.=i.-
¬i:.·i. + ºi-·· ¬i· =i+l¤+ =i =+i· l= + r l=+= l+l=·+
=i+i =  =r ¬i+i=i = ==.·= rº · l= = ·i-=i = i ·-i+i =+i r
- ¬Š=· =i º+·=  l=+i +i+i ·++-¤i¬i =  · l= = º· =i= r,
-·r +r =i+l¤+ =¤ =i= r: :+= ==i ==il+= +i+i= = l·º
ri= r =i =r+=… o· ri ºr¤ º+·= i =  l=º =+iº =º r:
¬t|¤ =  ¤r=¸
=r-¬i+i=i = = . ::.;- ºl= ·+iŠ= ºl= l·+ ·+ ri=i r
(l=== ·r+i + : ==+ = i oi+i -il== r): = = ¬i+ = i ì.
ºl=-= lr-=i =i+ =  =·¬¤ = i¤ = ==i l= +i =i=i r:
lº== = = +¤i = r·=i= , -= ¬i· -=  == =i+i = =r-
¬i+i=i = ¬i=·+i ·=+i ri =: r:
= = =i+i = =i=i + · ·· ==i= · l-l+·--¤= =+iº r: :== =
r: ¬i=·+i = i =i º=  lr-=i =·¬¤ = i¤ = ==i l= +i =i=i
r: +r ==·i+i =  l=º ¬i=·+i = i º=  ¬i· =.l·+i =+ =+i r
¬i· -+ ºl·+i·i =  l=º =i =i l-l+· -¤=i = i ·++-¤i = i
l=·=·i·i ==i== r: ºl·+i· º=  ¤= +=i ºl= +i =  =r=
l-l+· -¤=i = i ·o-·oi+ = ·= r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, r·=i= 
=i + = r· º+ ·+ =i=. + = : ºl·+i· l-l+·--¤= = i ·o-·oi+
= ·= r: + ¬i=·+i = i :. ºl=-= lr-=i ·o= · =i= i :.
ºl=-= =i+ =  =··i¤ = i¤ = ==i = · ·= r: := = i¤ = i
=i= - = 
11
º=  lr-=i l-l+·--¤= =  º=u+ =  l=º =i :-==i= l= +i
=i=i r: ºr= =i+ +i= º+·= i = = i: l+uil·= -·=  +ri ==
¤ - º+·=  ¬º+i o-i = =i =i ·= ¤ =i+ +i= -= -+i= i·
= · == ¤:
:= º+i= = =i:·i = i =i =i= r¬i r: ri=il=  =i:·i = i +r
=i¤= · ºl-¬¤ l·+i =+i ¤i l=  + =r-¬i+i=i =  l=º = i+
= ·=: = = =i:·i = i +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  =i¤ = i= l== =+i:
:==  = i·¤ .+i·i =i‹· =  ==+ = =i:·i = i = =i º‹· =i=i r
=l= + == + -º=·u ri= r =i ¬l=l¤ -·r ¬º+ =i¤ · =  = 
l=º = =i= r: = i+= = = i -r¬i= = =i:· = . :..;- ºl=
l·+ == ¤, º· ¬= +r =‹·= · = . +..-:..;- ==  ri =+i
r: = = =i:· ¬·= = ¬==i =i= == r ¬i· +i·i ¬+=+i
=i:· ·i=· = ¬º+i ===i+ == r, l=·r ``·i=· =i:·``
==i+i =i=i r:
:..ì = i = i+-i=i =  =i·, ºr= =i= = =· = + ·¿

=il== i
= i º=  =-¤i =+i+ = i = il-- = i, =l= + +r º+i= == =
+ri ·ri: +i·i=· · =  =  l=º ºri‹·i ¬i· = ¤ ·i-=i º· =i·i
=i=ii+ = =i+ =  l=º ·¿ ¬i = i == ·= º‹·=i r: +==i+ ==+
= +i+i ·++-¤iº=  ¬º+i -=i º· o· ri ·¿

=i= r: =-¤i
=+ =i+ = l+uil·= ··i ¬i· l++=i =  ¬iui· º· ·¿

l==
== = ¤: :== -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤ =·+ = º = =i= =·
== =i ¤i: ¬i· l+++¤ +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  ri¤ = l+= == ·
-¤i+i+ =-¤i =  ri¤ = ¬i =i=i: -i+· +ri = i·¤ ¤i l=  :=
= i= = :=+i ¬‹·¤+ ·i=i =::
n`m© dUu` nhcy …
-r¬i= = = il-- = i =: l=  º+·= i = i l=·==i ¬·==i -
ºri‹·i == ·i = i º=  º=il= - l·oi+ = =i+i =iº, l=== l= 
º+·=  =r-¬i+i=i = +i·i l·+ r= : -r--r = :-: ¬·==i
r·=i=  =i+ = ¬iº =i, º··= l-= il·+i + -+= i l-= i· = ·+
= i = il-- = i: =i+ +i=i + l-= il·+i = i r¤= l‹·+i ==+i
·i: ¬·=l=+i = i =r+i =‹·+ ==i ¬i· ¬= :.-:: ¬·==i =i+
= r: ¬= = i+= = =  ¬=== ++ l+=i= º· =.i· ·i=i =i ·ri
r l=  +r ¬·=l=+i =  l=º ¬i·l¬= ¬+ =+iº ¬i· ¬·==i
=i+ = i =i = il-- = i =i ·ri r Š+il=  :+= = i= i +i·i
¬=º=++ ri ·ri r: :..: = r·=i=  ¬i· +r·= =  l++il=+i +
l+¤+ l=+i l=  + ì- += =i= ¬+ = ¬·=l= ¬i·l¬= ¬+
=+iº=, l=+= ºi== =i++·i = i ¤·+ +ri l·+i =iº=i: :=
= i+= = = ¬·=l=+i = i =r+i º· +=.· ·o+ =  l=º =i+ = 
++i¬i = i -il== l= +i =+i r: +¤ :..+ = r·=i=  ¤i·i = 
==·i+i + ¸l== ¤i·i - =i -+i=º· = i =r·+º¤ ¬i+i=
-¤= r, ¬i· =·= lr=i=+i == ·i =  l=º ¬+ ¬== ·o+ = i
l+¤+ l=+i =ri + =+l-+i = i +ri ¤·iº=: º=i ri º=  º+i=
-= =i+ = :..- = -r l= +i =+i, l===  ¬=== -·ri+ ¬º+
=+l-+i = i º·=¬i =i++·i «i·i =i· =i+ =  l=º º=  =i=i
= i¤ =+i+i: := -r¬i= =  =i· =i+ +i=i + ·i ¬==-¬==
¤·+i¬i = -+i=º· «i·i +i=  =i· =i+ º· =i=i ºi= l= +i:
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  = o = º=  =r·+º¤ =·=i+ ¬i+i r + ¬=
``===i =i++·i = i ºri‹·i =  `¬i=¤¤` =  = º = ·o+ ==
r:``
-
= i+= = =  -r¬i=i =i=i = ==·i+i = i =i+i¤-
¬º¤l·= ri+ +i= = ‹· ¬i· =i+i¤-¬º¤l·= + ri+ +i= = ‹·
= i ¬== = ·+ = i ºl-¬¤ l·+i =+i ¤i: = ‹· = i =i·i =i=i
¤i ¬i· =·¬¤ = i¤ =  º= = ·· · l= ·i+ º· =i= · =i+i¤-
¬º¤l·= + ri+ +i= = ·. + =ii-·=  = i =r ºr¤i+i =i=i
¤i: -= =¤= · = = º= =i l== =i= ¤: ¬= +·+=i+ l+=i=
+ = =i‹·i+i=i = i ·++-¤i = · ·i r, =i =i+ = ¬i= · ·+¤
º·i¤ = =i= r: ¤l=  =r= =i·i l·+ ·+¤ =i ·ri ¤i ¬i·
:==  l=º = =i‹·i =i=i· = ·i= =i ¬·= l=== r, = =i‹·i
+i=i
:
= º=  ===i=i l= +i =+i l=  + =i+ = l·+ =  +ri ·i=
·= =i + =r -r· = ·= r: = =i‹·i+i=i = +r =i =+ l= +i
=+i l=  + =ii-·=  =i := ¿i = ·=  =r ºr¤iº=, ri=il=  +
:==  l=º = i: º=i +ri ·= r: =i ¬= r· ·+iŠ= ·+¤ +-=¬i
= =i º=i ·o=i r: =r-¬i+i=i = º·i ri+ +i= = ‹· = 
¬l=l·Š=, r·=i=  =  =i+ +i= +i+i ·++-¤iº= i «i·i =i‹· =+
= ‹· =  ºl= =i =¤= ri =º r: =i=i + +r ·oi ¤i l=  = =
= += º=  +i ·i +i+i ·++-¤iº=  ri ¬º+ =i¤ =i+i r¬i l·+,
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
12
=ii-·=  ¬il· +iº= = =i= r, ==l=  +i·i=· =i= ¬º+i
= ‹·i +ri =i‹· =i= ¤: =i+ +i= =i¤ ·r r l=  + +i+i ==ri = 
l=·i =l=+i == · ¤=+ º· ºl==·u ==i ·: + =l=+i · =  º·
=i+ +i= º+·= i = i lo=i: =i=i r: =i+ =  =i= +r =i =i¤
·r r l=  + ¬+ = ==.·+ +i= r· +i+i ·++-¤iº=  = i +i= ·=
= ·= ¬i· +r =i l=  +r l= =+i =ii-·=  = i =i== ¬º+ =i¤
·ir i+ -=i+ =  ¬·· = =i ·ri r: ¬=· -·r ¬+ = º·¤¤
= =i= rº ºi+i =+i =i ¬+i+ ==·i+ +·+=i+ =·¬¤ l+=i=
=  ºi= l-= i+= = ·= =¤i -+ +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  ¬+ =
¬i+ º· ºl==u ==i ·=:
nt¤t|¬=  ¤r=¸
==i =r ¬i+i=i = oi+i º= i+ =  l=º == r: = i+= = = 
¬=== =.i· l·+i =+i l=  + ¬º+ º·º·i== =¦ioi ¤·ri = i
o·= + = ·, l=== + =il‹·+i ¬i· =i+ + +i=  =  =i=· = 
l=¤¤ = i -º+i= = ·= r: := º· =i =.i· l·+i =+i l=  º+·= i
= i oi+i º·º·i== =¦ioi ·=i: =, =¦ioi =·+ = i -=i = ri
º·i=i =iº, l=== l=  º+·=  :== i ¬+=+ = · == : -·r
ºi-¤=i -=i = i ==-= =i =+i+ = r=i·=ilr= l= +i =+i: =i
=i= +º ¤· =+i ·r ¤ -·r ºi·ºl·=  =¦ioi ¤·r =+i+ = 
l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i ¬i· -·ri+ := =i+ =i l=+i: = i= i
=i+i =, =i º=i =·¬¤ = i¤ = ==i l= +i =+i ¤i, -=
-=ºi¬i
·
º· == ·i = ·+ =  l=º -º+i= l= +i =+i: º+·= i = 
l=º =i· -i+· =+iº =º ¤, -·r = : ==r =i+ +i= =i
:-==i= = ·= r:
=r-¬i+i=i = r: ¬i=·+i + =·¬¤ = i¤ =  º= = i =i=i = 
=+l-+i = i º·=¬i =i++·i «i·i l-= i· =  l+= a =i= =  l=º
=i -º+i= l= +i =i ·ri r: :==  l=º =i+ +i= o· ri =i=i
+i=+i ¤=i ·r r: -= = := ¬i=·+i =  = i·¤ ==+ ri ºi+i
r l=  =i+ +i= = = -++=+= i = i =·+i=i = =+-i ¤·i+ ¬i·
º·i ==i =  =i== = =+l-+i = i ·o·o =  l=º =i+·+ · ºi=
r: +r -++=+i =i·i-=i·i =, -+ ºl·+i·i = ¤+ =i= r =i
=r-¬i+i= -º=·u +ri = ·+i ·r r: :·r ·i =ri+i =  l=º = .
ì:. ºl=l·+ = i ===i+ l= +i =i=i r: ¬= ¬i=-ºi= =  =i+i
= == lr=-ºi¤i+ =  =i= =i -= =  :+ -++=l++i =  =i¤ ri
¬º+ =+-i === r ¬i· -·r ¬== = ===i+ = ·= r: + =i=
º·=¬i-·lr= ·‹·= =+i+ = =i = i=+i= ·r r l=== -+= i
¬= = = += =i+ -·i+i º‹·=i r:
:= = i+= = =  = i·¤ =i+ +i= ¬º+ =ƒi = i ¬·= -= =i =
== ºi= r: +r ºr= = i i-¤l= =  == i== =r= =‹·i =·=i+
r: == =i=i = i ¬º+ =ƒi = i º‹·i: =  l=º ¬il¤=  =ri+=i
· ·+i º‹·=i ¤i: ¬i·=i = i = r+i r ¬= -+=  ri¤ = º= ·r=
r, -·r ¬º+ ºl=+i = =i=+ = i == ·= +ri º‹·=i: º+·+ =
¬iº º= = ¤· =  l=º oi+ = i ==, == + =r=· l= -= = 
=l= +, =¦ ¬i· ¤i·· o·i·+ = -ii =·· l==i r: ºl·+i· = 
¬·· ¬il¤=  l+¤+ =+ = i ºl= +i = =lr=i¬i = i =i=i·i·i
=i =‹·i r:
º=  ¬·+ ºr= r, := º· º+i= = - =lr=i¬i = i =l== i +
-+= i =i=i·i·i: -r¬i=i =i=i =, +i=+iº =+i= ==+ ==
=i= - = 
13
=i+ +i=i = i º=  l+i-¤= ==+ º· := ¿i ri+ =  l=º =i=i
=i=i ¤i, =i = += º= ¤ ri ¬i= ¤: =l= + =i· = =r-
¬i+i=i + º= l=-=i:· =  ºl-¬¤ =  ==+ =lr=i¬i + ri
¬i= =‹·= · =i= l=+i: :+ ºl-¬¤i = -·ri+ =i =i =ioi -=
+ = += º+·= i º· ri =i·=  ¬º+i l=·=i = =i =i= l= +i:
º=  ºl-·i¤ =  =i· =lr=i¬i + = ri l=  ¬= + ·i= ·i =i·
¬º+ ·i= =i=  = ·=i r: ºr= + +i =i rº= = º=  =i· ·i=
=i=  = ·=i ¤i +i = =i-= =i =i == ri =i=i ¤i:
=ri º=  ¬i· =r-¬i+i=i = =i=i =  =i++--=· = =‹·i=·i
¬i: r, +ri :==  = i·¤ «¤ =i º·i r¬i r Š+il=  ¤= +=i
ºl= +i ·i=  = +ri ¤= ºi=i r: +r ==-+i ¬i· =i =‹· =i=i
r == ¬l=l¤ -+= i l·+ =+ =r-¬i+i= = ¬i+ = := i· = ·
·= r, l=== º=  ¤· = i =i= i ¤·i = +i·i º+·=  l== =i=
r ¬i· +ri ==‹· = i = i·¤ =+ =i=i r: l= · ==·i+ º+i=
¬i=·+i + ri+ =  = i·¤ ¬º+ = ¤ +ri ¤= i ºi=: =l= +
:== ¬·=i =i= +r r l=  = =i-= =i =i+ +i= o· ri :=
==-+i =  ==iui+ =  l=º ¬iº= = ¤¤i = ·= r: -·ir·¤ = 
l=º, -= =, º=  ºl·+i· ºri‹·i = ¤i‹·i +i·i = ¤i: º· ·r=i
r =i +ri ¬l=l¤ +ri ºr¤ ºi=: =l= + ==i + l=== · =+
l= +i l=  -+=  ºi= =i =i+ =i‹·i ¤i‹· r -·r · l= = =  l=º
º i¤l== =i º· ==i+i =iº=i:
º+·= i =  =i¤ =‹·= = i== i= =  = i·¤ +r ==·i+ ¬= = i= i
·+iºil·=  =+i+l= =  ri =º r: = =i-= =i + -¤i+i+ =i=i;
-= =i =ƒi = =i -=+ ri ===i+ = i ¬º¬i ·o= r l==+i
l=  º+·= i =: -= =  º=  ==.= = i ===i r l=  =i= +i·i
-+i¤i ri =º r ¬i· ·=·i = i + =i¤ = · = += ¬º+ =i· =
=i¤+ == r: =i ·i=  +ri r:
º=  ¬i· =r·+º¤ =¦i r ==i+ = i ·+iºi·: =¦io = i =i·=i+
=l+ui+ = i ui·i ::. =  ¬=== l+-¤ ·=i ºi= r:
»
l=== 
¬=== =·= ¬i· = -=i· ·i+ =  l=º l+-¤ ºi+ui+ l·º =º
r: +ri ==· = i = i++ =+i+ =  l=º =il== -iŠ=+i ·i =: r
- l===  ¬=== =+Š= º+ ==+=i =l¤+i = l·º =º l+¤+i
=  ¬l=l·Š=, ==· ·i+ =·= i· = l+¤i·-l+=- = ·=  ri
= i++ =+i == =i r: ui·i ::. =  ¬=== =·=-= -=i· =
=ir· =  =i= +ri ==i+ +ri o·i· == =: := = i·¤ =ir· =
=i = i: ¬i= · +ri ==i+ +ri o·i· == =i º· =r +i = -=i·
=  ·+iºi·i := ui·¤i = l++- = ·+ =  :·= =  ri == = r ¬i·
-i+· + +ri º· ¬·=i =i ·r+ = i ·++-¤i =+i == = r: :== 
ºl·¤i=-+= º =r-¬i+i= -º=·u = ·i+ +i=i = i ==‹·i
ºl=-ºui = i =i=+i = ·+i º‹· == =i r: ri=il=  ¬=i +r
==-+i o‹·i +ri r: r, r·=i=  =i+ =  =i=i = i ¬r=i= r l= 
º+·+ = i =‹·=i =i= lº+=i ¬i· ¬+ = º=i ¬i+ = = i= i
=ir· +i= =.=i+ o·i·+i ¤ir= +i r·=i=  = º=i l++- = ·+i
¤ir=: := i-¤l= = l+º·+ =  l=º -¤i+i+ ==·i+ + =r-
¬i+i= º=il=+-+ =  ¤i¤¤i-º+ = º=  -= -il== = ·+ = i
=i¤i r: -+= i =i·=i=ºi +i==  º=  =i+ -=·i+ = =·i =i r,
l==+ = ri r l=  =i+ = º=i +ri ri+ l·+i =iº=i: ¬=· =i+
= i = i: ==a ·+iŠ= ¬== = ¬l=l¤-=r ¤=i+i ¤ir=i =i
=i -= ¬+=l= +ri ·i =iº=i: +r l+¤+ =i+ =  ==i =i=i +
l=== · l=+i r:
¤¤ ¿+ =   ¤ ¤t¤t ¤t |+¤tt+t ¤ ¤ r¤t = +
º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l+=·i+i ·o+ = i ºl= +i = i -r¬i= = 
-¦-+ =, º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + º=  ++i+ ºal= =+i: r -
=i+i l¤+ +i¤i =·+i= +: =i+ =i+i = i ¤++ l= +i =+i ¬i·
==·i+ =  =·-+i = i l·l=·= = =· l·º =º: -·r = ri =+i +
= = l·+i ==  -+ ==i ¤i=i = i =-+i· = =i -+=  ¬+=i·
º+·+ =  = i·¤ =·= =: r: :==  =i· ==·i+ = :+ =-+i·i = 
l+¤+ = ¤¤i = i =:: ==·i+ =  =·-+i =  =i¤ º+·+ = 
º=i+i º· l+=·i+i ·o+ ¬i· =i=r= =i =‹·i+ = i +r º= 
·¤+i·==  =·i= i r:
r· =i= =  ¬= = =i+ +i=i =  =i¤ l=== · =·+i= + = i º= 
ºl= +i ¤=i: =i=i r - +r ===+ =  l=º l=  Š+i = i=+i= r
Š+i +ri: :== lº== =i= = i +i=+i = i º+i+=i= + =i l= +i
=i=i r, =i¤ ri ·o= r l=  =·¬¤ = i¤ = i º=i l= = = i= =
-º+i= l= +i =+i, =i=il==  º=i+i = i =i¤ ¬il·: := ==
= i º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. = i +il¤=  l·ºi· = l·= i· l= +i
=i=i r: :== ==·i+ = i -l¤= =i+·· l+uil·= = ·+ = =i
=·· l==i r:
¬+ ¤¤ n nto ¬t t ¤ +t |º¤t
ri=il=  º+·+ =  = i·¤ -¤i+i+ =i=i = i = i= i =i= l== r,
:== =·¬¤ =  l=º º·¤i +ri l==i r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, =ri
r·=i=  = =r-¬i+i=i = i ui·¤i = i -r¬i= r:, ¬i· +ri
º+·=  =i +i·i =i+i = ºr¤= r, -= = = ri +i·i =··i¤
=  º+i= rº r, =i l=  =r+ · l= = =i= = r·= · ==i r: -i+·
º+·+ = ri+ +i= l+·ii+ =i= =·¬¤ =  l=º =r= +i·i
ºi·=ir+ +ri ·=:
.ri= ri =, º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. + = i+= = = i == ==+ = i
====i =  l+¤+ = =i¤+i -r = · l·+i r ¬i· + ¬º+ l+= i=
= i +i=+i =+i ·r r: ¬º+ º·i+ = i+¬+i = -=+ ui·-ui·
l+= i=i -r = · ·i r: =l= + :==  l=º º=  =-¤i== ºl= +i
º· l+¤i· = ·=  -= =i= = ·+i =.= ·i r: =r-¬i+i=i = i
¬=il=+-+ := l·-i = º=  = ·= r ¬i· -= º· l+¤i· -r = ·
l·+i =+i r: ¬i· = : =¦, == =r-¬i+i=i = i ¤= +=i ºl= +i
= i =¤i=  =+i+i, ·¿

¬i =  =il== i = i =-¤i, =r-¬i+i=
=il== i = i =iui ===i+ =l+i-¤= = ·+i +i =i· -i+· +
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
14
º·i-· = =  ¬·=i =·r = = i= = · - +r ==i ¤+il=+i r º·
º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. :+= ¬+== r ¬i· :+ º· = i= =i = ·
·ri r: =r-¬i+i=i =  = i·¤ -¤i+i+ =i= ¬º+i ·i==·i = i
=.= ·= º·i = · ºi ·r r: ¬i+ +i= ==+ = +r ¤+i=i ri=i l= 
-¤i+i+ =i= º+·+ ¬+ = i == ·=i + =·¬¤ º+ =i=·il+= 
l+= i= = i == ·=i =  =i¤ -l¤= ===+ =+iº ·o:
+¢ ¬¤nt ¤ |¤ºt¬+=  ¤ r
=¦io -+i+·i ºri‹·i l+= i= ºl·¤· = i +: +il=+i = ==·i+-
¬iuil·= º+·+ =  º¬ = =·=i+ ¬iº r: ==·i+-¬iuil·=
º+·+ = i+= =i, == lr=i=+i =r-¬i+i= = i+= =, = i
=i= lº+=i =  = i·¤ =·= i·i l+=i=, oi== · +·+=i+ =··i¤
l+=i= (=·= ¬i· = -=i· ·i+ = i) + º+·+ l+=i= =¦io =
=r-¬i+i= = i+= =i = i =‹· -=· º· =‹·i+i ·+ =  =i· = =i¤
·r r: l=== l=  =r-¬i+i=i =  =·¬¤ + -¤i+i+
¬i=il+= i¬i = +i=·i+ = i ==i++i¬i = = : =¤i +la ri=i:
:== ºr=, +·+=i+ =·¬¤ l+=i= º= l=-=i:· ºl-¬¤ =
-il== ¤i ¬i· rl== +-+= ºi=  = º=.º=.·i. =  = i+ = i
=r+i= =i l·+i l=== º=.º=.=i = i ==i ¬i+-+= 
-+i= l=+i ·i =:: ¬= l+=i= =r-¬i+i=i =  l= +i·+++ = =i
=‹· ·ri r, ¬i· := l+-i= º+i= = +º ¬+=·i =  =i¤-=i¤
= = ¤+il=+i =i ¬iº=i, l===  l=º lr=i=+i =r-¬i+i=i = 
+==i+ ¬·+++ = =r= =i =io := ¿i = i =i == =i r:
+r -ºr r l=  =r-¬i+i=i = i =‹·i+ =  l=º, -== ¬i· ¬lu= 
ºl·+i·i, =i+i ¬i· ¬+i = i =i=i·i·i =  l=º -¤i+i+ ==·i+i
=  ¬iº=i l·-=i = i ==.== = ·+ =  l=º = i= i = i= = ·+i
ri=i - oi== · ¬=· + =··i¤ =  -¦-+ = i ril== = ·+i
¤ir= r: := ¤+i=i =  l=º -¤i+i+ =·-=·= i·i =-¤i¬i = i
l+º¤=i¬i = i ¬·=i -º+i= l= +i =i == =i r, l=+= i
=l== i ri+i ¤ilrº l=  + -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =r=i=i
ºl= +i¬i, ¬º+i == ·=i =  ¬+=i· +il=-l+ui·¤ ¬i·
ºl-¬¤i =  =i·+= = == = =r-¬i+i= -¤ilº= = ·+ = =··
= ·: :+ ¤¤i¬i = =l+i-¤= l= +i =i == =i r l=  =r-¬i+i=
-º=·u = ·i+ +i= ==·i+i º· =i =i-= l==  ·=i+ r, -·r
=== = · -+= i ·+i+ ·oi =i == : +r =+·+-i==i :=
= i+= = = i == ==+ ==  =i=il==  º+ º+i+·¤i+ ====i
= i =l+i-¤= = ·+ =  l=º =r·+º¤ r:
r=+ lr=i=+i =r-¬i+i=i =  := ¬·+++ = =ioi r l= 
¬l=l¤+i = i == ·=i = i ===+ ¬i· º+·= i = i l+·=·=i
=+iº ·o+ =  l=º +i+i º=l=+i, +i+i ·++-¤iº= i ¬i·
º+·= i = i =i¤ =i=i·i·i ri+i =.= ·i r: :== i º=  ¬l=l·Š=
=i= +r r l=  :+ ¬+i = =i=i·i·i =  = i·¤ +·+=i+ l+=i=
= i -¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  =i¤ =·¬¤ ¬i· ==·i+-¬iuil·=
º+·+ =  l+¤+ = l-·ii ·+ = i ¬+=· l===i: :==  =i¤ ri
º· =¦io º+·+ -=i= = i =r+ui·i = :+ =·+i = i -¤ilº=
= ·+ = i =i= i =i l===i:
+·+=i+ l+=i= ¬º+ =r-¬i+i=i = i º+·+ l+=i= =  =i¤
º=i= = = ·+ º· l+¤i· = · ·ri r, l===  ¬=== -·r
¬lu= i·-º+ l·º =iº= - l=== i =r+ -¦-+ r =¦io = 
·ir i+ -=i+i = i =+l+l+u=i = i =·¬¤: º+·+ = =‹· -=· º·
==iu+i =  l++- = i ¬==i ·o+ +i= +·+=i+ l+=i= = 
=i=+ º=  ¤+i=i ri=i l=  + ¬+ = i =i· ¬==i = i l+ui·¤
= · ==  - =i=il==  + ºil·-¤il== i+, ·i+i -=·i º·:
º=  º-+ +r r l=  Š+i -¤i+i+ =i= º+·+ º· =.= ·= = +i·i
l+=· ri =iº=: =r+ º·º·i¬i =  = º· +º l+= ·ºi =  ·=i+
= i ·· l+== +ri r: ¬i=il+= i =  = º = º+·+ = i =‹·=i
=i= lº+=i ºi·ºl·=  = l¤-¤i·i=ir ºal= = =·=i+ =i
== =i r: ¬i· +·+=i+ l+=i= =  -¦-+i = º=  r l=  =i=i = i
o= = =+-i + ¤·i+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =iº: := º+i=
= .== · +·+=i+i = i =r+i º· == i·i·==  º=i+ º‹·. =i: º·=
lr=i=+i =r-¬i+i=i =  ¬·+++ = === = ¬i+i r l= 
-·ii+i+ ==·i+i = i =l=l+lu+i =l·= ri=i r: ¬i· -+= i
=·¬¤ = i ¬i· ºl==a=i = += º+·+ = r: ¬i=·+i ri +ri
=i·=  =i=·il+=  =l=-i==i ¬i· +=·+ =¤i ¬·+ = : = i·= i
º· ¬iuil·= ri=i r: ==·i+ Š+i = ·= -·iº= +r -+=  ¬º+
¬+=+i ¬i· =.= ·=i º· ¬iuil·= ri=i r ¬i· +l· =·¬¤
= i+= =i :+ l+¤+i = i º=il+= = ·+i ¤ir= r =i -·r =i+
-=· = i ¤¤i¬i = l+·=· =i=i·i· ·r+i ri=i:
+i+i ·++-¤iº=  + º=.º=.=i.-¬i:.·i. º+·+ =  l=º =i·
¬==i + =+·+-i= ¬+i = º+·= i = i =r+i º· =i=i ==i+
=  =+i= º· = i= i ==+ = ¤¤i = · ·r r: := ¤¤i =, º= 
+i+i ·++-¤iº=  + ·i=  =i=i l=  +r +·+=i+ =··i¤ l+=i=
= i l=·=·i·i r l=  ·ir i+ -=i+ = ¬i+ +i= =i=i = i =r+i
l+uil·= = ·: ¬=, == +·+=i+ l+=i= =r-¬i+i=i = i =‹·i+i
·+ = ¬l== =l== i l+=i ·ri r =i º=  =r·+º¤ =+i= r l= 
+ ¬l=l¤+i =  ¬i==+ = i = = l++l+= = · ¬i· =i¤ ri = = +
¬º+ = i+= =i = i ====i = i =l+i-¤= = ·´ := =+i= =
º=  =‹·i ¤+i=i r, =l= + =i+ui+i = =+iº =º = i+= =, =i
==·i+-¬iuil·= º+·+ =  l+l=·+ -¦ª+i = i ºi= = ·+ = 
l=º =+i+i =+i ri, =  =i·+= = := ¤+i=i = i ºi· l= +i =i
== =i r: =i+ui+ º=u+ ºl= +iº ¬i· l+l=·+ º¤uil·+i = i
=i=i·i·i = ri ¬il¤=  =i=, =·¬¤ ri == =i, =i lr=i=+i
=r-¬i+i= ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ º+i= =  == =·+ r:
=i= - = 
15
¬t¤tt …
r= ¤¤i¬i, l+-== ==i+i ¬i· ¬+=+i =  =i·+ =  l=º ¤i
l·+¤+ +i=¤=  ¬i· -+i=º· = .=·+=i =  = =¤il·+i, -=
(-i= ·i+) ¬i· r·=i=  (rl== ·ir i+ -=i+) =  l++il=+i,
=++ +i+i ·++-¤iº= i ¤i. ·i+i, =¦io =  +·+=i+ =·¬¤
l+=i= =  =·¬¤ ¬i· ¬+i+ +·+ºi= ¤i. l=·== =i= ºi ¬i·
=¦io := i=il== = · +·º=· =º =  l+·-=  ¤i. =i+=
=i··+= =  ¬i=i·i r:
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
1.
www.jammukashmir.nic.in = :: ¬º= :..» = i
=i+= i·i ºi= = i =::
:. :. :. :. :.
-+i=º· =i:· = ¬+=u (===i =i++·i + ++-ºl=+i = i
¬=·ir i+ ·+iºi· ===i=i, ì»::) = i =¤i =  ¬=== º= 
·== º=il= r: +r º=  -=i=i =i++· r =i ·i·i¤ + = ··i+
ºl-+i = i = ¤i ºri‹·i +i= ì:-ì: ·-i = ºi+i =i=i r,
l=== =i·= =  lr=i=+ ¬+ =i -il== r: l+-+ = :+= i = =
=r+i +:..-::.. ==  ri r ¬i· -+=  ºi·ºl·=  ¬i+i= = i
= l¤ + ¤i·i+ =  = i·¤ ¤+il=+i = i =i=+i = ·+i º‹· ·ri r:
http://www.snowleopardconsservancy.org/
conservation2.htm = :: ¬º= :..» = i =i+= i·i ºi= = i
=::
3.
http://tourism.webindia123.com/tourism/wildlife/
nationalpark/hemis_high_altitude_national_park/
index.htm
4.
http://www.snowleopardconservancy.org/
conservation2.htm = :: ¬º= = i =i+= i·i ºi= = i =::
5.
http://www.himalayan-homestays.com/ladakpages/
tourist-tips.html = :+ ¬º= :..» = i =i+= i·i ºi= = i =::
-. -. -. -. -.
l·+¤+ +i=¤=  (:..·) =¦io lr=i=++ ri=-· .= … = i· ºiº=
º · = ·. =·+ -+ :+ ·il·= i:l+= · l·. =-º Š-ºil·+ i·=. = º ·
:+=i:· = = i= = ·= · l·.= ºi=Š· = :+ :l·+i, +.º+.·i.ºi.,
+: l·„i:
:. :. :. :. :.
= =i·.i+i=i ¤· = i ·+¤ +-=¬i = i º=;= º‹· ;==+i = 
=·= = = =i= r: :+ ·+¤ +-=¬i = i ¬i= =i· º· º+…
-º+i= =  l=º =+i· l= +i =i=i r:
·. ·. ·. ·. ·.
-=º º=  ·i=-+=i ¬i= i· = i =++ ri=i r, l=== =ia
:l=ri= =  -=l=-l¤·r ·o ri= r, l+l= ºil·+i = :: ¬º=
:..» = i =i+= i·i ºi= = i =::
». ». ». ». ».
==ir·i+ ¬r=·, ui·i ::., ·iº=+il== º·· +i=+il==
¬i=  -º-= =··= ¬i=  =·= º·· = -=i·, » ¬=-· :..·,
http://www.legalserviceindia.com/article/1248-Article-
370.html = :: ¬+= :..» = i =i+= i·i +i= = i =:
=¦io =  lr=i=+i =r ¬i+i=i = i -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++
16
¤ tºt¤+t
=i+= =i¬i.=i=··i ++ l-l+· ¬== =  =i·º·i l=.= =,
= il= =i=i·i = i-¤= ·ir i++ -=i+ =  º+i l= +i· º· r:
:== i ·o-·oi+ =i++ =i¬i.=i=··i := i · l·.= =i=i+·i
(º=.º=.:.º=.) = ·=i r: := -=i+ = i +i= =¡º+ = i º= 
-º+·i, =i+= =  +i= º· º‹·i r: := ·ir i+ -=i+ = i º= 
lr-=i =·i+ = =i r, =ri := ·i+= =i+= +-+= ºi=  = 
+i= = =i+i =i=i r:
=i+= = i, ¬Š==· ì»:·
:
= +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+ ¤il¤= l= +i
=+i ¤i: ì»:: = =i+= =i¤ ¬i·l¬= ¬+ =+i+i =+i: :=
-=i+ = i ì»·: =, ++-= i «i·i l+-+ l+·i==i -¤= (+··
rl·· = =i:·) ¤il¤= l= +i =+i: ì»»: = ++-= i + :=
== ·=-= l+-+ l+·=i=i -¤= (+·· rl·· = =i:· :+ · =·)
¤il¤= = · l·+i, Š+il=  +ri l+-i= -=· º· l-= i· ¬i·
¬i== +i·i =l=l+lu+i ¤= ·ri ¤i: +r ¬=i =i :=i ¤¤i =
r: +r -=i+ ri¤i ¬i·l¬= ¬+ =¤i =i+=ª·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+
=i r: =i+= ¬º+ ¬=iui·¤ + ·== +·+ =i++ =  l=º ºl=a
r, =i l+-+ = = ri ¬i· +ri ºiº =i=: :== -il== r,
¬i=i= = º· ·· =, lri-º· r+·, =i··+ ==· ¬i· lº·=i ri=:
:= -=i+ = :: -=+ui·i =i++·i, :·. ºl¬+i, :. ·=+ +i=
==¬i, ¬i· : ==¤=¤· =i+i = i =¤i =+i: =: r:
¤t+n ¤t¬t ¬, t¤ -º t ¤+ |n|¤t (¢¤.¢¤.¬ .nt.)
:= l-l+· = i +i= º=  ºi·il¤=  = ¤i = ¬i+i, l=== := ¬+
= ì·+i =·i = º=  ·i=i ·i= = ·=i ¤i: -==  = : = =¤il·+i
= = º=  =i· = · = i =ir=i =lr=i =i+·¤i ¤i, l== ·i=i
-== i =r+= ¬i· ==+ =  = i·¤ =r= º=· = ·=i ¤i: +r
-== i +i· = `=i¬i.=i=··i` (l=== i ¬¤ ri=i r =i· +i=i
l=„i) ==i=i ¤i: º=  l·+ +r ºi= = i +·i = +ri= ==+
l= == = · =· =:: ·i=i +r =+= · =r= ·…oi r¬i: ¬i· -=+
+·i = i +i= =i¬i.=i=··i ¤il¤= = · l·+i: -¤i+i+ =i=i = 
z.
ºt º ¤t=t |¤„t-
¤t+n ¤t¬t ¬, t¤ -º t ¤+ |n|¤t,
¤t+n tte t¤ :ct+,
¬n¤ = t ¢=  ¬·¤¤+
nt¤t ¤¿ ¿
¡
;ttt
l=º := +·i =  =r·+ = i ==== rº =l=l= = i +i= =i -== 
+i= º· ·i= l·+i =+i: -i+· := +i= = i ==== ==la ¬i·
¬·=i -+i-·+ =i ri=i r: =i ·i+i ri =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+ = 
l=º ¬i+-+=  r: +r =l=l= (º=.º=.:.º=.) ri ++ l-l+·
¤=i=i r:
:==  ¬l=l·Š=, ¬·+ º+·=  ¬i+i= =l+ui¬i = -il== r,
=i=+i‹·i = =+i ¬== º+·+ l+=i= = i º+·=  ¬i+i= =l+ui,
l== === · +·= = i º· · º· l·+i =+i r ¬i· ·= lr= «i·i
¤=i: =i ·ri º=  ¬i· ¬i+i= =l+ui:
=i·º·i ·i· º· º=  =·= i·i º+·=  ¬i+i= =r r ¬i· ·i l+=i:
s|ºrtn ¬t t ¬-¤
ì»·. = i ·-=  ¬== =  l=º = i= i ¬-i= ¤i, Š+il=  =i·.i
==·i+ =  l=º ¬== ·i+ = i =i= = i == · +ri ¬i·i=+ = i
-r¬i= ri ·ri ¤i: := ·-=  =  ¬ilo·i +¤i = ¬i= =i‹·i
-· · ··= +l+++ ¬i· =i‹·i ·i=+l==  =·i +, =i‹·i=· +i= = 
¬== ·i+ = i =i= = i == · ri¤ l==i l=º ¤: := ¬i·i=+
= i º=  =i ·ir i+ -=i+ º· = i= i =r·i º=i+ º‹·i, Š+il= 
¬==i++i·i =· + -=+i·i =i= ===i = i l=º+ =  l=º
:-==i= = ·= ¤: ¬i· ·=·i ·ir i+ ¬i· ¬=·ir i+ l-= i·i =·i
+ i-¤l= = i o= = i+·i -·i+i, l=== =i·i += =i+ r¬i: º= 
==+ = ·il==i+ -=i+ ¬º+i º·=i:=· ·r =+i, Š+il=  =‹·
-=· º· º‹·i = i = ·i+ + =i++·i = i l-= i· =i·i ¤i: :..: =
º=  ===i= º· r-=i¬· l= º =º, l===  ºl·¤i=-+= º =i‹·i
¬+ ºi·l-=  ºl·¤· (=i‹·i=· · l··il·+= = i-l==) = i
-¤iº+i r::
-= ==+ ¬r=i= r¬i l=  =i+= =  =i= ·il==i+ ==+ = i
+iº= =i+i =.= ·i r: = = -¤i+i+ ++i¬i ¬i· º.=i.º=.+. = 
= i+= =i¬i + l+¤+ l=+i l=  + ¬º+i -¤i+i+ := i:, =iºi=·i
¬i¤l==  = l=·i, =  =i·+= = :== i l=.·=·i·i ==: :== 
ºl·¤i=-+= º, = ·+·i :..: =  =i‹·i ===i= =  ¬===,
-=i+ =  º·+i+=+ ¬i· := º=  =r·+º¤ º+·=  ==·+ =  l=º
17
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º=  l+-¤ ºl=··i -il== l= +i =+i: :== =i= º+·+ = i
=‹·i+i ·+ º· =.i· l·+i =+i:
=i+=¤ + := = l=l· =  º+i= =  ¬===, ì: l·=·=· :..:
= i =i¬i.=i=··i := i · l·.= =i=i+·i = i =·+ l= +i =+i:
-== i l=.·=·i·i =iºi =: l=  +r =i+= =  ¬·· ¬i· ¬i=-ºi=
=·¬¤ ¬i· := i º+·+ =  =¦i = i ·o-·o = ·:
:..: = := i º+·+ =  = i+ = =·· = ·+ =  l=º r·º · l·.=
+i= = i =-¤i + = ·= ·oi: º=.º=.:.º=. = i º=i= ·¤ :..-
= l= +i =+i: -= ==+ =  ¬+ l+·-= , ¤i. ¬l==i= ·i=i +
r·º · l·.= = i -il== ri+ =  l=º ¬i=i·+= l= +i: r·º
· l·.= º+·+ =  =i·+= = -il= ºl= +i ¬i· ==·i+ ¬iuil·=
=·¬¤ =  = i+ = i =‹·i+i ·+ =  -¦ª+ = -il== r::
r·º · l·.= º=  º=i =-¤i r, =i ¬º+-¬iº = i := º= i·
ºl·=il¤= = ·=i r - º=  +i+i ·++-¤iº=  + ==·+ º=·u+
==ir= i·, l== =i·= =  º+i ¬i· -·i· º+i ·i+i = =ri·=
ril== r: +r =-¤i º+· + = i =·¬¤ º+ === l+= i= = i º= 
=·i= i =i+=i r: r·º · l·.= º+·+ =  =i·+= = -¤i+i+ =i=i
= i ¬i=il+= i¬i = =‹·i=·i = i =‹·i+i ·=i r, =i =·¬¤ = 
l=º =i ¬i+-+=  r:
¤t+n ¤t¬t , ¬t¤ -º t s = t ¿¸ |t, +¤ nt nt¤¿t = t n t¤+t
º=.º=.:.º=. = i -¦ª+ r l=  +r === º+ l=.·=·i· º+·+ = 
=i·+= =, =i+= =  =i=i= = == =i+i =  ==·i+i =  l=º,
=== ¬i· =·+ ¬il¤=  l+= i= =iº:
:
º=.º=.:.º=. = i++i = º = º=i= = =i=i+·i r: r·º · l·.=
=  ==i+ º· =i· = :== i º=i= ·¤ =i=i+·i ¬lul++= = 
¬=== l= +i =+i: :==  ºi= = i·¤ ¤i l=  ¬+·i+i ¬il· = 
.=l·º ¬i· ¬lu=  ¬il¤=  =r+i= l=+i =i == =i: :==
º=.º=.:.º=. = i =i+= =  =·¬¤ = =i=i·i·i = i ¬lu= 
l+-+=+i+=i =i l==i:
:==  =·-+i = º.=i.º=.+. =  = i+= =i, º++=i =i‹·i
l==·-+ ·i:== = i= (=i.º=.·i.º= .) =  =·-+, º+
l-= i·i, º+ == ‹·i = i·+ +i= ¬i· =i+= =  =i=i= ¬+i = 
=i+i =  -¤i+i+ =i= -il== r: º=.º=.:.º=. =·-+=i
¬iuil·= =-¤i r, =i -¤i+i+ º+ =i= =il+=  = º = ¤=i:
=i=i r: º=.º=.:.º=. = i º=  =ri+=  =i· r, l=== º= 
=r+ =ri+=  r: :== i º=  ==ir= i· =i· =i r, l===
= i++i ==ir= i· =i r: +r ==ir= i· =i· =.= ·= º‹·+ º·
=·-+i = i º¤-º·-+ = ·=i r:
ì: =·-+i = i º=  =+i ºl·¤· r, l=== i =lo+i ¬·+¬ r,
l= · -ºi·+¬ ¬i· =l¤+: :: =·-+i = i º=  = i+= il·¤i r:
º=.º=.:.º=. = i =l=l+lu+i =  ¬iui· º·, º=  =·¬¤
l+= i+ r l=== ·. º¤=+i ==lº= -++=+i r: ¬i· :.
=·-+i = i º=  := i º+·+ l+= i+: ¬i· ¬==… ==== :..
=·-+i = i ¬i= ==i r: ¬==-¬== =·-+ =·¬¤, º+·+ ¬i·
=i-= l==  =l=l+lu+i = i =¤i=+ = ·= r: +==i+ ==+ =
:= i-º+·+ ¬lu= i·i ri = i+= = =  l=º º=  =+=º= 
¬lu= i·i =i r: =i=i+·i = : =oi= i· r - º=  =·¬¤ ==ui
= i+i =  l=º ¬i· ·=·i := i-º+·+ ==ui = i= =  l=º: -º-
= =l·+i = =lr=i =·-+ r, l=·r = i: =i = i+ = ·+ = i
l=.·=·i·i =+ +i -r¬i= = ·+ = i -iŠ=+i =  =i¤-=i¤
¬==i =i º·i+ = i =: r: =lr=i =·=+i =  ·i -++ =ri+=i
==r r¤= ·¤i + r-=l-·º := i:+i ¤=i ·r r:
=i+= =i¬i=.i=··i ++ l-l+·, =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+, ¬== = i º=  ¬·+++
18
r·º · l·.= º=  ==ir= i· = i =l== i = r: :=+ = =¤il·+i
= i = i+¬==i =‹·i+ ¬i· == =l+ui¬i =  l+= i= = =r+i=
l= +i r: == =i+= = i == ·=-= l+-+ l+·i==i ·i+ ¤il¤=
l= +i =+i, =i -=i+ =  l=º =r+i= =·i+ = r·º · l·.= +
-·º·=  = i =l== i l+=i:: r·º · l·.= + =i‹·i ==·i+ = i
-=i+ =  =·¬¤ ¬i· -==  =i= ·il==i+ = i ºi+= =i+ = 
l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i: :==  l=º === ºr=, ::. += l= .=i.
¬+ = ·i=  ==i: =:: l-= il·+i + =-= ·i = i ==.i ·i =:: ¬i·
:·ri =  º++i= =  l=º, :·r =·¬i + ¤i= i·i·i =  = i= =
==i+i =+i: r·º · l·.= + -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ºi·=ilr= l= +i
r, =l+i-¤= l= +i l=  º=  -l¤= =-¤i== ·i¤i =i= ri ¬i·
¬l=l¤ =·= i· =  ¬+ = ºl-¬¤i =  =.l·º =i=i = i
= i+¬==iº =‹·i: =iº:
¤¤ ¿+ ¤¸ =¤¸ º n |¤¤t¢
++ l-l+· = -º=·u º+·+ ==== =l+ui¬i = ¤i· = ·i· ¬i·
º=  =i=+ = ¬ -il== r, =i º·i =·r = =i= + ¬·+ ·-i
=i==i = =+ r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, º=  º== +i=i : = ·i· ¬i·
º= -º=  º== +i= ·i = =· r: =i+ = i-¤= º=.º=.:.º=. = 
·º=· = ¤i· = =· r ¬i· º.=i.º=.+. =  ·º=· = =i=
-i¤i=+ =  =i¤ : = =· r, l=+= º+·= i = i ·r·i+i =i
== =i r: = = l==i= · º=  ==+ = :. ¬l=l¤+i =  ·r·+ = i
·++-¤i r :
ºr=i l++- =r+i= ¬-i= i ril=· .= = i ¬i· =, º.=i.º=.+
== = =  l=º ¬i+i, =ri =i=lr=  -i¤i=+ =  =i¤ º= 
¬l=l¤ =r =+i+i =+i: r·º · l·.= + +ri º+·=  === ·
=ri+=i = i: := -º= = =  l=º º=.º=.:.º=. + º=  -¤i+i+
·+iŠ= = .==i+ º· · º· =i, =i l=  +ri ·-= -·ºi·+ = i
= il-- = · ri· =+i ¤i: ¬=i = i: l=lo= º· ·i +ri r:
-r¬i= =, r·º · l·.= + º+·= i =  l=º == -º=·u = ·iº
¬i· =i· = º+·+ == = = i =+i+· l+uil·= = ·+ = =·· = i:
:= == = = i -¤iº+i =  l=º ¬i+-+=  ¬il¤=  =r+i= = i º= 
lr-=i -=i+ = i -=i··i ==i·ir = º= l+= = i¤ = l==i: r·º
· l·.= + ==== =l+ui =  =ui· = l++- l= +i: := l= ·
¬i·¬¤i = ºi= = ¤ = ¤= i+i =+i: r·º · l·.= + º+·= i
«i·i º=.º=.:.º=. = i =iu ·i+ l·=+i+ = i -r¬i= = i: r·º
· l·.= + =-= ==i+ =  =i=i+, =·=il=+i, ·i¤, == ¬il·
=º= = -º=·u = ·iº:
r·º · l·.= + :+ ==== =l+ui¬i =  l+=i¤ =  l=º º= 
-r¬i=i = i¤ l·+i r: := == = = º=  +º =i=+ = ¬ = 
l+=i¤ = i -r¬i= ri+ +i=i r: :==  l=º =i r·º · l·.= +
=r+i = l·+i r :
º=.º=.:.º=. º=  º=i º+·+ ¤=i ·ri r, l== -·ri+
``=r=i=i º+·+`` = i +i= l·+i r: :==  ¬===, º+·= i = i
º=.º=.:.º=. = i l+l=·+ =l=l+lu+i, == -=i+ = =-=
==i+i, l+l=·+ =i++· º=il=+i = i l+=·i+i + =+=¤+i =
=i= =+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =i=i r: º=.º=.:.º=. + :
=·r =  = i= =+iº r: º= , =i º+·= i «i·i =·i =i+i r, +r
·-i+ =  l=º l=  -·r =l=l= =  ¬-¤i+i =·¬¤ =·-+ =  = º
= -+i= i· = · l=+i =+i r: ·=·i ``=i++= i= =  l=º``
=·¬¤ =·-+i =  l=º ¬i· =i=·i ``º¤=+i ==lº= =·¬¤
-++=+i`` =  l=º: r· ¤¤i =  =·-+ = r.ì. =·-+=i -·= 
l=+i =i=i r: =i =i º=.º=.:.º=. =  =·¬¤ = i+i =
=i= - = 
19
=r+i= = ·+i ¤ir=i r, +r ¬-¤i+i =·-+ =+ == =i r: =+i
ºl·¤· ¬i· = i+= il·¤i = l=·i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤ ¤¤i
= ·=  ri =·-+i = i +il== = ·= r:
º+·=  · =  ¬i· · = º· =i == = r ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤
l==== = · +ri = i =-= l= =i ¬+=+ = · == = r: º+·= i
=  =i¤ =i:· =i= r: =i¬i.=i=··i ¬+ =, +==i+ ==+ = ¤i·
ºl-l¬= =i:· r: :+ ==i = i l+-¤-i = ºl-·i¤ l==i r -
=i++· + ++-ºl=+i = i ºr¤i+, ·+ir+i = ·+i; +·+=i+i = i
l+=·i+i ¬i· º=·u+ =  == =·i= : · =  ¬==-¬== ¬+lu = 
ri == = r - ·i-= =  ¬iui· º· =i+ = =i= ¤· == : +r · = 
.+i·i=· -=i+ = i º+i =i=i º· ri r:
¬=· º+·=  rl¤ ·o= r =i =i-= l==  = i+= = ¬i+il== l= º
=i= r: -¤i+i+ =-= l= ·i=, =i =-= l= ==r «i·i =¤il==
= i =i=i r, =i-= l==  = i+= = = ·=i r: + ºi·ºl·=  +a
+·+, = == = ·i: = i +·+, =i= ¬il· º- = ·= r: = = +·+
-l=+i º+·+ =l=l+lu+i =  = i·¤ º+=il+= ri =: r: ì.-ì:
+==  r· º-= - = ==== r.:.,... ==  = =i == r: :+
= i+= =i = -il== =i=i º· :== i = i= i == i·i·==  º=i+
º‹·=i r, Š+il=  + ¬º+i =-= l= º· =+ =r== = ·= r:
º=.º=.:.º=. + =i+ = º=  ==ri=+ -¤ilº= l= +i r, l===
ºi·ºl·=  =i‹·i = =i= l=+i, --+ ¬il· ·o =º r: := ==ri=+
= º+- l+…-·=  r:
=t¤ |¤ºt¬ ¤ ¬t=t
:ì -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ==r º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i º=·u+ = ·=i
r - l=== =+iº, =r ·++-¤i, =i=+i+i, ¬i· ¬i= ·o·o
-il== r: l=+ =·-+i = i ¬l=l¤ =·= i· º+ =+i¬i = rl¤
º+ = i+= -==i r, -·r º+·+ ==ui =l=l+lu+i =  l=º ¤+i
=+i: º+·+ = r: ¬i+ = l==+i =i =¤= ri=i r, -=
º=.º=.:.º=. =  l+l=·+ = i+= =i =  =i·+= = ==·i+ º· ri
o¤ l= +i =i=i r: +==i+ = = = =r+i = ri º+·=  +ri ¬i=
r: ¬i· := = i+ = ==i o¤ =i ¬=i +iº= +ri ¬i+i r: ¬=…
r·º · l·.= := = i+= = = i l=+i = i: =+i= i = =iº ¬il¤= 
=r+i= · ·ri r: ¬i· =i= l+=·¤ º· ==i l+¤i· ri=i ==
º+·= i = i =r+i = =‹·i=·i ri=i:
r·º · l·.= + -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ¬l=l¤ =·= i· = = i+= -==i
=‹·i+ =  l=º ¬º+ ·i=il== =  = i+¬+ = ºl-¬¤ l-l+·
¬i+il== l= º: ==== -. ºl=-= =i=i + :+ ºl-¬¤
= i+= =i = =i= l=+i:
º+·+ = ºi= rº ·i=-+ = i =-¤i = i =·¬¤ =l=l+lu+i =
==i+i =i=i r: o¤ ¬i· +=+ ===i+ =  =i· =¤ =i= = i
º·i ·il- =·¬¤ º· o¤ = i =i=i r:
:= -=i+ = º+·=  ++·=· + =i¤ =ir =  =i¤ ¬i= r: :..:
= :== i -r¬i= =  =i·, -=i+ = = = ì::. (·-ii + l+·-i)
º+·=  ¬iº r: :== i =i=i+i l=+=i := º= i· r - :..: =
ìì:, :..- - :+-, :..: - +.: ¬i· :..· - :.:, l=+= =
-. ºl=-= l+·-i ¬i· +. ºl=-= ·-i º+·=  ¤: :== º¬i
·o+ = rl¤ ·o+ +i=, = i·i=i= ·, l==l=+i = rl¤ ·o+
+i=, +·+=i+ º=i, =·¬¤= =i + ¤=l¤+ l+=i=i -il== r:
== = +r l-l+· -¤ilº= r¬i r, === = = r. ì =io = i
¬i=·+i r: r: :== º+·= i «i·i l·+i =+i ·i+ =i -il== r:
r·º · l·.= := ==r = º+·+ =  l+º¤+ = =·· = · ·ri r:
-=+ ==lu= º= = = +ri =  l+¤+ = l=oi r: º=.º+.:.º=.
¬i· r·º · l·.= = i +==i:·i º· =i := ==r =  =i· = l+-==
=i+= i·i r: =i+= = ri ·ri == i·i·==  =l=l+lu+i, º+·= i
=  =i¤ =i=r= =i =‹·i+ ¬i· +ri ¬i= · =·=i+ = i lr-=i
=++ =  l=º º+·= i = i ºi·=ilr= = ·+ =  l=º, +==i:· º= 
¬·=i =i·+= r:
n tu¬ ¤ ¬t¤r= ºt
º=.º=.:.º=. = i === =r·+º¤ -¦ª+ r =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+
= i º+·¤+i ¬i· :==  l=º + l+l=·+ = i+= = ¤=i ·r r:
¬º+ -++=l++i =  ·-= =  =r+i= =, º=.º=.:.º=. + -=i+
= i =i=i =  ¬··· ì: l-l+· -¤ilº= l= º r, l=== l=  l+·=·
=-= + l+=·i+i = º‹· .i =  = ·i+ + =-= ·i = i ·i= i =i == :
:..: ==  =i =+·+i =i=.i· - º=  -¤i+i+ =i=.i·, = o=¬i=
===i =i++·i = i =i= =·, = i++i == ‹·i l== =i= ¤: +r
=i=i· =·i+ ¬i· =i·= =  =i¤ ·+iºi· = i º=  ºl=ril== 
º‹ ·i+ r :
-r¬i= = º=.º=.:.º=. + ¤·-¤· =i= · =i++·i =  l-= i·
+ =· = i++i º‹· = i·+ =  l+ra ¬l=+i+ ¤=i+i ¬i· =i=i = i
+r = i+ = ·+ =  l=º ·i=.i l= +i: := ¬l=+i+ = =lr=i¬i = i
oi== · =  =i‹·i =+i: l-= i· + =-= ·i = ·= rº =i=i = i
º= ‹· = · ¬i= =+=i =  =i¤ ==.i ·i =i=i ¤i: º+ l-= il·+i
= i =·¬¤ = =·· ·+ =  l=º ºl-¬¤ l·+i =+i ¬i· -·r
-il== = ·=  º=  =·¬¤ = i+ ·-=i =+i· l= +i =+i: = = +:
º+ l-= i·i ¬= =+Š= =-= º+i= = i lr-=i r, =i ++ l+=i=
=  =i¤ l=== · -r l= +i =+i r: + =i º=.º=.:.º=. = i ¬=
r: ++ l+=i= + º=.º=.:.º=. =  º+i=i = i =i·+=i ·= rº,
-·r ¬iº¤il·=  rº = =·¬¤ = =i=i·i· -+i= i· = · l=+i r:
º.=i.º=. + + ++i¬i = i =‹·+ =  l=º ºl·= l= +i: ºl¬+i = i
=l¤+i =+i: =: ¬i· +·+=i+ =+¬¤ =i l= + =+: :==
º+·=  =l=l+lu+i = =i =·· l==i: ++ l+=i= + ++i¬i = i
·i +i+·== =· =i l·º: =i‹·i=· · l··il·+= = i-l==
(=i.·i.=i.) =i º=.º=.:.º=. = i = = =·¬¤ =l=l+lu+i = 
=i+= =i¬i=.i=··i ++ l-l+·, =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+, ¬== = i º=  ¬·+++
20
l=º =r+i= · ·ri r: := º+i= = -=i+ =  l= +i· º· == ì:
=i + -il== r :
º=.º=.:.º=. + ºl=le= ¬==i ·+i l+-+i: +·+ =i++
=·¬¤ º·-= i· ¬i· ¬l+ra :+· =  º+i+¤i+ º·-= i· :..:
=i=i r :
ri= ri = = ‹·i l+= i=+ ¬i· == º=u+ =  l+¤+ º· ºl-¬¤i
= i -r¬i= = i =: r: · l= = ·i-=i = i =i=  ·o+, = ‹·i ¬i·
=ii-·=  r·i+ =  º+i= =i l= º =i ·r r: =i=i= oi·= · +¤i
=  ºi+i = i =l¤= = ·+ = i º+i= =i ri ·ri r:
+r ºr=i º=i =·¬¤ ¬iuil·= º+·+ º+i= r, l=== i º·i
.=i· ¬i· =i·i = =i: =i+= =  º+=i++ ¬i· -==  +·+ =i+i = 
=·¬¤ =  l=º ==lº= r, l=== r· = ·= º· -¤i+i+ ==·i+i
= i -il== l= +i =+i r:
+i· l++i·
º=.º=.:.º=. «i·i ¤=i+i =i ·ri := i-º+·+ º+i= =-¤i = 
=·¬¤ = i º=  =i·i ¬- r: +==i+ ==+ = ri ·ri ¬i=·+i
=  ¬iui· º· +r = r+i =i-= = r l=  º+·+ =  = i·¤ ¬+ =
=·i=i -·==+ º· = i: ¬=· º‹·i r: -=i+ =  l= +i· == -.
=i+i = = = = = = = ì: =i+ º=.º=.:.º=. = i l+l=·+
=l=l+lu+i = =‹·i rº r: º·= := i º+·+ = i+= =i = ºi=
·i=-+ = i -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = + =i·= · =·¬¤ = i+i = ==i+i
=i=i r: º=.º=.:.º=. = i ¬lu= i- = i= -++=+=  = ·= r:
¬i· ·+iŠ=== ¬i=·+i =r= .+i·i +ri r: ¬i= =  l·+ =l=l=
=  =i=+ === =‹·i ¤+i=i +r r l=  -=i+ = =-= ==i+ +i=
-++=l++i = i oi+i = = l·+i =iº:
=i+= º+i= = i :+ ¬+i = i ·i=+l==  ¬i-¤·=i =  =·= =
·o+i .=r·i r: ++i¬i ¬i· º‹·i =  =· = i++i = ·i+ ¬i· ===i
=i++·i =  l-= i· = == =i=i = i º=i =+= r, l== = =
== i·i·==  ¬i· ·¤+i·==  = i+i = ==i+i .== ·i r: := i
º+·+ º+i= + =·¬¤ º+ =i=r= =i = i+= =i =  =i¤ l=== ·
:+ =i=i = i -l¤= l·-i ·+ = =·· = i r: =i+= =  =i=
·il==i+ = i º+… o‹·i = ·+ = =·· = ·+ = -·r =i =+ =r==
ri=i r: := i-º+·+ º+i= + oi== · =i+= = º+·=  =i+ =
=·· = i r: l=== ·-i - l+·-ii º+·= i =  ¬i+ = -¤i+i+
=i=i = i ¬º+ =¤ o¤ ºil·i-¤l== i =+ = i =·¬¤ = ·+ = 
l=º =i ºi·=ir+ l==i r: ¤l=  º=.º=.:.º=. =  ==i
= i+= = º=  ·=· = =‹· rº r, ==i =i=i·i·i =¤i º+·= i
¬i· -++=l++i = i ºil·i-¤l== i =+ =  -+i-·+, º+·+ ¬i·
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i ==i: = =‹·i+ -ºr l·oi: ·=i r: +r º+i=
:=l=º =i ==a r, Š+il=  :== ==·i+ = =+ = i =i++i
=‹·=i r ¬i· =·¬¤ = i =‹·i+i l===i r:
:== =r·+º¤ +r r l=  =i.·i.=i. =  =i·+= = ·i=+l== 
·++-¤i =i := º+i= = i =r+i= = · ·ri r ¬i· º= = : ¬i·
º+i=i = i =r+i= = ·+ = i :·= =  r: =i.·i.=i. =  -ºi·+¬
¤i. = ·ºi =i·=i+i·i = r: ¤¤i = :== i ºlr =i ri =:: +
º=.º=.:.º=. = i =r+i= = ·+ =  l=º =·º· r: ¬i· -·ri+
=i¬i.=i=··i = º+·=  =l+ui¬i =  l+-=i· = i ¬i· =i :-i·i
=i= - = 
21
l= +i: º=.º=.:.º=. = i = i= i r· ==  ++ l+=i= = i =i
=r+i = l==i r :
¤ c¤ ¤ +t |º¤t ¬t t n tº |º¤t
ì. =il== +·+=i+ ·- + …
¬+ = == ==+ = i ¬-il= =  = i·¤ =i+= =  ===i ¬i·
+·+=i+i º· =i º=i+ º‹·i r: lº== = = =i=i =  =·¬¤
º+i=i = =·· =i l==i r, º· -=i+ = i ¬º+i º·i+i
i-¤l= ==  ºr¤+ = ¬=i = i= i ==+ ===i: :== 
ºl·¤i= -+rº ¬i=i+i = +·+=i+ ·-+ +ri ri=: :== i
=iui ¬=· ++ l-l+· =  º+·+ º· º‹·=i r: +r -i+· +ri
=  l=º === =‹·i ¤+i=i r: +r l-l+· º¬i-ºl=+i =  l=º
¬i·- ==r r, º· =i º+·=  +ri = = º=il= =  =i++·
·o+i ¤ir= r +i -i+· l+·i- ri =i+=: r·º · l·.= +
:= =·+ = i ºlr = i r - -+= i = r+i r, l=  ==i=i· =-=
==i+ ¬i· -¤i+i+ =·¬¤ -++=l++i = i l+=·i+i = =i+=
+ +·+=i+i = i i-¤l= = =ui· ¬i+i r: ·i=+l==  ¬i·i=+
=  ==+ =  == i==, ºl¬+i =  ¬l=l·Š= ===i ==, ri=
lr·+, =+r·i ==·, ºl-+i: ri¤i == -=+ui·i =i++·
=i ¬= ¬i=i+i = ·o+ = i l=== r: =i¤ ·o ºi+i, ¬·+
=·l¬= ¬+i = i =·r ri, =i=  = ri ri=i r:
ntº|º …
º=.º=.:.º=. «i·i ºl-= := i-º+·+ º= .= = l+l=·+
º= i· = i =l=l+lu+i -il== r: +r º=  ¬·=i =·i= i r
¬i· :== ¬i· ¬lu=  l+l+u=i =i+ = i ¬i+-+= =i r:
=i-= l==  ¬i· =i=i¤ º+·+ ºr=¬i = i =i =-Š= l= +i
=i == =i r: = ··i+ =i= = i=, =i -=i+ = i ri lr-=i r,
==i= = =il·= + º¬i =  l=º º=  ¬·=i ¬i+i= -¤= r:
==i= = =il·= + º=.º=.:.º=. = i º=i=  l¤·r r:
+·+=i+i = rl¤ ·o+ +i= º+·= i =  l=º ==i=
= =il·= + =  ·-+ = ·+i º=  =r·+º¤ ¬i= ¤¤ ri == =i
r: r·º · l·.= =i.·i.=i. =  =i¤ ¤¤i = ·=  := =i= = i=
= i =r·+º¤ º¬i ¬+ ¤il¤= = ·+i+ = i = il-- = · ·ri
r, l=== l=  l+l=·+ ·=i+i = := =·l¬= ·oi =i ==  :
:. -¤= ==  ºr ¤
+==i+ ==+ =, -=i+ =  º+i ¬+, =ri º· l-il+· i-¤=
r, ==  ºr¤+ +i=i =‹·= , =r= o·i= r ¬i· := =·= 
.+i·i º+·=  +ri =i=: -=i+ = ·=·i ¬i· ·i ¬·+ º+·= 
¬i+i= r - º=  =i==i‹·i = ¬i· º=  ++ l+=i= = i
·++-¤i =¤+=‹·i =: º=  l++il== º= .= +i ¬i· ¬·= =
=i= l·= = ·+ º· ri := l-il+· = º+·=  ¬iº=: +ri == 
ºr¤+ = i =‹·=  = i ·i=  l= +i =i ·ri r:
ntº|º
:= ¬+ = i ¬i· ¬·=i =·r = =i= l·= = ·+i ri=i:
+==i+ ==+ = r·º · l·.= ¬º+ º= = =  =i·+= =
:== i =i= l·= = · ·ri r: +==i:·i = =i =·· l===i r:
¬·=i l+º¤+ ·++-¤i =  l=º =º=  =  = i·=· =iu+i = i
=i ¬i+-+= =i r: r·º · l·.= + = = l+·-i +i+i
·++-¤iº= i =  =i¤ ri¤ =i‹· r, =i =i=·il+=  º+·+
= i+= =i ¬i· l=.·=·i· +·+=i+ ¬+= i-i =  l=º =r+i=
= ·= r: lº== = = =i.=+ = º+·= i = i =r+i = =‹·i=·i
l·= i· = i =: r: :+ =·=u+i =  = i·¤ ¬i· =r=·
ºl·¤i= l==+ = i -·=i· r:
:. = i+= =i + ºl= +i¬i = i ·+iº= =i
+==i+ ==+ = =i¬i.=i=··i = =i·i-=i ri ·++-¤i r:
+l· := i-º+·+ = i º=.º=.:.º=. = i ¬i· ¬lu= 
º=i+-i=i =l=l+lu =++i r ¬i· º+·= i = i =r+i = i
=‹·i+i r, =i = i+= =i = i ·+iº= =i = i = i= i r· == 
=‹·i+i ri=i: =l= + :== =i+ui+ ·r+i ri=i, l=  = i+= =
:=+ =i + =‹· =iº l=  + -=i+ =  l=º ri ril+= i·=  =+
=iº :
ntº|º
=i.·i.=i. + :-i·i l= +i r l=  + =i¬i.=i=··i = i ·++-¤i
=‹·i+ = =r+i= = · == = r: ·+i+ ·o+i ri=i, l=  ¬=·
º=i ri, =i +: ·++-¤i = i l+= i= +==i+ -=i =  ¬iui·
º· ri l= +i =iº: r·º · l·.= º=  =‹· =i=+-= ¬ =  l=º
=r+i= · ·ri r: -i+· º+·= i =  =i¤ º=  =+¬¤ = =··
l==, l=+= -+= º=i =iº l=  + := -¤= º· ¬i· = =i
=l+uiº ¤ir= r: r·º · l·.= = i =i++i r l=  l= =i =i
¬+ = i =i·-¬==i = .+i·i ·=i+ +ri +ri ·i=+i ¤ilrº:
+r = ··i+ ¬i· ºi-¤=i =i+= =  ¬+i = ·r+ +i= ==·i+i
= i =i º=i ri ·++-¤i =+i+ =  l=º ºi·=ir+ · ·ri r:
=i==i‹·i -¤= º· =i = i+= = -r =i ri ¤= i r:
-··iºi+i ¬i· ¤= l-=i = = = ¬i· -¤= ¬== º+·= 
=i.=+ ==  =+i· ri =iº=:
+. = i+= -==i¬i = i l+= i=
+==i+ ==+ = ++ l-l+· = =i·i =r+i = ri = =¤i·i ·o
=º r ¬i· r·º · l·.= + ¬l=l¤ - =·= i· =  ºl-¬¤i =
-¤i+i+ =‹·= i = i =r+i= l·+i r: =l= + := º= i· = i
·++-¤i ¤=i+ =  l=º ¬i· ¬lu=  ·++=il+=  =·i= 
¬º+i+ ri=: ri=il=  ··-··i.= ¬i· =i=i¤ :=i=  =
l-l+· =+i r, º+·=  = = ·++== ¬l=l¤-=== i· = i
¬º¬i = ·= r:
=i+= =i¬i=.i=··i ++ l-l+·, =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+, ¬== = i º=  ¬·+++
22
ntº|º …
l·-i l+·-i = i ==i=i· =·‹· = ·+i ¬i· = ·i· = º = =i=
ri+ +i= ·++ril·=  l=«i=i = i ¬i+-+= =i r: l+·i¬¤
º+ =+i¬i =  =·+i= i+ = i º¤i=i =+i+i ri=i: º=  -¤=
= ·=· -¤= º· = =¤il·+i = i ==¤ =i = ·+i+i =i
== =i r:
:. -¤i+i+ -·ºi· = i l== i
+==i+ ==+ = =i+ = i =lr=i -++ =ri+=i ==r =+i:
= i l== i =  l=º º=  =i·i ·= i+ ¤=i ·ri r: º+·= i = 
l=º +r º=  ¬·=i ==r r, Š+il=  + +ri ·i+i+ l=+i:
ºl= +iº ·o+ =  =i¤-=i¤ -¤i+i+ = º = =+i r¬i = º‹·i
o·i· =i == = r: =l= + -¤i+i+ -·ºi· = i l== i = i
l+-=i· = ·+ = i ¬i+-+= =i r:
ntº|º
++ l-l+· =  ¬·· º=  =i·i ·= i+ oi=i =i == =i r,
=ri º+·=  -¤i+i+ -·ºi· o·i· == : -¤i+i+ -·ºi·i =
l+l+u=i ¬i· -+=  -·ºi·+ = =‹·i=·i =  =i¤-=i¤ -+= i
=¤+=i ¬i· -º=i·u =l+i-¤= = ·+i =i .== ·i r:
-. =º=  =i==i = i l+= i=
+==i:· =  ¬l=l·Š= º=.º=.:.º=. = i º=  º¤i r, =i
:= := i-º+·+ º+i= =  l+¤+ = =i+= i·i ·=i r: =l= +
++ l-l+· = = = =iui·¤ º·= -ºr =i+= il·+i = i = =i
=r== ri=i r, l=== +r º=i ¤= l=  := l-l+· = i Š+i
l+-¤=i r : :==  ¬l=l·Š=, := -¤= º· =i= ri+ +i=
·++ril·=  l=ai= -ºr = º = ·+Š= = ·+ +i=i =i==i = i
=i ¬i+-+= =i r:
ntº|º
r· = =· = ·o+ =  l=º =r= =¤i ¬i= l¤= º¤ =+i·
= ·+ = i .== ·= r: := º+i= = i -r¬i= ¬i· :l=ri=
=¤i ·++ril·=  l=«i=i = i º=  =i· =i ==i+i =i == =i
r: r·º · l·.= =  ºi= =il== ¬il¤=  ==iu+ + = i¤ r,
¬=… º= il-= =i==i -º=·u +ri = ·i: =i == i: :== 
l=º =i.·i.=i. = ¤¤iº = i =: ¬i· º=  l+-== =i+= i·i
= i l= =i= =iº+ = i +i=+i =+i: =i ·ri r, l== r·
-¤= º· ·oi =i == =i: º=  ·+l+ - l¤+ -º= ·¤
(¬il·+i-l+=¬= l=-·=) r·º · l·.= =  =r+i= = l=+i
=i ¤= i r, l== º· l= ·= + =i=r= =i ¬l=+i+ ¤=iº
=i == = r :
:- ¬il¤=  i-¤·=i =l+i-¤= = ·+i
+r º=  ¬+·+ º+i= r, l=== := i º+·+ =r· = º =
-=i+ =  =·¬¤ ¬i· =·¬¤ = =‹· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
¬i=il+= i¬i = =‹·i r¬i r: :=l=º .== ·i r l=  :=
= i+= = =  l=º ¬il¤=  i-¤·=i =l+i-¤= = i =iº: :=
= i+= = = º+-l-= il·+i ¬i· º+-= ie =il= +i = i
=i=i·i·i = i -=i=· = ·+i .== ·i r: :== i ¤+ -+= i
=i=i r, l=  + =·¬=  =++ =  l=º ºl·= rº: =l= + +r
-+=  l=º º=  =i-= = ==+ r: +l· -·r =·¬¤ =  = º =
= i+ = ·= ·r+i r, =i ¬il¤=  i-¤·=i ¬i+-+= =i r:
ntº|º …
:= iº+·+ = :+ =i=i =  l=º =i= =  = = l+uil·= =ri+i
= ¬i=·+i =l+i-¤= = i =i == =i r, ¬=· º=  l+uil·=
º+·= i = i =r+i ¬i=i ·r: +r -«ª+ ril== = ·+ =  l=º
=i =i .== ·= º‹· +i = ·+i ri=i: r·º · l·.= = i+= = = i
-r¬i= = ri º=i = · ·ri r: -+= i =i==i· = il--i = 
=i+=·, º+·= i = i =r+i (+ l·+ = ¬i= · ¤= =i+ +i=
+i ==ir =  ¬= = ¬i+ +i= =i=i = i .+i·i ºi·=ir+ +ri
·=) =il== ri ·ri r, l===  = : = i·¤ r - =il·+i «i·i
+= i·i·==  l+-iº+ ¬i· +·iºi+ ·-i, ¬=·i= i ¬i·
¬i-· l=+i «i·i =i·i +i+i ¤=i+l++i: =·i+ =  =i¤ =i=i
ºi· = i+= = = i -r¬i= = i =: r, l=== l=  ¬=·iri+
º+·=  º=  ·- = ·=· ·- = º+- = · == : :==  ¬·=
ºl·¤i= l== ·r r:
=i= - = 
23
¬t¤tt
r= ¤i ·i= =i=, º=.º=.:.º=. =  ==i = =¤il·+i, ++
l+=i= =  ¤i. =ir+ =¡i ¬i· =i.·i.=i =  ¤i. = ·ºi=i = 
ºl= ¬i=i·i r :
¬|º¤ |¿·¤¬t
1
:= -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++ =  l=º :Š+-·= «i·i =i=i =¿
= i l++Š= l= +i =+i ¤i: +r º=  -+=+ ==ir= i· r, =i
=i·= = =+l+l+u=i ==lu= =«i º· = i+ = ·=i r: -·r +=
l+-+l+=i=+, =+Š= ¬=·i= i ·ir = º+i+·¤ ¬·+++ =
-+i·= i·=· -ºilu ºi= r: -·ri+ +·· +i:· = · = i· +¤·,
:l·+i =  = i+= = =i+i·i++l=l· ri· -ºi· = = ·.=·+-+ =
==i· +l·e = i+= = ¬lu= i·i = i= l= +i r: -+=  = i+ = i
=r+ .=i· =+l+lu=i =·¬¤ º+ -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i
¬i=il+= i¬i º· r: + := i-º+·+ = i :== º=  = ‹·i =i+=i
r: ¬i· -·ri+ +.º=. º· =  =r+i= = ¤=i+ =i ·r
=i+i·i++l=·i = .=·+-+ +·+=  =  ·i := i-º+·+ = i+= =i
= i, ==i· ·l¬¤ ºl-+i =+i== , =¤i=+ l= +i r: :..· =
-·ri+ :Š+-·= =  =i¤ l=== · º=  l= =i= l=oi, l=== i
-i¤=  r -``:= i· l·.= · +=º=· :+ :l·+i``, º= il-=
= i·== +l++l=·i º=: =i=i +==i+ ==+ =, +il-=·+ =
i-¤= =··· = i· l·-ºil=== · l·= = ==i· = ==i:· l·=¤
-= i=· =: r: r:
:. :. :. :. :.
ei= … http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki Manas_
National_Park = :..+.:..» = i =i+= i·i ril== = i =::
3.
http://www.manasmaozi.com/?q=node/67
= i =i+= i·i ril== = i =::
=i+= =i¬i=.i=··i ++ l-l+·, =i+= ·ir i+ -=i+, ¬== = i º=  ¬·+++
24
:..- = i =l·+i =, =i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+ - ºri‹·i
== ·+i= º+i=, := i -º+·+ º+i= = i -·¤i·+ l= +i =+i:
+r -·=·io· =  +·i ·+i =i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+ =  ¬i=-ºi=
=  :=i=  = -¤i+i+ ==·i+i «i·i ¤=i+i =i ·ri := iº+·+
º+i= r: := ºri‹·i == ·+i= º+i= = i =·= =i=il== 
¬i·i=+i, == ì»:. =  ·-=  = l¤º= i
ì
¬i· ì»». =  ·-=  =
=º·i-=i+i
:
=¤i ri= =  +·i ·+i ¬l=+i+ = r¬i, l=+=
-¤i+i+ =i= ¬º+ ===i ¬i· =.=i+ º· ¬lu= i· =  l=º =¤¤
= · ·r ¤:
:
¤ s ¤¸ |¤
ºri‹·i == ·+i=i = i = ri+i = i -r¬i= =i=i = ri=i r, =i
lr=i=+ = i +il= ¤i·i = i-¤= r: +il= ¤i·i, =i +·i ·+i
=i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+ = i ºi-¤=i =i=i º· i-¤= r, =  =i=
-ii·=i+-l=·==i ¬il·+i=i ==r - =il·+i = = =  r, =i lr·
+i =ia u= =  ºi=+ =  ¬iui· º· l+=il== r:
+
·i =r+ ¤·+i¬i + +il= ¤i·i =  =il·+i¬i = i l=·=i º· º=i+
·i=i: ºr=i ¤i, ì»-: = i =i·=-ºi=  +a, l===  = i·¤ ==
==+ = ¤= ¬i ·r l=·== =  =i¤ ·+iºil·=  ==u o·= = ·
l·º =º: ·=·i ¤i, ì»·: = +·i ·+i ¬+ = i ·iri+ -=i+
¤il¤= l= +i =i+i, l=== lr=i=+ = i === -¤i ¬i· º¤l==
¤i·i, +·i ·+i º· · l= = + º+=i·ir¤ = i ¬= ri =+i:
:
¤¤ºtttr¬ ¬|¤¤t+ …
+il= ¤i·i = º+=i·ir·¤ ¬l=+i+i = i :l=ri= ì»:. =  ·-= 
= -r r¬i, l=== ì»:. ¬i· ì»·. =  ·-=  = = i= i -=i=
·oi =+i: ì»:» = +·i ·+i l-= i· ¬-+i·ª+ + = : ¬=·iri+
¬l=+i+i = i ¬i= l¤= l= +i, ri=il=  =l=l+lu+i ui=i ri
·ri, Š+il=  +r ¬+ =i·= = i =i=i =  ºi= ri+ =  = i·¤ º+-
= i ¬+=l= ¬i=i+i = +ri ·i =i=i ¤i: ì»:. =  ·-=  ==  +r
¬-+i·ª+ º+·= i ¬i· º+=i·ilr+i =  =i¤ = i= i º¤l== ri
+.
n¤+ º o+ = t ntrn
¤t:-¿ + n ¤rs , ¬ s|+|n¢|¿¤,
:-ttto s = t ¢=  ¬·¤¤+
sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
¤= i ¤i: -¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  l=º º+·= i = i ¬i==+, +ri l= 
l==‹·i ¬il¤=  i-¤l= =  l=º =i=·i+=  =il== r¬i, Š+il= 
= i= i ++i¬i = i =il=+ ¬i· =i:· = i = i= l== =+i: =l= +
ì»:: == , =‹·i =r+i = º+·= i =  ¬i+-=i+ = ¬+ = i =i·i
ºl·-¤l== i+ ¬l= ºr¤ ¤= i ¤i: ¬-+i·ª+ = = i==i =‹·i-
=l·+i ¬=== = º = l+= i=i =: ¬i· l+l=·+ º+=i·ir¤
¬l=+i+i = i = ¤·i =+i+r ·· º· := · ·i ri=i =i ·ri ¤i:
==i +º · l= = =i=i º· +i=i+= ==.i = =‹· =+i ¬i· ì»·:
==  r· +¤ ==== +... +i+i + =il=+ ¬-+i·ª+ = ¬i ·r ¤:
:= ºil·i-¤l== i =+ = i ¬i· ¬lu=  ¬l= = =¤i+ ¬i· -== i
i-¤l= ·i=  ri+ =  l=º ==+ ·+ =  -«ª+ = ·iª· i+ -=i+ = i
-·¤i¤¤i = i =:: -¤i+i+ ==·i+i «i·i =+-i ¤·i+, ¬i¤ui
ºiui = i -º= := · ·i = ·+ ¬i· l=·i-º‹·i == ‹·i -·i+ º·
ºl==u ==i l·+i =+i:
-
-¤i+i+ =i=i «i·i u·i=i ==  =+-i
= =i+ º· =i ·i=  ==i ·i =:, =i l=  -+= i ºi·ºl·=  ==i = 
==+ = i =i+ ¤i: ¬i¤ui+ ºiui =  ºi·ºl·=  l+= i=i ¬i·
¬-+·=· ¬+ = uil==  ¬lu= i·i =  ·-=· º· =i ·i=  == =::
ì»·· ==  +·i ·+i ·iª· i+ -=i+ = i =i+=·=
¬i·l¬= ¬+ =+i l·+i =+i, l=== i =i=i¬i = i =‹·i= · ¤i·i
=·=  = == =i+i = i =.=i+ =i :==  ¬·· = =i =:: ri=il= 
l++i=i ==·i+i =  ¬i=il+= i -º+i= =  l=º == · ¬+ o=i
r, =+l-+i = i = = ¬l=l·Š= -¤=i º· ¤·i+ º· ºi=·i ==i
·i =:: ¤i·i=ir = = ri =i+ =  = i·¤ = = ¬+i º· ¤·i+ = i
¬·+ilu=  ·=i+ =‹· =+i, l=== = : == ·+i=i = i ¬º+i
== l·+i = = = ·+i º‹·i ¬i· :==  = i·¤ =i+i = -+ = i
-·ºi·+ =i = = ri =+i: :=i =·r, :u+ = i == ‹·i, ¤i· ¬i·
¬·+ =·-= iei+ ++i·ºi· = i = =i =  = i·¤ ºi·ºl·=  l++ir-
¬iuil·= = l¤ º¤i=i ¬i· =i = l·+i: = ¬i =:: :== ==-+i
+r ¤i, l=  ¬i·l¬= ¬+ = i l+¤+ º=  =·= i ¤i, l===
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  =i¤ +i =i = i: ¤¤i = i =: ¬i· +i ri
-+= i ¬i=il+= i¬i º· = i: ·+i+ l·+i =+i:
:
ì»»· = += =i+
25
==+ == , +il= ¤i·i =  =i=i = i +·i ·+i ·iª· i+ -=i+ =
º+- ºi+ =  l=º =¤¤ =i·i r:
tt+¤ = t º¬, t
++=· :... =, -·i· º·- =  ºri‹·i ¬+i = i ¬== = ·=  ++i
·i+ -·i·io· (l== :... = :..- =  =i¤ -·i·i¤= = ri
=i=i ¤i) =+i+i =+i: +il= ¤i·i =  =i=i = i ++i ·i+ =++
= = i= i -·=i· ¤i - l=  + ¬º+i =i-= l==  ºr¤i+, -l¤=
l+= i= =  l+¤+ =+ = i ºl= +i ¬i· -¤i+i+ ==iu+i º· ¬º+i
l+++¤ -¤ilº= = · == =:
+º ·i+ = º+·+ = i l+= i= =  l=º =r+ = i+¬+ =i+i =+i:
=: :..ì =, ·i+ =·= i· + º+i+·¤ º+ ++ =+i=+ =  =i¤
l=== · =i·=i+ º+=i·ir¤ =-¤i+ = i l=.·=·i·i ·i l=  +r
-=i+ = =il== º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i ==i++i = i ¬·+++
= ·: +r -¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  l=º º=  =‹·i uŠ= i ¤i, =i ¬=i
=i ºl==u = == ·r ¤: -·r ·· ¤i l=  := = ·= = ·iª· i+
¬i· ¬=·iª· i+ -=· =  º+·+ ·++-¤iº=  +·i ·+i = º+·+ º·
¬lu= i· ==i = = :
:== =i=i =i+ = +·i ·+i ¬l=+i+ = i -r¬i= r:: =il·+i
==·i+ = i =ir·i ==ri = - -·i·io· + l+·- =  - := +i.== 
==+ = = i= i =r+i= l==i: =+iui·, ·i+ = = i+·= º= 
++ilu= i· =-¤i, + ++ilu= i· º+i= = i -ir¬i= = i, l===
l=  ·i+ =· = =·l¬= ¬+i = º=il+= ==·i+ º= =· ri == :
º= =-¤i + l+= i= =  l=º =·=u+ ¬i+il== = ·+ = =r+i=
l= +i: +r =·=u+ =¤== =-¤i¬i = i ==·++ r, l=== i
-¦-+ r =+-º¬i+ ¬i· º= l=-º¬i+ =¦i = i +º -·i·io·
·i+ = i l+= i= ¤¤i¬i = º=  ¬i+i.= ·+i: ì+ ¬Š==·,
:..ì = i +il= ¤i·i =  -¤i+i+ =i=i + º=l=-i= =+l+l+u=i
=·¬¤ º+ := i-º+·+ -·¤i¤¤i (¬+=·+=  ì) =i·i l= +i
¬i· ==·i+-¬iuil·= := iº+·+ º-=i+i º· l+-== ¤¤i = ·+
=  l=º º=  = i+-ii=i ¬i+il== = i: +·i ·+i -·¤i¤¤i = i
= il-- r l=  º+·= i ¬i· -¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  =i¤ =·+=i º+
º=  ·=· = =io+ =  =·+i =  ¬iui· º· º=  ++i l·-=i = i+=
ri:
n r¬tºt ¤t¬
:..: =, +·i ·+i =i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+ =  º=  lr-= = i oi=
l·+i =+i, =ri =·= i· + -=i+ =  ¬-+=· ¬+ =  º=  =i·
=i= = :.. ¬l=l¤ ºl=+¤ =i+ = i ¬+=l= · ·i: ri=il= ,
¤i·i ==  =i+i ¬=i =i ºl==lu= ¤i: := =-iu+ =, -¤i+i+
=i:· º+ =i·+ir= i = i = i= ·+ = i =i= = ri =:: =l= +
:==  l=º = i: ºl-·i¤ ¬i+il== +ri l= +i =+i: =l= +
l+= i= =  l=º =·=u+ = i =l= + =i=i·i·i ¬i· :..ì = i
= i+-i=i = ºi= ==i+i =  = i·¤ -¤i+i+ =i=i + := ¬il¤= 
++i+i= ·¤ =  l=º º=  ¬+=· =  = º = ·oi:
:..:-:..: =  -r¬i=i =i=i = := ¬l=+i+ + = :
-·+l=-i= º+ ·¤+i·==  = i+= =i =  .=l·º +·i ·+i ¬+ = 
l+¤+ = =i=r= =i =‹·i+ ¬i· º+·+ -=i= = =·+=i =i+ º·
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
26
¤¤iº = i: -iu= =i¬i, =i=il==  = i+= =i¬i ¬i· =i=i =i+
= i =i= ==i =  ==r «i·i ¬i+il== :+ = i+= =i =, º=i
:= ¿i = ·+ =  l=º = =i= i·i =  l-l+·, =¤=+ l·+= º·
=lr=i -·=+i = == · ¬+i+ + ¬=·iª· i+ -l¬=  = i+-i=i¬i
= =i=i·i·i == , r· +i=+i =+i: =: r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=,
==i=i· =l=+i = ¬=·i= i + = +·i =  l+-+l+=i=+i =
l+=il¤+i =  ==r º+=i+ ==i= ¬i· === l+= i= =  ¬·+++
=  ¬=== =i=i =i+ = ¬i= r: :+ = i+= =i =  = i·¤, ¬+ = i
==ª·=i+ -=· º· r+il= l==i ¬i· ==·i+i = i ¬il¤= 
·¤+il=+i = º+·+ = i =l== i = i º·l-= = ·+ = i =i= i =i
l==i: :..+ =, :+ º+i=i = i =i·+=i l==i, == + ¬+ = i·
+i-· · +=· «i·i =+¤e := iº+·+ ==·+i = ·=· -¤i+ º·
¤+i =+i: :==  =i· :..: =, = i= = i º=  +i+i ºl+= i,
l=¬i = º=  =o l+= =i l=== ¬l=+i+ «i·i -·iº =º
ºil·i-¤l== i =¤i =i-= l== 
·
=¦i = i -=i=· l= +i =+i:
º=  =r·+º¤ ·¤+il= =i ¬º+i: =: +r ¤i +==i:· = i
º+i=, l===  =i·+= = ¬l=+i+ =  l+¤+ = =i+= i·i = =i+
¬i· º+·+ º+i= =  º¤i· = =·· l==i: :..+ ==  :=
¬i-i+i+ =  l+¤+ = :··+· º· = i= i =i+= i·i -º=·u ¤i:
+==i:· =  =i·+= = · l= = + º+=i·ir¤ ¬l=+i+i =  l=º
º==i= ri=i ¤i, l=== =i· -=· º· ·+iºi· =‹·i+ =  ¬+=·
l==:
¤rt‹ st ¤= t¤t= ¤ ¤tn
(º ¤t:-¿ + n ¤rs , , ¬ s|+|n¢|¿¤ (¢¤.¢n.¬ts )
:..- ==  ¬l=+i+ =  º+i=i =  = i·¤ ¬+ = ==i=i· ¬l=l¤
¬i+ == ¤: := -=· º· : =r+ ºr=¬i º· .=i· ¤i - ++i¬i
= i = i+= -==i =‹·i+i, -¤i+i+ -·ºi·+i = i º=  ¤o=i =+i·
= ·+i ¬i· º=  º=i ==i·ir ¬i+il== = ·+i l=== l= 
¬=·iª· i+ -=· º· ·+i+ ¬i= l¤= l= +i =i ==  ¬i· =i¤ ri
= º+i = i ¬iº¤il·=  ¤i¤¤i =i ri =iº: = º+i = i ¤i¤¤i = 
l=º ¬i+i== i + =+ l= +i l=  + +·i ·+i =lr=i · =  = 
¬i+i=+ = -·¤i·+ = ·=, l=== + l+-+ = i =lr=i
º+=i·ilr+i = ºri‹·i ·+i +·i ·+i = i =· ¤‹·i+ =  l=º
¬i=l+= = ·=: := = i+= = = -¤i+i+ =lr=i¬i = i =i
¬i=l+= l= +i =+i l=·ri+ ==, ===, .==i+ =  ¬i·i=+i =
=r+ =l== i l+=i: ¤i: +r · =  +·i ·+i ¬·-+i·· = i :.+i
ºª+l=l¤ = i -=·¤i·=+ =i ¤i: ì»:- = ¬·-+i·· ¬i· -+= i
º+i +·i ·+i º=  º+=i·ir¤ ¬l=+i+ = ¬º+ r=+i= º+= º·
¤‹·+ =  l=º ¬iº ¤: ¤‹·i: ¤‹·= ==+ -+= i =·+ ri =::
=lr=i¬i =  · =  =  =i·+= = := ¬i+i=+ = i -r¬i= = ·+ = 
ºi= º=  ¬i· = i·¤ +r ¤i l=  ¬i+i==  ¬º+ ¬iº = i º= 
¬== ·= = º- = ·+i ¤ir= ¤: º=.º=.¬i: = i =i++i r l= 
+l· + º=  ¬= =i =lr=i =  l=º =·l¬= · =  ¬i+il== = ·
ºiº, l=·r += = =.=i· =i+i =i=i r, =i ¬º+ ¬iº -¤ilº=
ri =iº=i l=  +r · =  ==i =  l=º =·l¬= r: +i-=l+= =i =,
= = =i· ==ri = =lr=i¬i + := ¬+ = ¬i+i -r =i = · l·+i
r, l=·r ºl-l¬= =lr=i =i:· ·i =i=i r:
-= =i= ¬=·iª· i+ =lr=i l·+= =  l·+ l+-¤=… =lr=i · = 
=  l=º ¬i+·+ ¬i=l+= l= º =º: l+-+ =  l+l=·+ = i+i = -+
¬i+·+ ºi= rº: =i·=, ¬=·i= i, = +·i ¬i· =i:+i+ = i ì:
=lr=i¬i = i ¤+i =+i ¬i· -·r ¬Š==· :..- = +·i ·+i ¬+
= ¬i+ = i ¬i=+¤ l·+i =+i: ¬l== l+¤+ º·+il-+i = 
=lr=i =¦i, º+=i+ º+i+·¤ =¤i =i=il==  ·+i+ =  ºr=¬i
= rl¤ + ¬+=+ =  ¬iui· º· l=+i =+i: =i-i=· ==  = i
=i= - = 
27
+i+i = i o¤ =lr=i¬i = i o· -·i+i ¤i, º· : ==ir =  · = 
= i o¤ º=.º=.¬i: + -·i+i: := º+i= = º=.º=.¬i: = i
ºº=l-++ -· · +l++l=·i (+i¤ = ·i=i+i, ¬=·i= i) =  =i+i
= = i= i =r+i= ºi= r¬i - -+=  ``=i+· = i· =‹·+i=``
= i+= = =: -·ri+ ¬=·i= i =i.=i·i = · l= = = i =i=i+ o·i·+
=  l=º ·i+ºi+ ·o ¤: -ƒ ·=. = i º+=i·ir¤ =i=i+
º=.º=.¬i: = i =: :..- = ==i =+i:
lr=i=+ = =r= ¬+= i- º= =i =  == i== := +i+i =
=r=il==i º· .=i· l·+i =+i, l=== l=  ++-ºl-l¬= =i:·
º+ ¬i+i==  · =  = ·+ +i=i = =i =io ¬i· + -·r +·i ·+i
¬+ =  :l=ri=, ==i= + ºil·i-¤l== i =  l+¤+ = ==i =i
== : := ºr= · =  =  =i· ==i =i=i·i·i = -+=  ==i+
º=.º=.¬i: = i ·+ =  l=º = ri =+i:
= t¤ =  n=ºt¬t = t |¤= tn
¬Š==· :..+ = ¬=·i= i = i-¤= l+··=i:+ = i-·· -+ =  =i·
=·-+i + =i=i =i+ = i ·i·i l= +i ¬i· + := º+i= = i =r+i=
·+ =  l=º -·==  ¤, Š+il=  -+=  ¬+=i· :== -¤i+i+ =i=
¬º+ ¬+ = º+·+ l+= i= º· l+++¤ = i ·i+i = · == = ¤:
:= ==+ ==  +·i ·+i ¬l=+i+ + l= =i =i ¬il¤=  =r+i=
=-¤i = º=i +ri l=+i ¤i, Š+il=  + ¬º+i -=i ¬i· =·+i = 
¬iui· º· +r º+i= ¤=i+i ¤ir= ¤: l+··=i:+ = i-·· -+ +
ºr= +. ++i¬i = i º+=i·ir¤ =  ¬iui·== ºl-¬¤ l·=+i+
=  l=º ¬il¤=  =r+i= l·+i: :..- = º=.º=.¬i: + ¬+i+
++i¬i = i = i+= -==i ºl-¬¤ =  l=º +r=  º+=i·ir¤
=-¤i+, -·i·= i-i = =º=  l= +i: ==i +. ++i¬i = i l=+i
l= =i l·+i+= =  ºl-¬¤ l·=+i+ =  l=º º=.º=.¬i: + r.ì:
=io ºl-¬¤ = i= ¤= i: - ºl= º·+i-i ºl-¬¤ = i=
r.+.,... ri=i r:
+r=  =-¤i+ =  ºl-¬¤ = = : ++i¬i = i +: -r¬i= = ·+ = i
=i= i l==i, =i -= = = i º‹·i: o·= +ri = · ==  ¤ ¬i· + ri
¬º+i ºi·ºl·=  ¬i=il+= i¬i ==  ri =i· ºiº ¤: -+= 
ºi·ºl·=  -i+ = i == ¬iul+=  == +i= i = i =r+i= l==i =i
+ ¬·+= l+l-r º+ ¬·=i ¬i=·+i +i= = i+ = ·+ = =¬= ri
=º: :== === =r·+º¤ ºr= +r ¤i l=  lr=i=+i ++i¬i = i
=‹· -r·i = + =i= ·
»
¬º+ ¤·i =  ºi= ri ¬·= ·++=i+ l==
=º, l=+= + = º+i =  = =¤i·i ri+ =  ==iº o· =il==  ¤:
+r=  =-¤i+ =  ==il+= º·+il-+i = i =i= º¤i+= ¬i· +·i
·+i ¬l=+i+ =  =r+ =·-+i = ¤¤i = ·=  ¤+i =+i: + º·+i-i
lº¤i·i=‹·, ¤=i=i, -·i·= i-i ¬i· ·r·i·+ l=.=i = ¤, l===
= === ¬lu=  =r+i +il= ¤i·i =  ++i¬i = i ¤i: º=
=·i.==i· ++i, =i ºr= = ri º+·+ = i = i= = ·= ¤ ¬i·
=l¬= =i+i = ·r= ¤, -+= i -il== = ·+ º· .=i· l·+i =+i:
¤++ =  =i+·ª·i = -=l==i, ¬+-ii=+ ¬i· ==r = = i+
= ·+ = i ¬==i =i -il== ¤: º=.º=.¬i:. =  =i=il== -
=i-= l==  ·lr= i¤ = i ·+i+ = ·o= rº +r=  =-¤i+ = i
l+¤+-=i==i =, +ri =  ºui+i¤i+ =  =i¤ ¤¤i = ·= , = =
=·=i+ l= º =º: ¬=… -i·il·=  ¤+il=+i = =· ì =ir = 
º+=i·ir¤ ºl-¬¤ =, º=  ==ir =  =Š¤· =i -il== l= º
=º l=+= l+l+u l+¤+i = i -il== l= +i =+i, == l= , +l·e
+i=l·= i = i l+-¤ =.= ·=, -·=·io· = i =-= l= ¬i· :l=ri=,
=i++·i ¬i· ++-ºl=+i = i ºr¤i+ ¬i· º+=i = º+·+: == =
º·+il-+i + ¬l=+i+ =  =·=o -º¤ == ·, =i=lr=  = º =
=i=lr=  -== =  l=º = i= = ·+ ¬i· +·i ·+i -·¤i¤¤i
ì.

=·+i = i ºi=+ = ·+ =  ºl= ¬º+i ºl==a=i =ilr· = i:
º=. º=. ¬i:. = i == ==i=i· ·++=i+ l==+ ==i, ==
-·ri+ ¬i· ºl-·i¤i =  l=º (-ƒ ¤¤i, ¬+·- º+ º+=i = i
oi= =  =·i= i =¤i =¤i+) ¬il¤=  =r+i= = i ¬+·iu l= +i,
=i l+··=i:+ = i-·· -+ + l·+i: +. ¬i· =‹·= i =  l=º
ºl-¬¤ ¤i ¬i· =‹·l= +i = i =i ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i: +==i+
==+ = º=.º=.¬i:. = -. =‹·=  ¬i· ì. =‹·l= +i r l=·r
ºl-¬¤ l·+i =i ¤= i r: :+= = .+i·i=i· + :-+ = i= = ·
l=º r ¬i· ¬= + +i·+=i ºi= ¬·+iº=  r, º=il¤= oi= º+
=¤i+ -++=+i r, =i = ¤ º+=i = ·¤·+i¬i = =i=i = i =¤i
== = r:
· l= = ¬i· º+=i·ir¤ ºl-·i¤i =  ¬l=l·Š=, ++i¬i = i +i=,
ºi= --i-+, ¬==.i =i¤i ¬i· = +·· = =i ºl-¬= l= +i =+i
r: -·r =-=ª·=i+ i-¤l= l+ui·¤ l+lu (·=i== ºil=.-l+=
l=-·=) = i -º+i= = ·+i =i l=oi+i =+i, =i -+= 
·-=i+=.i= ·¤ ºl-¬¤ = i lr-=i ¤i:
:t¤tº = ¤t ot ¢¤ |¤¤¬+
º=.º=.¬i:. + º= -·ºi· =+i· = ·+ = i = il-- = i =i +·i
·+i -·¤iªi¤i =  l·-i-l+·- º· ¬iuil·= ri: -·ri+ ¬==-:
==+i+lu + = l·+i: -=· =  ¬iui· º· l+l=·+ · =  =+i· l= º
r, l=== l=  º+·= i = i l+= ·º l== == : ¬==-: =i=i = i
rl¤+i, == l=  l+=i¤i, ºl·+i· =  =i¤ ¬i+-+i=,
l+= =i=i, =lr=iº ¬i· l+º¤ · =  = ·+ +i=i, = i ·+i+ =
·o= · · =  =+iº =º r:
``¬iº =lr=i r ¬i· ¬º+i -+=+ =i¤ ·o=i r: ¬iº ===
¤i=.i =  lo=i=  ¬i· =ri ¤i.=i =  =i¤ o‹·i ri=i r: ¬iº o·
¬º+i ¬i·- r - ¬i· r=i·i - ¬iº= i :l=ri= º=  ri r: ¬i·
r=i· ºi= oi= ¬iº =  l=º ¬i=+¤ r - r=i·i oi= ¬l=l¤
=++ =  l=º - = i: º= .= +ri r ¬i· + ri = i: =i·=i=.i r:
¬iº == ¬i+i ¤ir ¬iº ¬i· l==+i ·· ¤ir ·r: ¬iº= i =·¬i
r=i·i +i·i r: +r =i·i·+i = i =l= r: + l¤º= i ¬i·i=+ = 
ºi= º·¤i ¤i ¬i· ¬i= =i =i=i =  l+l=·+ =¤¤i = i =i= =
·=i r: -+= i oi= = ·+ =  l=º r= ¬iº= i ¬i=l+= = ·= r:
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
28
ui=i ==i =  l= +i·i = oi= +i =+i·= =+i·+ +i =i·i = i
l==l== ·i-+i = -·r · · +i l= · ¬º+ ¬iº =:``
=i-·· + -ºr·.= :l+l-ºl·+ +==i:·
ìì
º=  ¬·+ ºr=, l=== -·r ·++=i+ = i ==i++i l·oi, +r ¤i
º= º+·= i = i =‹·=i =r+i, =i =i=i¤ l=.·=i = i ¬+=+
= ·+i ¤ir= ¤ - ºi·ºl·=  ¤·i = ·r= · ·i=.=·i =  = i= = ·+i
¤ir= ¤¦ = = =i= == ·+i=i =  =i¤ ¤= =i= r, ºl·+i·i = 
=i¤ = i= = ·= r ¬i· = = =lr=i¬i =  =i¤ :u+ = i == ‹·i
:= · ·i = ·+ ¤= =i= r:
=i=·i ºr= ¤i -=il·= iº =+i+i: º=  º=i ºr=, =i º·i =·r
= =lr=i¬i «i·i =¤il== r: r· ¤· = º=  o· ·i r: =·-= lªi
=  ==+ = r· ¤· = +r ol· ·+i ¤==i r ¬i· =lr=iº = i=i+
=+i+ = ==i ri=i r: ri=il=  :+= i =¤+·=i =i=.i· =
-º=·u = i=i+i =  == i== = = ri=i r: º=.º=.¬i:. l= · =
= ··=i ·=i: +iº= =i+ ¬i· = i=i+i =  l·=.i:+ = ==i+ ·+
= i +i=+i =+i ·ri r: ri=il=  .+i·i=i· =lr=iº = i=i+
=+i=i r: :+= i ¬i= i· =‹·i ¬i· =i·i +=.+ ri+ =  = i·¤,
º+·=  :·r o·i·+i º=· +ri = ·=: ¬=… =i· ¬i= i· = 
¬i=+, l=·r +i= +i ·+i+ ==i+ =  l=º -º+i= l= +i =i == ,
=+i· l= + =i ·r r:
º=.º=.¬i:. = i l+º¤+ (=i= l·=) ·++-¤i =r+=i… +==i:·
=¤i =i=i = i º-=i ri r: +==i+ ==+ = +==i:· = i º=u+
= +·i =  -++=+i = · ·r r: º=.º=.¬i:. + +¤· l== 
(www.naturelink.org) +i= = i =-¤i =  =i¤ =i= l·= = 
l=º ri¤ =i ‹ · r :
=i= l·= = i º=  ·¤+il= =  ¬=== º=.º=.¬i:. ¬º+ ==i
· = i = i =-+i· ·o+i ¤ir=i r: ++i¬i = i = =·i ¬i· =i.ºi.
º=. -º= ·¤ -º+i= = ·+ =  l=º ºl-¬¤ l·º =º r: l= =i
=i +º ·i-= º· =i= ==+ =i:· ¬º+ =i¤ +il·+i = =·i =
= · =i= r ¬i· -l·= = ·= r, l== l= · : l=+· = i l= ·=
=+i= · + · += (:··+·) º· ·i= l·+i =i=i r: º=  =i· º+i=
·-=i+=.i= ·¤ ri =iº=i, =i º=.º=.¬i:. ¬º+i +:
+==i:·, l=== · =  = i +i=+i =+i+ =  l=º =i.ºi. º=.
l+·- l·º =º ri=, :··+· º· ¤‹·i ·=i: :== -·r == ‹·i ¬·+
· =  ·++-¤iº= i =  == i== .+i·i = i+·i l===i: -+= i
-«-+ r l=  + l==  +==i+ ¬+i = ri +ri, º· ·i+ = º=i
= i= = ·: :==  l=º -·ri+ ¬º+-¬iº = i : =i= = i ==+
l·+i r :
º=  ¬·+ =i= l·= ·¤+il=, l== º· -·r = i= i =·i=i r, +i r
-+=  ºl-i·i= =i:·i = i =¤+·ii, l+-== ·-=i+.=i= ·¤ = 
·i·i+ =i:·-· =  = i l++·¤, =i.ºi.º=. =¤+iº, == ei=,
º=, ¤· ·i+ l=·+ +i= ¬+ - +r ==i =i+= i·i l·= i· = ·=
r, l=== ==lr=  -i+ ¬=+ = =·· l===i r: ºi-i¬¤ ¬i·
:= =i=lr=  -i+ =  ¬i·ii· º· ri º=.º=.¬i:. +r = r ºi=i
r -
``== r= = ¤ lr=i=+ = =i= r, r=i· ºi= ·i l+= ·º ri= r
- ºr=i l+= ·º l=  r= l·„i = ==-= =, =i·i =i=i, ¬==.i
=i=+ +i=i =i:· = =iº: ·=·i l+= ·º +r l=  r=i· =i:· = i
¬==.i + ¬i=i ri, ri=il=  +r +=;+i ¬i· ·++== =i=¤i=
¬==.i = = · == =i ri: =l= + ¬=· = ri = i: ¬iº·i +i
==-+i ¬i=i r, =i r=i· =‹·=  == +i= i = º = ºl-l¬= r
¬i· +ri =  ·i-=i = i ==i-=il= =i+= r, ¬i· + ¬iº= i
=·l¬= +iº= =i == = r: =i +r -+= i l+¤+ r l=  + l= =
=i¤ = =i+i ¤ir= r:``
=+i= = ·¤i=i, l+·-= , º=.º=.¬i:.
= i· =  i-·· -+ + : =i=i =  l=º ¬il¤=  =r+i= l·+i r -
-·ºi· = º·oi =+i· = ·+, ·-=i+.=i= ·¤ ¬i· = ··=i ·=i: = i
+iº= =i+ =  l=º:
¤¤ ¿+ =   ¤ ¤t¤
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  l=º =i+++iº+ + ¬i=·i+i =  l=º =r+
ei= r - = l¤ (=r¸, ·i=, ¬+i=,·i==i ¬i· ¬i=), =+-i
ºi=+i ¬i· ¤· = i =+i = + + = +i = º‹· : º+·+ ¬º+i+ =
=i=i =  ºi= = : ¬l=l·Š= ¬i+ =  =iu+ ri =+ r - =i:·,
=i·+ir= , ·¿

¬i =  =il== , ·=i:, · Š=i · i:+·, =r-¬i+i=,
-=il·= iº =+i+i: ºr= =i ++i -r·i = i ¤= =i= ¤ + ¬=
¬+ = ri ·r= · ·++=i+ = =i == = r: º=.º=. ¬i:. = =‹·+
= ºr= =r= = ++i = l¤ = ·= ¤, l=== -+= i +ilªi=  ¬i+
r. :... = == · r.ì.,... ==  ri=i ¤i: =l= + =i:· = i
ºl-¬¤ ºi+ =  =i· -·r ºl=l·+ r. ::. = i ¬i=·+i ri=i r,
=i +il¤=  ¬i== r. ì:,... = :.,... ==  ¤· = i ¬i+ =
=i‹· ·=i r: .+i·i=i· =i:· =·i= ºl·+i·i = r:
º=. º=. ¬i:. =  = i+ = i ºl==i+ r l=  ++i¬i = i ==i º=i
l===i r == + +i-=l+=  =i· º· l= =i ·++=il+=  =l=l+lu
= =‹· ri: ++i¬i =  ºl-¬¤ = l++- =  =i·, º=. º=. ¬i:.
= i =.= ·= r l=  + == · =  º· + =º ri =i + -·ºi· = º·oi = 
= i+i = ri¤ =·iº: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, · =  =  ·-=i+.=i= ·¤ = 
l=º = =·i, ·i-+ ¬i· -º= ·¤i =  =i¤ +i+i = i º·i o¤i
l·+i =i=i r: =l= + ¬=· =i:· oi=i r ¬i· = i: ¬·+ +i+i
·++-¤iº=  -+= · =  º· =i+ = i ¬+·iu = · =i + ¬·+ ==ri
=  =i¤ =i =i == = r, ri=il=  -+= i ºr=i ºl==a=i :=
= º+i = i ¬i· r:
=r-¬i+i= =l+uiº -º=·u = ·i+ +i= =i=i = i r. ì:.- ::.
ºl= ·+iŠ= ºl=l·+ (·i =i=i = i º=  = =· = ·r·i+ º·),
=i·+ir=  = i r.::. ¬i· ·=i:+ = i r.:.. l===i r: ·¿¸
=il==  = i ºl= ·¿¸ ºl=l·+ r. +.. l===i r: º=.º=.¬i:.
=i= - = 
29
-l¤= +=+ =  == l++= º· = i= = ·=i r, l=== ¬·=i = i+
i-¤l=, -ƒ ¤¤i =  -º= ·¤ ¬i· ¬i=·i+i = i =·+ = º =
.+i·i = .+i·i =i=i =  =i¤ =·+i·i -il== r: -·ir·¤ = 
l=º º=  ·¿¸ + ¬i·l=+i =  =·i=· =i· -·i == =i r ¬i· =-=i
º‹·=i r - =l= + º=.º=.¬i:. = il-- = ·=i r l=  =ri =i ri
==  +ri =i·+ir=  =iº, l=== º=  =  ==iº + =i=i = i =i=
l==: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, º=.º=.¬i:. =  =i·+ir=  ¬·+
= ºl++i =  =i·+ir= i =  == i== = = +=.+ -·i= r, :.
l= =i Š+il=  + +ri ¤ir= r l=  ¬iºi== i=i+ ==+ =
=i·+ir= i º· ¬·+ilu=  =i= º‹· , oi== · == º+·= i = i =i
-·i = · +i¤ =i+i º‹· : ¬i· · =  = =i+ +i= ¬l=l¤+i =¤i
= =¤il·+i = i l·º =º =i=+ = = i: ¬=· +ri ·oi =i=i:
¬il¤=  ºr=¬i =  ¬l=l·Š=, º= =·· =i+i = º= l+-¤-=i-
ºi= =+-== = i ==r ri+i ¬º+ ¬iº = º=  ¬=·+ =ºl= r
- l===  = i·¤ -r·i = ==.··i º· =i=i = i +ri =i+i º‹·=i:
º=.º=.¬i:. + ¬º+i = i+ º¤i=i = =l+i-¤= l= +i r l= 
¬i=·+i -·ii+i+ =i=i ==  ºr¤ ¬i· -+=  ºi= ri ·r: =i+
-=· º· -·ri+ º=  ¤= +=i ºl= +i =+i: r, l=== l=  ==i
= i ¬i=·+i = =i+ =  =·+ ¬+=· l==: º=  º-+=i=i ¤o=i
= i º¤i=i =i= = i =: r - -·ir·¤ =  l=º, +l· º=  ºl·+i·
=r-¬i+i= =l+ui · ·ri r, =i ·=·i ºl·+i· =i=+ = i
·++-¤i = ·=i r: ¬i· =i=·i º+·= i = i -=il·= iº =¤=i r:
º=.º=.¬i:. =i+ === · ``¬il¤=  =r+i= =¤i ºl·+i=+i
l+lu`` = ·· ·ri r, ri=il=  º+=i·ir¤ = i =i=i+ ==·i+ = i
l=+i = i: = i== ¤= iº l==i r: -= =i==i = i ·o= ·
.+i·i=· =i+ +i=i = i ===i r l=  := ===  =i¤ =·i=· =i·i
=i+i ¤ilrº, Š+il=  ++ l+-ii= º=i ri = ·=i r: =l= + :+
=¤i+=i -º= ·¤i = i =i= =·r=i = -º+i= = ·= ¤ ¬i· º= 
==+ º=i =i ¬i+i == :== ¤i·i =i ri =:: -·ir·¤ =  l=º
:u+ =¤i+ +i= ¤·r, l=== i = i== ::. ·i=· ºl= ¤·ri
¤i, = i º=  ri l·+ = · · =i+i +i l= · =r· =r=i º+=i·ir¤
=  l=º =i: =: ·-=i = i = i·= · ¤i= =  º= =iu+ =  l=º
-º+i= = ·+i +i oi+i º·i=+ = i ¤i.=i, == =· ¬il· ¤i·i ri
=i+i: º=.º=.¬:. +r == ·i= + =  l=º = i= i º+i= = · ·ri
r:
º=.º=.¬i:. + =il‹·+i o·i·+ =  l=º =·= .= ¤ l·º, =ri
-¤i+i+ ==·i+ =  =·-+ ri -==  =il==  r: == =.= ·= ri=i
r =i º=.º=.¬i:. -+= i =+i¬i = i -º+i= = ·=i r, +ri =i
+r l+=i +i ·++=il+=  = º = =+i·i = =i= · = =i: = ·+ = 
l=º -+=+ r: =l= + =i=i = i l== l+-+i= º· = ¤ l·º =º
¤, + = ¤ +iº= + = ·=  =i= ¬º+i l=.·=·i·i º·i +ri = ·
·r:
¤r ¬t¤tn: := ¬+ = ¬i+ +=i º+·= i =  ·i =r+ -·º·= 
ri= r - uil==  +i =ir=i = i+ = ·+i: uil==  +i+i +i
=irl==  +i+i -ƒ -=·i+ ¬i·i= = i ¬º·ii +ri = ·=: =l= +
-·r = = ==== =l+uiº ¤ilrº, == l=  =i=  ·r+ = i ==r,
=i=  -i¤i=+ ¬il·: ¬i+i= = i ==-+i = i r= = ·+ = i º= 
=r= ri º=l=-i= =·i= i r, l=== ·++== l++- = i
¬i+-+= =i º‹·=i r - º·i+ ===i = i -º+i=: := ¬+ =
.+i·i=· =i=i =  ºi= º=  =·i = i ¤· ¬i· º=  ==i = i ¤·
ri=i r: º=  = ¤ :=i=  = ¬i· º=  l+¤= ¬+ =: ==i = 
==+ =, =i l=  º+·= i =  ¬i+ = i ==+ ri=i r, =·i +i= ¤·
oi=i ri= r, l=·r l= ·iº º· º=.º=.¬i:. = i · l·+i =i=i
r: :== =i= l·= =  =.l·º =i-i=· ¬i+ +i= º+·= i = i
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
30
¬i= l¤=  l= +i =i=i r: -·r l+= ·º l·+i =i=i r l=  + r.
ì... ·= · =i-i=· == º·l¤= -r· = ·r +i :: l= .=i.
¬i=, =i=i =i+ = r. ·.. ·= · =il·+i ¤· = ·r, =ri -·r
ºi·ºl·=  oi+i =i l===i: =l= + .+i·i=i· ¤·i = =··== = i
=.= ·= r: º=.º=.¬i:. «i·i = =iº =º =i= = = º=  lr-=i
=·= = ¤ = +iº= l++-i = · l·+i =i=i r, l=== l=  =r
¬i+i=i =  =il==  ¬º+ ¤·i = i =··==, =i¤= = º+
-i¤i=+ =+i+ =  l=º = ¤ = == : := º¤i=i = i -r¬i=
= = º·i¬¤i = = i =i ·ri r, l=== l=  -¤i+i+ ==·i+ :==
+il= =  ri == : º+·= i =  ·r+ = r: ¬i=·+i = = ¬iui
ºl·+i· ·o=i r ¬i· =i= i ¬iui = º+i = i = ªi ¤= i+ =  l=º
· l·+i =i=i r: =i=i = i ==i+ =i l·º =i= r - º=  ·+iŠ=
= i ·ir·i -i-i ¬i· lo‹·l= +i º· =i=i ==i+ =  l=º
ºi·=ilr= l= +i =+i, l=== =iŠo+i ¬·· + ¬iº +i l= · ¤·
=  ¬·· ¬iul+=  =l+uiº =+i+ = i ==i+, ¬i· =ir· = ¤·
= i ºi·ºl·=  =+i+·: =l= + +r º¤i=i =r= == = +ri r,
Š+il=  -¤i+i+ =i= := =·= i·i -= i= = i =·r ·o= r:
==l=  +r =i= = =·= = ¤ ¤=i+ = i º·i¬¤ r: :== +
= += =i+ = ·r+ =  l=º =l+ui¬i = =‹·i=·i ri=i r, º· =i+
=  =i=i =  =i¤ =r=· == i: =i ·r=i r: =l= + l= · =i
º+·= i = i == i: = i =i= ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i == i: =  =i¤
= i= i ¬=· r: :=i = i·¤ º=.º=.¬i:. = =· l= ·iº º· =
==i r ¬i· =i= i =r-·++-¤i º=.º=.¬i:. =  = =¤il·+i
«i·i º=.º=.¬i:. =  l==i+ ¬il· «i·i = i =i=i r:
¬=i +r º+i= : =i+i (=i=i ¬i· =i==i) = ri -r l= +i =+i
r, l=+= +. =i=i =  =i+ = i ·++-¤i r: º=.º=.¬i:. +
=i-i=· =  ºi= : = =· = i º=  == i+ =i l= ·iº º· l=+i r,
Š+il=  +r =i+ =  ºi= = i -r· r ¬i· uil==  º+·=  -i+·
-r· = ·r+i +i·i º=· = ·= r:
nt¤t|¬=  ¤r=¸
º=.º=.¬i:. º=  =·i=·i = i =-= l= =+i+ = i = il-- = ·
·ri r, l=== =i:·i, =i·+ir= i = i `=·` = r+ =  ==iº ¬º+
=ir= i =  ºr= +i= = ==i+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i =i=i r:
-·r ¬º+ =ir= i = =·i=·i = i l·-=i =+i+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr=
l= +i =i=i r, =il==  = i =·r +ri, l=== l=  =.= ·= º‹·+
º· + ¬º+ ¬lu= i·i = i -º+i= = · ==  (oi== · == ¬l=l¤
=··ii = i =i=iº ºi· = · ·r ri +i º+=i·ir¤ ¬i· · l= = =
¬º+i l++=  oi =· ):
º=.º=.¬i:. + ¬º+ ==r =  ++i¬i =  l=º = . ì. =io = i
=i++ =i=i ¬i· ì =io = i ·¤·+i =i=i = ·+i+i r: l= -= = i
:. ºl=-= º=.º=.¬i: ·=i r ¬i· :. ºl=-= ++i¬i = i o·
·+i ri=i r:
º+·+ =  l+¤+ º· º¤i+= ==i¬i º+ =lr=i¬i =  =i¤ ¤¤iº
= i =: r: ºr= =lr=iº ¬i· =ƒ º+·= i = i ¬=+l=+i = i
=·r ·o= ¤, º· ¬= == =i= -+=  ¤·i = ¬i= · ·r= r =i
¬=+l=+i = =‹·i ·· ¬i· l¤=i o·= ri =+i r:
=i ++i := º+i= = i =i= r + =i ==·i+ =  =r·+º¤ =·-+
=+ =º r - =i‹·i +i= ¬i· · · =il==  -+=  =º=  = ·r= r,
Š+il=  -·ri =  =i·+= = === i = i= l===i r: =l= +
=‹·l= +i = i ¬i= ¬i+ =  ºi·=ir+i ¬i· ºl-·i¤i =  =i+=·
-+= i =i=i·i·i = = ri ·ri r: :== i =r+ = i·¤ ==·i+ = i
= l‹·+i·i =i¤ ri r: ¬i· ++i¬i =  º=.º=.¬i:. =  = i+i =
=‹· =i+ = (oi== · +il=¤i·i =) =lr=i¬i º· = i= = i =i=
=i= - = 
31
=‹· =+i r, Š+il=  º+·= i =  ¬i+ = i ==+ ri o=i + = ==
= ·i: = i =i ==+ ri=i r: º= ==+ = == ¬lu=  = ¬lu= 
ri¤i = i =.= ·= ri=i r -= ==+ ¬i·l=+i =  º+·+ = i+i =
¤= =i+ = ¬i·=i º· = i= = i =i= ·=+i ri =i=i r:
=i+i = ¬=i =i =il=-=· =r= ri=i r: ri=il=  ¬+=l¤=
=il= ==·i+ = i -il== = ·+ =  º+i= l= º =º r, = ¤i =il=
=  =i=i «i·i :== i l+·iu l= +i =+i r - -·ir·¤ =  l=º,
¬+=l¤= =il=+i «i·i oi+i º= i+i =i+i = º·i =il= =  =i=i
= i =i·+ +ri r: :==  ¬l=l·Š= =·= i·i l·+i+=i =  = i·¤,
= i= i ¬+=l¤= =il= =  ++i o· =i := = i+= = = -il==
+ri ri ·r: ¬i· == º=.º=.¬i:. -+=  =i¤ := º+i= = 
l+¤+ = ¤¤i = ·=i r, =i -·r ===i r l=  ¬=· º=.º=.¬i:.
++i¬i =  ºl-¬¤ =  l=º r. +.,...;- · == =i r =i +r
-+=  ºl·+i·i = i :... Š+i +ri · == =i, == = =i+ +i= ++i
ºl-¬¤ º· =º ri ¬i· = =i +ri ºi ·r ri:
º=.º=.¬i:. + ++i¬i =  ==r ¬i· º+·= i =  l=º = ‹· l++=
=+iº r: ++i¬i =  ·i=  ºi+ ¬i· =i‹·i;l==·· ºi+ º·
ºl==u r: == º+·=  ·i= i +i l=-= · oi= r =i -+= i -== 
·º· = = + = i :=i.== +ri r ¬i· -·r +r ¬º+ ºi= ri ·o+
=  l=º = ri =i=i r: +l· ·i-= = ¤== ==+ =i=+ = = i:
=i+ +i=i ¬i =iº =i º+·= i = i ==i+ r l=  + =i+ +i=i = 
l=º ·i-=i =i‹· ·, Š+il=  ºr=i ¬lu= i· =i+ +i=i = i r:
º=.º=.¬i:. +r =i =l+i-¤= = ·=i r l=  º+·=  -¤i+i+
=-= l= =  ¬+= º ri +--=¤i ·o:
º+·= i «i·i ··+·ri· = i º= -·i ¤·+iº r: r: ¬= =· ==
º+·=  = ¤i:+i º· =i= r =i -+= i ==i+ ¤i‹·i ¬-ºr ri+
===i r: ==· ++=  := ==i+ = ºl·l¤= r ¬i· º=i i-¤l=+i
==i=+ =  l=º -·r ºl-l¬= l= +i =+i r: º+=i º· ¤‹·+ = 
l=º -·i· = i = = ==+ ¬+= = i-¤l= = ¬i+ ·+ =  l=º
=.= ·i r: º=  ¤·+i = º+·=  =r= =··=i=.i = ¤i·i ==  ¤‹·
=º ¬i· -·ri+ -·i· = i ¬+= =+ =  l=º -º+Š= ==+ +ri
l·+i: ¤‹·i: =  =i· -= ·+iŠ= = i ==. =·-·· r¬i, -=+ ·i=
¤i·i º· ri ==.i·i, +i¤ ¬i+i ¬i· ¬== ri l·+ +iº= ¤=i
=+i: -= =i r. :.,... ·+ ¤, +r -==  ==iº = += r.
:... · = · ri ¤=i =+i:
º=.º=.¬i:. = i =i++i r l=  -=i ¬+ =  ++i ¬·+ ¬+i = 
++i¬i =  == i== .+i·i l=.·=·i· ri= r: :== i = i·¤ +r r
l=  +·i ·+i = ·r+ +i=i ++=  =i+=i r l=  -== i ¬i=il+= i
-=i ¬+ º· ¬il¤= r ¬i· ¬=· +r ¬+ =·i ri =iº=i =i = i:
º+·=  +ri ¬iº=i ¬i· -==  ºi= ¬i=il+= i = i = i: =iu+
=i +ri =¤=i: ¬=… + l== ·i+ = º+·+ = i = i+ = ·= r,
+ri =  ++i¬i = i = i+= = = -il== = ·= r: :==  =·= =
+ri =  =i= ``l=+i = i: l+-i+ =i‹· `` == l++= = i :=i+·i·i
= =i= = ·= r, l==+i l·„i +i = l¤= - =  =i:· +ri = ·
== = :
º=.º=.¬i:. «i·i ¤=iº =i ·r º+=i·ir¤ =  =·i=  = 
¬===, º+·= i =  ¬i= =‹· =i+ =  =i· ·=i:+ +r -¤= +i
l-l+· =i‹· ·= r: ¬=… := -¤= º· º= l+= = ‹· = i +iº= =
=i+i =i-= = ri =i=i r: º=.º=. ¬i:. ++= i = i ºi·=ir+
·+ = i = il-- = · ·ri r l=  + · =  =  ·i·i+ º·i rº = ‹· = i
¬º+ =i¤ +iº= =iº: ++=· :..· = :Š+-·= =  =i¤ l=== ·
= i‹·i ºi= · = =  ºi= º=  = i+-i=i ¬i+il== = i =:, l===
``-·+ ¬ºl-r`` ¬i· ``l=+i = i: l+-i+ =i‹· `` == l++=i º·
·¤+il=+i =+i: =:: :==  ºl·¤i=-+= º º=.º=.¬i:. ¬=
º=i == =+ º¤i=i =+i· = · ·ri r l=== =ii-·= ;
ºi=i¤i+ = i · =  -r ri+ = ºr= == l-l+· = ri =i‹· l·+i
=iº:
º=.º=.¬i:. = i -r¬i= =i +·i ·+i ¬l=+i+ = r:, º· ¬=
·++-¤iº= i = i ===i r l=  := ¬l=+i+ = º = l+= == · º= 
·++=il+=  -== = i = º =+i ri=i: ==i+ ¬+=·i =  ¬iui·
º· º=  == = ·++=il+=  -== =+i+ =  l=º =.= ·i ¤i l= 
=i=i = i -+= i =.= ·=, = l¤ + = i+¬==i =  ¬iui· º· ¤+i
=iº: -·=i· r l=  := º+i= = i º=  ¬i·- =i=il==  ¤=+i =
º¤ ¬i· =i=·il+=  º+·+ ·++-¤i =  = º = ·oi =iº=i:
º+.º=.¬i:. = i =.i· r, l=  lr=i=+i ++= i = ¬i·i = i
=i=·-+ = ·+ = i = -==i = i l+= i= l= +i =iº, =i ¬i=
¤== · o· ri º=  +º ==·i+i =  -+il=·+ ¬i· -+=  «i·i ri
¤=i: =i ·ri = º+i =  =r+ º¤ui+i =+ =iº:
º=. º=. ¬i: . = i = ·+·i :..· = º=  º i: + · l=l=· · =  º+i =  
= º = º =i=  = = ·i l·+i =+i, l===   ¬=i : l+· -=  r (·i.
= +i= =  ·+i =i ¬i · ·i. u+ l=r ·i¤i): = r+ ·i= = :-· =i = r
=i º=.º=.¬i: =   =i¤ - r¬i= = = ‹ · r ¬i · -== i l+¤i· ui·i
+ -« -+i = i ==== r : ¬i+ +i= ==+ =   l=º +i =+i r l=  ·i +i
l+· -=  ¬ ==… =  º+i = ¬º+i º ui+ lr-= ·i·i =i ‹ ·= ·, =l+ª+
=   l=º := + += i =   ri¤i = ri =i ‹ · · = : - +· = i l+=i=+ - +.
º l=-= + +i¬i = i ¬i · -. º l=-= - +· º=  · -· =   +i= º· =i ‹ ·
=iº = - +r · -· + ·i · +i - ¬l¤=  · -· =   +i= = =+i+i =iº=i:
¬=… =ri ·i ¤i º=  º i: + · l=l=· · =  º+i = i ri ·r =i, +.
º l=-= lr-=i =iui -¤i+i+ == ·i+ =   ri¤ = ri =i: = l= +
+ +i¬i = i lr-=i l·º =i+ = ºr= -·r ¬+ -i=+ = i º ·- +
= ·+i ri =i ¬i · =  º+i = i ¬i= = =i+ =   l=º = i= = ·+i ri =i:
¬=i ==  + º l=-= lr-= º=.º=.¬i: . =   ºr= =·-+i = i =i ·
=i ¤ =   r : - +· ui·= i = i =  º+i =   =i= = = i : ¬ - +ri l·+i
=iº=i: := =i= = i +iº= l++ - l= +i =iº=i - == i+ o·i·+ ,
-º= ·¤ o·i·+ , + +i¬i =   º l-¬¤ =¤i ¤·i =   =··== =   l=º
= ·= = ¤ · + = :
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
32
¤|¤·¤ ¤t ¬+t
º=.º=.¬i:. = i =l+ª+ +i=+i = l+·+l=lo= = i+= =
-il== r - :== = = = = i -r¬i= ri =: r: ¬i· = = = i
ri + +i=i r …
• ¬l=+i+ = i +==i:· ¬i· +: +==i:· =  =i·+= = º= 
=i·=l== :=Š· il+=  =i= l· = º+i=:
• ¬== :-: =i=i = ==i · = i = i l¤+i= +, l=== l=  +
¬i= =  ¬+ = =‹·= · º· ·i+ = ¬º+ ¬iº = i -¤ilº= = ·
== :
• ¬==… =i-·· + -ºr·.= l·„i = ¬i==+ = =iu +·i ·+i
==  = i +i+i = i +i=+i =+i == =i: :== i = i·¤ r
º+·= i = i =· ¬+=+i = =¤i+i - ¤ir +r l·„i = =·
l=+i =i+i ri, rl·«i· = º=il‹·= l= +i =i+i +i =‹·= i º·
+i=i+i=:
• =i·=.+i = =+ ·=i =  -·ºi·i = i l+·=· ¬i· ¬·=i
=¤+·=i +i=i =+i+i, l=== :.-:. ºl·+i·i = i =lr=i¬i
=  ==r = = i= ri ¬i· -= :-= +==i:· =  =i·+= =
=¤+i: :==  l=º = = =lr=i¬i = i l+º¤ -·ºi·= i +i
ºl-¬¤i =  = º = =+i· l= +i =iº, =i ¬·+ ¬i·=i = 
-·ºi·+ =  l=º =¤+·=i ==ui ==i+ · == :
• =·= i· l·r·i =iu =  ºi+i = =irl==  o= oi=+ +i=i
r: ¬+ =  :. ++i¬i = i ==-o=i = i ºl-¬¤ l·=+i+i:
• ++i¬i = i +l·e +i=l·= i = i =.= ·=i ¬i· -+= i r+i=
·o+ = ºl-¬¤ l·+i =iº, Š+il=  ¤i· ui= = i =i+ +i=
=i¤ +il++i = =‹·i =r+i +l·e +i=l·= i = i ri ri=i r:
=i¤ +il++i = i º·i =.i· ==== =l+ui¬i == ri·=,
+i=i+i= º· ri ri=i r, l=== =i++i+ =·+ +ri ri=i:
-+= i =i++i r l=  +l·e +i=l·= i = i oi= ·o-=i= = i
=.= ·= ri=i r: º=.º=.¬i:. = := ¬+ = i == ·=i º·
·+i+ ·+ =  l=º º=  ¬== o· =+i+i =iº=i:
• =·= =i+=  =+i· l= º =iº= ¬i· ==il==  - ¬il¤= 
¬·+++i =  =i·+= = º+·+ =  º=i+i ¬i· l+= i= º·
==i=i· +=.· ·oi =iº=i ¬i· =.= ·= º‹·+ º· =ui· = i+
=i l= º =iº=:
• -·=·= i-ii = .==i+ o·i·= · +ri º+·=  ¬i+i= =l+ui
=·ii l-l+· -¤= = i l+=i¤: +r ¬i+i= =l+ui -¤i+i+
= º = -º=·u =i==i = ¬==-: ·i+i = i == ·º+i º·
=+i: =iº=i: l+=i¤ = i+ ++i¬i «i·i l= +i =iº=i, l===
l=  -+= :==  ºl= =i=i·i·i = i =i++i == ¬i· -·r :=
º· ¬º+i -+il=·+ == :
• º=.º=.¬i:. ·i·i=i= · = , -·=·= i-i l=.= = =ºl·=
o·i·+ =  ===i= º· =i=¤i= = · ·ri r ¬i· ·o ·ri r
l=  l= = º= i· = º+i = i =.=i+ =¤+ +i=i =  =i¤ -¤=-
l+l-r =i=-=r=i=+ = i = i++i = º = =i·+ === =+i:
=i == :
• -·=·= i-i = º=  = ª¤ +i= = i ¬i=iº = ¬ =+i+i,
=ri º· º+·= i =  l=º +i= =l+ui -º=·u = ·i: =i == :
• ·i·i=i= =  ·i-= = ==·i = º=  º+i+·¤ l-¬i = ·· =i
=ƒi º· ·+i+ ·: +r = ·· ¬+ = i =-= l= ¬i· º+i++¤i+
=+l+l+lu=i º· === =‹·i+ = i ei= ri=i:
• = = ¬+= = ==ri, == = l¤= ¤ ¬i· =i-i=· = -¤=
= i+i=+ =+i+i: +r = i+ ¬·+ =i=·i·i +i = ¤i:=. = 
=i·+= = l= +i =i == =i r: :+ = i+i=+i = º=.º=.¬i:.
=  -·ºi· ¬i· -=il·= iº =i =¤i =i == =i r:
• ¬º+i o· = i º=  oi+ ºi+ = i =iº (=·) =+i+i =i
-¤i+i+;·i+i+ -=· º· =i+i =iº: = i= i ++=  -r·i =
·-=·i, l·„i-=·=: =  ri·=i = =i·i-=i·i =·r+ir º·
= i= = ·= r: º=.º=.¬i:. = i +i=+i r l=  + :+ ++= i
= i = i+= -==i = i =+¬¤ = ·=  :+= = +. = i ºl-¬¤
=  l=º ¤+=: := oi+-ºi= =  = i= =  l=º º=  =r+i=i
= º+i oi=+ = i +i=+i r:
¤ +t |º¤t ¢¤ n ¤¢
º=.º=.¬i:. =  =i=+ ¬=i =i = i= i ¤+il=+i r, = i+= =i
= i ui=i l+= i= ¬i· ====i =  =¦: ¤+il=+i r - ++i¬i = i
= i+= = = ·i=  ·o+i, = ‹·i := · ·i = ·+i, =i=¤i= = i ¬==i
= ºl-¬¤, == i: ·o+ ¬i· ºi+i =  l+¤+ = -·r =¤= = ·+i,
=·¬i, º=u+ = = i+¬==i¬i = i l+= i= ¬i· ¬==… -+=
¬i·=l+-+i= ==i+i: = i+= =i =  ui= l+= i= =  =¦i =
-il== r - =i+i =  =i¤ ¬=l++i·i = i ===i+i, ¬i· ¬lu= 
=·+=i =i+i ¬i· := º+i= = i =+ ¬l=+i+ ·lr= i¤ =
=·== · º=  ·+iºil·=  -== =+i+i: := º+i= = i == ==i
=l+i-¤= = ·+ =  l=º, º=.º=.¬i:. = i +i=+i r l=  +r
ºi·ºl·=  -i+ º+ = -==i¬i = i º+=il+= = ·=i, =r=i=i
=·= =i+=  ¬·+++i =  l+= i= = l+·i¬¤ ·++-¤i =i=
= ·+i, l=== +·i ·+i -·¤i¤¤ =  ¬iui· º· = i= =l+i-¤=
l= +i =i ==  :
º=.º=.¬i:. ¬=i ++il·= -=· º· r ¬i· ·+iºi· = i = i:
=i··i +ri r, º=  i-¤· =il==  ¬i+ =i ¬=i =+l= + +ri r:
º=.º=.¬i:. «i·i ºl-l¬= = : ++=  ¬·+ (.+i·i l++l==)
+i= l·+i = ·+ ¤= =º r: = = + = i= =i‹· l·+i r, Š+il=  +
o· º= +i= r ¬i· := º= i· =  = i= = rl¤ +ri ·o=, = =
= i = ¤ ºri‹·i = = i= = ·+ = ·· ===i r º· .+i·i=i· =i=
¬·=i = =i: +i= =i==i ¬+=·i =  = i·¤ ri +ri = i = i=
=i‹· = · =i= r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º - = i‹·i=‹·i (+i·=i =i·=
ì:
;
= il· == =i:+i·==) º= +i= ·¤, l== ¤i+ = l++i= l= +i
=i=i r: ¤i+i =i=i =  ¬+=i·, -+=  =i=+ = :==  -il==
ri+ =  = i·¤ ri + ¬il=i·º=  = :=+ º·=  =i= ºi= r: =i+
+i=i =  l=º :== i = . :-:.: =io ºl= l= =i =+=i r:
º=  =r·+º¤ ºr= l==º· ·+i+ ·+i .== ·i r l= 
= i+¬==i¬i = i =‹·i+i =iº ¬i· º= =i=i = i ·=·i ºi‹·i =+i·
=i= - = 
33
= i =iº, =i º=.º=.¬i:. =  º=u+ ==lu= = i+i = i ==i=
ºiº: +==i+ ==+ = º==i=, = i== l+ui·¤, l+-iº+ +
l+º¤+, oi= ==i=+ =  l=º = i: +i·+=i ºi= ·+iŠ= +ri r
- +r == =+i= = ·¤i=i ri ==i== r: º=.º=.¬i:. º=
=i=i =  =º=  = r, =i º+·+ l+=i= = = i= = ·= r ¬i·
=+i-l++·i ri+ +i= r: -+= i +i=+i r l=  :+ =i=i = i º=i
= i+=i· ==i=+ =  l=º ==i+i =iº:
º=  ¬i· ¤+i=i l=== i =i=+i º=.º=.¬i:. + -·i·io· = 
º+·+ -=i= = i =·· ri = ·+i º‹· =i +r r +ºi= ¬i· = -=i·
= i ·i=+l==  i-¤·=i =  =i· +ri º· º+·+ = =‹·i=·i =
== i==i: º=.º=.¬i:. =+i¬i, ·Š= · = i = i==i ¬i· = =
= º·i o¤ =  .=l·º :== i =+i·i = · ·ri r: =l= + === =‹·i
¤+i=i +r r l=  Š+i + r.ì:-:. =io =  +il¤=  ·+iºi· =
= º· -· == = r (=i +==i+ i-¤l= r)´ Š+i + +·i ·+i
-·¤i¤¤i, :..ì = -ºr l= º =º º-=+i+ ·i·+¤+ º+ =·+i
= ===i=i l= º l=+i ¬º+i =l=l+lu+i =‹·i == = r´
º=.º=.¬i:. º=  -=·¤i¤=  = i+ = ·+ = i º+i= = · ·ri r -
==·i+ =  -+il=·+ +i= -== = i -¤iº+i - º=  º=i =l+ª+,
l=== =i++i+ -i¤¤ + º+i+¤i+ ¬º= ¤¤ + ri: +r º+·+
l++i=+ =  r· ºr= = ¬º+ l···-=  ·-+ -i-+ = i =i= = ·+
= i -·=i· = ·=i r - l=  º+=i = º+·+ ==  ==i = i ºr¤
ri, ¤ir + l= =i =i -=, l==, ¬i+ -=· +i = i+¬==i +i=
ri: º=  ¬i·- =  = º =, :== i == ==i = i lr=i=+ ¬i·
-==  l++il=+i =  =i·+ º· = i= i =r·i ¬i· =r·+º¤ º=i+
º‹· =i:
¬t¤tt …
+r -·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++ :..· = l= º =º, ·i. =+i= = ¤i=i
¬i· ¤i. ui+ l=r ·i¤i (l+·-= ) ¤i. =il=· (=·-+), ¤i.
r·i- ¤·i=i (º+= i·), =i=i ¬i· =i==i =i+ =  l++il=+i = 
=i¬i·= i· ¬i· ¤i. ·i=i+ ·i+= «i·i l=o =º =oi + ¬=i+=
= i· · +=º=·, (:..+) = i l= =i= = ·¤·= =+i:+= º·
=-· +== =i:+=ir· = = == l== l= +i =+i r:
¬+ =·+=  ¡
+·i ·+i =+l+l+u=i =·¬¤ º+ := i-º+·+ -·¤iªi¤i
ì+ ¬Š==·, :..ì =i= ==i =i=i:
¤=i=i, -·i·io·:
¬i=, ì+ ¬Š==·, :..ì = i r=i·i =·=il+= +·i ·+i =  =l··
=  ºi=¤ =, r= =+ ºl=l+lu, =i=il==  = i+= =i ¬i· +il=
¤i·i =  l++i=i, =+l+l+u=i =··i¤ º+ º+·+ º· =r+
¤¤i¬i =  =i·, ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º=u+ ºl= +i¬i =  ºl=
¬º+i ºl==a=i ==i= rº ¬º+ ¬iº = i ==lº= = ·= r,
l= -
ì. r= l+-+ º+·+ =-¤i+ (+·· · l·.= ¬i=i+i:.=-+) = i
º+·+ =  =i=il==  º=i+i º· =+i=i -·¤i¤¤i, ì»»: = 
¬iui· º· ¬º+ ¬+ = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ l+= i= = i
¬iui·l-=i ·o=:
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
34
:. r=i· ¬+ = r= º= ilu= i· = =Š= º+·+ ¬i· º+·+
-=i= = =·+=i = i l+= i= = ·=:
:. º+·+ -=i= = =‹· r· -i¤¤, == =i·+ir= i = i
-i¤¤ ¬i· =i= =.=··i = i o·= = ·= , r= =l+i-¤= = ·=
l=  º+·+ =  == i·i·==  º=i+ r=i· ¬+ = i =+l+l+lu=i
¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i++ -=· =‹·i+ ==  ºr¤:
+. l= =i =i º+·+ ==·ii -== = r= ¬º+ =·i=.=i·
++i¬i ¬i· -il¤= ºl·+i·i = i ºi¤l== =i ·=: r=
l+= =i= =i=i =  l=º =i =·i=·i =  ¬+=· =l+i-¤=
= ·=:
:. l+¤+ ºl= +i, =·¬¤ º+ º+·+ +i=+i¬i =  l+= i= = 
r· -=· º· r= =lr=i¬i = i =i=i·i·i ¬i· -+= i ·=.i=·i
=l+i-¤= = ·=:
-. ¬º+ ¬+ = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= =·¬¤ + º+·+ =  º=u+
=  l=º ¬i+Š= =-¤i== ·i¤ = i l+= i= = ·= rº r=
=l+i-¤= = ·=, l=  º+·+ = i r=i·i =+l+l+u=i + ¬+
= i =-= l= º· = i: += i·i·==  º=i+ + º‹· ¬i· r=i· ¬+
= =·-=i=il==  + =·-·ir i+ =l=l+lu+i = i º+º+ = i
=i= i + l==:
:. r= º+·= i = i =·¬i ¬i· -+= i ·i =i ·ri =+i¬i º·
l+++¤ ·o= rº -+= i =¤+·ii = i+= ·o= ¬i· ¬º+i o·
= i l+º¤+ ·++-¤i =+i= · -== = l=¤il=+i = i =ir·
·o=: ¬i· = il-- = ·= l=  º+·= i = i +i+i o¤ = =-=-
= = ri :
·. ¬º+ ¬+ = º+·+ =  l=º ==== =l+uiº =+i= ==+
r= +l·e +i=l·= i ¬i· l+= =i=i = i l+-¤ =.= ·=i = i
·+i+ ·o=:
». l¤º= i ¬i·i=+ = i u·=i =  =i·+ii·+= +i=l·=  ri+ = 
+i=, r= =i·i ·+i =  +i= º· =i=il==  - =i-= l==  ¬i·
=+l+l+lu=i = ·· oi==, =i r=i·i -·= r =-= l= = 
=·¬¤ =  =i¤-: -==  l+¤+ = =i+= i·i = =i+=i:
ì.. r= ¬·+ ¬+i =  ==·i+i =  =i¤ := i º+·+ l+= i=
=  ¬º+ ¬+=+ =i· =, =i l=  ¬º+ ¬+i = =+i=i
-·¤i¤¤i, ì»»: =  ¬iui· º· = i= = · ·r r:
ìì. ì»»: = i l·+i = i ¬¤ =i·=· = i º=··i :ì, ì»»:
= i º+·+ =  =i=il==  º=i+i º· =+i=i -·¤i¤¤i ¬i·
:..: =  :··+-+= :+· ¬i=  · =i-·· ·= º· := i· l·.= = i
=i++i = i = == = ·= rº, r= =i·=i+ =l+ui+ =  ·i¤ = 
¬=== = i= = ·= =+l+l+u=i =·¬¤ ¬i· =·+ ¬il¤= 
l+= i= =  l=º:
ì:. ¬i= ì+ ¬Š==·, :..ì = i r=i·i º=+i+ +·i ·+i = 
=i=+ ¬i· l¤º= i ¬i·i=+ =  +== :l=ri= = º·¤i ==
rº, r= ¬º+ ¬+ = i -il= = i ==ª·=i+ = ··, =+i+ = 
l=º o· = i ==lº= = ·= r:
=i= - = 
35
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
1.
ì»:. =  ·-=  = º· =i·= = ===i =  l++i- =  lo=i= 
==l·= l+·ir = i º=  =r· = =i l== l¤º= i ¬i·i=+ =  +i=
= =i+i =+i: =i= º‹·i = l¤º=  =º ¬i· -·r · = ·i·i =  ri¤i
= ·+ = =¤i+i: ºr=i l¤º= i ==i= -+=… ri ¬º= ì»:: =,
¬== +·i ¤i·i =  =·= =i+ = r¬i ¬i· ¬== : =i=i = -·i·
º·- =  lr=i=+ =  = i= i l=.=i = = = =+i: :== i -r¬i=
== r: == =·= i· + ¬== +·i ¤i·i =  ++¬+ = i º=  =i·
º=  o= =i==i =+i+ +i=i = º+i = i · l·+i: :== =i+ +i=i
= i =-=i ¬i =+i Š+il=  :== ºr= = l¤ ¬i.=i· =+i+ =  l=º
-+= i == ‹·i = i =i= = i · = ·i l·+i =+i ¤i: º=  -¤i+i+ =·-
=·= i·i =-¤i, ·=i=i =i= -+·i+ =¤ =  ºi·=ir+ =, ¤·i
º=i· =¿ ¬i· ¬+ = i ¬i·=i =  +=·+ =, =i= ===i = =º
¬i· º‹·i =  ¤i·i ¬i· ¤·i =+i= · o‹· ri =º ¬i· · = ·i·i = i
º‹· = i·+ = ·i= i: ì»:+ =, =i=i, ·¤i ¬i· ¬i=ºi= =  =i+i
= i =lr=i¬i + =i·i ·+i =  +=·+ = -¤i+i+ ===i = i = i·+
¬iº ¬i·l=+i =  l+ra ¬i·i=+ l= +i: -·i· º·- =  l¤º= i
¬i·i=+i = i ì»·. = =‹·i =i= ril== r:, == :l··i =iui,
-= ==+ = i ºui+=+i, + ·i+ =  lr=i=+i ===i = r· º‹·i
= i = ·i+ º· ì: =i= = i ºl==u ==i l·+i: == = +r
¬i·i=+ =i·= =  ¬·+ ·i+i = =i = =i: (http://healthy-
india.org/saveearth6.asp)
2.
ì»»· = +il= ¤i·i =  l++il=+i + =iu ==i= = ·+ = i
=+i·i = · =i: = i= i ¬i·=, l=·ri+ l¤º= i ¬i·i=+ = =i
=i= l=+i ¤i, l= · = =º·i =i+i ¬i·i=+ = i ¬=¤i =+i:
=i=i =i+ =  =lo+i, u+ l=r ·i¤i =  º·¤i·==  +=·+ =, ·=
== · ·i+ =  =i+i =  =i= ¬-+=· (= i·) ¬+ = ¤= =º ¬i·
=·= i· =  =i=+ ¬º+ ºi·ºl·=  ¬lu= i·i = i =i·+=i ·+ ¬i·
+·i ·+i ¬-+i·ª+ =  =·¬¤ = ¬º+i =l== i =  l+¤+ =
¬º+i =i= ·oi: -+= i rº += =i+ = i =·ºi: ¬i· -+=  +i=
º· o¤ l= º =º º= = i º·i l++·¤ =i =i=i =+i: =i+ +i=i +
= == oi: l=  + := ¬i·i=+ = i ¤i= ·o= ¬i· ¬º+i =i=i
= i ¬==-¬== =¤i º· == ==  ·ir·i= ·r=, == == 
=·= i· -+=  ·i+i = i =i·+=i +ri ·=i (·i=i+ ·i+=, :..+):
-ƒ lr=i=+ = =i-= l==  =i++ + === ¬i=il+= i¬i =  l=º
+·i ·+i ¬l=+i+, ¬=i+= = i· · +=º=·, ·r·i·+:
3.
·i=i+ ·i+= (:..·): · =i-·· + -ºr··.= :l+l-ºl·+ …
:+i=l+= ¬ ·+ =i·= ¬i=  = ·+l+·i ¬i·· := i· l·.= :+
·il·= i+l+= · l·.= - ºŠ=ºil·+l=.= º· :+=i:· = = i= = ·=
¬l·.= ºi=Š· = :+ :l·+i, +.º+.·i.ºi., +: l··=i:
4.
-Š=:
5.
-Š=:
6.
·i=i+ ·i+= (:..+): -ƒ lr=i=+ = =i-= l==  =i++ +
=== ¬i=il+= i¬i =  l=º +·i ·+i ¬l=+i+, ¬=i+= = i·
· +=º= ·, ·r·i·+:
7.
-Š=:
8.
-Š=:
9.
-Š=:
10.
-Š=:
11.
http://mountainshepherds.prayaga.org/trek-options/
12.
+-il+=  +i= = il· == =i:+i·==: +r º=  = = · r l==
¤i+i ·+i:+i = -º+i= l= +i =i=i r: ¤i+i =i¤i =  := +i=
= i ==== r ``=·i = = i‹·i, ==i = ºiui``,
www.plantlife.org.uk/international/assets/med-plants/
projects-case-studies/AERF%20project/Final-Report-
AERF.pdf, = :: ¬º= :..» = i =i+= i·i ºi= = i =::
=i-·· + -ºr· .= :l+l-ºl·+, -·i·io· = i º=  ¬·+++
¤t¤ - o
38
r= +r ==i¬i : =i=i = º- = · ·r r …
·-+ ì - =¤ -¤iº+i … ==ª·=i= ·¤ = =‹·i º+ui·¤i¬i,
= ·º+i¬i ¬i· +i-=l+= =i¬i = i =i¤:
·-+ : - º·= ¤i =o+ … =·¬¤ l+¤i·ui·i = i ui·i ¬i· -== 
=i·º+i = i oi=:
·-+ : - º+·+ = i º+- … º+·+, =i ==ª·=i= ·¤ = i º=i= 
r - := +i·=  = Š+i =l== i l+=i ·ri r - -==  l=º rº +
º·+¬ -¦-+ ¬i· -+=  =i=i =  ¬lu= i·i + =+l+l+u=i º·
º =i+i = i º lr:
¬==… º·i l=·=i r … =·¬¤ -iu= =i¬i, +il= l+=i=i¬i,
¬=·ir i+ ¬il¤=  =r+i= + ¬·+ ==ª·=i+ =-¤i+i, ¬=·ir i+
+ ·ir i+ =· =·= i·i =-¤i¬i + º+·+ -=i= =  l=º = =
·l+uiº, =+i= ¬i· ¤+il=+i:
º º¤ ¡
¤ ¤ t·tt¤+t …
==ª·=i= ·¤ = =‹·i º+ui·¤i¬i,
= ·º+i¬i ¬i· +i-=l+= =i¬i = i =i¤
==ª·=i= ·¤ l= =i =i =·r = = i: +: l+¤i·ui·i +i +:
l+¤++-= +ri r - =l= + ¬º+ ¬iul+=  ¬+=i· = ¬·+++
= ·+ =i+=  r - ++ -·i·+i·i ºl=+i· +i = iºi··
==ª·=i= ·¤ =  =‹·= ri¤: +i¬i=i Š=i+
ì
, ==ª·=i= ·¤ = i
º=  -ºr ¬i=i¤=  + ºi+i l= , ``lº== :. =i= r=i· ==+ = 
=== ¬i-¤+=+=  + == = -+=+=i ¬i·i=+ =  =i¬i ·r r -
-ƒ += = i ==ª·=i+ ¬i·i=+ l=== l=  + ¬º+ ¬iº = i r·
¬+·iu ¬i· ==.i· = ¬i.=i· = ·=  ·l++i = i =l==i= ·i==
:= ¿i = · == ``: +r ¬+·iu ·r r - = ·, º+i+¤i+ l++=-
= i++, ºl= l+++= , ·+iºi· ¬+·iu= , ¬i· =i+=l+= 
-+il=·+ ¬i· l+++¤ +i=i =+iº:
-+=  ¬+=i·, +r -+=+=i = i+= = = = == l+¤i·i
(= i·ºl+=  ui·¤iº) º· ¬iuil·= r, l=·r -·= r = i-= +
¡.
¤¤ ¿+,
·¤t¤tt ¬t t ¤¸ ¤ºs=t= t¬
¬ ¤|¤|¤¤ºt ¤t ¤ ¤t¤ …
¢=  ¬ = t¤ +t¿=  sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
z««s
l+º¤=i = =‹·i+i l·+i =+i r, l=== l=  -+=  ¬º+ -¦-+ º·
ri ==  :
ì. º=i+i· ¬i· =i= =+ º=  ·=· = =·i +ri ri == = -
==l=  + º=  ri l=Š=  =  ·i ºr= r:
:. l=  l+l= ¬+ =·= i·i;=i+=l+=  -º= =i =  == i==
¬i=l·=  = º = .+i·i = -=;¬=··i· r:
:. = º·i -=·i º· := · ·i = i =: =ºi·i +i¤ ==  =i=i r:
+. (¬=· = º· =  ==i = i·¤ ¤=  =iº =i =i) = i: ¬i·
l+= ·º =i += =i +ri r¦
¬il¤=  -i-+i l=··+ = i·=+ «i·i -·ir·l¤= ++--·i·+i·i
l=ai= = = ri =+i r, l=  ·+iŠ=== -+=+=i = i º=  =-Š=
l+l= =ºl·i ¬lu= i·i, ¬i=.i· =i=.i·i ¬i· -+=+ ·+iºi· = =+
=-¤i== ·i¤ =  ¬=== ri =·l¬= ·oi =i == =i r ¬i·
ril== l= +i =i == =i r: :== i ==== +r r l=  ¬il¤= 
·++-¤i = =·= i· = i .+i·i -il== +ri ri+i ¤ilrº, =l= +
-= l+=i =ºl= ¬lu= i·i ¬i· =i=.i· = i =-¤i¬i = i =·l¬=
·o+ + -+= i ==ª·=i+ -=· º· =‹·i+i ·+ =  l=º ¬º+i
-iŠ=+i = i -º+i= = ·+i ¤ilrº: ºr+i= ==i= l+-¤- · l+·
ri·+ + ·+ir+i = i ¤i l=  l= = =·r ++--·i·+i·i l+¤i·ui·i
``=·o= = ·=  º=i º= +i= ·¤`` = i ºl= +i = º+… º=i = i
=·+i·i = ·=i r, ==iº :==  l=  ==·· =‹·i= · ¬i· .+i·i
º=i = =i+i =iº: =i·= = =i, lº== :. =i=i = -==i = i
=‹·=i ¬il¤=  + ·i=+l==  =i= = =  =i¤ +r ++--·i·+i·i
=i¤, l=  =i=.i· === = = · == =i r, +i= ·-iri = i =i¤ =
º· ==i ¤= i r - +i=+i ¬i+i=, -¬l¤=  =-¤i¬i ¬i·
= =ª·=i+ = -¤i¬i = :
=-¤ilº= -+=+ ·+iºi· l=ai= := º= i· r… == º=  ·- = i
¬il¤=  ·++-¤i =i= i ·l++i =  =i=+ o==i r, =i -= -+
¬+i = l+-¤- =++ = i =i= i l===i r l=+= -==  ºi=
==+i·==  ¤e=i ri: =i =.= ·= ¤·= -·ºi·+ = º·i +ri ri
ºi=i -·r ¬i+i= = º·i l= +i =i=i r: =l= + =+i= +r -·=i
39
r l=  :== i ¬il¤= , =i=il==  ¬i· º+i+¤i+ ====i º· Š+i
º=i+ º‹· =i - Š+i ==+ =  =i¤ =‹·= ·+iºi· =  =i¤ ¬il¤= ,
=i=il==  ¬i· º+i+·¤i+ =¤=  =i === = º = =r=· ri=
r´ l=  ``-+=+ ·+iºi· ¬·=i r``- ++ -·i+·+i·i ¬il¤= 
-i-+ = i = ··i+ =i¤ +ri r ¬i· -== i === .+i·i º¤l==
= ·º+i =i: ri-=+ ¤=, º=  =lu=Š= ¬¤-i-+i, + ¬º+i
l= =i= =· ==l···=
:
= º= = i·ºl+=  l+¤i·i, =i -+=+
·+iºi· =  l+¤+ = = = =·i +ri =i==, =  l+= i=-i= ·-i = i
¬¤·++-¤i º· º‹·= ·ªº=i+i =  l+¤+ = = i= i =.i··i· ·=i=
º- = i r: -+= i = r+i r, l=  ¬i= =  ==i l+= l== ·-i =
·=· l+-+ +a =  =i· - -r¬i= = ·ir i+=i+i·i +il=+i = 
=i·+= = =··i¤, ¬+·i+ + =·= i·i l+++¤ = i -º+i= = ·= 
ri == ==i l==i: -+= i = r+i r l=  +ri ·- ¬= ``l== =i‹·i
º· ¤‹· -= ri l=·i= ·`` l+= i=-i= ·-i = -+=+ ·+iºi· ¬i·
++ -·i·+i·i +il=+i = i ºl= +i ¬º+i+i ¤ir= r, ==l=  +
o· l+= l== =++ =  ·i-= = :+ ºl= +i¬i = ¬i= +ri =‹· ¦
:==  =i¤ ri, +r =i++i =.= ·i r l=  -+=+ ·+iºi· l=ai=
= = ==+ = ==iu+i = i ¬il¤=  +i·+=i º· l+=· = ·=i r
¬i· ¬il¤=  l+= i= = :== i = i: =+i ·+i +ri r: +r :== i
=l++i·i = ==.i·i r: ¬=… ri == =i r, l=  =i· ==+ =  l=º
+r ¬lu= == -º=i= =l+i-¤= = · - =l= + == ==+ = 
l=º ·- = i ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i =  l+= i= =  l=º, +r =+¤e
l+= ·º +ri r: ·=·i ¬i·, l+= i=-i= ·-i º· ·=i+ ·i=i =i
·ri r l=  -·r ==.··-¬iuil·= -·ºi·+ = l+-¤-=i ril==
= ·+i ¤ilrº, Š+il=  :=i = ==+i·==  =i= r: -+=  =i=+
==u+, = i+¬==iº ¬i· == +i=  =‹·i+ =  = i: º-=i+ +ri
·ri =i=, l=== -+= i ¬== + === l+= i= ri == =i ¤i ¬i·
=i++ -=· = =i =‹·i=·i ri=i: ¤= = i ==  r, -·ir·¤ = 
l=º, +==i+ ==+ = =º·+ ·-i = i = l¤ ·++-¤i = i -·i·
=+i= · =·i= ·-i = i =·· = ·+ = i ·lr= i¤ === r - Š+il= 
:==  =·= = =·i= ·-i = i l+·-i l++-i = ºl==u r·i+ º‹·=
r, = · ¤·i+ º‹·= r ¬i· ¬i=l·=  l+l++=, ¬+·i+ ¬i· =·¬i
= i +il=+i o·= = ·+i º‹·=i r: +r +il=+i =·i= ·-i =  ==
==+ =  l+= i= =  l=º ¬·+·= =r·+º¤ r ¬i· :+= i =i·i
+ri ri+i ¤ilrº:
=i l= · := == = i =i=·i =¦ - =·¬¤ º+ =+l+l+lu=i =
Š+i =+i ·+i r´ ++ -·i·+i·i º=i+i·i ==ª·=i= ·¤ = i
º=l= = ¬i=l·=  +il=+i = i º=il+= = ·+ = i =i= =il+= 
==r = i === =‹·i ¤i· ºr¤i r: ¬i· ¬lu=  -·i·+il·=i +
¬i· ¬lu=  ``l+= i=`` = i ri‹· = º+i++¤i+ l+l++=+ = ·i=
¬i· ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  ¬uiuu º+i= = = = =il== =i=i
= i =i = i+·i l==i, º· ¬i= =i=i = i += =i+ ri ºr¤i r:
:==  ¬l=l·Š=, l== º· = i: ·+i+ +ri l·+i =+i +r r l= 
l= = º= i· ++--·i·+i·i = i+= = r=i·i l=.·=i =  r· ºr= =
¤= ¤=  r ¬i· = = + r=i· =i¤+ =  =·i= i = i =·= ·r r:
-·ir·¤ =  l=º, = ·= ··-+ ¬i=  :l·++ :·-· i= = i
=-· +l=l=·i :l+l-ºl·+ =.i· ·i= = · = r=i r ``+r =·+ r
l=  =·i=i = i -+= i =·i=i = -·i+ =  l=º ==. ·= .=i· ¬il¤= 
l+= i= = i ¬i+-+= =i r: ¬i· +r =i l=  ¬il¤=  =l=l+lu+i
ºil·i-¤l== i =+ = i =+i¬i º· ¬iuil·= r, l===  l=º
.== ·i r l=  º= +º -== ºl==i+ =iº =iº =i ==. ·= .=i·
¬il¤=  l+= i= = =ri+=  ri= rº =i ºil·i-¤l== i + =i++
lr= = i ¬==i = i ¤i· + ºr¤iº:`` == ==. ·= .=i· ¬il¤= 
l+= i= = i ri =·i=i r·i+ = i º= =i+ =iu+ =i+i =iº =i +r
= i: r·i+i = i =i= +ri r l=  =i.¬i:.¬i:. =  ¬i:.·i.=i.
=··· = i· ºŠ=== :+ =-· +== · +=º=· ºr-= i·, :..·
:

l+==i ·i·i -·i=, = º=. ···+, -·i=, l+=++=· ¬i· =i+i +
· +·i= il·+ = +·i=i -··=i:· ·r r: +r =i+i = ºl++i ¬===
= i+º¤il=+i ¬i· l+-i= -=· º· =i++ ¬lu= i·i =  r++ = 
l=º ·i¤i ºi: =: r:
=‹·i l·=¤-º =i= r l=  +==i+ ==ª·=i+ ¬il¤=  == · = i
¬il¤=  ·=+i=i = ri =i ·ri r - +r -º=i +i= : = = i= i = =
·+Š= = ·=i r, Š+il=  :== ¬il¤=  == · = i º=  º= i· = i
ºi= l==  ¬iº·i = ri =+i r (l== =i=i = ºl++i ==+i+ = i
=i=i = r=i r): :== º=  ri =·=  = ==i =i=¤i, -i¤=  +
l+++¤ ¬i· =+i=·i·i + ·o+ = i ºl= +i¬i = i =i= i l==
=i=i r, l=+=  = i·¤ º·i ·l++i = i +r ¬i· :== ºr= = 
¬il¤=  == · ==+ º‹· r:
==ª·=i+ ¬il¤=  == · =  =i· =i +r = i·ºl+=  ui·¤iº
¬l·= l·= i r: +l· r= lº== = = =ri+i = l+·-i l++-i,
º+i+·¤ ¬=· ¬i= =+, == i ¬i· l+=i ¬+ = i = ºl++i = i
·ir=, l+= i= ºl·+i=+i¬i = i -+i= l=, =·+= ¤i·i= =
=·= i·i ·++ = i ·o, =i -ºr r l=  +ri = = +ri =·=i r:
º º¤ z
¤¿= ¤t = o+
=·¬¤ l+¤i·ui·i = i ui·i ¬i· -==  =i·º+i = i oi=
l+l=·+ = i·¤i = =·¬¤ ·i¤i ¬i· l=ai=i = i =i¤ = i =i ·ri
r: =·¬¤ ¬i· l+-¤iº+ = i =‹·i+ ºr=i = i·¤ r, oi== ·
¬il·+i=i =i=i = i l+-¤iº+ +i ``=·¬¤ -·¤i¤i`` =  =·=
=: =i=  ·i+i
+
= i = r+i r l=  =·¬¤ ==ri = i ºi= ·i=+l== 
+ ¬il¤=  =r+i= =  = i·¤ =·l¬= ·i+i, ·ir i+ -=i+i +
¬-+i·ª+i =  =i·+= = ``=··i¤`` = i ºl= +i ==.i = = =i:
ì»-: = l+-+ = = = ì... ¬ui= = =·l¬= ¬+ ¤, =i ¬i=
=‹·= · ì,ì.,... ri =º r: =·¬¤ =  ¬=== ¬+ ì»». = 
=i· = ·i=+i ri =+i r, l=== º·i u·=i = i ì: ºl=-= =l=,
º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ … º=  ¬= i+ +i·= 
40
==== ¬= i= i = i º·i =.=i+ =  =·i=· ¬+, `=·¬¤` = 
¬=== r: ºr=i +=.· = =i º=i =l= ¬i· º= l= = i =·¬¤
¬·=i ===i r, º· == :== i l+-+ =  ¬il·+i=i =i=i º·
º=i+ = i ¬i= =+ l= +i =iº, == º=i ¤==i r l=  +r =i·i
=l= ºr= :+ =i=i = i ¤i =i ¬= l+-+ =  -. =io `=·¬¤
-·¤i¤i` =+ =º r: =i·= = = = -:. =·l¬= ¬+ r
:
(»--
·ir i+ -=i+, :.· +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+, :» =i¤ ¬i·l¬= ¬+,
ì+ =i+ =·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+ ¬i· : =·¬¤ ¬i·l¬= ¬+) ¬i·
l+-+ =  ==== :. =io =··i¤ -·¤i¤i r:
:= º= i· = i =·¬¤ l++il·= ``=ir‹· ===`` =  l=ai= º·
¬iuil·= r: =+ª+i = i =r+=… ¬i= i==  º=il= =  = º = ·oi
=+i r, =i ¬= = ·i+i º· ¬l== =¤ = ·= r ¬i· l=+= i
=l=l+lu+i =+l+l+u=i =  l++i- = i = i·¤ =+ =i=i r:
:==  ¬iui· º· =+ª+i = i =+l+l+lu=i =º·+ ¬+i = =ir·
·o+ +i º= ¬+i = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ¬i=il+= i¬i º· ºl==u
==i+i =i=i r: ºl·¤i=-+= º, º= l= =  =·¬¤ = º·-º·
=+-·+ =  l·-= = ¬il·+il=+i = i =l== i - uil== ,
=i-= l== , ¬il¤=  + =i=il==  - = i º+i= ¬·+++ +ri
l= +i =+i r ¬i· + ri -+=  :l=ri= = i ·-=i+=.i= ·¤ l= +i
=+i: :=il=º -+=  -i+ ¬i· =i=i·i·i = i = i+= =i = 
l= +ii·+++ +i +-il+=  -i+ = -il== =i +ri l= +i =+i:
¤·¤ ¤ º n =   ¤ ¤t ¬t|º¤t|n¤t = t ¬ ¤= ¤¤t+ = 
|=¢ ¤+ ¬|¤= t|t¤t n ¤ s¤ ‹ s
=l·+i = ==i¤i=  ¬+ =  :: ++ =i=i = ·r ·r ==i ==·i+ +
= =i =i¤-==== · ++ =·¬¤ +ri l= +i ¤i: := ==·i+, =i
=·+ º·- =  l··i·i l=.= = =i=+iº·, = ·l=+i ¬i· =i==
oª·i = ·r= r ¬i· l=+= i = = =+=r+i :.,... = ::,...
r, =  =·= = = ri =i == =i r l=  ===i + :+ =i=i = i
=·¬i = i, +i l=  =i=i + ===i = i: º+ º‹·i = i + = i·+i
¬i· ++iº= º= +i= ·¤ =  l++= -+=  l=º uil==  º·º·iº
·ri r, =··i¤ º¤i=i +ri:
¬i· l= · ++ ¬lu= i·i +ri ¬iº: l+=i= + -+= ==.··i º· ++
= ·+iº, l=== l=  +r ·+iºil·=  = º = =r=·+ =i= = i
ºiui·iº¤ = · ==  ¬i· · = ·i·i + -·r ¬i+=i, ¤i·;l¤·i=i
¬i· ¬i¤ui+ ºiu :Š· · = ·+ =  l=º º= l·º: ``r= ==i+i
=+i l=  ++ =·= i· = i =ºl= r, +i+= i =i:, ºi·i =i+ = i
¬-=i =·= = i =‹·i = ==i=i + = ri:``
=i== i·i ==i¬i ¬i· ¬i¤ui+ ºiui =  o·= ri+ =  =i¤-:
+r ==·i+ =i =·i= ri+ ==i: `¬= r= .+i·i=i· ++ l+=i=
+ · = ·i·i = i ==··i º· ri l+=· ·r+i º‹·=i r` ·i=·i =i+ = 
+a = i= ¤i= ==i = i = r+i r: ui·-ui· +== ri=i +r
¬==lr ì»»: = rº =i= =  = i‹· =  == =¤ =  ==+ ¬º+i
=i= - o
41
¤·= =i=i ==  ºr¤ =:: ++ l+=i= =  l·= i· =  ¬+=i·, :=
== =¤ + ¬+ =  º=  l=ri: ++i = i ==ir = · l·+i: =l= +
==i º=  ·=·i ri = ri+i ==i= r - `r= -+-¤ º‹·i = i =i
= i·+ =  ¬i·- l·º =º: == l== º‹·i = i ·=+i =r+i = -+-¤
º‹· = i· =º,` ¬==· =i+ =  =i·i l=r ·i¤l·+i + ==i+i:
`r=+ :=+ =‹· º=i+ º· º‹· = ·i+ = =i +ri ·oi ¤i:` = :
=i+i = l+·ir = i ¬i= = =i º· ¬lu= =· ==ri º· -=
¬i=i+i = = i= = · l=+i =+i:
=i+ +i= =i+ui+ ri =º: -·ri+ ¬º+ =i¤ ++i =  l++i- = 
= i·¤i = i ¤¤i -r = · ·i: =··i ri -·r === ¬i =+i l= 
==i¬i ¬i· ==i =  = · =i+ = Š+i += =i+ r¬i: ¬==· =i+,
l=== i +i= -==  ¤+ ==i¬i = =· === = ºiº =i+ +i=
¬==· =iºi =  +i= º· º‹·i r, =  º=  +a += =i· l=r
=·il‹·+i + ==i+i, `==i¬i = .==i+ ¬i· r+i = +=i =+i
·r=i r, -+= =i++·i = i l=º+ = i ==r l===i r ¬i·
Š+il=  + º‹·i º· l=º·i ri=i r, =i º‹·i = i = i·+i =i-= = ri
=i=i r: === .== ·i =i= +r r l=  :+=  = i·¤ === = ¤=+i
=i-= = ri =i=i r`: l=·r·, = l++i= ·, =i¤ ¬i· lo·¤i = i
==i = r= = =, =i=, ·- ¬i· = · l=== r, =i r=i· ¬iri·
= ¬+i= = i = =i = i º=  ºilr=  l+= ·º r: l=·r· =  º·ii =
º·i= =i =+=i r ¬i· == =+i+ =  = i= =i ¬i=i r:
==i =  o·= ri =i+ = ¬+ =  ·=·= +i= ·i= =i =o =º:
:+ ·=·=i = ==·i=, =i=·i=, = i=·i=, =‹·i =o·i, ri¤i
=i‹·i, º·i, =l=+i= ·, = i=i r··i, = i=i ==+, ==+i· ¬i·
===i == =r·+º¤ ¬i¤ui+ ºiui = i =·i· r¬i = ·=i ¤i:
+ri º· r· =i=i·i =  l=º :=i= l===i ¤i: º=  ==+ =, :=
¬+ = ºiº =i+ +i= -ì º= i· =  ¬i¤ui+ ºiui = = ¬= = +=
ì. = ì: ri =¤ r:
¬·+ -º+i=i º‹· + ºiu, == ¬i+=i, r·‹·, =·, · =·, ==
º·¤·, ¬i= ¬i· =i= =i ==== o·= ri =º ¬i· = = ===i
=i·.=+i =i: ”r=i· l=l¤= === r¬i = ·= ¤,” ·i=i· = 
=·º¤ u+ l=r = -·i= + = ri: `==== :. º=il=+i =  =‹·
º‹· r¬i = ·= ¤, l=== = ¬= = += :: º=il=+i ri =¤i r:
¬= r· r.=i· º‹·i = »:. =i= =  º‹· r:`
¬==i = ·= ¤i =·¬¤ =  l++= =+i+i: l=.·i º‹·i +i ==i = i
= ·i+ º· ·i= , ºl·º=  + ri+ º· ++iº= º= l+= = ·+ º·
·i= , ++ ¬l¢ ¬i· ¤i·i ·i= + =  l=º ===i = =-= ==i+i:
· = ·i·i º· =ir· = =.=·· =i+ º· ºl==u ==i+i =+i ¬i·
=i+ +i= =i ·o=i= =  ++iº= º= l+= = ·= ¤: -·ri+
¬i+=i, ¬i=, =i= ¬i· ¤i· =  º‹·i = i ºiui·iº¤ =i l= +i:
:==  ºl·¤i= =i ºi·=ilr= = ·+ +i= ¤: ·i=i, = ·r·i ¬i·
·=+i =·i+ =i+i = :..ì = :..: =  =i¤ -r l= º =º =·¬¤
º+i= =  =i+ =i= =  ¬·· ri =i=i=i = ºi+i +iº= ¬i =+i:
+r º+i= ì: =i+i = -r l= +i =+i ¤i: =i+ +i=i «i·i =·l¬=
:,:.. rŠ· +· ¬+ ++ = == ri =: º=il=+i l= · = º·i ri
·ri r: `¬= r= ===i = =io, ¤i·, =· = =, ===i ¬i·
= ·i l===i r,` ·i=i =  ¤i=  l=r +l·+i + ==i+i: = =-=-
= = :. =i=i ==  l+l+·+ =·¬¤ º+i= = ri +r === º+…
-+-¤ ri ºiº = :
=l= + =iuiº ¬i· l+·+ =i r: lº== = = =i=i = ++
¬lu= il·+i ¬i· =i+ +i=i =  =i¤ = º = ·i+ = i == · ==‹·i
¤= ·ri r - ++ l+=i= «i·i l++l== º‹· = ·i+ l=== l= 
º+=++ = i =‹·i+i l== - º· =i+ +i= = r= r l=  +r == ‹·i
l+= i=+ = i ºl= +i r: ·i=i = :..+ = = ·i+ =  l=º +...
º‹· l¤l•= l= º =º ¤: == =i+ +i=i + =i= = i l=  + o· º‹·i
= i l¤l•= = ·=, =i ++ l+=i= :: l= .=i. ··i =  ·=+i =·i+
=i+ = =.=·· = ¬i+i: º=  ·i=-+ ¬lu= i·i + r-=¬º l= +i
¬i· = = :.. º‹· ri = i· =º: ·=+i =·i+ = lº== =i=
l¤l•= º‹·i = = = += ¬iu ri = i·+ l·º =º: ·i=‹·i = ==
:..: = :... º‹·i = i = ·i+ = i ¤i¤¤i = i =: =i =i=i +
¬iºl·i -·i:: ==i ¬i· oi¤=i+ =·i =i·=i.=i =  =i· =r=
= = º‹· = i·+ l·º =º: ·i=‹·i =  =„i l=r + = ri, `¬iui ·= 
ri == ‹·i =+i`: ¬= º=  ¬i· =¤¤ = i =+i·i r: ·i=‹·i = 
l++il=+i + ==i+i r l=  ++ ¬lu= il·+i + ¬Š==· - ++=·
:..· = ¤º¤iº º=  = º = i l¤i·r= = · l=+i: ¬==·, ºi·i,
·i=i, = ·i+i+i, ==i·i=i ¬i· = ·ri· = =i º‹·-= ·i+ = 
=i== = l=‹·= = i l·ºi· l==i r:
¬l+= ==, º=  += i= l==+ ¬+ =  ++-=l= l·= i‹·i ¬i· = º
= º‹· = ·i+ = i ¬·+++ l= +i r, =  ¬+=i· l+=i= ¬=i =i
¬iºil++l-=  ++ º=u+ =·i= i =  ¬iui· º· == ‹·i = ·i+ º·
ri ·+i+ · ·ri r: =·+ º·- =  ==i l=.=i = i = i+= i·i
+i=+i¬i = ++ l+=i= + ¬i= ==  l=l¤= ===i = i ++l+·+
-=·i+ `++i = i =·r ri ·oi r: ¬lu= i·i ¬i= ==  +r =i+=
r l=  -+= i = i+= i·i +i=+i¬i = ==i¬i ¬i· ¬·+ ++l+·+
-=·i+` º=il=+i =  =··i¤ =  l=º = i: ºi+ui+ +ri r - +r
º=i º=il=+i r =i ==i¬i = i ¬i=il+= i¬i =  l=º ¬·+=
=r·+º¤ r: = = =+l+l+u=i º= iei = i =i‹·= ·, = i+= i·i
+i=+i¬i = :+ ==i¬i;==i =¤i ``== i·`` =il‹·+i, =i =i=
+ =i=+i+ =  =‹·+ = ¬‹·¤+ r, = i o·= = ·+ = i ==i+ l·+i
=+i r :
=i+ +i=i ¬i· ++ ¬lu= il·+i =  =i¤ = º = º‹· = ·i+ = 
=·i= i ¬i· = i+·i =  l+¤+ = =i ===· r: ¬lu= il·+i = i
= r+i r l=  +r º=  +-il+=  =·i= i r l=== i -¦-+ === = i
+l« = ·+i r ¬i· :== i == ‹·i l+= i=+ = = i: ==== +ri r:
º‹· = ·i+ ++-+u+ =  =·i=  =, l+-== ¬l== = i++iri = 
=i¤ l= +i =i=i r, l=== =+ = i º+=++ =  l=º ·i=  = · = i
=i=i r, ``l··i·i =  ++ =·= ¬lu= i·i ºi.=i.= === +
º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ … º=  ¬= i+ +i·= 
42
= ri: ==i¬i = i = r+i r l=  = º = ·i+ = =i·i l++i- ri=i
r:`` == = i: º‹· = i·i =i=i r =i == =i =· =i=i r: l=·=i
r¬i º‹· ¬i¤ui+ ºiui ¬i· =i· ºiu = i =i ·=i ·= r: :==
º¬i + +·+=i+ =i ·· =i= r ¬i· º+=++ = ··i ri=i r:
== ‹·i = =i+ +i= · =  =i =i· ºiui = i += =i+ ºr¤i= r,
``·i=‹·i =  =·º¤ ¬i· +ri =  ++ ¬·+++ ==r =  =lo+i
===i= l+=l++i = i = r+i r:``
=i+ +i= º‹·i = i = ·i+ =  l=º l+uil·= =iº·· = i =i ===
=i+= r, l=== = º=  r, =i= º‹·i = i =i=i: ì:. =··i=i··
ri+i: ¬lu= il·+i =  ¬+=i·, := -=· º· ºr¤= · º‹· =‹·+i
=· = · ·=i r ¬i· -º+i=i +ri ·r=i: =i+ +i=i = i = r+i r
l=  =i= =  º‹· :: =i= = := ¬i= i· ==  ºr¤= r: ¬i·
-+= i -= :== = ri .+i·i ri=i r: ``º·i+ º‹·i = º¬i, ==
¬i· +·+=i+ º== r,`` ·i=‹·i =  =„i l=r + = ri: =+i=
=Š-i, ++ l+=i= =  l=·+i‹·i i-¤= =i++ ==iu+ = ·· = 
l+·-=  ¬i· ++-ºl=-i-+i, = i = r+i r l=  =i= =  º‹· ì..
=i=i = =i .+i·i =i= r º· == -+= i =i=i: ì:. =.=i. ri
=i=i r, =i -+= i =+i =i¤ = oio=i ri+ ===i r, l===
-== i == ‹·i = i = i== = = ri =i=i r:
=+i=i = i++iri =  ·· = ==i¬i + = º = º‹· = ·i+ = i º·=i·
l+·iu +ri l= +i r, º· + =.i· ·= r l=  º‹· = ·i+ l++=i = 
¬iui· º· ¬i· -+= ¤¤i = ·=  = i =iº:
· i :.= +i· l·=·, ¬º¤i º„+i, ·i= + · ¬¤ , º= ·¤ ì:, ¬= 
ì·, : = ·+·i :..» = -al·= ¬-:
=i·i =+i= ¬il·+i=i ¤¤iº =i :=i º= i· = i ·iª= + =i¤ = i
+=i=i r: -== =i .+i·i ·iª= +i ·ri r ++ ¬lu= i·
¬lul+l+= = i =i·= =  ¬==-: ·+i+i=+i, ¬i· =+iƒ
·+i+i=+ = =i==i =  =i·+= = =··i¤ =-¤i¬i «i·i ¤+i=i
l·+i =i+i, l=== =i.º+.º¤.º=. =i º=  r: :+ +il¤= i¬i
=  ¬·+++ = º=i ¤==i r l=  = i= i ·=i= º¤=+i ``=ir‹·-
===`` ¬+ui·¤i º· ¬iuil·= r ¬i· ·…o = i =i= r l=  +
= i= i -i·=ª· +=+i·i ¬i· ¤=·i l++i··ii·i = =· r - l= 
=·¬¤ +-il+=  ¬i· -ƒ ¬lu= i·i == = i ==i =i+= r:
¬lu= i·i ¬i· =·i¤i· =  =¦ .+i·i=i· ¬+·o l·º =i= r:
=i¤ ri =·¬¤ +-il+= i «i·i :+ =¦i º· l=º =i ·r ¬+·+
l+¤+i =  ¬lu= i· ¬i· ¬il¤·+ º· =i = i: =+i= +ri -·=i:
l+-+=+i+=i r·= ri =i+i =i º=  =¦i r: =·¬¤ = r=-i =
ri = i= i º=i ·ri r ¬i· ¬= +r ¬i· =i =‹·i ·+iºi· =+=i =i
·ri r: =‹· º=i+ º· =‹·i =·¬¤ =-¤iº =‹· -=l=+i =  =i¤
=r=il==i = ·=i l·o ·ri r, l=== =¤== -=· º· -+= i
l+-+=+i+=i o·= ri=i =i ·ri r:
-
=== .+i·i º·¤¤ = ·+
+i=i = ºl++i =  º=u=  ¬lu= i·i º+i+¤i+ =-¤i¬i =  =i·
º· = i+·= r: = ·· .= ¬i=  · ¬¤ :··+-+=, l+-+ =  ===
=‹· =¤== ¬i·i=+, + ri= ri = :··+-+= +l+++ = i· +¤·
= ·.=·+-+ (¬i:.+.=i.º+.) = i =·-+=i =, -== i -= +
l·+i l···i = ºl++i =  =i¤ =i=·i·i =  = i·¤, ¬º+i +i=
+iº= = l=+i: + ·i+i = ºl++i = : ·-i = ¬º+i ¬=== -==
º¤il=+i ¬i· =i++ilu= i· r++ =  l=º =·+i= r:
:
¬i:.+.=i.º+. =  =i== = =+i r l=  == -+=  := l+¤+ = 
=i· = º=i =+i =i -·ri+ =· = =i =‹· -==i = i =·=+ = i
¬º+i ¬==i l·oi+ = i = il-- +ri = i: º=  ¬·= +i
¬i:.+.=i.º+. ·-=i+.= =  ¬+=i·, ¬=· -= + = i++i
= i++iri = i =i, `r= =r+ ¬il¤=  =r+i= (==== ì:. =io
·i=·) oi ·=`: `(¬i:.+.=i.º+. =  l=º) ¬+ºl¬= ¬il¤= 
º=i+ ri=:` ···+. ···+.º= . º· =i -== i ·i-·· · == = i·
l·-ºil=== =i+, =i+=··i º· l=·=··i = =l== i º· +.=· ·oi
=i ·ri r: -= := ·i-·· · == =  º· =·-+ =  = º = -+i= i·
= · l=+i =+i r, =i =i.º=.¬i. = i+= =i¬i =  ¬+=i·, ¬º+
¬iº = º=  l+·iui=i= r:
º=i ¬i· l+-i+ =ail==  = º = l+ªº¬ ri+ = i ·i+i +ri = ·
== =: ¬il¤=  =r+i= = i ·i=+il= ¬i· ¬·+++ + =++= i==
= i ¬il¤=  =r+il=+i «i·i º=il+= = ·+ = i ==i++i = i
¬i=i+i = +ri += i·i =i+i ¤ilrº: -·ir·¤=…, =ri º=  ¬i·
=i·= =  ¬lu= i- =·¬¤= =i¬i + ++ ¬lu= i· ¬lul++=
¬i· -==  ==il+= º=i+i = i =‹·-¤‹· = · l+·iu l= +i, +ri
·=·i ¬i· -·ri+ º+i+·¤ º+ ++ =+i=+ «i·i =r·+º¤
ºil·i-¤l== i =+ =  =‹· ¬-i = i ¬i=i+i = o·i+, º· i-
= l== =, =i=i+ -=i=i ¬i· ¬·+ -=i=i = i l·º =i+ = i = i:
l+·iu +ri l= +i r:
++ =·¬¤ ¬lul++=, ì»·. =  ¬=== ++i = i ¬·+ = i+i = 
l=º ·+ = ºr= = ··i+ =·= i· = i ¬+=l= =+i ¬l++i+ ri
=+i: ì»·ì =  =i· = rº =·-+il+= i = i+i =  l=º ++ =l= = 
r-=i=·¤ =  ¬i= ‹· +i¤ l·º =º r (rŠ· +· =)
·
:
ì»·ì - ì»». ::.»»ì :+ ºl=-=
ì»»ì - :... :+::+: :ì ºl=-=
:..ì - :..: -::»+ì :: ºl=-=
ì»·ì - :..: ìì+.::-
lº== ì. =i=i = :: ºl=-= r-=i=·¤ o·i+ =  l=º r¬i r:
:= ==+ = -=i=i =  l=º =i =‹·i =r+i = r-=i=·¤ l= +i
=+i r: ¬=· := ri= =  = = ¤i= i ·+ +i= ¬i= ‹·i = l==i+i
=iº (+i¤ = ie ·loº), l=== :..· = i ·ir i+ o·i+ +il= = 
=i· =··=i.=i = o·i+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i -+i= l= ·i =: r, =i
·- = =·¬¤ = i i-¤l= = =l+ª+ = = i= i = =.=i· ri=i +.=·
¬i=i r :
=i= - o
43
:..· = l·= i· ++ì o·i+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i -+i= l=; -:.»+
ºl=-= =‹·i=·i:
o·i+ ¬i· ¬·+ ==== =l+ui¬i = i ºl·+i=+i¬i = i .==i+
l·º =i+ =  lo=i=  ¬i·i=+i =  =i+=·; ·i=-¤i+, -‹·i=i,
= ¤i·= , =i+i, ¬iu º·-, =i·o·, =·ii==‹· ¬i· =ri·ir
·i+ o++ ºl·+i=+i¬i =  =r+ ==·+ =+ rº r: º+i+·¤ º+
++ =+i=+ + +¤ :..· = ++ì o++ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i -+i= l=
·i r, =i :..: = -+i= = :-» o++ ºl·+i=+i¬i = -:.»+
ºl=-= = i l·= i· =‹·= r:
++ì = = ==== :-» = º· =  · ·i+i = ri º-=il+= r: +r
-+i= l= :..- = i º+i+·¤ ¬=· ¬i= =+ ¬lul++= =  ¬===
·i =:: o++ -+i= l=+i =  ºi= =r+ = i·¤ +r r l=  = ·· +
ì: ol+=i =  o++ = i l+l= = ºl++i =  l=º oi= l·+i r, =i
ºr= = += =i+=l+=  ¬+ = i = ºl++i =  l=º ¬i·l¬= ¤:
:== = ƒi =iri, ==+i.=, = i= ¬i·, =·= ·, =i+i, ri·i,
=i=i, =i=i, =-=i, =il=··+=, · ·-·+, l==· ¬i· =l·+=
-il== r:
=l¤= ei= = º=i ¤=i l= , o++ -+i= l=+i = =‹·i=·i = i
=r+ = i·¤ = ··i+ =·= i· «i·i ¤il¤= :..· = i o++ +il= r:
:==  ¬l=l·Š=, = ·· -ƒ -=·i+ = l=l· = i l·ºi· =  ¬iui·
º· ·i+··i = i ·· =i =·=+ +i=i r: ¬il¤=  =ri+=i =-¤i+i
= =r+i= =+ =  l=º o++ º=  =i·+ =l=l+lu r: =l= +
¬i===  = += -·ri o++ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i l+·ii+ =ri+=i ·i
=: r, =i =‹· º=i+ º· o++ =-i+i, -º= ·¤i ¬i· =++i = i
-º+i= = ·= r:
=·= i· = i º-=i+ r l=  o++ l+= i= =¤i o++ =  º+
¬i+-+=  ¬·+++ =  l=º =i l+·ii+ =r+i= -º=·u = ·i+i
=iº: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, =·= i· + = : ¬·+ ºi·=ir=  =i
º-=il+= l= º r: ¤l=  o++ º=  =ilo= +Š= -== r, -=
ºl= =i.=i· = `=ilo= ·il-` ·i =i+i ¤ilrº: o++ = ºl++i
«i·i -r¬i=i ¬·+++i = i =‹·i+i l·+i =iº=i ¬i· -+= i
¬==-¬== .== ·=i = i º·i = ·+ = i = il-- = i =iº=i: -ƒ
·· +i=i ui=¬i ¬i· ·== ol+=i =  o++ + ¬·+++ =  l=º
l+·-i == +i=  ¬i· l+·-i =i=i·i·i =  l=º = il-- = i
=iº=i: =i·=i+ = ºl++i «i·i o++ = =r=i=i -==i =  l=º
l+·-i =·+i·==  l++-i = i =i ºi·=ilr= l= +i =iº=i:
==+ =i=, = i:+l-+= ºŠ=º= … : = ·+·i, :..», ==:,
http://www.fiancialexpress.com/news/a-record-444-
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419414-0
+u=i ¬i· l+-+=+i+=i =¦i =  ¬l=l·Š=, ++ -·i·+i·i =·+i
= +==i+ =·¬¤ ·i¤ l+lr= r: =i.=i· ¬iuil·= =·¬¤ = i
=i l+-+i= ¬i· =r·+ l·+i =i ·ri r, ¤ir +r := i º+·+ ri,
º+i+¤i+ =+i¬i = i ¬il¤=  =·+i= +, = i·=+ ·+iºi· +i ++i
··
»
(++i·==+ + ++ ¬+= ¤¤ =  = i·¤ ri+ +i= -·== = i
= = = ·+i - l·· += ºl=-·= = i= ·i= i·-· -+ º· = i·-·
·i=· -+) - :+ ==i =  ºi= == =i¤ +ri r l=  º=  =i· :·r
=i.=i·i =·+i = =iº l=+i =iº, =i -+=+ =i.=i· = i ==  o·
ri º+i+¤i+ ==-+i¬i = i r= = · ·=i: +r l+-+ ==  «i·i
¤=iº =i ·r = i+= =i = -ºr ri =i=i r, == =r=i=i ++
º=u+ ¬i· := i l+= i= ºl·+i=+i: ¬i· +ri ==  =·¬¤
=-¤iº =i º+i= = =i=i r - =·¬¤ º+i=i =  l=º ¬il¤= 
=r+i= =+ =  l=º: r=i·i =i++i r l=  º= l+lr= ==
l=ai=i =  º=i+i = i =·¬ªi +-il+= i «i·i :=i+·i·i = =i¤
= i =i+i ¤ilrº:
º º¤ +
¤¤ ¿+ = t ¤ ¤ n
+==i+ º+·+ ºl== º ¬i· +il=+i =¤i -+= i =+l+l+u=i +
=i=i =  ¬lu= i·i º· º=i+
lº== - ·-= i =, º+·+ l+-+ = i === =.=i = =‹·+ +i=i
¬il¤=  ¬+ =+ =+i r: ì»:. = :..: =  =i¤, ¬=·ir i+
º+·=  ¬i==+ ::. =io +il++i = =‹·= · ».:. =io ri =+i:
:.ì. ==  = i ¬+=i+ r l=  +r =r+i ì.,... =io ==  ºr¤
=iº=i ¬i· :.:. ==  ì-,... =io: =ri ì»:. = =+iƒ ì:
==·+i = ri »· ºl=-= ¬=·ir i+ º+·=  =i= ¤, +ri ì»:. =
+r ¤·= · :: ºl=-= ri =+i ¬i· :..: = :: ºl=-= ri ·r
=+i: :== i ==== +r r l=  := =i¤ = i= i +º ==·+ =+i·
rº r, =i .+i·i=· l+= i=-i= ·-i = r:
º+·+ º=  =r·+º¤ ¬=·ir i+ ·+iºi· ¤¤i =  = º = -=·i r:
¬i= ¬=·iri+ º+·+ =  =i·+= = r: ¬i+ :u+, ·=i++ ¬i·
+ir+ -·ºi· =  =i· ¤i¤ -¤i+ º· r:
:+ ¬i==+i = ri+ +i=i = = l++i= ¬i+ =i :=i ·= .=i·-
ºl=l·+ :.. = ·i‹· ·i=· = i ·· - = =‹·i r: :==  ¬+= º ri
=i·= = + ¬i= ‹· :..· = :.:: =io ¬=·ir i+ ¬i==+ ¬i·
= = r. :.,::. = ·i‹· = i ¬i=·+i r:
ì.
ri=il=  ==ª·=i+ ¬il¤=  ¬i= ‹·i = :== i =‹·i=· = il==
=i·i=  r, =l= + := ¬+ = i ¬º+i ¬i-¤·=i +i i-¤· +i= l·+i
=+i+ = :==  +i=·i+, =·i=i r·i+ = i :== i ¬==i +i :== 
rl·= ·i+ = º·i r ¬i· ==i+ = =· r:
º·+i = i = i: ºil·i-¤l== i =+ º=i +ri r l==+ º+·+ = 
º·l¤·r =r== + l= º ri: º+i+·¤ ¬i· ¬il·+i=i =¤i
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  += i·i·==  º=i+i = i =i+ =i
l=+i =+i r º· :+ ¬+i=+i+ º=i+i = i ·i= + =  l=º = i:
·i= = ·= +ri l=º =º r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, .+i·i=· º+·+
º= ¬+i = =‹· ·ri r =ri º= l= ¬º+i ¤·= =i=i º· r, =ri
º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ … º=  ¬= i+ +i·= 
44
ºr¤+i =i-= = r: + ¬+ ºi= l==  = º = =+·+-i= r =¤i
+ri = i =+l+l+u=i o=· = r:
=i·= = ·ir i+ -=i+i ¬i· +·+=i+ ¬-+i·¤+i = i := i º+·+
==·+i =  = º = =‹·i+i l·+i =i ·ri r: :..: = i ·ir i+ º+·+
+il= = -ºr l=oi r - `+·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+i ¬i· ·ir i+ -=i+i
= i =i·=i+ º+·+ -·ºi· = =r·+º¤ ¬= = i =·r -il==
= ·+i ¬i+-+=  r: = = -=i+i =  ºi¤l==  ¤+i+ =  =i· +ri
º· ¬l=l¤ º=·u+ l++i=+ = ·+ = i ºi¤l== =i ·i =i+i
¤ilrº`:
ì»:: =  +·+=i+ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++= =  ¬=== =·l¬= ¬+i
= º+·= i =  l=º =i ¬+=l= r, =l= + ·+i+=il+=  ºl=ei+i
=  l=º +ri: =i·=i+ +·+=i+ =i· , ·- = +·+=i+ =·¬¤ = 
l=º =+iƒ ==ir= i· =-¤i, + =++·i :..: = r: ¬º+i
:ì+i =·=  = º-=i+ ºil·= l= +i l=  ·ir i+ -=i+i ¬i·
¬-+i·ª+i = i =i=i =  ì. l= .=i. ¬+ = i := i =+·+-i= ·i+
¤il¤= l= +i =iº - +r º+i+·¤ (=··i¤) ¬lul++= =  oª·
: (V) ¬i· º+i+·¤ (=·¬i) l++=i =   l++= : -ºl++= :
(viii) ¬i · (x) =  ¬=== =i= r:” :==  =i+=·, = : =·l¬=
¬+i == l=  = i·=·, ·¤¤==i·, =iu+=‹·, = i·ri, ·i=i+
=iui +i=·ri=, =i·iº·i, =·==i: ¬i· ºl·+i· = ·i=  -+= i
=i=i¬i =  ¬·· º+·+ ºl=ei+i = i =·=i· r:
++ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ì»·. = i ui·i :(d) =  ¬===, ++
¬+ = =· +il+= i = i+i º· ºl==u r, == ==  l=  = ··i+
=·= i· = -== i -+i= l= + =i =: ri: ¬=… º+·+ · ·. ·i-= =
=== =  ¬·· º+- = ·=i r: := ºl·=i¤i = =· +il+= i = i+
= i ºl·=i¤i r - =i = i+ =·¬¤ = =ri+=  + ri: ¬=…+r == 
·= · º+·+ = ºi= ·i=-+ = i =·¬¤ =  l=º -º+i= l= +i =i
== =i r: º+·+ + ===i = º+- ºi l=+i r, ==l=  +r -ºr
= º = =· +il+= i -¦-+ ·o=i r: ¬= =i ++ l+=i= =i º+·+
= i =‹·i+i · ·ri r ¬i· o· :== i l= +i·+++ = · ·ri r: = :
·i+i = ¬== := i º+·+ º= ie -¤ilº= l= º =º r: =l= +
=r= = = º= iei =  ºi= =··i¤ º+ =+l+l+u=i º· º+·+ = i
º=i+ +iº+ =  l=º -ºr ·¤+il= +i = i++i=+i r: :..- = i
·ir i+ º+i+·¤ +il= =i = : =+·+-i= ºil··-¤l== i+ =+i =
:= i º+·+ = i =‹·i+i · ·ri r ¬i· -==  += i·i·==  º=i+i º·
= i: ·+i+ +ri r:
= i·=· = =i¤ = i +·=¬i ¤il¤= l= +i =+i, ++ l+=i= +
º+·= i =  ·=i+ = i ·i¤i ·r·i+i
= i·=· ·ir i+ -=i+ = ==i=i· =‹·= º+·= i =  ·=i+ = 
ºl·¤i= =i=+ ¬i+ == r - == º=  =i¤ = i ``+·=·ii``
¤il¤= = · l·+i =+i: -·i·io· ++ l+=i= + +r =i+i r l= 
-·i· =i·= = i =·i: ¬+, l=== l+-+ = i === ¤+i =i¤
=+=r+i r, = ¬º+ -=· º· =i++-=i++· =·=‹· = i i-¤l=
=+=i =i ·ri r:
=i¤ = i +·=¬i == ¤il¤= l= +i =+i == -=+ == · ¬+ =
=: º=  =lr=i º· r==i l= +i: :== ºr= =i := =i¤ +
=i··=i:l= = º· =+i· ·i =i=i º· r==i l= +i ¤i: ”¬=
r=i· ºi= := i-¤l= = l+º·+ =  l=º ==i l+= ·º r: ¬=·
-= º= ‹·i + =i == i =i -= =i· l·+i =iº=i, = i·=· ¬i·l¬=
¬+ =  l+·-=  l++i· l=¤= + = ri: =l= + -+= i = r+i r l= 
==-+i =i++ ·l¤= ri r:
+r =i¤ (º+·= i = i =iº) ril¤+i = i =i=·=i º=· +ri
= ·=i ¤i ¬i· -+ º· r==i = ·=i ¤i: ui· ui· -== i =+ª+i
= i ·· o·= ri =+i: -=i+ = º+·+ = = i= i ==-+i r: :== i
l++l+= l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº, -·ri+ =i‹·i:
: l·++ ºŠ=º = = ºr= o=· ¬i: ¤i l=  l= = º= i· = i·=· =
=‹·=i º+·=  ºl=ei+i = i =r+i =  = i·¤, =i¤ =·¬¤ = i+
º· º=i+ º‹· ·ri r, ¤l=  = i·=· l+-+ =  ºl=a =i¤ ¬i·l¬=
¬+i = l=+i =i+ ==i r:
+ri l=r, » = ·+·i, :..» http://www. indianexpress.com/
news/tiger-declared-maneater-in-corbett-forest-dept-
blames-tourist-pressure/420907
=·l¬= ¬+i =  ¬·· ``º+·+ =·=i`` =  =++ = =··i¤ = 
-¦-+i ¬i· l+-¤ilº= ==·i+i =  ¬lu= i·i =  =i¤ ¬=«« ¬i·
=i =‹·=i =i ·ri r: :==  = i·¤ ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º =
=+·+-i= ¬+i = ==·=i+ -=i= = i -ºi-¤l= = i +u=i ·+
= i ºl= +i -=  ri =: r, ==l=  ¬il·+il=+i ¬i· -¤i+i+
==·i+i = i ¬i= i==  = º = ++i = l+= i=i =+i: :Š+-·=«i·i
-·i·ioª· (= i·=·) =·+ º·- (=iu+=‹·, º¤, = i·ri),
= ¤i·=  (+i=·ri=) ¬i· =·ii==‹· =  l+l=·+ =·l¬= ¬+i =
l= º =i ·r ¬·+++ =  ·i·i+ =i :+ ¬+i = =i=i = i r·i+i
=i ·ri ¤i:
º+·+ º=  º=i = i+¬+ r =i º·i =·r ºi= l==  º=i
(=i++i+ =¤i ºil·-¤l== i+) º· ¬iuil·= r: ¬i· :=l=º :=
=·= = ====i = i =¦i =r= ¬i+-+=  r: -i=ª·=i+ -=· º·
º+·+ º+i+·¤ ¬===ui = =‹·=i = l¤ º· ·+i+ ·+i .== ·i ri
=+i r: oi== · º+·+ ¬i· =i==i =·=i+i =  =i¤ = l‹·+i = 
l+¤+i = =‹·=i l¤=i =  =·= =: ¬i· :=i =·= = º=  ¬i·
º+l·i =·= ==i l·o=i r == ====i =  =+i= º· º+·+ =
+==· = i ºr= =‹· =i=i r: ===i =  +i= º· +il= l+=i=i
-ƒ = i== +i= = = º+·= i = i =i= = ·= r: =i·= = i = :
º+·+ +il=+i º+ l++i=+ ·-=i+=.i = +r =i· =i· ·ir·i+i
=+i r: +r º=  º= i· = i ++ -ºl++-+i·i =i¤ = i rl·=
= i·¤i =  += i= = º- = ·+ = i = il-- r, Š+il=  :== = +=
o¤ = ·+ = i ¬==i =  ¬iui· º· ri +i+i = ·+ = i +i·+=i = i
=i= - o
45
=i‹·i =+i r: º+i+¤i+ l++i- = i =ƒi: = i =i=+i = ·+ = 
l=º .== ·i r l=  := º= i· =  l=ai=i =  º=i+i = i ==== ·
:·r =i‹·i =iº:
¬i· ¬lu=  ==ª·=i+ -=· º· º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+ +i=i º+
-=i= =-¤iº, == l=  +·· · += º· · l·= = i-i·== =¤i
+.º+. +·· · l·= ¬i·=+i:=-+, l+·=· ==ª·=i+ l·-i
l+·- ¬i· ===i=i = i =ri·i == · ri ====i ¬i· º+i+·¤
=  ºl= ¬º+i +¤+ =a=i = i l·oi++i = ·=i ·ri r: .== ·i r
l=  r= :+ ·-=i+=.i = i ·+i+ = º‹· Š+il=  :+= = i= i
=i+= il·+i r: º+·+ = =‹· =r+ ==ª·=i+ ·-=i+=.i = ·i
=r+ l+¤i· ui·iº º¤l== r …
l=  + -+=+ =i=.i· =  == = i =‹·i+i ·= r ¬i· ·+iºi·
+ l++- =  ¬+ = l·+i+=i = i o·= = ·+i ¤ir= r:
l=  º+i= -+i·==  ¬i· -=i= «i·i l+·l-= ri:
+ri == =·+ ì»»: =  · += º· · l·= :·-· i = i = i+=¤i =
:ì+i =r+i º· r (=i l=  l·+i -·¤iªi¤i =  =+i= = =+i·
l= +i =+i): +ri =·+ +.º+.···+.·i.¬i. = i ==ª·=i+
¬i¤i· =lr=i (:..ì) =  =i = ··i+ =·+ r: +ri = =i-+ ¬i+
=i+i·i++l=l· (=i.=.·i.) =  l=º =i =i= r: =i.=i.·i = 
º+·+ ¬i· =+l+l+u=i¬i º· l·-i l+·-i = i = ¬i=i =º·
=, :..+ = r: =·=  =, =¤== =-¤i¬i ¬i· ¬il·+i=i =i=i
=  ¬i·i=+i =  =i+=· -+i= l= · ·i =:: :+ l·-i l+·-i =
=i=i = i =+l+l+u=i =  l=º o=· =  = º = ·oi =+i r: ¬i·
:+= ==i+ l·+i =+i r l=  º+·+ = ºi= ·i=-+ = ri =·i=i,
¬i· ¬=… =+l+l+u=i, =  o=· = = l= º =i == = r: º+·+
=  l+++¤, ·i= ¤i= + º=·u+, oi== · =+·+-i= ¬+i = 
l+¤+ =, = i: ==i+ +ri r: ¬il·+i=i ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i, =i
:+ =+l+l+u=i +i= ¬+i = ·r= ¬iº r, = i = i== º· l+=i
¬+ ¬i· = ºl++i =  º¬ = ==i+ l·º =º r:
¬º+ ·- = º+·+ =+i=+ + o· = i l= =i =i º= i· =  l+++¤
= i =l== i = ¬i=.i· = · l=+i r ¬i· +r = += l+-iº+
¬l=+i+i =  ·++-¤iº=  = i =·r ri o· = i ·o=i r: º+i+·¤
º+ ++ =+i=+ = i =·¬¤= =i ¬i· l+++¤ = =l== i º· +=
=i = i: l+-+i= +ri ·r =+i r: -·ir·¤i º· -·ir·¤ = =i= 
+=.· ¬i=i r l=  -+i·==  º+i= +i -+-l++i=+ =i = i·=·
+ri r, Š+il=  + = += ¬º+ lr= = = i+ = ·= r ¬i· = =
+ri: º+·+ -=i= + ¬º¬i= = º=  rl·= =oi· = i =l+ =+i:
r: r, +l· -== i == i==i ¬·+ -=i=i == o++ ¬i· == +
== = l= +i =iº: :=l=º +r ¬+ === = = l++l+= ¬+ =i
r: +r r= i= = r l=  =·i+ l+++¤ ·i+ ¬lu=¤+i
(=i.¬i·.=·) ì»»ì, l== º+i+·¤ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++=
ì»·- =  ¬=== =i·i l= +i =+i ¤i, = i = ==.i· = ·+ = i
ºr=i =i= º+·+ -=i= = ri ¬i: ¤i - + ``l+= i= ·lr=
¬+`` =  ºi+ui+ = ==i=i· ·i= = i =i= = · ·r ¤: :==  =i·
==== :ì =-iu+i (=+ = ·¤) =  =i·, l+= i= ¬i· =·i+
ºil·i-¤l== i =  =i¤ =‹·i: =, ¬ilo·= i· l+= i= = i ri =i=
r::
º+·+ -=i= + ==i =·i+ ·i+i = =i.¬i·.=·. l++=i = i
o=¬i= -„¤+ l= +i r - l=== ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º =
=+·+-i= ºil·i-¤l== i =+ == ¬·=i+ «iº ==r -il== r:
= ·= =, -¤i+i+ -+-i=+ l+=i= =  ¤i= =i o· = l+l=.==
º¤i+=, =ri ºl=a ==· =· ==·+ = i+== i-¤= r, =
¬+ilu= = l+=i¤ ¬i· =i.¬i·.=·. == = ·+ =  ì:.. =i==
=i=+ ¬iº: =i·= =  l+++=  ¬i· =ri=oi º·i¬=  = i ·- =
·=+i=i ·ir= + º++i= +i=+i¬i = i l·ºi· = -ºr = º = ++
º+ º++·¤ =+i=+ = i =i.¬i·.=· = i = ‹· = º = =i= +
= ·+ ¬i· ·- = i =·i+ ·oi º· ¬i=il==  =l=l+lu+i = i =r+i
=‹·+ =  = i·¤ :=+ =‹· -=· º· =i+=i= = i ril+ ri+ = i
l=.·=·i· ·r·i+i =+i r (=i.º.=i., :..-): =l= + l= · =i
º+·+ -=i= «i·i =·i+ ¬+ l+++¤ l++=i =  l+ra º+·+
=l+uiº =+i+ =  ·=i+ = i = ··i+ + ·i+, ·i+i -=·i =  +il=
l+ui·= i ¬i· l++i== i, =i :+ l+++¤ l++=i = i º·i+i ¬i·
l+= i= l+·iui =i+= r, = o=i =r+i= l== ·ri r:
:= º= i· =+i=·i·i = = · l·º =i+ = i º=  -·= r -·ir·¤ r
º+·+ = i º+i+·¤ ¬=· ¬i= =+ (:.¬i:.º.) ¬lu=¤+i = 
¬=== :.¬i:.º. = = ·: +r ¬lu¤i¤¤i º+i+·¤ (=··i¤)
¬lul++= ì»·- =  ¬=== =i·i = i =: r: =i·= = ==i
ºl·+i=+i¬i =  l=º ì»»+ = :.¬i:.º. ¬l++i+ = · ·i =: ¤i,
l=== i -¦-+ ¤i l=  ºl·+i=+i¬i =  ==il+= º+i+¤i+
º-ii+i = i ºr= ri ¬+=i+ ==i = · -·r = = = ·+ =  =·i= 
· · =i == : ¬i· ¬=· +r º=i+ .== ·= = .+i·i ri, =i :+
ºl·+i=+i¬i = i -+i= l= + ·i =iº: º+i+·¤ º+ ++ =+i=+
= i :..- = i ¬lu=¤+i = º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i :.¬i:.º.
= ·+ ¬i· = ··i+ =·= i· = i -+i= l= =+ =  l=º ¬l++i+ =¤i
= r·i l·+i =+i: +r º=  ºi= = i ¬i· l=+i =+i = ·= r,
Š+il=  º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i =  º+i+¤i+, =i=il== , ¬il¤= 
º+ ·i=+l==  = º = += i·i·==  º=i+ ºr= = ri -·iilº=
l= º =i ¤=  r: := = ·= =  =i· +=.· ¬i ·ri r l=  ¬=·ir i+
l+·ii+ =-¤i+, == l=  ºl-+i: l+= i= == , =‹·i =‹·i
¬+=·¤+i ºl·+i=+iº ¤º¤iº u= = ·ri r - == l=  -·i·-
º+i ¬+i =, l=+ º· º+·+ = i ·ºi ==i ri+ =  = i·¤ = =
=i¤ = i =iº=i: +r ¬== = º=  o=·+i=  ºl= +i r ¬i· :=
º· +=.· ·o+ = i .== ·= r:
¤ºt |¤tºt r
=··i¤ -iu= =i¬i, +il= l+=i=i¬i, ¬=·ir i+ ¬il¤= 
=r+i= + ¬·+ ==ª·=i+ =-¤i+i, ¬=·ir i+ + ·ir i+ =·
º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ … º=  ¬= i+ +i·= 
46
=·= i·i =-¤i¬i + º+·+ -=i= =  l=º = = ·l+uiº, =+i=
¬i · ¤ +i l=+i
++-·i·+i·i ==ª·=i= ·¤ =  ·i¤ ¬i· l=ai=, =i +==i+
==+ = =·¬¤ = i =i¤ + = i+i = i = i= i r· ==  º=il+= = ·
·r r, + +il=== =¦i + ==i= =  º=  =‹· =i= =  ¬lu= i·i = i
··l= +i· = · ·r r - -+=  ¬lu= i· =i ºi= l==  ==iu+i +
=+l+l+u=i =  ¬== =·¬¤= =i r ¬i· -+ º· l+=· r: +
=·¬¤ ¬i· =+l+l+u=i º· ¬== = º‹·+ +i= º=i+i = i =i
·· l= +i· = · ·= r:
Š+i =·¬¤ +-il+=  ¬º+ +-il+=  -i+ = i =i=i =i¤= · :+
==iu+i =  == ·i+·i·i = i =i= =++ = i, -+= =io+ + ¤¤i
= ·+ =  l=º =+i· r´
:=i =·r, Š+i º+·+ +il= l+ui·= , l+++=  ¬i· l= +i·+++
= ·+ +i= º=i = ·+ = i =+i· r´ ¬=· +ri, =i === =l+ª+
= i ==i++i = i= i uu=i l·o=i r:
= += ====i = i rl·= =¦i = =i‹·+i = i= i +ri r: .== ·i r
l=  r= º+i+¤i+ ====i =  ºui+ ¬+-¤iº+ = º=  ·+i+il¤=
====i = i ¬i· =‹· - º=  º=i ·i-=i ¬º+iº =i º·+¬ = º =
·+i+, =·+=i ¬i· º+i+·¤ º· º= = º=i = =.i· ·:
ì:-ì» = ·+·i :..» = i ====  = =i·= +¤·= lr-· i =i=i+·i
= i ì::+i +¤=i· º· ¬i+il== ¬=·ir i+ ==iei ``= =l+=
=i+i·i++l=·i :+ ¬ ·=i==i:l== :l·+i `` =  =+ · l·. =,
· ·, ·=i·=i:=.-+ … :·ºŠ· = ¬i+ =i+i·i++l=·i = º l¤=
=r+ =ail==  º-= ¤:
¬|º¤ |¿·¤¬t …
1.
+i¬i=i Š=i+ º=  = +·i = i º+= i·, =o=  + = i+= =i r, =i
= i·ºi·· ·=i==i:=-+ =  ·i=+l==  l+-=¤¤ + ==i¬i =  l=º
=i+i =i=i r :
2.
=· ==l···= … · l=¤ ¬i=  · · º· · =i= · lr-· i ¬i= 
= lº·=l==, ·=·==·i º= :..::
3.
http://www.sustainabledevelopment.in/sustainability-
awards/winner-08.htm
4.
=i=  ·i+i, ``= ·.=·+-+ l·º+=i=. ``, ¬·+i+ ì+, º ·i·i: =
+i= … :i··=i+= ºiº·= ·l=.-· = · := i+il==  ·=i==i:.=-+,
:··+-+= = i·= ¬i+ ·=i==i:.=-+, :..::
5.
:Š+-·=, :..: =i
6.
-=l=+i ¬i· -=i=i =  =i¤ = i= = ·+ +i= º+i+·¤ ==ri
= i =r+i =‹·=i =i ·ri r: + ·i+i = ·= r l=  + :+ -==i = i
=·=+ = i = il-- = · ·r r: (http://
www.multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1990/03/
donahue.html)
7.
¬Š==·, :..: =, ¬i:.+.=i.º+. + ·i+= ·¤ -= +i==  ==
=  º+i =   =i¤ ===i =i l= +i l=== i -¦ ª+ ¤i =  º+i =  
=+l+l+u=i =·¬¤ = i+i = i =‹·i+i ¬i· ¬i:.+.=i.º+. = i
l+¤i= = i·ºi·-+i = i ¬i· ¬lu=  º+i+·¤ l=·=·il·+i =  l=º
+=il+= = ·+ = i ·i==i = i =-Š= = ·+i: :=i += i· = i =i=·i·i
rii·==, ==ª·=i+ -=· º· =i=· =¤+ +i=i === =‹·i = º+i,
¬i· ri·=, = i= = i == = º+i =  =i¤ =i = i =:, ¬i· ¬=i l·+i
l=··i, l+-+ = i === =‹·i = i+=i o=+ = º+i =  =i¤ ===i=
º· l+¤i· ¤= ·ri r :
=i= - o
47
¬i:.+.=i.º+. l+-+ = i === º·i+i ¬i· === =‹·i ==ª·=i+
º+i+·¤ +·+=  r: +r º=  =i= =il+=  =·-+=i =¤ r l===
ì... = .+i·i =·= i· ¬i· =·- =·= i·i =-¤i+ =·-+ r, ¬i·
ì-. ·-i = ìì... = ¬lu=  -+i·==  +-il+=  r: :¤ = º+i
== =  =i¤ =i=·i·i = i =··i -=  = ri l++il·= ·ri: =· =·= i·i
=-¤i¬i =  º=  ==r l=== = ·· = ¬i=  · ¬¤ :·=-+=, ·
+··=· = =i=i:·i = i· +¤· º· º·+i+·+=·, · l=º·i Š=+ ¬i·
:¤ = -¤ilº= º+i+¤i+ º+ l+= i= =+i- = i =-¤i =i¤ º··=,
+ :== i l+·iu l= +i: :+ =· =·= i·i =-¤i¬i =  ¬+=i· -= = 
l= +i= =iºi =  =‹· -=· º· =i=il==  º+ º+i+¤i+ += i·i·== 
+=i+ r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, == l+= i=+ = +=il+= ==·i+i = i
==-+i¬i = i := = ·+ =  ¬+ = -= = i = i= i =·i l·= i· r,
-·ir·¤ =  l=º +i:=· · ··i =, =ri =i·-=i· +i+·i = ·+ = 
=i+=· -= = == ==i+ = i +l= +i = i =· +ri l= +i r: -= +
+·iºi++ +l+++ = i = i·=+ ·i+iŠ=i:· º=i-+ = = = ·+ = i
+i=+i¬i = i =i =i++ = := i· = · l·+i ¬i· +r =‹· ¤‹·= ·
= +·i =  ¬·+= +·¤¤= i·i ==i+ ·l=-=i+i = l++- = · ·ri r:
=i¤ ri ¬i= l·=  = =i == = i oi= = i +i=+i =+i ·ri r:
8.
º+i+·¤ =-¤i = ·º+·i + =¤+i =  ¬lu= i· =  ¬=== º+i+·¤
º+ ++ =+i=+ = +r ¬i= ‹· +i= l= º:
9.
+il=- l+=i=i, =·¬¤= =i ¬i· +-il+= i = i ·· = =‹·i = ¤i
-·=i· r - l=  +r += ·¤, =i ++i·==+ + ++ ¬º= ¤¤ = ri+
+i= -·== = i = = = ·+ =  l=º ·-i = i ¬l= ºl= = ·+ =  l=º
=+i+i =+i r, = -ª¤ ·-i = i =i·i l+=i+ =r+i= l===i, l===
+¤i- ++i =  =·¬¤ ¬i· =·i= =i=i¤ ==·i+i =  ¬il¤=  =i=
=  l=º = i= l= +i =i == =i:
10.
ei= … +.º+.···+.·i.¬i. =¤i º+·+ =+i=+, =i·= =·= i·
nº¤ …
:= -·=, :..:, =i+i·i++l=·i º· · l·=+ =i:·=i:·= :+
· = ·++-+ ¬i+ =i+i=il== = ·i++l=·i, ¬ ºi=i-+
ºº·, :Š+-·=, ==== :
:Š+-·=, :..: º, := i· l·=+ º= ¬ =i= ·- =-·
= ·=·+-+ -= i= ºi·=i-· = = i:+i·-¬= :+=i···= = i·
=i= ·- =-· = =·+-+ -= i·= º· :·ºŠ·= ¬i+ = ·+l+l·
=-· = =·+-+ :l+l-ºl··=… ·i¬i := i· l·= · +=º=·
= lº==i:== ¬i+ ºl·=i= ·· ¬i· = ·i+·· º· · = i-·
¬i=  = ·+l+·i= :+ :l·+i ¬=il= = ºº·,
:Š+-·===== :
:Š+-·=:..: =i, · · l·-· +== ··; · ¬il·+i=i º·=i:··
...... ¬+=i-= · … l·º=Š-·= ¬i+ · l··= :·ºŠ· = ¬i+
:l·=i+= = ·+l+·i = :+ :l·+i :·+-·=, ==== :
:Š+-·=:..· º, +i· :+ =i+ == +i· ¦ ri¬i =++=· = º·
:·-· i r+ +i-· ·+· r·· = ¬i=  l·-ºil=l+=i·i :+ · l·= …
º·-=il·= :l·++ l·º=i·i= , :·+-·=, ==== :
:Š+-·= :..· +i, +i =i· ril=· = = i= ¬= i-·· l+l=·i:
+i +i· -· i·=· º··i+·+=··= ·==-+ = i· · l·=: l+-+
º+·+ l·+= º· =i·i l= +i =+i +Š=·+, := -·=, ==== :
:Š+-·=, :..· =i, l==·=i:=-+ ¬i=  · · l·= =Š·· ¤
:l·+i= º·===·· = :+ ¬i·.·i.º. º· =i.·i.º. …
ºŠ=.il=l+= -= iº º· ºi· l-¬= :·ºŠ·= (+i= º):
º+·+, ·+iºi· ¬i· ==ª·=i= ·¤ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ … º=  ¬= i+ +i·= 
48
=ir· r= =i·o· =  =i=i =  l=º
r=i·i =i¤i =  º=  l==  º=  -·· ri+ = =·. = · r...
... =ir· º=  =.=i= r, º=  =+i+l·i, º=  ¬r=i= r
¬i· -+i==, ¬i=i·, º-=i, º= =i º+
==i=i =  =i+i = i ¬l=·+ln  r
...+r º=  -·· r l=== i r= =++¤=
º+i= == = ·= r == r= º=  ·=· = ºr=i =i· l=== r...
... r=+ =·r =ir· = ri
=l= + r=i· =i= º+ +·+, r=i·i =i¤i ¬i· =i= = ¤iº
=i+ º-== i=+i = == l= =i=i =  º·+ r
l==º· ¬iº=  =i++-i=i l+¤i·-l+=¤ = ·= r:
:= =·r, ¬iº+ r=i· :l=ri= = i l+= = = · l·+i:
¬iº r=i·i =-= l= = i === ·+ir+i = ·= r,
¬i· := ¬º+ l+-+l+=i=+i º+ ==i+i·i = l== + = i +-=
=+i l·+i r
r=+ ¬iº= i =ir· = ri....
(`=ir·` = l+=i = -·a=-=i++ ¬lu= i·i = ==lu= =i·o·i
=-¤i¬i = i ¤i¤¤i-º+)
r+i: =  l++i=i
ì
= = ¤·=+ = r= r, ·-= =i=i = i ¬º+i
= i: =-= l= +ri ri=i, +i ri + º+·+ = i =·. i+i ·= r: =·.
+i+i =-¤i+ ¬º+i = i= ¬i= · = ·= r, l= · º=  l·+ ·-=
=i=i = i ¬º+ ri= º· =i·. = · ¤= ·= r: r= º=  ·-=
l¤l·. +i¤· =+ =º r, ¬i· = :== i = ·. i l+·iu = ·=i r:
=i=i =  ==i= i·· ·i= i = ··+i=i = r= r, ``= = º+·=  º+
==¤ º· ¬iº =i= l=+i r=i· ·il=-l·+i=i = i === r=i·
=i=il==  º+ uil==  ¬i+i=+i = = i·i oi¤+ =  -¦-+ =
-·i=  ri =i= r: + º=i ==i+ = ·= r =i+i = ¿i =+i+ ¬iº
ri :``
¬i==+ = · l·-· =i:· = º+·+ º· l+= = =i=i = i =i·i =il·-
+i= ===i = = =i+ = i · = i == r: º+·=  -+=  ºi= ·-=
z.
¤¤ ¿= t = t t¤t¤º;
¬t|º¤t|n¤t = t |+º= tn+
¤ttºt¤ º n¬ n¤ ºt¤t ¤t ¤¤ ¿+ =  
¤ ¤t¤t ¤t |¤-º+ sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
z««:
=i+i = ¤= =i= r, l= · +ri =  -¤i+i+ ºl·+i·i =  =i¤ ·r+
= i =i= = ·= r, -+= i oi+i oi= r =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i =
¬i-i = ·= r l=  + -+= i =+i·=+ =i = ·: =l= + =i+ = i
=i·. + = ºr= l==  ¤i·. i =i l·oi+ = i ===i+ = ·= r:
·+=i=· =  ·i= iri·i ==i=+, º=  =i¬i·i =  ¬+=i·, r=
==+i+ = ··+ +i=, =·. ¬i·i= = ·r+ +i= ==·i+ r: =·.
=i¬i·i +: ºi·. i =  =i=i = i º¤· ==i++i¬i = ºl·º¤ ¬º+i
=-= l= = i l-¬i ·+ = i = il-- = · ·r r +ri ==  l=  =r= =
+·iºi++ =i = : ºil·. +i = +ri ·r ·r r, r=i· =i· = =r=
= = =i+= r: ¬i=, º+·+ =  «i·i =i=i = i ==a =i¬i·i
=-= l= º+ ·il=-l·+i=i =  =i· = =i+= i·i l==i r:
=i·= = i ·-= ¬i=i·i =i = = =+=r+i = i ·.: ºl=-= r
:
º+ l=+= i =i++ =i-= l== , =i¤i:, =i++--=i º+
= =i·==  l+l+u=i = ¬i=-ºi= r, º+·+ =  = º = -+ º·
ri+ +i= r== = i == i==i = ·+ =  l=º =+i· ri ·r r: +r
=o ·-= =i=i =  =¤¤i =  l+¤+ º· ri ·r l¤=+ = i = o
º+·+ = i ¬i· =i·. = · := ºi=l==  =+i ·ri r - l+…=·r
º+·+ + l+l=·+ = ºi = :+=  -i¤¤, l+-¤iº+ º+ =r+ui·i =
l+==+ = +i=·i+ l·+i r: +r =o := l+¤+ = i =i+ =i=i =
l+=n  = · ¤¤i = ·=i r - ºr=i =i= ·-= ==·i+i º· º+·+
=  ri ·r +=i+i = i =i+ l=··¬i - -i¤¤, l+-¤iº+ ¬i· =i=
= lr-=·i·i º· = i··= = ·, =i·= º+ ºl-+i, ·l¬¤ ¬=l·= i
¬i· ¬= i= i =  =i=·il+=  ¬+=+i =  -·ir·¤i =  =¦+=·
-+= i ·+ir+i = ·=i r: =i= ·i º+·+ = i ·-= ==·i+ º·
ri++i= +=i+i º+ -·º·+ l++i·i = ==lu= ¬=·ir i+ l·-i-
l+·-i = i oi= i º-== = ·=i r: =i= =i+ º+·+ = ==lu=
=i·= = i +==i+ = i +il=+i º+ = i++i ·i¤i = i l+-=¤¤
= ·=i r ¬i· +r =i =i++ = i = il-- = ·=i r l=  + l= =
º= i· º+·+ = =·. l+¤+i º+ ==i++i¬i = i ·+ir+i = ·= r:
49
¤ ¤¤ ¤t¤
¤¤¿+ + |¤º¤ ¤t ¤ ºn¬ n¤ºt¤t = t |= n ¤= tt
¤¤t|¤º |= ¤t r?
·-= = i º·¤+
º+·+ =  l=º ·-= =l= = i =l¬= = ·+ =  ¤=+ =  ºl=
¬i=ir = ·= rº, · =i·ir == =i· + º=  ·-=  º+ l=oi r,
:
l+º¤+ ¤=+ º=.=i+, lr=i=+, -·i·i ¤i:=· = i ºril·. +i,
¬= i= i =  =+=il=+ ¬+i º+ = +i·i ¬i· ¬i-· l=+i = i
¬il·= ¬+i = i ¬i· :-i·i = ·=i r: º+·+ = i =·. i+i ·++i=i
l+-iº+, :+ ¬+i =  l++il=+i = i º= ·+ln +i = i =·r =i+-
== = · º- = ·=i r =i ===i-i = =·º· ri, =-= ·i= ri,
·i-=i =  :·= =  ri º+ l= =i = i =i =ilo= = ·i=+ +i= +ri
ri.... º= =i= =i ¤iº== ri ¬i· ·=·i = i -+i== =  l=º
¬i=· ·r= ri... º+·= i = i ¬i+· ºr¤i+ =  l=º +ri
ri...... º+·+ =-= l=+i = i l+= + = ·=i r - r=i = ·+iº,
=·= = =+=i=i+ =i=, ºl-++ ºri·. i =i= º+ ¬=l·= i
l++i=i º+·+ =  = = ¬i=i¤= i = i +r =i =i++i r l=  ==
r= º+·+ º· =i= r, r= º=  -·ºi· = i o·i·= r, º=i -·ºi·
l=== ·+ln  -il== ri:
l+·-i== º+·+ º+ ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ + ·-= =i=i = i
==a º+ =r¬i+i=i =-= l=+i = i ¬i· ·+i+ =i ¬i= l¤=
l= +i r, =l= + :+= i l+º¤+ º+ º-=l= := =·r l= +i r
l=== :+= i =-= l=+i l+= = ri, ºi·ºl·=  ·il=-l·+i=
l+·+i= = ri º+ ·-= ==·i+i = i =-=i ¤i= =¤+ +i=
ri=i+· = ¤i+=  = i ºi+ =+i l·+i r:
+
+r l+l++i· =·+ r l=  º+·+ + =i·= = ·-= =i=i º+ -+= i
=-= l=+i = i l+= + r= º·l-= l= +i r: ¬=· r= º+·+ = i
=·. i+i ·+ +i= ·=i+ º+ ¬i= ¤=  =ºi r: =i=l=+i l=== i
º= i-+ = ·· º+ ·i+i =  l+=i=i + l= +i ri, º· =i· = · =i
:= ==u = = i= i === ºi ==:
``¬il‹·=i … =i·= = i ¬i·=i`` -
-‹·i=i º+·+ (ì»··)
-l·. =i . =i·= = i ¬i·=i - -·. i=i º+·+ (ì»··)
-·. i=i = i º·i=+=i -==  ¬il·= =i=i = i ·+ r =i ¬=i =i
¤+ ===i º+ ºri·. i ¬+i = +i= = ·= r: ¬º+ ¬il·= =i·-
=·i= i =  = i·¤ ·r-+ =+: -·. i=i =  + ¬il·+i=i ¬i= =i +
= += =i++ -il=+i º+ ==i= -il=+i =  l=º rl¤ = i l+¤+
=+ rº r =i·=  l+l=·+ ¬+i = º+·= i =  ==¤ = i = i·¤ =+
=º r =i º+·= i = i +=· = ¬=i ==  ·· ·r ·i+ = i =ir= 
·=¤i+=i = ¬i= l¤= ri= · -·. i=i ¬i ·r r:
.... =i=  º+ =+=i=i+ =i= º+ +·+ ¬i= =i -·. i=i = =i=
=· ri+ +i= == º+ =ri·=+i º+ =i=i¤ -·=+i =  ¬l=·+ ¬=
=+ rº r ¬i· ·-=  :·r +i-=l+=  l+·+i= = º·l-= ri= ·o
== = r:
... -·. i=i = -: º= =+=i=i+ ==r r =i ¬i= =i ºri·. i º+
===i = ¬º+ ºi·ºl·=  l++i=i º· -=i -=i = +i= = · ·r r
==i + +¤i = = ·= ¬iº r: =+=i=i+ ¬+i = i ==¤ º= 
-l¬=  º+ ·i=i¤=  ¬+=+ ri == =i r =-= l=  ¬iº -+= 
·il=-l·+i=i = = = ·· =  lr-=·i· ri =iº ...
``=-=·… = += º=  º=i++ +ri - º=  oi=``- =·ii==·.
º+·+ =i· (:..:)
=-=· - º=  º=i ==r r =ri º+·= i =  = = + =  l=º -·i=
-¤i+ r, =i¤ ri -º+n  r = l¿+i l==i+ =  l=º, ¬il·+i=i
==¤i, =ilo= =· º+ =i·· +ir+ = ri+ +i= +i+i¬i = 
l=º:
... ¬=· ¬iº l== = = ri =i ¤= =iº ¬iº= i =i=+i l+i-¤=
ri ¬·= =·i=  = = º·. ºr+ ri· = i ¬i· =i= ¬il·+il=+i =
ri=i: ¬i·=i = i ¬iº oi=i º· =· º· º·. =i=i =  =i¤ ===+
=+i= rº º=  =iui = =i· = =i= rº ·o == = r: =r= =i
¬i·= l=· º· =i-= · º+ = =· º· =ƒi =·= iº ri=i r: :== 
=i¤ ri ¬iº =r= ri +i·i =i+i = =i·+i = i r: =·. i =lr=iº
º+ ¤== i= = º·. ºr+ =i·i =·. l= +i = i =i ·o == = r ...
l+i-¤= ri º=  ¬·== ;-+:
... ¬iº ¤ir =i ==¤ =  ·i·i+ = i- = i· ºi=+ = ·:i º+
=i++-i=i+ ==ri=+i = i =i ==¤ =-=· = i ¬il·+i=i
=-= l= = i ¬i+· =+ =  l=º = · == = r ... (==¤ =+lu=
+i=+i = i º=  lr-=i)
... +r º=  ¬il·+i=i ¬+ r ¬i· r=+ ¬iº= i ¬il·+il=+i = 
¤· = ri -+=  =i¤ ==i= i= = i ·++-¤i = · ·oi r: +r
l+…=·r º=  =r=·i+ ¬+=· r -+= l==+ = i º+ -+= 
=-= l= =  =i· = =i++ = i:
... ==r =  +i-= =  =i·, º=  =i+= i· º== =i:· ¬iº= i
= +¤i =  =+=i=i+ ==i· l===  =i· = =i=i = i =r= = =
=i+= i·i r, = ºl·¤+ = ·iº=i: ¬iº = i ==i= i= =· ¬i·
=+i =  :·= =  ==i =i=i = ri=i: ==i === = ·r+ +i=i
·-= =+=il= r: ¬iº -+=  =i¤ lº= l+=  =i=+ = i ¬i+·
=...
... ¬iº= i ==i= i= = = -¤i+i+ =i:=+, ri+ =il·+i
=+=il= =  =i=i = =i ri=i =i ¬·== ¬i+eil+=  +·+ = 
l=º l+r+i= r: ri·= = =i·+ = º+ ¬iº=  =+i·=+ =  l=º
+ +·+ =i = ·=...
``=i·= = i -·i·-º+… -+= =i ¬= ==  =i=i = i ºr¤ = ··
r`` ¬·== =i·=
(º+·+ =+i=+, =i·= :..:)
¬r¤i¤= º·-. ¬iº=i+i =+=i=i+ ¤·i = i ==¤ =i == ·i
r: ¬iº=i+i ¬= ¤i¤= = i === l+= l== =+=il= r: =· º+
¬i·= ·i+i =i·+i = ·= r =¤i =i= =  +¤+ ºr+= r:
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
50
+i=i=· - = ilr=i = l= ·i+i = i ==i+ o·i·+i º=  ¬·==
¬+=+ r: +i=i =i=i¤ ¬i·=i = i ¬º+i =+=i=i+ +--=¤i
= l+l=·+ -º= º+ ===i -·ºi·i = i l+= + = ·= rº ·o+ = 
l=º ¬iº ¤i=  =i=i· = ¬+-+ =iº:
º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+ =  -¦-+ = =iº =º =i=l=+i = -··;= +
= = ¬- := =i= = i =+ir r l=  =r+ui·i = ·r ·r =i=
º+·+ =  -¦-+ = l= = º= i· ·-= =i=i = i ·o= r: ·-=
=i=i = i + = += -·ºi· =  = º = º-== l= +i =i ·ri r,
=i·=  -== =i ==i· =i= r ¬il·+i=i =lr=i¬i = i =i·= 
º-==i= ·¤: º¤i· =i=l=+i º= +iŠ+i `ºi·ºl·=  =+· ºr+
º=  l·+i= =··i`, `º=  =-= ·i=i l+º·i =·. = i,` `+== i = i
ºi-i=  ºr+ oi=i =··i` +i l==  `¬il·+i=i =lr=iº` = =·i
º·. i r: :+ -i¤= i =  =i¤ ri=i r ºi·ºl·=  +--=¤i =
=lr=i¬i =  ·=i+ = i·i=i= : ¬il·+i=i =i+i = i l¤+¤ º= 
·r-+=+i, -+= =  ==i+ ==r =  = º = l= +i =i=i r =ri
=i=i = i º=  ¬== ri l= -= = i ·l++i = i +=i·i ·o+ = i
l===i r: :+ ¬il·= =i=i =  =-= l=, =i=  =ilr·+ º+
ºi·ºl·=  =·+i =  =i· = =i = = =i -„o r -== =r+ui·i =
·r ·r =i=i =  ¬Šo·. º+ ¬i· -i+ =  ¬=i+ = i º=i ¤==i r:
-·=i·i= ·¤ -ºª· r - º=  ºi·ºl·=  l¤+ `l-·º-=·+` ¬i·
`-=l= l¤·r`, ºi·ºl·=  +--=¤i `ºi-i= ` º+ ¬++il-= 
·il=-l·+i=, º=  ¬+=+ = i = º = ==i r:
l+-+ =· = ¬il·= =-= l=+i = i -·ºi·i= ·¤ º+·+ =  l=º
l+l=·+ = ºi = ri ·ri r: = += = = ·l¬¤i ·i+ ri º+·+ = 
«i·i ·i=+il==  = º = º=il+= +ri ri ·r r: ¬=l·= i =
oi== · ¬=i-= i ¬i· r+i: =  ¬il·= =i=i = i º+·+ = ¬i:
:= ==i = ri+ +i= l+= i= =  ·i=+il==  ºl·¤i=i = i =i=+i
= ·+ =  l=º =+i· ·r+i ri=i: =i+ =i= `l=·Š=+ ¬i=  ==`
= l=o= r, ``¬=iri r+i: =i=i =  ==u = ==+=… ===
¬lu=  =l·= º+ l++i·i-º· ui·¤i r: º=  º+·=  =  l=º +
l==  ¬l=+i·+ ¬i· l+·i: +i l= · `+=` = i ¬l=·+ln  r,
=l= + =i++-i=i :==  ==i· ¬¤ l+= i= ·r r:``
:
¬il·=
=-= l= = i º+·+ r= -i¤¤ =  ¤== º+ :+=  -·ºi· =  = º
= º-==i= ·¤ =  = i·¤ :+= i =i¤i º+ == =i = i l=+i =r·i:
= ¬¤ =i+ = i= i -º+i= º+ ·rº+i= ri ·ri r: l== º= i·
º+·+ ¬º+i -ºi-¤l= ·= = ·i ·ri r +r i-¤l= ¬i+ +i=i r
l=== i l¤+¤ º+ = `=ir·` = l+=i = l= +i =i ¤= i r:
=iŠ== i =  l+r+i= r:¤= = =i = i r:¤= ¬il·+il=+i = 
uil==  l+-+i= =  = º = l¤+¤ =  ==i+ :+= i ¬il¤=  = i+·
=  = º = -º+i= º=  +== -·ir·¤ r: r:¤= ¬º+ ¬iº= i
`==+i+ = i ºl=l=·=` =i+= r º+ -+= i = =i l+-+ =  =i·
= -+= i ºl++ ;lr = i ¬i· :l== = ·=i r, =l= + º+·+ º+
+-+i= ·¤ + -+= i = =i = i :··+· º· -º=·u = ·i l·+i r
º+ -+= i -=l=-ºº+i = º+·= i =  rl¤ =  =¦+=· =iºi =i
=i ·ri r :
l= =iºi= =  ºri·. i =i=·i ¬+ + º=  º+·+ -¤= = i = º =
l=+i r l=== = i= i+= =  ¬i-=·+ º· ri o=·i ¬i =+i r:
=i=·i =  =i= ¬º+i º==  =l= = i ¬i·· ºl++ = ·= r =l= +
º+·+ =  l=º -·==  =i=i + -+=  ·il=-l·+i= oi== · o=i =
==lu= l·+i=i º· ¬º+i ·o= =+i =i r: +ri ==  l=  -+= 
ºl++ = ==iri = i =i +ri =i·. i r ¬i· -+=  º+=i = i rl· ·+i
= i -=l=-l¤·r =  l=º = =i+i =i=i r:
-
lr·· =ri=i=· =  ¬·=i+ «iº º· =·i+i º=  ==ºi+ =+=il=
r l===  l==  ::. =·-+ ri «iº º· ·r =º r: =+ :..: =
=i·= =  =+iƒ ·+i+i=+ + «iº = i ¤·. =·. i=i ºil·i-¤l== i
º+ ¬il·+i=i ==·i+i = i =·¬i r= =r·+º¤ l+¤+ l·+i ¤i:
:+= -il== ¤i ¬·=i+ · =  ·i· (º.·i.¬i·.) = i =·· ri+i:
ì»:. = =+i +r ·i· ·l¬¤ º+ -·i·i ¬·=i+ = i =i·i+i =i=i
=  l=º =·l¬= ¬+i = ri= · =i‹·=i r: =l= + «iº = i
+-i=l+=  º+ ¬i=il==  := i:+i =+iƒ ·+i+i=+ = i o„=-
o„i -„¤+ = · ·ri r: ===i =i=+ = i ==-+i, === ¬i+=
= i ril+ º+ =·i+i =i=i =  l=º +: º= i· = i =i=il·+i l=+=
=·. + = i ¬==i -+=  -·i· = +ri ri, =  -·º·+ ri+ =  ¬=i+i
º ·i ¬i· + º=  +: +i=+i =i ``=i·+i º+·+`
:
=  = º =
= r+i= r = i -= ¬i= = · ·i r: «iº º· ==¤ º· ¬iº =i=i
= º ·i ¬i· º· ¤=+ º+ ºi-i¤ += = ·r ·r +¢ ¬il·+il=+i
= i ·o+ =  ¬i=r l= º =i= r: =l= + ¬= == ¤i·. i
=i== = =i ¬i: r +-i=l+=  +=l·+i = -+i==-+i·+ ºl·+=+
=i ¬i+i r: º¤i· =i=l=+i = :+= i -„o =i ri=i r, l= ·=
+r =i l=oi ri=i r -+= ==-=i= º+ -+= i = i·i oi¤+i
=+i r:
=i·= = ¬il·+i=i = =i¬i = i `=r+ui·i` = =i+ = i ¤=+
º¤l== ri ·ri r - º=  º+·=  ºi-== i =  ¬+=i·, ``=-=·
= =i = i = = =·· = l=+i ºi¤ l==i·i ri·=i = i -i=i =·. i
·ri r º+ =r= ·= i+i º· -º=·u r:`` ri=il=  º+·+ = i
-º+i= = = r· ==  -¤i+i+ = =i, =-= l= º+ r-=-l-·º = i
=il+= ·o+ =  l=º l= +i =i ·ri r, -+=  -·ºi·i= ·¤ = i =+
º+ -+=  +i-=l+=  ¬¤ º+ l= +i¬i = -=·= · ri+i
-+i=il+=  r: =·ii==·. , =i·= = i º=  ¬il·+i=i =lr=i = 
¬+=i· -= = =· = =i+ = =+ ri=i r =ri -+=  ºi·ºl·= 
ui=¬i = =+ ·+i-·+=i¬i =  l¤+ ¬¤+i =l= ·o ri: = i·¤
+r r l=  -+= i =i·+=i¬i =  ¬+=i· ·+i-·+=i¬i = i =l= = i
=i+ =  =i=i = i =·¬i =  l=º =i+ =  =ir· ·oi =i=i r: º= 
º=·i·i -·ºi· =+i+ = ºr= =i=i + ¬il·+il=+i = -+= 
l+¤i· º+ ¬+=+ = i =i =i++ = i == ·= +ri ===i:
¬¤+t ¤¸ |¤ n ¤¸ |¤-¤ xt = t |¤t¤t¤+…
¤¤ ¿+ ¤ ºo= = t trt r
· ·i-=i+ +i=i+·=-· l+·=+, º=  ·-= =o=  ·-= =i=i º+
-+=  =l= = ==u º· -+=  l+¤i· = i := = º = º-== = ·=
r... ·-= =i=i =  l=º º·+i º+ :==  ==i =il+= º¬
=i= - o
51
=r·+º¤ r ¬i· -+= i =-= l= = i ¬l=·+ ¬= r:
·
=ri =·. i
= ·ºl++i + ==, ·+i ¬i· == ·. i =  l=º :·r =·o= = · l·+i
r, =·¬¤ =  l+-+-=·i+ º+i=i =  «i·i =ioi =i=i = i
`=·¬¤ -·¤i¤i ` =+i+ = i º+i= =i -=+i ri ¤i==  r:
»
¬º+ -º+n  -i¤=  `=·¬¤ -·¤i¤i` = l=o =º =o =
·i-+i =r= ri ¬·= · = = +r -„o = ·= r l=  =·¬¤ ==ri
= i l== ·r ·i=+il==  º+ ¬il¤=  =·· + =·¬¤ = i +l= +i
= i ``=·l¬= ¬+i (ºi.º=.),`` ``·ir i+ -=i+i`` º+
``-·¤-¤l=+i`` =  l+=i¤ =  «i·i =l= º·i+ = · ·i r: ì»-:
= º· l+-+ = ì... =·= i·i =·l¬= ¬+ ¤, ¬i= +r =r+i
=·. = · ìì... ri =: r: =·¬i-= +¤ = ¬i ·r ¬+i = i =r+i
ì»». = ·=+i ri =: r; +il+ º·+i = i ì: ºl=-= =l= ¬i=
`=·¬¤` =  ¬·· ¬i =: r: ºr=i +=· = +r =l= º+
`+i= l== ` =·¬¤ ¬·=i º=i= ri=i r, =l= + == r= l+-+
=· =  =i=i º· :+=  +=i+i = i ·+i+ = ·o =i r= +r =i+=
l=  º· l+-+ = i =l= º· = =i :·ri -. =io `=·l¬=
-·¤il¤+i` = i = ·=i ¤i:
º+·+ + º==  =l= = ·-= =i=i =  l+-¤iº+ =  =i¤ ri :·r
`ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+` =  l=º =i oi= l·+i r: ==i =·l¬=
¬+ =r=·i+ º+·+ -¤= r - -+= i +=l==  =··=i, +·+ =i+
¬i= ¤¤ º+ ===i -+= º + = i= i =r+i = º+·= i = i
¬i= l¤= l= +i r: º=  -ºr º+ =i=i·+ = º = -+i= = ºl·=i¤i
=  ¬=i+ + `ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+` = i ¬i= ¤=  º+ =i=i·+ = º
= ¤i==  =i =+i l·+i r: ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =·¬¤ =  =i¤
¤=i r =l= + =·¬¤ =  º+i=i = :==  +i=·i+ º· º-+l¤·r
==i r¬i r: ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ = i =·. i+i l==i Š+il=  :=
+i=i+·¤ =  -º+n  =i+i =+i - :==  «i·i ºil·i-¤l== i-
=+·+-i= =i=i = i ¬i= l¤= = · -=i= = i =‹·i+i l·+i =+i,
l= ·= === = ·r ·r =i=i =  lr=i º· = ·i·i¤i= =i r¬i:
ºl·i-¤l= = i º+·+ =·¬¤ = =i¤-=i¤ ¤= ·ri r º· :== i
=·¬¤ = +i=·i+ ¬=ºr + +-il+=  = º = l=a +ri r¬i rŸ:
:== i +¤i· º=  `l¤·-¤i+i` + `º+i+·¤ =  lr= = ri+ +i=
º+·+` =  = º + º=  =l+ o‹·i = i r =i º+i+·¤ =+·+-i=
º+·= i + -=i= = i ¬i· ·=i r, º· ·-= =i=i =  lr= = +ri
rŸ: +r ·-= =i=i =  l=º ¤i==  rŸ:
ì.
+=i·i =  l= ·iºi ¤i·i +-+= ºi=  =, :=  =+=il= = i i-¤l=
o=·+i=  r: ºi=  =  l+=i¤ =  º+, l-= i· º+ ===i ¤i=i
= i := · ·i ¤++ +i= := ==·i+ =  =i= =·=i, =·. º+ = =-
= = = i ==i- = =·i+ º+ -·i·i = il++i ==  ¤== rº ¤=
=i= ¤: ¤i·i =  ·ir i+ -=i+ =  = º = ¤i¤¤i =  =i¤, :+
=i=i = i l=+i ¤=i++i =  ==··-=i =ir· = · l·+i =+i:
+=i·i =  +-+= ºi=  =  = ·. l++=i =  ¬+=i· ºi=  = i l= =i
=i = º = -¤i+i+ -º+i= +ri ri == =i: +=i=i +r r¬i l= 
:+ =i=i = i ºri‹·i º· l+º·i= ºl·i-¤l= = ·r+ =  l=º ===·
ri+i º·. i: :=  = i +·+=i+ º· =il== +=i+ ¤i Š+il=  + l== 
¬º+ -º+i= =  l=º ri l-= i· = ·= ¤, l= ·= ¬i= ºi=  =
== =  l=º +·iºi++ º+ -·i·i ¬=l·= + º+·=  ¬i= r =i
l-= i· º· =‹· -i=  = =i= r:
ìì
º=  ¬+=i+ =  ¬+=i·
= il++i = i :. ºl=-= = ¬lu=  ·-= ¬i=i·i + ºil·i-¤l== i
º+·+ º+ ¬·+ l+= i= = i+i =  +i= º· l= =i-+-l= =i = º =
=l= = =·o= ri+ = i i-¤l= = i ¬+=+ l= +i r (-·i·i
= il++i = +r =r+i -.-:. ºl=-= r)
ì:
: -i ¤¤ º+ = ·=i+
=  l-= i· ==·i+ = -il== r - ·l¬¤i ¬+ =  ==i: º+
¬i=i= , ·iº·+=i =  ºª·i·i=, :=¤i==, ºi= i·, =i=i·,
==+i· ==·i+, -·i·i = il++i =  =i·i+i, ¤i=·i, ·+·i:= º+
=i=il== º+ = il++i ==·i l= +i· = i +=-=l=:
=i·= = = = -:. =·l¬= ¬+
ì:
r l=== ì»- ·ir i+ -=i+,
:.· +·+=i+ -·¤-¤l=+i, :» =i¤ =·l¬= ¬+, ì+ =i+-
·
-
=

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+

=
 
 

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º
º
=
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
52
=ª·=i+ =·l¬= ¬+ º+ : =·l¬= =·l¬= ¬+ -il== r ¬i·
¬+=il+= :. =io = i =r+i = =·¬¤--·¤i¤i:
ì+
+r ¬i-¤+
= i =i= +ri l=  + ·ir i+ -=i+, +·+=i+ -·¤-¤l=+i º+
=i+-=ª·=i+ =·l¬= ¬+ =+=i=i+ =i=i = i =r =l= r
l=+=  l=º === -+=  =i++, ¬i-=·+ º+ :l=ri= = i ¬iui·
r: =l= + l=l·- ¬iºl++l-= =i =  =i· -+=+ =i·= =·= i·
= i ¬iºl++l-=  +il=+i =  = =-+= º ===i =  =i· = º=  +:
=i¤ -=· ·ri r =i l=  ·- =  ¬il·+i=i ==·i+i =  ¬i-=·+
= i ri == · = ·i= ·ri r: =+º¤= +r =i¤ ºi-¤=i l=ai·=
º· ¬iuil·= ¤i l===  ¬+=i· === º=  r·i-=·i =i++-
l+ri+ ¬+ r: +ri ==  l=  =·¬¤ = i ==== === = l++i=
= · ·r =i=i = i === º· -+=  ºi·ºl·=  ¬lu= i·i = =n  = ·
-·r === = =·o= = ·+i === l=+i =+i:
ì:
=i·= = ·ir i+ -=i+ º+ +·+=i+ -·¤-¤l=+i = i
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  ¬i= ¤¤ =  = º = =·. i+i l·+i =+i r:
:..: = i +-+= · l·= ºil==i -ºr = º = = r=i r -
``+·+=i+ -·¤-¤l=+i º+ ·ir i+ -=i+i = i =i·=i+ º+·+
-·ºi·+ =  ¬l=·+ ¬= =  = º = -il== l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº º+
º+·+ -¤=i =  l+=i¤ º+ º+·+ º=u+ =  =··+=· -=i+i = 
+=i= ·¤ =  -º·i= =r+ -=i+i = i +i¤l== =i ·i =i+i
¤ilrº:`` ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  -=-+ = ·-= =i=i = i
¬º+ ºi·ºl·=  =l= = =·o= ri+i º+ :==  ºl·¤i=i = i :+
+il=+i = -„o +ri r:
= i·ri ·ir i+ -=i+ =·+ º·- =  =i·=i º+ ==iº+=i
=i=iui· l== =  º=  =r= =·. ¬+ = = =i r ¬i· ==º·. i º+
l+·+ = º+ = ºi-¤= :.. l= .=i. = = = === ¬i+= ¬+ = 
¬·· ¬i=i r: +r ==a === ==i º+ =i· ¬il·+il=+i = i
º==  =l= r: =i¤ l+i-¤= ri º+·+ =  lr=i= = ¬i= ¤¤ = i
=r+ = ·: r ¬i· ì»:+ = =·= i· + := ¬+ = i =i¤ =·l¬=
¬+ =i ¤il¤= = · l·+i: ¬i= =i¤i =  =·¬¤ =  º+i=i + :-
¬il·+i=i =i+i (==== :+:ì += l= .=i. l+-¤ilº= ¬+ = ·r
·r ì:ì: ºl·+i·i)
ì-
= i ¬º+i =l= = =·o= = · l·+i r:
¬il·+i=i =i+ =i o=i º+ =i==i ===--·ºi·i =  ==r «i·i
=il+= i ¤=i ·r ¤ =·o= ri =º r º+ === -·ºi·+i =  ==r
= :+=  l++il=+i = i +l¤= = · l·+i =+i r: -+= i ¬i=-ºi=
=  :=i= i = l= · = ==i+ = i = il-- = i =i ·ri r, l= ·=
l=+i -l¤= = i==i = i·+i: = i: ri=il=  =i++ = l·+ r, º+
=i++-+iº+ ==== ¬==+, ++ ¬lu= il·+i =  «i·i ¤=iº
=i ·r +==i:· =  ¬+=i· ``¬=· ¬iº = i·ri = = ¿i l==i ·r
ri =i ¬iº= i º=i º=i= ri=i == l=  ¬iº ¬l+-=·¤i+
º-==  =  º·+i =  ¬·· =i ·r ri ¬i· -·oi+, =i¤, = i ===
= ·ri·. =i =++i ¤ir=...``
ì:
+ l+i-¤= =i· º· l+-¤ilº=
¬il·+il=+i = i ¬i+i= = i ¬+·oi = ·= r:
:=i º= i· = i i-¤l= (=·+ +·- =  ri) º¤ ·ir i+ -=i+ = 
¬il·+il=+i =  ==¬ =i -·º·+ r: ¬i· := ì»»: = ·- = i ì»
+i ºi=Š· ·i:=· ·i=+ ¤il¤= = · l·+i =+i: +·· ==  =  «i·i
ì»»: = := i · +=º=· ºi=Š·
ì·
=  -= ¬i= =  =i¤ ri
-·¤-¤=i ¬+ =  =r= = =i+i = i +i=+i=a =·i=  =
l+-¤ilº= = · l·+i =+i:
ì: =i· ºl·+i·, =i º·º·i== = º = º¤ +·i =  l= +i· ·r ·r
¤, = i ¬º+ =i+ ¬l== i=i = l+-¤ilº= = · ·=iº· = ==+ = 
l=º === · = · l·+i =+i:
ì»
-·r ==i+i =+i l=  -+= i r·i+i
== ·i r Š+il=  ·ir i+ -=i+ = i l+=i¤ l= +i =i ·ri r: =i+
+i= l=+=  ºi= -º=i= , o=i +i·+ =l= ¤, ¬i= o=i +ri
= · == =, +i ri l=·º=i·i =  =+ = =i+ = ri =i == = r:
ºi=  =  l+=i¤ =  ·i·i+ =i· =-= l= º+ ºr¤i+ = i +=·¬·i=
l= +i =+i º+ =i+i =  ¬i· ++ l+=i= =  =i¤ =  l·-= o·i= ri
=º r: +r =i -ºr +ri r l=  +·+=i+ = i -l¤= = º = =·¬i
= i =i ·ri r l=  +ri, oi== · == == -·¤-¤=i = i º+·= i
=  l=º oi= l·+i =+i r:
:.
+i=·ri= ·ir i+ -=i+ = +i·=  =  = i·i= º+ ==· l== =
i-¤= r: ::,... =  ==== ¬il·+i=i ·ir i+ -=i+ = ¬¤+i
:==  ¬i=-ºi= ·r= r: ¬+ = ·r+ +i= =r+ ¬il·+i=i ==r
r - =+= = == (=u = i ==r = ·+ +i=), =· ·i= = =i=
(= = == ºri·. i), +·i+i=, =i=i=i= º+ +·i+i= = i -º-
=il=+i - º=·i +·i+i= º+ ºi+i-+·i+i=: +i=·ri= = 
¬il·+il=+i = i =+º¤= +·· ==  =  := i · +=º=· ºi=Š· = 
«i·i l+-¤ilº= l= +i =+i: :=i l++i·i-º· ºi=Š· + º+ = -+
º· = : l+++¤ ==iº ¤ l=== o=i, l-= i· º+ ===--·ºi·i
=  ==r º· l+¤u -il== r: := ¬·+i+ =  =i+=·, = +i·= 
=·= i· + ì»»+ = +i=·ri= ·ir i+ -=i+ =  ¬·· =i·= = 
ºr= ºil·i-¤l== i ¬+= = =·=ir =  l+=i¤ = i · = i =·+
ri·= º+ =·+ l·=i·= (=i= ri·= ==r = i := i:) = i ·
l·+i: := = ·= = i -¤i+i+ ==ri º+ ¬il·+i=i ==·+i +
º·=i· l+·iu l= +i: = i++i = i++iri =i :+ ==ri =  «i·i = i
=:: +=i==+ -ƒ ·+i+i=+ º+ =+iƒ ·+i+i=+ = 
¬i·-i+=i· =·=ir =  l+=i¤ = i = i+ ·i= +i º·. i ¬i· º·
=i== = ·i+ =·= i· =  ·++ º· = ·. i ¬iºl·i = i =::
+i=·ri= l+¤+ + ºil·i-¤l== i-º+·+ =  l+= i= = =·l¬=
¬+ =  -º+i= =  ==u = º=  +: -= ¬i= = i l= ·=
¬il·+il=+i = i =l+ª+ ¬i= =i ¬u· = =·= i r¬i r: := ¬+
= -=i+ ºl·¬+ =  ¬i=ºi= =·. i =r+i = º+·=  =·=iri = i
l+=i¤ ri ·ri r l=== ++ =l= = i + =i =·¬i ri ºi ·ri r,
+i ri ¬il·+il=+i = i = = = i+·i ri ri ·ri r:

+ = = ==·i+i º+ =·= i·i +il=+i = =·. = =+i+ = i ºl·=l¬=
=i = ·= r, =i¤ ri =i·= = =·¬¤ +l= +i = i ===+ =
=ri+=i =i = ·= r: =·l¬= ¬+i =  ¬·· `· l·= =i·=` = 
=i= - o
53
l+=i¤ = =·¬¤ =  -¦-+ º+ l+-¤ilº= ==·i+i =  ¬lu= i·i
= =·. = l+·iuii=i= = i =‹·i+i l===i r: :==  = =-+= º
ºil·i-¤l== i =+·+-i= ¬+ =  ¬·· = i+·= º=  l+-+ -=i=
= i = i++i =i·+=i º·i+ = ·+ = i +l= +i = i == l==i r,
==l=  ·-= =i= º+ -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i ¬i= i==  =·i= i =
=== = =ir· = · l·+i =+i r:
== =+n  ·ir + :..: = i :··+-+= :+· ¬i=  := i· l·=
(¬i: +i: :) ¤il¤= l= +i, :== i l+-+=· =  ·-= =i=i +
==·-= l+·iu l= +i: º+·+ = -·º·+ = = ==== ==-+i¬i
= i =l¬= = º = º-== = ·= rº ·-= ==ri + -=i= =  = º
= º+ :==  º+i+·¤ º+ =i=i º· ri++i= +=i+ = i l=+i
-l¤= = º = =·+i= + l= º =·. º=i+ º· ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+
=  ¬l++l+= +i·=ir+ =  lo=i=  ¤=i++i =i ·i ¤i:
::
:=+i ri +ri, -·ri+ +r =i = ri ¤i l=  :== -¤i+i+
¬¤·++-¤i =·i =·r º=il+= ri =iº=i Š+il=  l+-¤iº+ = 
=i· -·r º+… +º =·i=  = =i+i =io+i ri=i: ºr= =i +i o·
ri += l= =  =ri· ¬º+i =i++ ¤=i == ¤: º+·= i = i =i=·i
¬+i = ºr¤i+ =  -··-+ = =il==  =l+ui¬i = i =·i+i ri=i
l=== i º+i+·¤ ¬i· -¤i+i+ ==·i+i º· =·i +=i+-º·. =i:
+¤i =i·, + ¬i-= iº =ri =il== r: r:
=l+=  l+l+u=i = i =·¬¤ l+i-¤= ri =r·+º¤ r: =l= + r=
ºr= ==== l=ai=i º· l= · = +=· ·i=+i ri=i:
::
=i·= =
·ir i+ -=i+ +=u+ == ·º+i ===i º· ¬=l·= i ¬+=+ = i
+= = r: ¬·+++i = i º-== = ·= rº =i·l== º+ =ri ¬º+
º-==  `· = i=· =·` = = r= r `=l+=  l+l+u=i -+ ¬+i =
=== ¬lu=  ºi: =i=i r =ri ¤i‹·i =i++i+ ·o= ri=i r` ...
º¤ =·¬i =  l+¤i· =  ==i· ºl·¤i= ri == = r: =i=  ·i-+i
=  ¬+=i· - ``·-= =i=i = i -ºi-¤l= =·l¬= ¬+i = i =·¬i
= i === = i·=i· -ºi+ ri == =i r``:
:+
+r i-¤l=, +i-=+
=, ·-= =i=i + +¤i = =+i: r: r:
=i·= = =·¬¤ =  l=ai= + ¬il·+il=+i = i += l= º+ :== 
l+l+u -+= ºi = i ·¬i = -+=  +i=·i+i = i ¬+·oi = i r:
l+l=·+ ·i+i = ¬il·+il=+i = i uil==  º+ =i=il== 
=i·+=iº -·r += l= = = ·. =i·. = ·i= =i r: -·. i=i = 
= i=iri·i = =i¤ = i =i: ===i =i=i r ¬i· -== i =i= = 
=i· =i=·il+=  -i=  =+i+i =i=i r: :=i =·r =i·o· =  º+i
l=r== = =i·i=, ·i·i= º+ =¤i +·. i ·+i-·+=i¬i =i ºri·. i,
+l·+i º+ ===i = ·r= r, = i º=i = ·= r:
·=·=i, =·ii==·. =  =i=i ·i= ==i = r= r, ``r= ºri·. i,
º·. i º+ +l·+i = i º=i = ·= r: r=i· ·+i ·+=i `o· =i=i`
`o· ºi·` `·i= · ·+·i` ¬i· `+=i ==i` :+ ===i ¬i· ºri·. i
º· ·r= r: + r= =i·i =·i:+i = =¤i= r:``
º= ==·i+ =i += l= = :=+i =·. rº r º+ l=+= i uil== 
l+-+i= ¬i· =i=il==  ·il=+i += l= = i ¬lu=  -i¤¤ =
=¤i=i r, ¬= ¬º+ ri ¤· = ¬l== =¤ = ·+ +i= === =i
·r r: =i·o·, =·ii==·. º+ -·. i=i =ri º¤· =i+i = ===,
== º+ ol+= =º·i r = ¬iul+=  l+= i= + :+ ==·i+i = i
º=  l= +i· º· o·. i = · l·+i r: ¬i=il== i= ·¤, o++, =iu
º+ ¬·+ =·. i +i=+i¬i =  = i·¤ ·-= =i=i = i =·. º=i+ º·
l+-¤iº+ r¬i r l=== -+= i =il+= i º+ =i=il== -
=i-= l==  =i++ =·i =·r º=il+= r¬i r: =: ¬i· =-+
=== =i+ +i= º+·= i º· = ¬=· =oi·i -=i· l·+i =iº =i
r= ºiº= l=  -+=  =r=l= º· l=+i l+++¤ =  ºr¤+ +i= +
-i ¤=  ¬l=l¤ r :
ri+ +i= ¬i+ = ·-= ==·i+i = i lr-=i…
º+ ·+ Š+i = i+·i ºr ¤i ·ri r ´
=ri º=  =·=  º+·+ =  -i¤=  -+= ºi = i ·-= ==·i+i «i·i
l+·iu ri ·ri r, =r= = =i= º= =i r =i º+·+ = =i= -·i+
= i ==i·. = r: º··=, +==i+ =  º+·+ l+= i= = i +l= +i = Š+i
=i=·il+=  r-=¬º º+ =i=·il+=  l+++¤ = i = i: ==i:- r
¬i· Š+i :+= ==·i+ = i = i+·i ºr¤ == =i r, Š+i º+·+ = 
+= =i+ -+= º :+ == ·i+i = i = -=  l= º+ ºr¤i+ =   º l=
=+·+-i= r´
ºil·i-¤l== i-==¤ =  +º =·i=  := =i= = i ·i+i = ·= r l= 
u·=i = i =·¬i = i =iº=i ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ¬il¤=  =i· º·
= i++·i ºr¤i+i =iº=i: º·, Š+i º=i ri=i r´ =·-=·= i·i
=-¤i+i =  -iu º+ +ri ==  l=  +·· ==  =  =i := =i= = i ¬i·
:-i·i = ·= r l=  -=i+ +=u+ +i=+iº -¤i+i+ ¬il¤=  l+= i=
=   l=º =  = oi= +ri = · ºiº r :
::
+ri ==  l=  ``=+i lu=  == =``
-=i+ == ¤i:=· = i oi¬i +i: +-+= ºi=  =ri º+·=  ºl=+¤
:. =io ¬=l·= i ·i=· =i= r =  ¬i=-ºi= ·r+ +i= ==·i+i
= i ¬il¤=  i-¤l= o-=i ri r: oi·i = ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =
ºi= ·i=-+ = i -º+i= -=i+ +=u+ = =i ri=i r, =l= + :== 
=i+=· -¤i+i+ =i=i =  l=º ¬il¤=  l+= ·ºi = i =+i· +ri l= +i
=i == i r: l+= i= = == =i= ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  ¬iui·==
=·+ +il+ =i= = lr-=·i·i = i ºi+… ¬+·oi = · ·= r:
=l= + =i ¬i· =i l¤=i=+=  =i= r +r r º+·+ =  =·= =
·-= =i=i =  ¬lu= i·i = i r++: · l·.= ·i:· = :··+-+= = 
¬+=i· `º+ = =i =: =r=l=` ¬·+i+-+=  r: :+= i ¬+·oi = 
+=r = ri ·-= ==·i+i = i =ir·i ·l++i =  =i¤ =¤¤ = i
i-¤l= ¬i: r : :== -il== r …- = = lu= º -=il+= º+ ·+
=l=l+lu+i =  =i· = ==-= =¤+i¬i (== i·i·==  + += i·i·== )
= i -º=·u=i, =i¤ ri ¬i= ==lu= +il=-l+=i¤ = ºr¤ ¬i·
=i=i·i·i, -¤i+i+ =i=i «i·i o· = l+= l== º+·+ =i· = = i
=·= i·i =ri+=i, º+ `+i` = r+ = i ¬lu= i·: º=i=+ =i+-·+
=  ¬+=i·, ``¬=· ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ -=i= ·-= =i=i = -+=…
==·i+ = i ==¤+ l== =i+ = i ¬i-i ·o=i r =i :==  l=º :=
r+i= ·o+i º·. =i l=  +r l= += =i= = · ·ri r, :+ =i=i = 
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
54
¬+=+ º+ ¬i= i¬iº Š+i r ¬i· -+-l+ui·¤ =  ¬lu= i·i º·
Š+i :=+i =i· l·+i =i=i r: = ·ºl++i = i +r =i++i ¤ilrº l= 
·++=i+ = i l= = º= i· º=  ¬·= l·-= =+i+ = i ºr= =  = º =
l=+i =iº``:
:-
·-= =i=i «i·i =i= = lr-=·i·i = i =i= l+l=·+ -+= ºi =
¬i=i r ¬i· +r = += º=  º+·+ ºl·+i=+i = ri =iui =i· º·
= = lu= +ri r : º ª· = · -= =i = = i ·i lo¤+i+ =   º+= = = ¬i+=
= i =i= = ·= r: ¬=·i+i+i = i º=  =lr=i = r=i r, r= ¬º+
¬i· ¬º+ =ƒi =  = i·i ºi-·= i· º· ·o= r: = i·i lo¤+i+ =
r= = i: = i+·i +ri ri=i, l= ·= º=  º+·=  = i =i ri=i ri r:
r= =i= = = = lr-= = i =i= = ·= r: -·i·i =i·= =  ºri·. i
¬+i = ºri·. i ==·i+ ¬º+ ºi-i= i = i º+·= i = i ·= r l=·r
ºr+= · + = i·i =i lo¤+i= r: :==  l=º -·r º= =i l=== r:
=iŠ== i =  ¬il·+i=i =i= ¬= =i== =  ri =º r ¬i· º+·+ = 
ºi·+++ =  l=º =+iº =º =i=l=+i º· ¬º+ =il·=  ¬i· = =i¬i
=  -º+i= =  =·= ·i+··i = i =i= = ·= r:
¬=·ir i+ -=· º· = = º= =i ºr= rº r l=+= ``=i=·il+= 
lr= º· ¬iuil·= º+·+`` + ``=i=·il+=  -+il=·+`` = i = º =
l=+i: ==i= = ·i=·i := i· l·= º=il=º-+ (·i.:.º.) º= 
=i=·il+=  -+il=·+ +i=i =-¤i r l=== i -+il=·+ ¬i· º=u+
=i º+, =  = ¤i º+ =·i=  +i =i +i = i = -¤i¬i =   ri¤ = r :
::
·i.: .º.
= i -¦-+ º·+=  =i=i·i· =i+ =  «i·i º+·+ = ri+ +i= = i+·i =
=·. º=i+ º· lr-=·i·i r: º·+=  =i+ =  =i= = +i ºl·+i·i = i
=i·i-=i·i = =i:·, oi+i =+i+ º+ =+i·=+ = i l=·=·i·i ·i
=i=i r: := ·· = º=  =i=i+i=· = i+= = == = ri ·ri r: l·= ·=i
(:ª·i= +== = ·+ l+·i + ·+=   ¬i =  · ¬º· +iºi = i· :··= = ¤ ¬=
ºŠ=¤= ºª· := i· l·=) = i -¤iº+i º=i=i:l+++ º= i·i· = 
+iºi ºil+= = ·r ·r = i¤¬i ==·i+i «i·i ì»»: = l= +i =+i
¤i:

-+= i =·+ r == ·i+-¬iuil·= ºil·i-¤l== i º+ ·+
ºl·+i=+i =  «i·i +i = i¤¬i =i+i = =i++ =  -=· = i =ui·+i:
:==  ºr= := ¬+ = ==¤ l+·-i º=l=+i =  «i·i ri=i ¤i
l=== i = i+·i =i+ +i=i = i =r= = = ri ri ºi=i ¤i: l·= ·=i +
-+-l+uil·= ·i-=i ¬ir=+i· = · i-¤l= = = i= i =·=i+ =i l·+i
r: ¬= =i· l+¤+ =i+ +i= o· ri == r: ¬i-· l=+i =  ==il+=i
+-+= ºi= , lr-·il·=  =i:· ºª· +¤·= ·i=+ = i ì»»· = :+= 
+i-=l+=  -+il=+i = i =i º l·+i =+i: ¬= :+ º i = Š· = i = =il+=i
=i= = º=i·i=+= =· = il== ¤=i ·ri r:

:= =-¤i + ¬=
ºi=  = ri+ +i= ==i ==¤i = i ¬º+ l+++¤ = = l=+i r ¬i·
¬iº···i = i =i:== =i · l·+i r: ¬= i= i = º+·+ = -¤i+i+
=i· º· ¬lu=  = i+·i -·i+ =  l=º =i·=+i+i, +i=il=+i º+
·l¬¤i ¬= i= i =  =+ ==·i+ =  =·-+i + l+l=·+ =-¤i¬i =
=i= ·il+=  -+il=·+ +i=i +i: · = ¤· · l·= º i = Š·= = i - = ¬i=
=  l=º =r+i= =i=i r:
:.
-++ =  º+·+ -=i= = i -= ¬i= = i
¤ir= ¬= ¬·+ ¬+i = ·r ·r =+ ==·i+i = =i == =: r: + +
= += ¬il¤=  = i+· =  l=º º=i ¤ir= r, =i·=  ¬º+i =-= l=
º+ ·il=-l·+i=i = i º+·= i = i =i+= i·i ·+ =  l=º =i:
=i·= =  = = ·i+i = +i=l·=  ==i= º+ -¤i+i+ =i=i + ¬º+
¬+i = º+·+ =  -+= º ¬i· =·i= i =  l+ui·¤ = i = ==i o·
= ·+ = i º+i= l= +i r: :..: = =i·o· =  l+l=·+ l==i = 
·-= ==·i+i =  = = =i=i + l=== · `·i¤= i=i+ º+·+` º·
`=i·o· +il=+i = i +il=+i` = i =·¤+i = i: := +il= =  l+=i¤
=  l=º º·=  = i = i+ l= +i ¤i ¬+ =  ri ·-= ==ºi= =  = ·i=
== ºi+ == = =i+ =  =i= l=·ri+ ++ l+=i= = = i= i =¦i=r·
=  =i· ==ººi= º· ¬º+i l+++¤ -¤ilº= = · l=+i ¤i: :=
+il= = -il== r, ==iu+i = ri+ +i= =i= = lr-=·i·i,
ºi= l==  ==iu+i ==  ºr¤ º+ ==·i+i «i·i =+iº =i+ +i=
`= i· ·i=` = i ºi+ui+ l=== i = i+ +i=+i =+i+i, l= +ii·+=
= ·+i º+ -+ º· +=· ·o+i r: +r +il= ·i+ º+·+ l+=i= = i
=i ºi =+i, l= ·= ¬=i ==  =·= i· + :+ = =i+i = i ¬º+i = i+ +iri
= -il== = ·+ = i l·-i = = i: =i ºr= +ri = i r:
:=i =·r =, ¬·i=  º¤i+= (¬iu º·-) =  = ·= i =i+ = =i-=+i
+·i º· º=  =i·i =i == ººi= r: =i= ==i + := ==r = i
º+·= i =  l=º ¬i= ¤=  =+i+ =  l=º ·i-=i, =il·. +i º+ ¤= -
ºi-· = i l+=i¤ =i = ·i+i r: +r º+·= i = ==ºi= = i ·o+ = 
º+= = -·=  =i +===i r: ¤l=  === =  ri =i·i == i = i ·o+
¬i+ +i= º+·= i = +r -¤i+ ui·-ui· =i= lº+ ri+ ==i r,
·i=-+ = i =i=¤ = ·i+ =   ¬i u º · - · l·= · +=º= ·
= i·ºi·-+ (º.ºi.·i.·i.=i.) + ¬= := ==ºi= = i º+·+ ¬+
=  = º = l+= l== = ·+ = i +i=+i =+i: r: ¬=· := = ·= = i
l+·iu +ri r¬i =i ¬=i ==  =i= ==i =i = =i: = · ·ri ¤i,
¬º+i ¬lu= i· := ¬+ º· oi ·=i ¬i· = =i º.ºi.·i.·i.=i. = 
ri¤i = ¬i =iº=i:
º+·+ º· ·-= -+il=·+ º+ l+++¤ ==lu= º+i= º+ =i· ·=
¬=i ++=i= i-¤l= = r:

=l= + =i·= = l=·=·i· º+·+ =
=·. =i rl¤ =  =¦+=·, +il= l+ui·= i = i :+ º+i=i = i ¬·+++
= ·+i ¤ilrº =il=  º+·+ = i l+= i= := º= i· ri l=  +r ==·i+
=  +=·+ º+ -+il=·+ = ·r: = : ·-= ==·i+ +r ¬i-i = ·= r
l=  º+·+ `l+= i=` =  l++i-= i·i ºr=¬i == == ·. i = i = ·i:,
o·i: º+ ¬·+ -i¤¤= i·i -=i=i = i ==r ¬·= l+= ·ºi = i
=i=+ =iº=i: -·r ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  =i· = =i+= i·i r,
=i·=  = = =i :+= i -+i== =i = · ·r r Š+il=  :== + = +=
+i= l==  º+i+·¤ = i =·¬¤ ri=i, =i·=  =il+= i =  += i·º= 
=iu+ =i ºi= ri=: ri=il=  :+ ¬i= i¬i¬i =  = i: =+i· =i··=
=i= - o
55
+ri r, +i ri ¬i=i+ -·i· ri r: +r ¬+-+ º=i= ri=i r l= 
l+= ·º, ¬·=i +l= +iº º+ +º =i··= = i l+= i= -+=  «i·i
¬¤+i -+=  =i¤ ri:
¤t¤ ºt
¤¤¿+ ¢¤ º¢¬ =t¤t =  n¤¤ ¤ ¬ºtt·¿ t¤ ¤t¤º|¢= t
·¤= =i=i =  ==u = =i·i = : ¬=·ir i+ =i=·l-= i¬i = º+·+
= i = ·= · o+ = i l===i r : :+= = = : l++=i+=i º+
=i= ·l- = i¬i = i l+=i ¤ =i · -= =i =i «i·i º+ ·+ =   -+=   =i++,
=-= l= º+ ¬+ º· ri ·r +=i+i =  ==··-= l+·iu =  = =-+= º
r¬i r: ri=il=  :+= i =i++ = i = i: = i++i =i·+=i +ri r, +
=·= i· º+ +il=-l+ui·= i = i ·-= =i=i º+ º+·+ =  l+¤+ º·
-º+i=i =i=·-=  = i ·i¤i -º=·u = ·i=i r:
·-= =i=i =  ºi·ºl·=  ¬lu= i·i º· ==·=i+ l+= i=i·=oi ==i
¬i+i =+ =  ·+ +i= º ¤= = -¤i¬i = : · ·+ -+= = =·
¬i ·= +i:= -+ = i -¤i+ r : ¬i:. º=. ¬i . = ·+ -+ ¬i + :··i= +=
ºª· · i:== ºiº=-+, ì»:: (+. ì.:) -+ ==i+i º· =i ·-=
=i=i = i ºi= r, -+= i ¬lu= i· =i+=i r: :== i ¬+==¤+ ::
·-i l=== ¬lu= =· =l·+ ¬=l·= i =  r + l= +i r: =i·= + =i
= ·+·-+ = i ¬+==¤+ l= +i r: ì»·» = ¬i:.º=.¬i. + :=
= ·+ ·-+ = = -i u+ l= +i ¬i · := ¬i · =i === =i ·i: ¬i:.º=.¬i .
= ·+ ·-+ + . ì-» (ì»·») =   ¬+ =i· · -= =i =i =   =i++ = -¤i¬i ,
=ºl·i, ¤=, =-= l= ¬i· +i=i+·¤ = i ·¬i =  l=º -l¤= = ·=
-·iº =iº= ¬i· º= º+i= :+ =i=i «i·i ·+n  =i++i¬i = 
l+= a +ri ri = : = ·+ -+ + . ì-» · -= º+ ¬il·+i=i =i =i oi== ·
-+=  =l=-¬lu= i·i, ºi= l==  ==iu+i ==  ºr¤, -+i-·+,
l-¬i, ·+i+=il+=  +l-¬¤, ·i==i· = i i-¤l= º+ =i=i =  =ir·
=  ==ui =  =i· = º=  l+-== ·++-¤i r:
::
:== = = º=i = ·. i
ui·iº =i r l=+= i +=r = ·-= =i=i =  ¬+ = l+= i= =  = i+i
= i -= ¬i= =  º+ -+= i =i+= i·i ·= · -+= i =r=l= =+i
¬i+-+=  r: := = ·+·-+ =  ¬+=i·, ==lu= ·-= =i=i =  ºi=
l+= i= = i +l= +i =  ==u = ¬º+i +i¤l== =i¬i =  l+ui·¤ = 
¬lu= i· ·r=, Š+il=  +r -+=  =i++, =i·+=i¬i, =-¤i¬i,
¬i·+ii·==  =+ii-¤l= º+ ==i+ l=+ º· -+= i = ·=i r ¬¤+i
+ -º+i= = · ·r r = i +=il+= = ·=i r: =i¤ ri, =ri == 
==+ ri == , ¬º+ ¬il¤= , =i=il==  º+ =i-= l==  l+= i=
º· -+=  l+++¤ ·r=: ¬=i ==  = += ì: ·-i + ¬i:.º=.¬i.
= ·+¤+ ì-» = i =ºlr = i r l=== =i·= -il== +ri r: :+
ui·i¬i = i º+·+ º· oi=i +=i+ r ¬i· :+= i º+·+ =  -+= º
º+ +i¤l== =i¬i =  l+ui·¤ = ·-= ==·i+i = i =i=·i·i = i
=·. i+i ·+ º+ l+= i= = ri+ +i= ril++i = i ·i= + = +=i+i = º
= -º+i= l= +i =i == =i r:
º+·+ º· = i·:=, º+·+-l+= i= = ==lu= =i=·l-= i¬i =
+.º+.···+.·i.¬i. ·=i== = i· ¬i=  :l¤Š= l=== i =·= i·i
=i·+=i +.º+.=+·= º=·==i «i·i :ì l·==· :..ì = i l==i,
º=o r: := l++=i+=i =  ¬+·= · ì = i ui·i º=  =  ¬+=i·,
=i++=i = ==lu= +il= º·=  =·+i = i === + ºi·+++ º+
uil= = , ·i- l+=  º+ + l==  =i·+=i¬i = i l+l+u=i =   º l= =·=i+
=  =i+ -·i··i+i º+·+ =  ¬iui· º+ ºl·¤i= r: º+·+ l+= i=
= == =i= º+ º+·= i = i =i o· ¬·º=r+= i º+ ·-= =i=i = 
=i=il==  º+ =i -=  l==  ·il=-l·+i=i ¬i · ·++ri·i ¬º+i+ ¤ilrº
l=== -·r -+= i =r·+ =i== ri == : ¬+·= · : =  ¬+=i·,
``º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i === = ==i· ==r oi== · =ƒi, ===i,
l+= =i =, uil= =  ¬·º= r+= i º+ · -= =i =i =   ·+ln ==
¬lu= i·i = i =·=i+ = ·+i ¤ilrº:``
=+ :..: = ¬º+i: =+i :··+-+= = i·= ¬i+ :··i=+- · l·=
= i ¬i¬i= =i= i l·Š=·-+ ·-= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  +=i+
l=lº=a = ·=i r¬i º=  ¬l= =r·+º¤ l+¤+ r: ¬i:.+i:.:. = 
==+ ì: ºi-¤=i =i=ia ·-i =  ·-= =i=i =  «i·i =i·i ¤i¤¤i
=   ¬+ =i· - r= ¬i: .+i: .: . º+ ºil·i-¤l== i º+ ·+ =   ¬iui·= =
ui·¤iº =i ·-= ==·i+i = i -·ºi· º+ r=i·i =l= = i l+-+
=i=i· = l== i r= ·+i+=il+=  ==iu+ =  = º = ·o=i r, = i
l+·iu = ·= r: := =+·+iºi ¬il¤=  ·i¤i =  ¬·· º+·+ =i=i·i
+l=«l·=i = i =·= ·=i r ¬i· r=i·i =l= º+ =i=i = i -º+i=i
-·ºi· =  = º = º-== = ·=i r:
+r ¤i¤¤i `=== l+= i=` = i ¬i·. = ¬i:.+i:.:. «i·i ·-=
=i=i = i =l= = i +uil+=  = º = ¬lu=r¤ = i =i l+·iu = ·=i
r: º+·+ =  ;lr= i¤ = ·-= =i=i = i l= = º= i· ·oi =i ·ri
r, := ==u = ¤i¤¤i + = : =r·+º¤ =i= =i=+ ·oi r: :==
-„o+i+ r, := =i= = i ===+ = i ¬i+-+= =i l=  ·-= =i=
`-· = ri··=` +ri =i·=  ¬i=l·=  = º = ºr¤i+ ºi= ¬lu= i·i r
=i=lr=  º+ =i++i+ ¬lu= i·i =  l=== -+-l+¤+ = i ¬lu= i·
=i+= i·i ·= · +i= =r=l= º+ +=i+= i·i =i=i·i·i -il== r:
+r ui oi oi== · =·= i·i , l+=i l+= i== i , = ·¬¤ º+
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ = == =·-=·= i·i ==·+i, l+= i= = ==
º=l=+i º+ l+-¤-i =  ==u = r: :==  ¬+=i·, º+·+ ·-=
== ·i+i =   lr= = ==i ri == =i r == +r -+-l+¤ + º· ¬iuil·=
ri º+ := =·. i+i · : =ir·i l+- ¤- º+ =ri+=i r=i· l=º -º+i =i
==i ri == = r == + r=i· ==·i+i «i·i ·l¤= º+ l+uil·=
=iº··i =  ¬·· ri = i+ = ·: :=l=º º+·+ = i =·. i+i ·+ +i=i
+i=+i¬i = i l= +i·+++ º=  ·-= == +i= i ·= =  l+·-+ º+
l+=·i+i = ri+i ¤ilrº ¬i· +r =i º+·+ l+= i= =  ·i¤= i=i+
=i= + ril+ =  ¬·+++ =  =i·: =+n  ·ir = i ==ilu= = ·= rº
+r ¤i¤¤i l++·+ = ·=i r l=  ·-= =i=i =  º+·+ l+= i= =
=iu =i· º· =i=i·i·i =  l=º º=  ºi··-=  º+ :=i+·i· +l= +i
= i =+i· = i =iº: +r =i= = ·=i r l=  ·ir i+ =·= i· +i=i+·¤
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
56
º+ ·-= =i=i = ==lu= = i++i º+ l++=i+l=+i = i ºi=+
= ·: =i¤ ri +r ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  ==u = l·--l+·-i = 
l+= i= = i =i += i== = ·=i r =i ==¤i = i -¤i+i+ =-= l=
º+ =+·+-i==i =  =¦+=· ==l== ·o == :
º=  ¬·+ +l=  +i · -= =i =i =   ¬lu= i·i º· · i º· + .º+. l·Š= · -+
=  = º = =i=+ ¬i:: == +i·, :» =+ :..- = i =i++ilu= i·
=l=l= + ·-= =i=i =  ¬lu= i· ==ui ¤i¤¤i = i ¬º+i+i:
::
+r ¤i¤¤i =+n  ·ir = i :··+-+= l·= · ¬i=  · +·· :··i=i+=
lºº=: (ì»»:-:..+) =  º+i=i = i ºl·¤l= ¤i:
:+
:+ º+i=i = i
=r+ -¦-+ =i++ilu= i·, º+i+·¤, l+= i=, l-¬i º+ -+i-·+
==ui ·-= =i=i = i ==-+i¬i =  l++i·¤ r= ¬·=·ir i+ =r+i=
= i ====i º·i+ = ·+i ¤i: +r ¤i¤¤i l=== i =+n  ·ir = i
=i=i·+ ==i =  «i·i ¬º+i+i =i+i =i= i r, = ¬i-i r l=  +r
·-= ==·i+i =  ¬lu= i·i = i ·+iº=  =i· º· º¤il·= = ·= ¬i·
==¤ + ril== = · = : ri=i l=  := ¤i ¤¤i + º+ ·+ = i +i= l+- ¤= ·
=i +ri l=+i, +r l+i-¤= ri º+·+ =  = i·¤ ·-= =i=i = 
¬lu= i·i º· = ·i·i¤i= = i i-¤l= = =i= ri=i: +.º+. =  ·-=
l+-+i º· -¤i+i =l=l= =  ¬+=i·,
::
=i= ri+ º· +r ·-=
=i=i =  ¬lu= i·i º· ¬= ==  = i === l+-== ·-=i+= ri=i:
¤i¤¤i =  ==i· + l== º= i· = =i=lr=  ¬lu= i·i = i =r·+
l·+i r, +=i ¬·=·ir i+ =i++ilu= i· = i++ =  :l=ri= = +ri
r¬i r: :== i ¬º+i+ º· r= ¬·=·ir i+ ==·i+ ·-= =i=i = 
·+ln == º+ =i=lr=  ¬lu= i·i = i ·¬i =  l=º l= = º= i·
ºl==a r = i, === -ºr =-+i· l== =iº=i:
=l= + +.º+. =  ==i º-=i+i = i ·-= ==·i+i + -+i= l= +ri
·i r: = ·+-+ ¬i+ =i+i=il== = ·i:=·l=·i (=i.=i.·i.) = 
º+·+ =i=·l-= i¬i =  =·= = º=  ¬·=·ir i+ =r= l=·. i r: r:
== :..+ = =i.=i.· i. =   =i=+ = i ·=  = ¬i =  ºil· =
(=i.¬i.ºi.:) + º+·+ =i=·l-= i¬i =  ==i· = i ¬i·== = º
·+ ¬i· := ==·i ·+ = i +i=+i =+i:, =i ¬+=  ·-= ==ri +
=i· ·= · l=oi l=  :== i ¬=i ¬i·== = º = -+i= l= +ri ·i
=iº Š+il=  :==  l+=i¤ = ·-= =i=i = i =i=i·i·i +ri ¤i:
: · ·+ -+= :·· i=i+= =  i ·= ¬i + =i+i · i:+·l=· i
(¬i:.¬i:.º= .=i.) + =i.¬i.ºi. =  ¤+·=+ = i l=oi, r= +r
=i+= · ¬i-¤+ r¬i r l=  º+·+ º· =+i· º· l= º =i=·l-= i¬i
=  ==i· = i +ri = ¬i=i=i=i·º· = ==·i l·º =i+ =  =i· =
l+¤i· l= +i =i ·ri r: =i=·l-= i¬i =  ==i· =+·+-i=
ºil·i-¤l== i+ ·++-¤i º· = i·:= r: +r i-¤l= =·. i l¤·=i = i
= i·¤ r: l+-+-=· º· =¤i= l¤= ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ -=i= =
·-= =i=i = i º==  =l= ri === ¬lu=  º=il+= ri=i: :=
-=i= = === +i·i ril+ ·-= =i=i = i r: r: l= ·, r= :=
=i= = i r+i= ·o+i ri=i l=  l+-+-=· º· ·-= =i=i = i =l=
ri === = ==i· = ·. i r:
l= ·, := =i=·l-= i = =i-= l==  l+l+u=i º+ := =i+= ·o+
=   = = u = = ri = i : -„ o +ri r : ¬i: .¬i: .º= .=i. + =i.=i.·i.
=  º+·+ =i=·l-= i¬i =  =·+ º+ +l= +i = i +r = r= rº
oil·= = · l·+i l=  +r ·-= =i=i = i -º¬i = ·=i r =¤i :·r
l+=i¤-+l= +i = =i=i·i· +ri =+i+i =+i: ·-= =i=i = 
ºl=l+lu+i + +r l++·+ l= +i ¤i l=  º+·+ =i=·l-= i¬i = 
==i· = i ¬º+i+ ==ui l+¤+ = i ·i +¤ =i· :..- = ri+ +i=
=i.¬i.ºi. · = l+¤i· r= =i‹· l·+i =iº: :+ l++·+i =  =i+=·
=i.=i.·i. + ¬i= =·. = · º+·+ =i=·l-= i¬i = i ¬º+i+i =i
¬i= =i.=i.·i. = i ¬iº¤il·=  = º = ¬l=·+ ¬= r: =i=·l-= iº
¬=i =i =i-= l==  =i+==i º+ º+·+ «i·i ·-= =i=i =  º== 
=l= =  -º+i= ==ui l+¤+i = i ¬+·oi = ·=i r: =i.=i.·i.
==i =-¤iº +-==… º=i=+ = ri+ +i= ==ir º+ l+¤i· = i
+l=  +i = i ri-+i-º· ==== r : =i.=i.·i. = = = lu= :+ ¤·+i¬i
º· ¬º+i ºl=l= +i ·=i r:, º=i=+ =i+-·+ = r=i r, =+n 
·ir =  =¤i º· ·-= =i=i + ¬º+ =l= ==º¤ º· l+-+ = i
=·= i·i =  === º· ¬º+i ¬i-= iº =ilr· = i r: l+l=·+ ·-i
= i =·= i· +r =i+=i r l=  ·-= ¬lu= i·i = i ¬=·ir i+ º+i+·¤
=i+= i = i ==i=i· -„¤+ ri ·ri r: + = i+·i ·o+i ¤ir= r +
l=  =¬i+=i º+ ¬==i =  +==i+ º+ º+ =  =¦i = ¬º+ = i
-==iº ·o+i ¤ir= r: :=l=º == º+·+ º· =i.=i.·i. +l= +i
¬i= =·. i =i ·-= =i=i = i ·+ir+i = i ==i·=i = l=+i =+i:
=·¬i·== =i = i =i -=· ¬º+i+i =+i ¤i -== i = i: == º·= 
·+ir+i +ri ¤i:
:-
+ ¬=·ir i+ =i=·l-= iº º=  -º+i=i ·i¤i º-== = ·= r l==
·ir i+ =·= i· ¬º+i == : =l= + =i.=i.·i. ==i +l= +iº :=
=i= = i ¬i· :-i·i = ·=i r l=  l+-+ -=· º· =i -+ +l= +i¬i
l=+= i -+ º· oi=i +=i+ º·. +i ri, = =i ·-= =i=i =  ¬¤º¤
º+ =ri =i=·i·i º=  ¤+i=i ri r:
¤t¤ ºt+
º ¢¬ =t ¤t =   ¤r +¬t ¤ttº = t
¤¤ ¿+ +t|º¤t ¤t ¢=  +¬t
=i·=i+ +il= l+ui·= i + º+·+ º· +=· =·i º¤+¤i+ +i=+i
¬+lu (ì»::-ì»·:) =  ·i·i+ l·+i, == ·- = i ºr=i º+·+
+il= = i º-== l= +i =+i: =·= =i· ì»·:-». ¬+lu =  ·i·i+
º+·+ = i º=  -=i= = i ·=i · l·+i =+i, l=== := =-¤i==
l+·ii+ =ri+=i, ¬iui·= = = l+ui¬i = i =r==i º+ º=  ==  = ==
= · =  l+ui·¤ = i =l+ui ºi= r:: ì»»ì = -·i·i= ·¤ =  =i¤
ri, ·- = i = : +i= l==  º+ =+-l+l+u=i = =º·+ ¬+i = i
º+·+ =  l=º oi= l·+i =+i: =i· ¤i ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º·
º+ = ·· = ¤ ++, ==:i l= +i· ºri·. º+ ¬·+ =i+-l+l+u=i =
=º·+ ¬+: º+·+ =  =i=i·i º¬ = i =i= -·i+ =  l=º = : ·i+
=i= - o
57
=·= i·i + ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º+ =-= l= º+ º·º·i º+·+ = i
=·. i+i ·+, ==:i l= +i·i º· l+++¤i = i = = = ·+ º+ º+·+ = 
¬+ = l++- = i =·. i+i ·+ == = ·= -·iº r:
º+·+ º· ·ir i+ +il=+i
+-+= · l·= ºil==i (º+.·i.ºi.) :..: + ºil·i-¤l== i+
=i+==i, ºi= l==  ==iu+i = i ·+i+il¤·i -º+i= º+ º+·+ = i
=·i=i -·==+ =  l=º =r·+º¤ =i+= rº := ¬º+ ¬iui·==
l=ai=i = -¤i+ l·+i r: +r +il= º+·+ ¬+ = =·. = =¤¤i = 
l=º =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i = = =i = i º=  = i·¤ =i+=i r ¬i·
:=l=º ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º+ ·i=i¤= i·i º+·+ =l=l+lu+i
=  ¬+ = ·+iº=  =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i º+ -¤i+i+ =l=l=+i º+
º¤i+=i = i =l== i = i =r·+º¤ =i+=i r:
lº==i +il=+i = ¬lu=  º=l=-i= ri+ =  =i+=·, º+.·i.ºi.
º+·+ =  =· +=i+i = l+º·+ =  l=º =i=·l-= i¬i = i -ºr = º
= ºr¤i++ º+ ºil·=il¤= = ·+ = ¬== = ·ri r:
::
·-= =i=i
=  ==u = +r +il= ·-= º+ =+=i=i+ ==·i+ =  =i· = ·i
=·=i = i =·=·i =i· º· -„o = ·=i r: +r +il= ºil·i-¤l== i
º+·+ º· =i· =i ·=i r º· ·-= ==·i+i =  l++i= +i= ¬+i =
º+·+ =  ºi·+++ =  ·i·i+ = = =i+uil++i = i ¬º+iº =i+ º·
=i· +ri ·=i: º+·+ =  = = ¬il·+il=+i º· = = ºl== = +=i+i
== =-= l= = i -·ºi·i= ·¤, =l= l+==+, ==iu+i ==  ºr¤
º· ·i=  º+ -i¤¤ = i ¬+·oi = i =: r: º+·+ º· ¬·+ =r·+º¤
+il= ·-=i+=i + ·-= ¬+i = º+·+ =  l++=+ = i ¬i+-+= =i
= i =r·+ +ri l·+i r: ·=+i º¤+¤i+ +i=+i =  º+·+ +i=
¬·+i+ = ·-= ==·i+i = ==lu= l= =i =i =¦i = i ¤¤i +ri
= i =: r: ¬=· r =i =i +r º+.·i.ºi. = i, =i =·= i· = i
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º· =i· ·+ =  l=º = r=i r:
¬== ºi¤ =i= ==  = i +il= = i +i+ ·o= rº, ·+i·r+i º¤+¤i+
+i=+i = i º+·+ = i+= i·i ==r + ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  =i¤
º·º·i ¬i· =-= l= º+·+ º· =i =i· ·i=i r: l= ·= º=  =i· l= ·
= +r º+·+ = i l++l== = ·+ l=== ·-= ==·i+ º=il+= + ri
= i ¬i+-+= =i = i ¬+·oi = ·=i r:

=i·= =·= i· = i º+·+ =+i=+ + ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ ==ui
+il= º+ =i=·l-= i = i o=i=i ì»»· = l= +i: :+ =i=·l-= i¬i
= i l+=i¤ `ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ = ri ·r +la =  := º= i· = 
l++=+ =  l=º r¬i r l=== i +i=i+·¤ = i =·¬i ¬i· =i=·il+= 
l+= i= º· ¬+= = +=i+ º·. : º+·+ =+i=+ «i·i ì»»· = =i·i
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ l+l=·+ º+·+ -=i= =l=l=+i =  «i·i =+iº
=º ¬+=  ¬=·ir i+ =i=·l-= i¬i º+ ·i¤i º· ¬iuil·= r`:

+i=i+·¤ =  =·¬¤ º· =i· ·+ =  =i¤ ri, +r +il= ºil·i-¤l== i
º+·+ º+ ·-= º+ -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i=il== , =i-= l== ,
¬il¤=  º+ =-¤i== +l= +i¬i =  ºi·-ºl·=  ==ui = i +=·¬·i=
= ·=i r: ·-= º+ -¤i+i+ ==·i+ l=·r -¤i+i+ +i=i+·¤ = i
=i+= i·i r = i ·i:· ri··= = i ==r -· =  ri··= =+i= · +r
+il= -·r -= +l= +i = =i=i·i· =+i ·=i r l=== +i=i+·¤ = i
=·¬i º· -+= i l+++¤ +ri ·r=i ¬i· == = = ¬il¤=  = i+· = 
l=º ri ·ri ri:
+.
-¤i+i+ ==·i+ = i =i=i·i·i = i ¬i+-+= =i º· =i· º+ =il+= i
º+ º+·+ = i -¤i+i+ ==·i+ =  +i=i+·¤i+ º+ =i=il== -
¬il¤=  ºr=¬i = =i· = · ·o+ = i = il-- º=  === =·- ·=i
r l=  +r +il= =i=·il+=  lr= º+ +¤i ==  =i+·= ·r+ +i=
º+·+ l=ai=i = i =r= ri +i·i =r·+ ·=i r: l= ·= == :+
== ·i+i = i +i-=l+=  = l== i = i +-+, =i l==  ¬iui·= =
=l+ui¬i =  ¬i+-+= =i º· ¬iuil·= +i=+i¬i =  l+=i¤, º+·+
+=u+ +i=+i¬i =  l+=i¤ º+ +=i+i =  =·+i= + =  =·= =
¬i=i r, =i :+ º· +r +il= oi=i- ·r =i=i r:

·i+ º+·+ +il=+i
º+·+ º· l+l=·+ ·i+i + ¬º+i +il=+i =+i: r ¬i· :+= i
·ir i+ +il=+i =  =r+ l=ai·=i = +l·= ri+i == ·i +ri r: =i
==i+ =i= r +r +r r l=  ·i+ +il=+i º+·+ = i =i=i = i
+=l·º = ·o+ = ¬== = ·ri r ¬i· :=l=º º+·+ +il=+i l++-
º+ l+º¤+ +i=+i =i ri =i=i r:
=·+ º·- =i l=  º+·+ +il= = i ¤i¤¤i = ·+ +i= +¤= ·i+i =
= º=  r, + ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º+ ·i=i¤= i·i º+·+ =  ºi·+++
= i =r+ -¦-+i =  -il== l= +i r: ¬º+ :ì +l=-= ++-¬+ = 
=·i ==, º+ · + l+=i=, =·+ +· - =·= i· + :..ì-.: =
ºil·i-¤l== i º+ ·i=i¤= i·i º+·+ ==ui +il=+i = i =·¤+
l= +i: := +il= = i º e= l= +i · =   ¬+ =i·, ¬i= º+ ·=  =i -=  l== 
º+ uil==  º+·+ = ri ==r +ri r - º+·=  = = ·i=i¤, ==i
º+ =i=  = r·= · = i ¤i=i = i ¬i· ¬i= l¤= ri ·r r: º+·= i
= i =+i + l= = ¬iº ºl·+= + =   =¦ +=· ·i+ =·= i· +
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ º+ ·i=i¤= i·i º+·+ =  ºi·+++ = i l+¤+
l=+i r: º+·+ =  :+ -+= ºi = i =i= lº+ =+i+ º+ l+= i= r=,
=·= i· ºr=i =i· l+=i l++-= i = =i=i·i·i ¤ir=i r: +il= = 
º=o l=··¬i = -il== r + +i=+iº =i l+=i =i=i·i·i = i =i=
= ·=i r:
=l= + ·i+ = :: ºl=-= ¬il·+il=+i = i =r+i ri+ =  =i· =i
=·= i· = i ºi¤l== =i º+·= i = i =·==i =i=i = i ==lr r, +
l=  -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =il+= i ==ui ==-+i¬i = i l+º·i·i:
·ir i+ -=i+i º+ -·¤-¤l=+i = i ¤i¤¤i¬i =  = i·¤ =·+ º·-
= ++ = l+-¤iº+ ¬i= =i= r : = i·ri º+ =i u+=·. += = -·ir·¤
r: ·i+ º+·+ +il=+i :+ ==-+i¬i = i +=·¬·i= = ·=i r:
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
58
º·. i=i =·ii==·. = i-¤l= ¬== +ri r: :..- = i º+·+ +il=+i
= +r -ºr r l=  º+·+ ºi·+++ º+ ·i+ = i º+·= i =  º= 
l·= i+ =  = º = l+º¤+ ·i+ =·= i· = i +i¤l== =i r: +r
=i+==i, =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i º+ +i=i+·¤i+ =·¬¤ = i =i=
=i = ·=i r =l= + :+ º· l= +i·+++ l= = º= i· ri, º· ¤º r:
+r l+= ·:i= = º+·+ l+= i= ¬i· -¤i+i+ ==·i+ = i =i=i·i·i
= i =i= =i = ·=i r, =l= + +r == = = º=  l·oi+i ri ===i r
Š+il=  := +il= + º+·+ l+= i= =  l=º ·i+ =·= i· «i·i
=¤il== =·ii==·. · l·= =i· = i +i·= º==i =+i l·+i r:
º+·= i = i =l+ui r= +r +il= ri-+i-º· = º = r=i= i·· = i
=l+ui -+ =i=·i ¬+i = º·i+ = ·+ = i +-=i+ = ·=i r =ri
=+=i=i+ º+ ·-= =i= ·r= r: +r +il= ``+-=i+ º+·+`` º·
=i· ·= rº = r=i r l=  +r ·i+ = i ==a =i-= l==  º·º·i º+
-=i·= i = i ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ =  =i¤ =i·. = · º·l-= = ·=i:
-·. i=i + ¬º+i º+·+ +il=+i = i o=i=i ì»»: = l= +i: +r =i
¬·+ ·i+i = i +il=+i = ¬== +ri r: ·i+ = i º+··i +il= =
===, = i=iri·. i, = ui==, ·+=·. , · += +i=, ¬==, l= ¬i+=i·
º+ =+·== = i +·+=i+ º+·+ =  l=º +-=il+= l= +i =+i r,
=ri ¬·=i =r+i = ¬il·+il=+i = i ¬i=i·i r: ¬il·+i=i =-= l=
= i -·ºi·i= ·¤ := +-=i+ l=  ¬il·+il=+i = i = =i º+
= =i= l=+i º· =++-+· = º=  ==ri=+ = i l+=i¤ l===
¬il·+i=i =i++ ¬i· =-= l= º+·= i =  ==¬ =i+·= ri == -=
-ºr r :
+==i+ = i º+·+ º+ ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ +il=+i =i º+·+ = 
l+l=·+ -+= ºi = i ¬il·+i=i =r= ¬+i = ºi·+++ º· =i· ·=i
r, ¬==i+=i = i ri =·. i+i ·=i: ·ir i+ -=i+i º+ +·+=i+
-·¤-¤l=+i = i ¤i¤¤i¬i º+ ++i = i =·l¬= ¬+ =  ¬===
º·i·+++ = i =·. =i ¤=+ ¬il·+il=+i =  l=º l¤=i = i = i·¤ r:
+¤ ì»:: =, =i·=i+ ++ ¬lul++=, ì»:: = i =·¤+i =  =i·,
·- = = += º=  ·iª· i+ -=i+ ¤i - l== = i·=· ·iª· i+
-=i+: -==  =i· :: +¤i =, ==== ì»:. == , := =l¤ =
= += : ¬i· ·iª· i+ -=i+ =‹· : ==·, ì»:: =  +·+=i+
¬lul++=, ì»·. =  ºi=Š· ·i:=· ¬i· ì»·. =  ++ =·¬¤
¬lul++= =¤i ¬·+ l+l=·+ = i++i =  = i·¤ = : ++ ¬+i = i
=·l¬= ¬+i, ·iª· i+ -=i+i =¤i +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+i = =·=i
=+i r: :==  ºl·¤i=-+= º, :..+ ==  =i·= = »: ·iª· i+
-=i+ ¤il¤= l= º =i ¤=  ¤ ¬i· = i= i ¬=i ¤il¤= ri+ +i=
¤: :=i =·r, ¬·+ ¬+i = i ¬i·l¬= +i +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+
¤il¤= l= + =i+ =  = i·¤ ¬il·+il=+i = i -+ ¬+i = =i ¬º+
¬lu= i·i = +l¤= ri+i º‹·i r:
= i++i ºi+ui+ =¤i =·¬i =i º+·+ º· =i =i= l= º =i
== = r
=i·=i+ =l+ui+ =  ::+ =¤i :++ =-iu+, ì»»: =  ¬===
=r·+º¤ ºi+ui+ l·º =º l=+=  ¬+=i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
l+¤+ ºl= +i =¤i l+l++=+ = ¬i· ¬lu=  =i=i·i·i ·i =::
-r¬i= = +r =-iu+ º· ·- º· =i= ¤, l=== l-· += V
¬+ =i -il== ¤: º·=, ¤l=  ºi·ºl·=  ¬il·+i=i =-¤i==
·i¤ ¬=i =i = i+·= ¤ ¬i· :+ -+-i=+ =-¤i¬i = i = i++i
=i·+=i l·+i =i+i =i= i ¤i, ¬=… = : = i+= =i¬i =¤i
==·+i + ¬+=l¤= ¬+i = ::+ =-iu+ = i =i= l= º =i+ = i
l+·iu l= +i: +¤ ì»»- =, =l·+i = l=l· l·ºi· = i =-=l=+i
=  ¬iui· º·, º=i ¬lul++= =+i+i =+i, =i ::+ =-iu+ =
º=  = ·= ¬i= ¤i - :==  ¬=== =i= ==i = i ¬º+ ¬+ =
ri+ +i= l+= i= = i -+= º, =l= ¬lu=r¤, º++i= =¤i
º+=ui· = i l·-i =+ = ·+ + -== =‹· ==i l+¤+i =
=i=i·i·i = i ¬lu= i· l·+i =+i: +r ¬il·+il=+i = i ¬º+ ¬+
=  l+= i= =  l+¤+i = =i=i·i·i =l+l-l¤= = ·+ =  ¬lu= i·
= i º=  ++i = il==i+ ¤i: =i= ==i =¤i º¤i+= = i +r =i
¬lu= i· r l=  + `¬+=l¤= ¬+i = =l= ¬lu=r¤ = =¤+
=¤i =· = i++i = º = ¬lu=ri= =l= = i +iº= ºi= = ·+ = 
l=º -l¤= = ·= -·i == = r`:
+:
l+¤+ ºl= +i = =i=i = i
¬lu= i· ·+ =  ¬l=l·Š=, º=i =  ¬=== -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
=·= ==i-+i =¤i =·= ol+=i º· =i ¬lu= i· l·º =º r:
-‹·i=i + =i= º¤i+= ¬lul++= = i l+·= = · l·+i r ¬i·
=i·o· = i º¤i+= ¬lul++= = ··i+ ¬lul++= =  ¬+= º +ri
r: =·+ º·- =¤i =·=i==‹· == ·i+, l=·ri+ º=i = 
ºi+ui+i = i -+i= i· l= +i ¤i, ¬= ¬º+ ri = i++i = i -„¤+
= · l+l= = ºl++i =  º¬ = l+¤+ = ·r r, ==l=  ¬iu º·-
= ·i+ =·= i· =i= º¤i+= =  l+¤+i = ·o=·i=i = · o++
= ºl++i = i .==i+ l·º =i+ =  º¬ = l+¤+ =+ =  l=º ·=i+
·i= ·ri r: :+ ¬+i = º+·+ l+= i= =  -+= º =¤i l+++¤ = i
.== ·=i = i ·o= rº =i= ==i¬i = i =l= ¬lu=r¤ º·
l+=·i+i ·o+ =  ¬lu= i· = i ºi+ui+ ¬i· =i =r·+º¤ ri
=i=i r: =ri r= ¬i= ==  l+ª= ¤¤ ¬iuil·= -=i=i «i·i
º=i ¬lul++= =  ºi+ui+i = i -„¤+ ·o= ¬iº r, +ri ¬=
º+·+ =  =·= = =i +r ui·i l·oi: ·+ ==i r: ¬iu º·- = 
¬+=l=l· =·=, =i l=  º=  ¬+=l¤= ¬+ r, = i ¬·i=  ¤i·i
= lº== = = =i=i = = : +º l·.=i· =¤i ri·= =+ r: :=i
º= i·, =·+ º·- = = i·ri ·iª· i+ -=i+ =  ¬i=ºi= =  ¬+ =
==== :.-:: l·.=i· =+ =º r: :+= = .+i·i=· =i==i =
º+·+ l+= i= =  l+¤+i = ¬+i+ =i= ==i¬i = = i: l+¤i·
l+=- +ri l= +i =+i ¬i· + ri -+= i ¬+=l= =i =::
`
=i= - o
59
= i++i ºl·º¬ = º=  ¬i· =r·+º¤ = ·= ¤i ¬+=l¤=
=+=il= =¤i ¬·+ ¬il·+i=i (¬lu= i·i = i =i·+=i)
¬lul++=, :..-: ¬i·l¬= + =·l¬= ++, ¬-+i·ª+, ·iª· i+
-=i+ =¤i ¬·+ =·l¬= ¬+i = i, := ¬lul++= =  ¬===
`=i=·il+=  ++ ==iu+i` = i ·=i l·+i =+i r - ¬=…
=+=il=+i =¤i ¬·+ ¬il·+il=+i =  ¬lu= i· :+ ¬+i º· =i
=i= ri= r: := ¬lul++= «i·i =i·+ ¬lu= i·i = -il== r -
++ =l= º· l++i= = ·+ = i ¬lu= i·, -+il=·+ = i ¬lu= i·;
=·= ++ -º= = i := ¿i = ·+, -== i -º+i= = ·+ =¤i -=
=¤+ = i ¬lu= i·; ===i º= ‹·+, ¤·i+, º¿ =+, =·¬¤
= ·+ =¤i ¬º+ ºi·ºl·=  ¬lu= i·i = i =+iº ·o+ = i
¬lu= i·: ri=il=  ¬=i := ¬lul++= = i =i= = ·+ =  l=º
l·-il+·- =+i· l= º =i ·r r -·=i· r l=  := ¬lul++= = 
== l=ai=i = i =·= ·i· ·oi =iº=i =¤i ¬il·+i=i ==·i+ :=
-+ ==i =i= i º· -º+i= = · == = l===  l=º := =+i+i =+i
r - º=  º=i = i++ =i +r =l+i-¤= = ·=i r l=  -+= i
=i++, -+= i =i++-=i =¤i =-= l= =i= =+· =i.=i·i =i= =i
=  ·=i+ = + ¬iº:
¬l== l+¤i·
:= ·-=i+.= = ¬=·iª· i+ =¤i ·iª· i+ -=· º· -¤i+i+ =¤i
ºi·ºl·=  ==·i+i = i ¤¤i¬i = º+·+ = i =‹·=i =l== i = 
¬+=+i =  ¬iui· º· l+¤i· ·o =º r: =l= + =ri r= º= 
¬i· +r =i+= r l=  º+·+ =  = i·¤ l+i-¤= = º = ºi·ºl·= 
==·i+i = i l+-¤iº+, -i¤¤ =¤i ºi-+i= ·¤ ri ·ri r, r=
¬i-i r l=  := :·ri ==·i+i =  l=º ¬il¤=  =¤i =i-= l== 
= º = =i== i·i =i =+i+i =i == =i r, =i l=  -+= i -i¤¤
ri+ = =¤i == : =ri -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i `l+= i=` =  =+= ·
= º, == o++, =iu =¤i l+ª= ¤¤= =i = i =i=+i = ·+i º‹·
·ri r, +ri -·r º+·+ -=i= = =r= =i -·=i· r - l=  +r
-+=  ¬il¤=  =-iŠ== ·¤ = i =iu+ =+ == =i r =¤i -+= i
=i-= l==  ºr¤i+ ¬i· º·º·i¬i = i === =‹·i+ = =··=i·
l=a ri=i: =l= + Š+i =i·= = º+·+ l+= i= := º= i· = i =+
·ri r´ Š+i º+·+ l=== i == -+= º ri =i++i+ r - ¬i·
¬lu=  =i++i+ =¤i +il= === ri == =i r´ Š+i +r =i=i,
=-= l=+i =¤i ºi= l==  +i=i+·¤ = i ¬i· ¬º+i l=.·=·i·i
l+=i == =i r, =i -== i ¬l=·+ ¬= r´ l=+ ==·i+i º· +r
¬il¤= r, º+·+ -+=  ºl= Š+i ¬i·· + =i==-+ = i l·-=i
=+iº=i +i º·=¬i =¤i -i¤=  = i´ Š+i +r ¬º+i += i=
-=i· = · ¬il·+il=+i =  =ir· = i =·=i+ = · == =i r´
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
60
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
ì. ·-= =i=i =  =·= = `+il·=` ¬==i -·· = i º¤=+ ¬=
= = ri =+i Š+il=  :== =i-= l==  lº=·. iº+ º+ º·i=+=i
== l+¤i· ¬i= r ¬i· ¬lu= =· =i= :+= =¤+i ¤ir= r:
+= i·i·==  =i+ =  =i+=· `+il·=` -·· = i ++i= +l=
¬i-· l=+i º+ ¬=i-= i +il·= = ·= r, -i+· :=l=º l= 
+il·= ¬=l·= + -·· = i º+i= +-=i+ =+ =·=i+ =  = º =
l= +i =i=i r:
:. ¬il·+i=i =i==i = i =+i=+, :..ì =+=¤+i
:. l·l¤l= = · l·== ºª· := i· +=. · ºl+= ¬i=  ºi·i·i:=
ºª· ·ri· + = + · · -·iº :·, · =i·ir == =i=, = =il·++
º=, ì»»·.
+. ·== =i-, · +·· = :·i=i+= ºiº·=, l·ºi· =· ¬i=  +il·=
-··i= º· · +l++l=·i ¬i=  =¤ l==, = +i·i (+¤ ¬-i=)
:. =i+ =i=, · =i+l++· ºª· == i= i:= :+ · · l·-· =i· ¬i= 
= ·=·º=+, l=· = -·= ¬i =  = =. +i= il= = = º= º = l·-=
¬i + ·=i ==i:= -+ ºª· · l·-· · = ·-=  =, =  ·i =i+ = i··i+·
º+ º=+ :. =i+ (=.), ·i:·==, :..:
-. =i¬+ = i·l==, · l·= :·ºŠ· = ¬i+ :·i=i+= ºiº= ¬i= 
= i ·l· = ·i = i+· = , +i ·+ = · + . :;+, :=  = l+= =
= i¬il=-+ ¬i+ ¤· +·· · l·=, ++=· ì»»·
:. = =¤= ¬=i-· º ·i·, º= = -o=l·+i, ·i-+ · ¬¤ :ì
=: :..:
·. · ·i-=i+ l+l=+·=-· l+·=+- == · ¬i==Š· =, ¬i· ºª·
+¤· :+ º ·=i== := i+i=i, ºi·i·i:= +i= . :·i=+=
ºiº·= ·=i=· ·= · := i+il==  ·=i==i:=-+, :··+-+=
= i= = ¬i+ ·=i==i:=-+, :..:.
». =i=  ·i+i, ``= ·=+-+ l·º+=i=`` ¤·· ì+, ºi·i·i:=
+i= . : · i= += ºiº ·= · =i=· ·= · :=  i +i l== 
·=i ==i:= -+, : ··+ -+= = i ·= ¬i + ·=i ==i:= -+,
:..:.
ì.. ``l=Š=· º i l== = ¬i =  := i · l·==``, = = + +i=  , : ··+ -+=
= i= = ¬i+ ·=i==i:=-+ º= ºi· ¬i=  `:ª·i=+= ºiº·=`
· =i=· ·= · := i +i l==  ·=i ==i:= -+, += i-=  .
¬i:.º= .ºi. :..+
ìì. ``· == :+ ºi·i·i:= . · l·= ºª· :·i=+= ·i:· = . · +i· =
º¤i= = =i·+ - =``, l= = i =, =i:+il·· i ·i:· = = º
:··+-+=, =++·i :..:
ì:. +ri
ì:. +i:··=i:=  : -·i· + · ¬i =  : l·+i, = + :..:, http://
www.wii.gov.in.htm
ì+. -º· l=lo ì. +·=· l·ºl¤ = i ·o:
ì:. º ·iº º = . ``· i:== = i· -· : ··=  = - =i l==  ¬i = 
=·+i:+=``, = i·=· =i, +i·+= :, ¬=  :, l·==· - =++·i
:..+, º. :-ì·
ì-. º+.º= .º= .ºi.º= .··=., :l·+i = i ¬i· = =º¤i =ilr·. i
º+ ·+=i= +·i = i ¬i· = ¬+ º·i¬¤ =  ·i·i+ +i= ¬i= ·. :
ì:. http://www.incredibleindiaholiday.com/ incredible-
india-wildlife-holidays/kanha-wildlife-tour.html
ì·. ì»»: = l+-+ = =  + =i·= = =·= i· =   =r+i = =
ºil·i-¤l== i l+= i= ºl·+i=+i = i -= ¬i= = i: =·+ º·-
=  º·+i =i¤ =·l¬= ¬+ = i ¤++ = = +il= =  l=º l= +i
=+i: ºl·+i=+i = i =r+ -¦-+ ¤i =i·= =  =+ l+l+u=i
º+ ºil·i-¤l== i =·¤+i = i =·¬i = ·+i: +r = i+ ·ir i+
-=i+ =  =·++·ii ¬+ =  ¤i·i ¬i· ·r+ +i= =i=i¤i = i
¬º+i ¬i=il+= i =  l=º ++ º· l+=·=i = i = = = ·+ = 
l=º +l·= = · l= +i =i+i ¤i: l+-+ ==  + +r +i=+i :=
¬i-+ =  ¬iui· º· =+i: ¤i l=  +·+ =i+ =·l¬= ¬+ =
=i++ ¬i=i·i =   = i == º ·. -ºi ui º· =i+-=·= ¬i = = = lu=
ºil·i-¤l== i =+i=+ º· =·i +=i+ º·. =i: :=l=º :·r
+·+=i+ =·l¬= ¬+ =  =ir· ==i+i ¤ilrº ¬i· -·r ++ = 
=ir· ri =il+= i =  ei= · ·+ ¤ilrº: :== º=i ===i =+i
l=  =i=i¤i º+ -+=  = ==i = i ===i =i++·i = ·¬i ri
== =i: =i¤ ri, ===i =i++·i º+ º·. ºiui = i =i++i+
·o= = ·¬i ri=i:
ì». +r ºi=   ¬+ = l¤= ¬ + = r - ¬+ = l¤= ¬ + =i·=i+ = l+ui+
«i·i ºr¤i+ l= º =º + ¬+ r =ri ¬il·+il=+i = i ¬·+lu= 
=i+i = ¬i=i·i r º+ :+= i +-i=+ =i ¬il·+i=i =-¤i¬i
º+ -i=+ = i =¦+=· ·o= rº ri ri=i r:
:.. -º· l=lo ì- +·=· l·ºl¤ = i ·o:
:ì. +r = = `¬il·+il==, ·i:· = ºª· · l·= . º+ º=-+ = i=
+i=·ri= :.Š+.+.º.·i.¬i:.¬i.º+.º=`, :Š+-·= :....
::. ¬i:.+i:.:. =  =+i= = ·-= º+·+ º· ¬·=·ir i+ =l=l=
= i ¤i¤¤i = i =·= =:
::. `l= +l·= -+i+= = i· :ª·i=i+= ºiº=`, º= i-=  . +-+=
º·+i= =i = i= l== = i· · +=º=· ¬i=  :ª·i=i+= ºiº=
(º+.º.=i.·i.¬i:.ºi.); =r+i= . ºi.¬i·.:.º=. - -·. i=i
¬i· ¬i:.·i.··=.··=.º=. - =l==+i· , l·==· :..:
:+. -º· l=lo ì: +·=· l·ºl¤ = i ·o:
::. ``ºiº= ºª· ºi= = . l=l= = ºi· Š· · ºl·+i =+==· l+·
=i= = = ·+l+·i=``, l+-+ ==  ì»»:
:-. º=i-+ º=. =i+-·+, ``:= · == · = i· ==´ · l·= ºª·
:ª·i=i+= ºiº=``, ¬¤-= + ºi·== -+ :..-
::. -º· l=lo ìì +·=· l·ºl¤ = i ·o:
:·. +ri:
:». +ri:
:.. ``· l·= ºª· · º=.º.º+. :+ =i-¤ ¬= i= i,`` = i·· =,
:= =+i= = = i¬il=-+ ¬i+ ¤· +·· · l·=, +i·+= ·, +.
:;+ ++ =· ì»»·.
=i= - o
61
:ì. º= = = º+i= ¬= =i·= = -=  ri =º r l==+ º+·+
l+= i= = i = = ·-= ==·i+ = i ¬i+-+= =i¬i = i ¬i· =i·.
l·+i r: = = º+i= =i ==·i+ = i -+il=·+ = r =i = =
-+=   «i·i ri - = ¬i= = i =: r : :== =i·=l== r ,
+.º+.·i.ºi. º+ º+·+ =+i=+ = i ¬·==i= =i=i¤ º+·+
ºl·+i=+i =ri = = ==ri º· ·-= ==·i+i =  =i¤ = i=
ri ·ri r =¤i º+ ¬i· -·i· º+ =i·= =  =· =·= i·i =-¤i¬i
=  º+·+ º+ =i-= l==  =¤i ºil·i-¤l== i =·¬¤ =  =i¤
===+ =+i+ =  º+i= =¤i =i+i =  «i·i oi+i=i, +i=i=·
= l= º =º = = º+i=
::. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/indigenous/standard/
index.htm
::. =+n  ·ir =i++ ¬lu= i· -ƒi+n  = i = i+i=+ . http://
www. ohchr. org/ engl i sh/ i ssues/ i ndi genous/
declaration.htm
:+. =i=i·+ ==i + :: l·==· :..+ = i l«=i+ ¬=·ir i+ ·-= 
=  l=º º=  º-=i+ º.;¬i·.:.º=.;:»;ì:+ = i ºil·=
l= +i: l«=i+ ¬=·ir i+ ·-=  = i -= ¬i= ì =++·i :..:
= i r:: ¬il¤=  º+ =i=il==  =i==i =  ¬+· =ri=l¤+,
¤i =i= º··il++i ¬i= ·ºi = i l«=i+ ·-=  = i ==·++= 
=+i+i =+i: ·-=  = i -¦ª+ = = l+l-r ºl·+i=+i¬i l===
== +i= i =ri+=i :·+il· -il== r, =  «i·i =i-= l== ,
l-¬i, -+i-·+, =i++ ¬lu= i·, +i=i+·¤ º+ =i=il== 
¬i· ¬il¤=  l+= i= =  ¬+i = ·-= ==·i+ = i ==-+i¬i
=  ==iui+ =  l=º ¬=·ir i+ =r+i= º· == ·+i r: ·-= 
= i == l+¤+ r `= i+ º+ =·=i+ =  l=º =i=i·i·i` .http:/
/www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/second.html
::. ==·i+ =l=l= = i =·+ =+n  ·ir ¬il¤=  º+ =i=il== 
ºl·¤· (:.=i.¬i.º=.¬i.=i.) º-=i+ :...;:: «i·i :·
= =i: :... =  i r ¬i: := º -=i+ =   «i·i + .º+.
ºi.º=.¬i: .º=. = i ºl·¤· =   ¬il¤ =  º+ =i=il==  l+= i=,
=-= l=, +i=i+·¤, l-¬i, -+i-·+ º+ =i++¬lu= i· l+¤+i
= ==lu= ¬i·--º+ =  ¬=== ·- =¦i º· l+¤i· = ·+ = i
¬i· - l==i: .http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/
structure.html
:-. -º· l=lo :- +·=· l·ºl¤ = i ·o:
::. ·i =·= r . `·=+ = i l+·-i º+·= i =  ºl= l+-¤ ¬i= ¤¤
r =i l=  ·- = i ¬+=+ =·. ¬i·i= = ¬i· ·-= =i=i = 
=i¤ +=·i= i ·+ln == =º=  =  «i·i = ·+i ¤ir= r` ...
¬i· ... `ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ == ·i = º = ... =+=i=i+
º+ -¤i+i+ r-== =i = i ºi·=ilr= = · +i=i+·¤ = i ¬·=i
= ·+ º+ º=  -l¤= º+ ·+i+il¤·i =i=il==  ·++-¤i = 
l+=i¤ = =r+i= ·=i r:` ·ir i+ º+·+ +il=, º+·+ º+
=-= l= =+i=+, =i·= =·= i· :..:
º+·= i = i -+i==; ¬il·+il=+i = i l+-= i=+ =i·=i++ ·¤= ==·i+i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i º· l¤·=+
:·. ·+i·r+i º ¤+¤i+ +i =+i, º+ ·+ = i+ = i·i == r l·ºi · :..:
:». ºil·i-¤l==  i º+ · + +il= ì»»· =   ¬+ =i·, +r
+.º+.··=.·i.¬i. =  «i·i l+= l== =·l¬= ¬+ º+ ·ir i+
-=i+i =  l+= i= ==ui =i=·l-= i¬i º· ¬iuil·= r: =i¤
ri, +r ºi.º.·i.º. = i· = i· º+·+i·=··=i l·-ºil===
· l·=, l+-+ +i+i º+ º+ · + ºl·¤· =   +i=i+·¤i+
=i=·l-= i¬i, lr=i=++ º+·+ ==ir =i· «i·i =+iº =º
lr=i=++ ¬i¤i·= lr=i º+ := i · l·= =i =i:· i = i
ºil·i-¤l== i º+·+ ==ui =i=·l-= i º· ¬iuil·= r:
+.. := i · l·= º= =i=  · = -· = ·= + ¤+ = =  +i==, l= = i = º º·,
:Š+-·= :..-
+ì. =·=i==i:=-+, =++·= ºª· =i== ·= . · = = ¬i= 
:= i· l·= ºª· :· = :·ºŠ· = :+ · i:== ·i=i+· · ºl·+i=
:+ :l·+i, := -·= ++=· :..-
+:. ºi.:.º=.º. = i ui·i 4 m(iii)
n º¤
ì. =i- ·== - ``· +·· = :ª·i=i+= ºiº·=``, ·iºi· =·· ¬i= 
+ l·= -··i. =, + l+ +l=·i ¬i =  = ¤ l= =, = +i·i (+¤ ¬-i=)
:. = il· +·, =  ·i l=+ (= .) º+ =i= , º=+ º. (= .)-
``=i·Š-·= ¬i=  =· . l=+i=il= = = º=ºiŠ·-= ¬i+
·=i ==i:= -+ ºª· · l·-· · = ª· -=  =``, l=  · i= =
+i=l= =, ·i-·==, :..:.
:. ``= ·· =`` - +i·+= · +. :;+, := =+i= = = i¬=i-+
¬i+ ¤· +·· · l·=, ++=· ì»»·
+. =i+-·+, º=i=+ º+ - ``:= · == · = i· ==´ · l·= ºª·
:ª·i=i+= ºiº=``, ¬¤-= = ºi·== -+, :..-
:. == =i·+, · =i·ir - ``l·l¤l= = · l·= ºª· := i· == . ·
ºl+= ¬i=  º·i·i:= ºª· ·ri· + = + · · -·iº :·``,
= =il·¬+ º=, ì»»·
-. º= º·iº - ``·i:== = i·-· :···= = - =il==  ¬i= 
=·+i:+=,`` = i·=· =i, +i·+= : := :, l·==·-=++·i
:..:
:. ``· == :+ º·i·i:.= . · l·= ºª· :·i=i+= =· ·i:· = .
· +i· = º¤i= = =i·+-=,`` l== i=, =i:+il··i ·i:· = =º
:··+-+=, =++·i :..:
·. ``l= ºl·= ·+i= = i· :·i=i+= ºiº=,`` += i-= , +-+=
º· +i =   =i =  i· · +=º= · ¬i =  : · i=i+= ºiº =
(º+.º.=i.·i.¬i: .ºi.); =r+i = . ºi.¬i·.:.º+. -·. i=i º+
¬i: ·i ··= ··= º= - =l==+i· - l·==· :..:
». ``º·i·i:= +i=. :ª·i=i+= ºiº·= ·l==· = · := i+il== 
·=i==i:=-+,`` :··+-+= = i·= ¬i+ ·=i==i:=-+,
= =i·i ¬i+ :ª·i=i·= ºiº·=, :..:.
62
¬==i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i - =i=i¤ º+·+ -= i= º··i=i+=
· l·= +i=Š· - = ·= · l·= -= i= (:. ·i. ºi. - ¬i·. ·i.
º=.) =i·= =·= i· =  º+·+ =+i=+ º+ ++i:· · +-·=
·+=º=· +i=i= (+.º+.·i.ºi.) = i º=  =i=i ++i= r, =i
:..: = -r r¬i ¬i· +==i+ ==+ = ·- =  -+ -¤=i º·
¤=i+i =i ·ri r: := = i+= = = i =r+ -¦-+ r ===
¬i=il+= i¬i º· =.i· ·+i, =l= + :==  ·i+· = i = += ·i=.=i·
-º=·u = ·i+ ¬i· ¬i=·i+i =‹·i+ =  ¬il¤=  -¦-+i = =‹·i= ·
=‹· -=· º· ==·i+ ¬iuil·= = i+= = =+i l·+i =+i: +r
= i+= = = : l==-== =·+ +i= = ·+i ¤ir=i r - ===
¬i=il+= iº, =l==  ==i+=i, =lr=i¬i =  =i¤-: ++i¬i
=¤i ¬·+ = =.=i· +=i = i =-iŠ== ·¤ =¤i =i-= l== 
=+·+-i==i ¬i· º+i+¤i+ ====i = i ¬i· = i= = ·+i: :=
= i+= = = i ==i+ r l=  +l· º+·+ =  =i·+= = º+·= i +
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i¤, -+=  =·+i ¬i· -+=  ·++ri· =
=·=i+ =i+i r - ¬i· =i¤ ri, =i·= = i -¤i+i+ ¬il¤= 
·++-¤i¬i = =l=-i==i =i =i+i r, =i º+·+ = i `=·¤+i +
¬+ui·¤i = =‹· = =·=i+` = ·+ ri=:
= : =i++i = :.·i.ºi. º+·+ =+i=+ «i·i =i= l= º =º ¬i=
º+·+ = i+= =i = ¬== r: ºr= =  = i+= =i = ====
=l+ui¬i =  l+=i¤ º· ¬·+lu=  .=i· ¤i: := = i+= = = i ·i¤i
=r·+i= i¬i r, l=== -·ºi· =  =·= ºl= +i º· .=i· l·+i =i
·ri r ¬i· :== i = ··i+ l+¤i·ui·i r l=  -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i
º+·+ ==ui l+¤+ =+ = i ¬lu= i· ri+i ¤ilrº: ¬=…
:.·i.ºi. = i ¬+·i l+-¤=i =¤i =r+ =·+ +ri r l=  º+·+
¬i· l+= i= =  =‹·i+ = i ¬i= =‹·i+i =iº:
:= ·-=i+.= = :.·i.ºi. =  ¬+=+i ¬i· -== l==i =io = i
:= ¿i = ·+ = i = il-- = i =i ·ri r: ¬+=+i = i ¬i==i· º·
l+= i=-i= ·-i = =i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= =i = i +=.· = º-
l= +i =i ·ri r: := l+¤+ = l+-== =i+= i·i + -·ir·¤i = 
+.
|¤= tnnt= º nt ¤ n¤ ºt¤
¬t¤t|tº ¤ t¤t¬ ¤¤ ¿+ -
¤ttº ¤ ¬ º¬t º ¤¤ ¿+ ¤|t¤t ¬+t n ¤ta
¬t+= ttt ¤ n¤= 
¡
sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
z««s
l=º r= ºi·= i = ¬+·iu = ·= l=  + l+-== º+i+=i= +
l·ºi · =-· +l=l=·i :+ · l·.=- = ·= · l·.= =i·= º‹· :
==ª·=i+ -=· º· ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ = i = i= i ·+i+
l·+i =i ·ri r, Š+il=  º+·+ ++i=i = =i=·il+=  l+= i=,
=·i=i r·i+, =i-= l==  =º·i ¬i· =·¬¤ =  ºr= l== rº r:
==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ =  = i·¤ ·ir i+, ¬+i+ + -¤i+i+ -=·
º· l+= i= = i -¦-+ º·i = ·+ = i =i= i l==i r: l+= i=-i=
·-i = +r .+i·i=· =i=i¤ ¬+i = ri ==+ ri ºi+i r:
º+·+ = ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i = i ====i =  l=º ¬i+-+= 
=i+i =+i r: := º· =·+=i, l+= i= ¬i· -== +=u+ = i ·lr
= =i .=i· ·i=i =+i r: := += i· =  º+·+ =  = : = i+· r -
-¤i+i++ =i=i = i -+il=·+, ¬i=il+= i =·¬i, ·++==
= l‹·+i, ===·i = i +=i+i l+·i= ·¤, -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
=i=il==  =i· ==i=+ = i ¬==i = =‹·i=·i ¬i· =r=·
=·¬¤: º+·+ = +i= ·i=-+ = i -¤i+i+ =i= ¬º+ lr=i= =
=i·= r; +i =i ==i l++il=+i =  =i¤ =·i=· =·+i·i ri=i r
+i =i = == =
=l+ui¬i, == l=  ºi·-i=iº, =‹·= , l¤l= ·=i=+ ¬il· =+i+
= l++-i l= +i =i=i r (-º·-=i, :..·):
:
.+i·i=· ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ = i+= =i = =‹·i º=  =i·i
= i== ===i =i=i r :== ri+ +i=i ¬º¬iº: + = =i =.= ·=
= .+i·i ri=i r, +: ==-+iº o‹·i ri == =i r Š+il=  ¬=i
==  =  =i=i= ==·i+ ¬= =-Š= ri =º r ¬i· ==a ºl·+i·i
= i l+l=·+ +·+= i = = i+·i l== ·ri r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=,
º+·+ = -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =-iŠ== ·¤ =  ++i=i =  =i+=·, +
º+·= i =  l=º ¬i+-+=  .== ·i =l+uiº -º=·u +ri = ·i ºi=
(-º·-=i, :..·):
=i= = i l+=·¤ = = ¬i· l= = -=· ==  ri=i :==  ºi= = :
= i·¤ ri= r - º+·+ l= =+i ¬i= ¤=  r, l= = += i· -= =i=
63
l= +i =i ·ri r, -¤i+i+ =i= l= = r· ==  ¬i· l= + = i=i =
-il== r =¤i ri+ +i=i ¬i=·+i l+l= ¬i=·+i r +i -== 
º=  ¬- = i +i º·i ¬i=·+i = i =i=lr=  = i+= =i = l++-i
l= +i =i ·ri r :
¤¤ ¿+ ¤ |¤= tn
l+= i= l++i=+ =i+=i r l=  ·+iº=  ¬il¤=  -·+l= = =i++i+
l+= i= ri+i .== ·i +ri r: =·i=i ¬i· =i++i+ ¬==i+=i¬i
= i ·· = ·+ =  l=º ¬i= +il=+i =+i+i .== ·i r ¬i· +r º= 
=r= =‹·i ¤+i=i r: :+ -¦-+i = i +i= = ·+ =  l=º .== ·i r
l=  +il=+i =i= = ·+ +i= =-¤i+ ¬i· ¬lu=  =+i=·i· ri,
=l==  =·i=·i ri, =¤i ril-+ º· l·=  ==·i+i = 
=-iŠ== ·¤ =  =i¤-: l+= ·:i= ·¤ =  ++i= l= º =iº:
= : º+·+ = i+= =i, oi== · :.·i.ºi. = i ¬+ui·¤i =,
=i=i¤ l+= i= l+lr= r: l+= i=-i= ·-i = =‹·= =i=i¤ == ·
= i ºe=l= =, =ri -·r ==== =l+uiº == -+i-·+ + l-¬i
=i +ri l== ºi ·ri r, º= ¬i=il+= i - l+ri+ ==·i+i = 
l=º =i=il==  + ¬il¤=  ·+i+ =l+i-¤= = ·+i ºi+i º=  =r=
=‹·i ¤+i=i r: = += =i=i¤ º+·+ =  =i·+= = ri, =·+=i +
=-iŠ== ·¤ =  =·+ +i= +ri l= + =i == =: =l= + l= · =i,
=i=  - = i·:= º+·+ =  -¦-+ = i +i= = ·+ =  l=º +r º= 
=r·+º¤ ¬i· ¬i+-+=  = ‹·i r:
:.·i.ºi. = i ¬+ui·¤i l+= i= º+ º+·+, :+ ·i+i -¦-+i = i
+.=· = = i =: ¤i: :== i =i= = ·+ +i=i =  =i=+ º=  =‹·i
¤+i=i ¤i l=  º+·+ = i l= = += i· =·+ +la = i =iº, Š+il= 
º+·+ l+= i= +l= +i (=-iŠ== ·¤, -º+il==i =¤i =·+=i
¬il·) = =r·i: = =‹·i r: :.·i.ºi. = l+= i= º=  ¬l=l·Š=
-¦-+ + ri= ·, º+·+ +l= +i¬i = i =·+ +la =  l=º =ri+= 
-¦-+ =i+i =+i r: ¬·+ =i=i¤ º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = 
== i== +r ¬º+-¬iº = º=  ¬+·i +l= +i ¤i, l=== i ¬º+i
l+lr= ¤+il=+i =i ¤i:
=l= + =i=i¤ ºl·+i=i¬i =  l= +i·+++ = =r= ¬i=i+i =
==+i+lu = ·+i+ r·= ·, = += -·ºi· ¬i· ºl·¤i=i º·
= i·:= ri =i=i r - =i ¬= =· r· ºl·+i=+i =  =i¤ ri=i r:
¬=… l= +i·+++ =  ==+ =·+=i, =l==  =·i=·i, =-Š=i= ·¤
=¤i =i=il==  =·=i+ =  -¦-+, l=·r ril== = ·+ = ==+
¬i· ¬·+lu=  ++i= = i ¬i+-+= =i ri=i r, ··l= +i· ri =i=
r ¬i· = += º+·+ -·ºi· = i +i¤l== =i ·i =i=i r:
=i=i¤ º+·+ ºl·+i=+iº ¬== = =i=il==  + ¬il¤=  -=·
º· = i= = ·=i r ¬i· ==+ r l=  :+=  = i·¤ = i= i ===·
-=i=· ri= ri: ri == =i r l=  :+ ===·i = i º+·+ = = i:
=iui l·-=i + ri, º·= := += i· = i +i=+i =i= = ·= ==+
+r ==-+iº -=· ¬i=i r: = = º=i =i ¤+il=+i r, l=·r
ºl·+i=+i =  ¬===, =i=il==  =·=i+ =  -¦-+ =
=i+=== · -=i=· l= +i =i=i r l=== l=  -+= i r= l+= i=i
=i == :
=l= + +r ·l+ui r=-i =+i ·r=i r, l=  l= = r· ==  :+
ºl·+i=+i¬i =  =i·+= = :+ =i=il==  ¬==i+=i¬i = i
=·=i =i == =i r: ¬i=il+= i¬i = i =‹·i+i ·+ ¬i· =i++i+
l+= i= =  -¦-+i = i +i= = ·+ =  l=º, oi== · =lr=i¬i ¬i·
++i¬i =  =·= =, -·=  ¬º+ ==iu+i =  l+= i= º· .=i· l·+i
=i=i r, == l=  -+= i ºi·ºl·=  = =i + = =i= l=+i, -+= i
=i-= l==  =º·i, =¤i+=i +i l+l= =l=, +i= l==  ==iu+
(++-ºl= + +·+=i+) ¬i· -+=  ¬+ = i º+i+·¤: ¬i· -+= 
¬º+ ==iu+i =  l+= i= = =‹·i =··i r l=  -+= i Š+i `·+` r
- -+= i º=  -¤i+i+ ¬+ = ri+ +i=i º+·+ = i ¬i=·+i, -=
¬i=·+i = =‹· l+¤+, ¬i· -= ¬i=·+i =  =·+ =·+i· = i
¬lu= i·: =i¤ ri, -+=  `¬º+` ==iu+i =  =·¬¤ = i
¬lu= i·:
¬= =· ºi+i =+i r l=  =i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= =i = =i º=i º+
=-¤i== ·i¤i =·i=i = i = i+·i ºr¤i+ =  l=º -º=·u = ·i+i
=i=i r, +r ¬== = ==a =i=i = i =i= ·=i r: :+ =··i = i
-=i=· = ·+ =  l=º .== ·i r l=  =i=·il+=  -=· º· l+-=¤¤
l= +i =iº - l=  l= == i :+ = i+= =i = -il== l= +i =+i ¬i·
l= = =ir· ·oi =+i ¬i· Š+i: =·i=i = i º=  ==i+i=· = º =
·oi =i=i r, º· r· ==·i+ = = = ºl·+i· º= ri= r =i
=i-= = = ·i +Š= = i ==i·i =i = · ºi= r: -+=  ºi=
¬i=il+= i ¤+i+ =  l=º =r= = = =i=  ri= r: +==i+ º+·+
=  =i=i¤i +i + =i = i+= = = .+i·i =i= = =i+i ¤ir= r, +
¬= =· l+¤+-+l= +i = ¬º+i r=  ==i+ === r: -+= i
=i=·=i = =i+ =  = =.=i· +=i + =lr=i¬i = i ==i+ -=· +i
==i+ l+¤+ilu= i· +ri l== ºi=:
n¤ ºt¤t = t ¬¤ ut¢ ¤ nt¤ ºt|¤=  ¤ +t¤ …
=i=il==  ¬lu= i· = i == · =i=i¤ º+·+ =  l=º -¤=i = i
¤+i+ -+ ==ri = i º+·+ ==i++i¬i =  ¬iui· º· ri l= +i
=i=i r: =i=il==  ºl=, -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =+i·i + ·=.i=·i
º· = i: oi= ·+i+ +ri l·+i =i=i: = : =i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= =i
=, == =i+ +i=i = i =‹· º=i+ º· º=i ¬i=i l·oi: ·=i r,
=i -+=  =i+ = ri o¤ ri+i ri, =i + -= = i+= = = i =+i
= ·+ = i i-¤l= = +ri ri=:
.== ·i r l=  º=  º=i +l= +i l+uil·= = i =iº, l===  ¬===
=i=il==  =iº··i = i ===+ ¬i· ==·i+i = i -º+Š= =¤+i
l+= i=-i= ·-i = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= =i=i¤ º+·+ - =i·= = ¬==i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i = +i= =i+= i·i + === 
ì
64
=  ¬iui· º· l+¤+ =+ = i =i= i l== l=  + º=i = i+= = =i=
= ·+i ¤ir= r +i +ri: :==  l=º =r=i=i =i=i¤ =·+i= +
(ºil· l=º··i = ·= ¬+==) ==i +l= +i = -¤i+i+ =i= ===
== = r l=  º+·+ =  ==il+= +=i¤ Š+i ri == = r: :== 
¬l=l·Š= .== ·i r l=  = = =r+ =··i º· =i=i =  =i¤ ·+iº= 
¤¤i ri - l= = += i· =  =-¤i== ·i¤ -º=·u r, -+= i
l=.·=·il·+i Š+i r, l+¤+- +l= +i, Š+i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤
u=, =il=, += =  ¬iui· º· =·+i·i r, ¬·+ l= = += i· = i
¬==i+=iº =i=· r, Š+i = i: ¬·+ ¬i· ¬lu=  =r·+º¤
l+= i= =  =·· r l=·r +i¤l== =i ·i =i+i ¤ilrº ==,
=·i=i, l-¬i, -+i-·+, = ¤, == i: ·++-¤i, ºi+i, =i=i = 
·++=i+ Š+i r, =i-= l==  º·º·iº Š+i r ¬i· ==·i+ = i Š+i
=+·+-i==i r: l= =i =i ¬+ =  ¤+i+ = ºr= +r +l= +i
.== ·i r, l=== l=  -¤i+i+ =i= := ++i= = i ¬º+i ==  ¬i·
¬=· .== ·= º‹· =i :==  l=º =+i =i = · == : ·=·i :+= =
= = =il==  =+i¬i = i ri+i º+·+ = i == ==i =  l=º
¬i+-+=  r:
º+·+ -¤= =  ¤+i+ =  =iº·· ¬i· +l= +i -== i == ==i = 
l=º =r·+º¤ r: =ri :+ = i·¤i º· ·+i+ +ri l·+i =i=i r,
+ri :==  += i·i·==  +=i+ -ºr l·oi: ·= r: :.·i.ºi. = 
º·i¬¤i = =i -ºr r l=  l== -¤i+ º· ==·i+ = i -+=…
º+·+ l+= i= = ·+ = i =i= i l·+i =+i, +ri º+·+ ¬lu= 
== = ·ri:
.== ·i r l=  =i=i =  =i¤ l+·=· ¤¤i ¤==i ·r l=  +
ºl·+i=+i = i = = ·o= r, ¬i· + :== Š+i =·=i+ =i+i
¤ir= r: -+=  ¬+=i· = i+= = = i -º=i·u+i = i ==i++i º·
¤¤i ri: == ºl·+i=+i =  -¦-+i =  l+¤+ º· -¤i+i+ =i=i = 
=i¤ -l¤= ¤¤i + ri =i -+= i -·=i· =‹· =i=i r: -·r
ºl·+i=+i = =r= .+i·i ¬º¬iº ri=i r, =i º·i + ri+ º·
=i=i = i ri==i · · =i=i r - l===  =i· -+=  l=º l= · =
-r¬i= = ·+i =i =i-= = ri =i=i r:
== -¤i+i+ =i= º+·+ = -il== ri= r, =i +r =i++i .== ·i
r l=  -= -¤= º· l+l=·+ ¬i=l·=  + =ir·i = i·¤i =  ¤==
= : l=·+=iº º·i ri=i, =i -i+· ¬·+ ==ri º· + ri: º+·+
=i=i¤ == · = i º= =i+ ==iui+ +ri ri == =i - ¬i· º+·+
= i -r¬i= = i i-¤· º+ === ¬i=il+= i¬i = i l+= ·º +ri
=i+i =i+i ¤ilrº: +r =·+ ¬·+= =r·+º¤ r, Š+il=  º+·+
º=  -º=i= - ¬iuil·= =l=l+lu r ¬i· =i=i¤ =·= = +r
-·ºi·+ ¬iuil·= ¬i=il+= i¬i = i o·= = · ·=i r: =i+ = i
¬il¤=  ·++-¤i = i l= =+i =‹·i lr-=i º+·+ º· l+=· r, +r
=i ¬==-: i-¤l= = ¬== ri=i: -==  l=º ¬==-: i-¤l= =
¬== ==+ ¬+lu ===i ¬i· -== i ·º=i· =i ¬== ri ri=i:
=i=i¤ º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i r· -¤= = i +i-=l+= =i¬i = 
¬iui· º· =+i· l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº: º+·+ = i ¬º+i º= 
=i++= i= r, l=== º·i¬¤ = -r ri= · +r ·i= i-¤l= =
ºr¤=i r ¬i· º=  ==+ =  =i· º+·+ = i -=· l=·+ ===i r
- +r º=  =+·+iºi =·+ r: :=i =·r == =i+= r l=  º+·+
º· ¬·+lu=  l+=·=i ·i=  +ri r: +il= - l+ui·=  º+·+ = 
=i=i = i =‹·i - ¤‹·i= · ==i= r, ==l=  :+ ·i+i =  ºi=
-º+Š= ¬·+++ +i ¬i= ‹· -º=·u +ri r, l=+= º+·+ = i
l+= i= = i º=  -º+Š= =iu+ -¤ilº= l= +i =i == :
¢=  ``¬+ ¤¤`` = t |¤¤¬+…
¤¤ ¿+ :t¤tº ¤ :n= t ¤¤tt
º=  =i=iªi º+·+ ¬+=+ =  l=º -= ¬+ =  +i= l== ,
=i-= l== , =i++i+ º+ ==u+ ==iu+i = i º+·= i =  l=º
¬i= ¤=  ri+i ri=i: l= =i =i º+·+ -¤= = i ¬·+ -¤=i =
.+i·i +¤l== ri+ =  l=º +ri =  ¬i= ¤¤ (l=== -= ==r
= i +i-=l+= =i ¬i= ¤=  ri), +ri º· -º=·u =+iº +
=l+uiº, -= ==r ==  ºr¤ ¬i· = i== =r·+º¤ ri=i r:
:== = = : ºr= º= r =i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i++ =  l=º =i
.== ·i r - == =i=  º+ -+·= º+i+·¤, -+·==i º+ == i::
=l= + +r ·+i+ ·o+i .== ·i r l=  r= º=i =iri= =+iº =ri
º+·=  =i=i¤=i = i ¬+=+ = · == , +i l=  =i=i¤ ¬+ =
-r·i =l+ui¬i = i o‹·i = ·, Š+il=  r= ===i r l=  º+·= i
= i +ri ¤ilrº: º+·=  -¤= = i -·= r l== i ==i++i (+ +i= 
=l== +iºi=.i-+) ¬i· -== i +l=la -¤ilº= ri+ º· -¤i+i+
=i= =i =i=.i· = i ·++-¤i = = i= = ·+i =io ==:
¬= =· =i=i¤ º+·+ -·ºi· = i l== i =  l=º ¬+=+ =  +¤i·
º· .=i· l·+i =i=i r: +r = += ¬i= ¤=  l+-iº+ =+i+
l==+i ¬i=i+ +ri r, =i·=  :== i = : º·= ri=i r -
l¤+i= +, +il=-i-+ =¤i +r =i++i l=  Š+i l== =i r:
l+º¤+ = -·ºi·;=+i¬i = i l+= i=, -¤= (+r = ri i-¤= r
¬i· l= + ¬+i = =‹·i r), = i== - l+ui·¤ ¬i· +¤i· -il==
r: +r l+º¤+ +l= +i =i=.i· + -º=iŠ=i = i ºl·=il¤= = ·=
rº =i=i¤i ¬i· -+=  -·ºi· = i -º=iŠ=i = i .== ·=i ¬i·
¬º¬i¬i = =i‹·=i r:
=ri º=  ¬i· =i.=i· = i .== ·=i = i º·i = · ºi+i ·+iºil·= 
== ==i =  l=º .== ·i r, ·l+ui +r =i r l=  l= · º=i
= i+= = º·º·i¬i = i -+=  ``+==`` = º = =·l¬= = = ·o
== =i r: +ri r=i·i ¬i-+ +r +ri r l=  ºi·ºl·=  ·-== i·i
= =·==i ==+ ¬i· =·==i .== ·=i =  =i¤ =·=i+ +ri rº
r: -i+· +ri r=i· ·-=i= i·i ¬i· ·-== i·i = i =i= = ·ri r,
l===  = i·¤ + ¬i= ==  l=.·i r: =l= + ¬= ==+ =  =i¤
=i= - o
65
º+·+ ==i ==r ri =i= i ·ri r, =i º=i = =i¬i ¬i·
º· º·i¬i = i l++l== = ir=  r : º =i i-¤l= = , +r = i= i +ri r
l=  = i=i¤ º+ ·+ = i+ =  = · o l=  +r ·-== i· =i. =i· = i . == ·=
=  = º ·i = · == = r , =i·=  -·r l++l== = ir=  º+ = ·¬=  = i
=i = i= = ·+i ri =i - l=== = =i = i = =i = i =·r +- =i = i
=iº, -== i = ·¬¤ ri + -= =r+i = l·+i =iº:
:+ -¤=i =  +¤i· - +=i· =  =·i= i = i ===+i =i .== ·i r:
= i+= = = i ·lr= i¤ Š+i r ¬i· l+º¤+ =-¤i :== i = =
+¤i· = ·=i r - Š+i +r = += º=  =·· l¤+ r +i :== i
+¤i· l= =i ¬i· =·r l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº´ :+ ¬+i = -¤i+i+
=i=i = i =i=i·i·i ¬i· -+=  +=·+ = i -=i=· = ·=  + = +=
º+·= i = i ¬i= l¤=, =i·=  -·r l-¬i =i ·i =i == =i r:
º+·= i = i ¬i= l¤= = ·+ = = i: ==-+i +ri r, º· := ¬+=·
= i -¤= = i =º¤=i º- = ·+, ¬i· -==  =·= = º+·+
¬+ =+ = i l=·i+ =   l=º -º+i = l= +i =i == =i r : =i ·+ -i-+
¬i · l+º¤+ =   =i¤ = i = ‹ ·i r l¤+i = +: :== l+lr= r …
• ==i+i=·¤ = i +l= +i
• ¤¤i ¬i· ¬+ui·¤iº =+i+i:
• +l= +i¬i = i ·i=+il=- =¤i· -·ºi·i = Š+i -il==
ri =i Š+i +ri:
• +r =i++i l=  +r == -º=i= =  l=º r ¬i· ui·-: ·i=
ri=i ¤=i =i=i r ¬i· l= · :+ º· = i: ¤¤i = i
¬i+-+= =i +ri ·r=i - +r +l= +i ¬i= =i=i = i =r=l=
= ri=i r:
:.·i.ºi. = i º=  =r+ -¦-+ ¤i º+·= i =  l=º -=  -·= r
=i=i¤ ¬+=+, l=== ==== =+i¬i º· ¬iuil·= º+·+ =
r·= · ¬+=+ l== == : =ri º=  ¬i· +r l+¤i·ui·i
+-=+i+ r, :== i ril== = ·+i ¬i=i+ +ri r: :==  l=º
¬i· ¬lu=  =i¤ =  =i¤ ++i= = ·+ ri= l=  º+·= i = i º= 
+++i-=l+= ’ =i=i¤ l=··=i = i ===  = = l·oi: =iº:
º+·= i = i ¬i= l¤= = ·+ =  l=º -ºr, l+i-¤= ¬i· =il== 
¬i= ¤¤ ¤ilrº, =l= + º=  ==r = =‹·i +i·i = =r= =
¬-ºr ¬+=+ =i ri= r: º= = =+i= º=i =i == =i r- Š+i
=i=i¤ º+·+ = i +i= : = = i: ¬i+-+= =i r +i +ri ´¦
= : =i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= =i = =r-¬i+i=i = i º+·+ -·ºi· = 
= º = -il== l= +i ri=i r: =i=i¤ ·++-¤i = =r-¬i+i=i = 
= i+· + += =i+ ·i+i r: º=  ¬i· =r-¬i+i=i = l+= ·:i= =
=i= - l+=·¤ = =r+i= l===i r - ¬il¤=  =i= =¤i
º+·= i =  l=º +i-=l+=  ¬+=+ =  = º =: =l= + :.·i.ºi. =
-il== -¤i+i+ =i= º=  = ·:i+ ¬i+i= =l+ui =  º¬ = r: =i
Š+i =i= =r- ¬i+i= = i l+= ·º ¤+= ¬=· -+=  ºi= º= 
= ·:i+ ¬i+i=- =l+ui = ¬il¤=  =i= = =i+ = i ¬+=· ri´
:= =+i= = i ==i+ ¬=i r=i· ºi= +ri r: º= = :
=i=il== , =i-= l==  ¬i· ¬il¤=  = i·¤ r l=== =r-¬i+i=
= i l+= ·º = i·=· +ri ri == =i +i -= =il== == ==i ri
+i= ri=i: =i-= l==  = º = - ¬l=l¤ =·= i· = i = i== =+i
º=  º=i ¬+ui·¤i r, l== -+i= i· = ·+i -r = =i-= = ri=i
r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, º+·= i = i ·++ri· =i º=  =iº·· r
(= = -¤i+i+ =i=i =  ¬+=i·, l+·-i º+·=  ·-i º+·= i = 
== i== ¤·i = .+i·i ¬i·i= =r== = ·= r):
+il= l+ui·=  =r-¬i+i=i = i =‹·¤‹·= · =‹·i+i ·= r - +r
:== º+·= i =  l=º ¬i+i= =+i¬i = i = =i = i º·=  ·o= r:
+r -r·i ¬+i = == = ri == =i r - =l= + =i=i¤ ¬+i =
l=+i l+-== ¬·+++ ¬i· ºl·¤i=i = i =i¤ l= º := = i+= =
= i =i= = ·+i -i+· ·i=  +ri ri=i:
l= =i =i -¤= = i -·= ª· l== i ==i++i ¬i· -== i +l=la,
+ri º· ¬i+ +i= º+·= i = i -+= º =+ = ·=i r - ==il+=
º+·=  = i l= = =·r +r -¤= º- l= +i =i ·ri r, -== i
l+º¤+ = = ri ·ri r ¬i· -== i == ==i =l+i-¤= = ·+ = 
l=º Š+i +i=+i =+i: =: r: :==  l=º l+º¤+ = i º=  ¬i·
==r ==i+i º‹· =i l=== l=  == ==i =l+i-¤= = i =i == :
º= ++i=i = i ·+iºil·=  == ==i =  l=º .== ·i r l=  -ºr
·+iºi· +i=+i + l+º¤+ ·¤+il=+i =+i: =iº: :=i =  =i¤
º+·= i =  -+= º = i ºl·=il¤= = ·+i, := ºl·=i¤i = i
=·+iº+ (l= = += i· =  º+·=  +i-=+ = ¬i= r, :== i =i¤
= ·= ), := =i+= i·i = i +iº= +¤i·-+=i·, l+º¤+ =¤i
-·ºi· l+= i= = -º+i= = ·+i =i .== ·i r:
º=  ¬·+ ºr= r º+·= i =  -+= º ¬i· º+·+ =  ¬+il==
ºl·¤i=i = i =‹·i+: l= = += i· r= º= º+·= i = i `·· ·o`
=i ==.=i+ ==·i+ = i =-= l= ¬i· =·+i º· += i·i·==  +=i+
·i== r´ Š+i = i==i, +¤i· ¬i· -¤=i+ ¬+=+i = i :=
+= i· =+i+i =i == =i r l=  º=  oi= += i· =  º+·=  ri +ri
ºr¤´ º+·= i = i =i¤ = ·+i ==+ +ri r: =i¤ ri º= 
¬+=i+ ·+iŠ= = i ¬º+ ¤· +i =i+ = ·o+ = o=·i =i ri
== =i r: =i+i, = ·= ¬i· -‹·i=i =  =i=i¤ ¬+i = º+·+ = 
¬·+++ = -ºr r¬i r l=  =r ¬i+i=i ¬i· =i= - +i+ -i¤¤
= =‹·i+ r, Š+il=  :== =ƒi ==  ºr¤ ¬i=i+ ri =i=i r:
+il= l+ui·¤ =  =·= = :+ ºr=¬i º· =i+ui+i = = i= =+i
.== ·i r Š+il=  ==·i+i =  l=º :==  o=·, =¤i :== =‹·+
= i =+i·i = i ¬·+++ ri+i .== ·i r ¬i· -==  ºl·¤i=i = i =i
o= =+ = ¼+i+i ri=i:
l+= i=-i= ·-i = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= =i=i¤ º+·+ - =i·= = ¬==i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i = +i= =i+= i·i + === 
ì
66
¤ t¤t¬ ¤¤ ¿+ = t =t¤¸ = t+ =   |=¢ t¤t+t¤ n t¤t¬t
¤ = t¤ =  n=ºt¬t = t |¤= tn
=-¤i== ·i¤i = =r+=… l+¤i· ui·iº l+lr= ri=i r: ==
=i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= = º=  ¬== += i· =  º+·+ =  l=º +º
=-¤i== · i¤ =+i= r, =i =i=i¤ ==i= = ·i += i· =  +=i+
ri == = r - +º ·i¤ +i =i ¤+i=i =+ == = r +i l= · +
ºr= = =i=· ·i¤i = i ri lr-=i =+ == = r:
l+= i= º+ º+·+ =  l«-¦-+ = = i= = ·+i ¬º+ ¬iº = ri
º=  =‹·i ¤+i=i r ¬i· :==  l=º :=+i ==+ == == =i r
l=== i = ·º+i +il= l+ui·= i + = i ri: º=  =+=i=i·+ l···lr
+ l++= =+i+i, +r =l+i-¤= = ·+i l=  + º=  ·=· =  -¦-+
º·i = · - +r =-¤i== ·i¤i =+i+ =  l=º = i= i =‹·i ¤+i=i
r: :==  l=º =i=·i·i =  =i¤ ¤¤i = ·=  =r+ =i=i·i·i = i
¤+i+ ¬i· =+=i=i·+ l···lr =  l=º = i= = ·+i .== ·i r: º= 
=i= -¦-+ =  l=º ¬iº¤il·=  + ¬+iº¤il·=  = i+ +¤il=+i
= i === =  ¬iui· º· ri ==== =-¤i== · i¤i =+i· l= +i
=i == =i r:
:==  ¬l=l·Š=, = += º+·+ =  ºl·º¬ = =i, i-¤·=i ril==
= ·= , =-¤i== ·i¤i =  = i·=· ri+, -+=  =i·+= = º+·= i
= i .== ·= º·i = ·+ =  l=º ==+ ¤ilrº ¬i· º+·= i =  =i¤
==i=i· ¬i·i+ - +·i+ =i: =.=i+i -=· º· l==+ ==+ = i
¬i+-+= =i r +r l·+i =i+i ¤ilrº, ==+ ¬+lu = º· = =+
+ = i =iº: =-¤i== ·i¤i = r=+ ºi+i l=  = : ==r + = +=
l+-+i= º· ¤= ·r r - -+= i ·i= =++ =  l=º ==+ ri +ri
l·+i =+i: ºl·¤i= -+= º, = : == · = i i-¤l=+i º·i ri =::
==i ¬+=ui = i =ri ·-=i+=.i= ·¤ = ·+i .== ·i r, l===
= i++i ºr=¬i = i ·+i+ ·oi =iº, oi== · º= =-¤i== ·i¤
l=+= -iŠ= = i r-=i=·¤ -il== ri:
-=l==i =  = : +i= º - l+l=-=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i,
=i=·il+=  = ¤ =-¤i, =i=·il+=  º+·+ +·+= , º¤i+=i ·i=
·++-¤i =  ¬=== º+·+ l++i=+ ¬il· - -=· ¬iº r: :+
==i +i= ºi =  ¬===ui = i ===+i .== ·i r, l=== l= 
=i=·il+=  =-¤i¬i = i === + == = º+·+ =¤i -== 
=i=·il+=  =i=i = i ¬·+++ l= +i =i == :
:.·i.ºi. = i =i=i¤ º+·+ -= i= = = i+= -==i¬i = i =‹·i+
= i =··i +.º+.·i.ºi. =  r-=¬º = ¬i+i: :== i -¦-+ ¤i l= 
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i = i+ = -==i¬i = +la ri ¬i· + :=
= i+= = =  ¬=== o‹· l= º =i ·r, =·‹· l= º =i ·r ==iu+i
=  -+il=·+ = =i= -·iº:
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i +l-¬¤i =  =i·+= = ¬==-: =··i º·
= i+= -==iº =·i: =: - =i=l=, º+·+ = =‹· r+· +
¬i=il+= iº, += i·º=  ¬i=il+= iº =¤i =-¤i== +=u+:
= i+¬==i¬i =  l+= i= = r+· =i =r=· rº ri, =l= + :+
+l-¬¤i = ·lr= i¤ =+i+ + ·+Š= = ·+ = i =i º=  ==r
l==i: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, :.·i.ºi. = -il== = : -¤=i º·
-¤i+i+ =i= +ri === ºi= l=  -¤i+i+ +i-=l-·º º· :=+i
.=i· Š+i l·+i =i ·ri r: -+= i === :=+i ri r l=  `º+·= 
º=i ==r = ·r+i ¤ir=i r =i =i+ ==i ri`: := l···lr = i
=‹·i= · -¤i+i+ =i==i = i -º+i=, -¤i+i+ l+= =i¬i = i =i= i
·+i ¬i· -¤i+i+ ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i = i =i= ºr¤i+i - +r ==
+l-¬¤ = i lr-=i ri=i r:
:.·i.ºi. =  ==i -¤=i º· º=  =+iƒ =-¤i =+i+ = i = il--
= i =: - =i= º+·+ = l=l· (+i.·i.=i.): :==  l=º ·i
¬==-: +l= +iº ¬º+i: =: r: º= , +i.·i.=i. = i =·-+=i
= i ¬i= ==  -il¤= + º+·+ -=i= = = · =i=i ==  ri =il==
·oi =+i, == l=  ·-== i·i, l-·º= i·i, =lr=i¬i, ++i¬i
=¤i =i+ =  ¬·+ = =.=i· +=i ==  +l-¬¤ = -+=  r+·
=‹·i+, -+=  º·i+ -·ºi·+i = i =·+ +la =¤i +º -·ºi·+
=+i+ º· .=i· l·+i =+i: ¤l=  -¦-+ ¤i l=  -iŠ=ri+ + ril-º
º· l·=  =i=i = i =-iŠ== ·¤ l= +i =iº, +i.·i.=i. ºr= =
¤= ¬i ·r =·ii =  ·i¤i = i ¤+i=i ·+ =  l=º º=  -º+Š=
-¤i+ ¤i: ·=·i =·i= i ¤i, l=  ==i =  l=º ··+i=. oi= l·º
=iº … ¬=i· =·i=, -iŠ=-i=i + = =.=i·, ===  l=º = =
-¤=i º· +r =·i= i .+i·i +=i+i ·ri - l=  ¤+i+ = i
l=.·=·i·i -¤i+i+ =i=i º· =i‹· ·i =iº - ¬i· = i+= = = i
=i= = ·+ = i +l= +i = =i=il==  l++i· = ·· ·ri =iº:
=i=lr=  l···lr, == i·i·== , =i=il==  +l= +iº,
= i+= -==i¬i = i l+= i= ¬i· = = ==+ ==  =r+i= =i·i
·r+i º=  ==== =-¤i =  l=º .== ·i r - ¬i· :=il=º
=-¤i== ·i¤i = i l+= i= =l·= =¤i ui=i ·º=i· = ri=i r:
:==  ¬l=l·Š=, ¤l=  .+i·i=· =i=i¤ º+·+ -¤=i º· º+·+
= i= i =··i -r ri =i=i r, :+ =-¤i== ·i¤i = i ====i = i
¬+=i+ ==i+i =i-= = r - := l+¤+ º· ¬i· ¬·+++ = ·+ = i
.== ·= r:
¤¤ ¿+ ¤¤t¤
l= =i =i += i· = i º+·+, ¤ir +r ¬i=l·=  ri +i ¬·+ += i·
= i, =i=il==  =i-= l==  +i º+i+¤i+ ¬l= ºr¤i == =i r,
oi== · ¬=· -= =i.=i·i =·+i + =i=il==  =i= =i =  = º·
l+=· ¬i· ¬l++l+= =i‹· l·+i =iº: =i=i¤ º+·+ = i+= =i
= i == ==i = += ¬il¤=  =i= +ri =i·=  =i=il==  ·+i+ +
=i=il==  º=i = i +la = =iºi =i+i ¤ilrº: ==i =r+i=i
==·i+i + ·+iŠ=+i =  =i¤ =·i=· + =·+ ¬il¤=  =i=
=i= - o
67
l+=·¤ =l+i-¤= = ·+i .== ·i r: -¤i+i+ =i= ¬= =· º+·+
=  =¬¤ =  =i¤ ¬i+ +i= += i·i·==  +=i+i + o=·i =
¬+== +ri ri=: º+·+ =  ¬i+ = =-= l= + º·º·i¬i = i
=i.=i·i= ·¤ ri+ = i o=·i ·r=i r: -·=i· r l=  =i=·il+= 
l+++¤ = := ¬ºl·ri+ +=i+ = i ·i= i =i == =i r, º·=
+==i+ ==+ = := i-¤l= = =¤+ =  l=º = i: =iu+ +ri r
¬i· + ri :.·i.ºi. =  -¤=i = := l+¤+ º· -º+Š= ¤¤i ri ri
·ri r :
º+·+ ¬= =· =¤i+=i ==iu+i = i l+l== ·¤ = · ·=i r, ¬i·
:= ·i= + = i .== ·= r: =i·= = ¬ºl-r -º¤i· = i = =i ==i
==r +.=· ¬i=i r ¬i· := º=  ==i· ==-+i =  = º = -+i= i·
= ·+i .== ·i r: -+·==i =  =·· = i = += º+·= i =  l=º
=i=  -i¤i=+ -º=·u = ·i+ ==  ri =il== = · l·+i =i=i r:
·…o = i =i= r l=  :+= = = i= i =+i·= -¤=i = -¤i+i+ =i=i
=  l=º ==== -+·==i =+iº =i -º=·u +ri r - o=i
+il=+i, =i=·il+=  +i ¬i= -i¤i=+ + ri+i ¬il·: º+·= 
= =i= l=+i, == ==i= «i· ¬i· =il‹·+i = i ºil= = = i ==
-+·==i, º+==, +i¤l==  -+i-·+, l===i + +i=i+i= = 
=iu+i =  == i== .+i·i =r·+ l·+i =i=i r:
¬i¤i· =lr=i =+i+ = i +l= +i = -¤i+i+ ==·i+ = i l+uil·=
= ·+ = i .== ·= r l=  + l= = += i· = i º+·+ ¤ir= r, l= =
¤i=. = i :=i=.= r ¬i· l= == i +ri, -·r l= = =i= = =+
=r== ri=i r, + Š+i +-=i+ ·o+i ¤ir= r´ ¬=… := +l= +i
= + ¬== = ¬º+i ºr¤i+ ··i=+ ¬i· -= ·+Š= = ·+ = i
=r·+º¤ ++i= = · == = r: =ri ==·i+i + ¬º+i -= =+i·
= i r, l=== -ºr = º = ºl·=il¤= l= +i =+i r l=  -+=  =i+
= º+·=  Š+i = · == = r ¬i· Š+i +ri, +ri =  -¤i+i+ =i=i
= .+i·i -+il=·+ ¬i· l=.·=·i·i = i =i++i r: -=i ¬i·
l·-il+·-i =  =i·+= = = =.=i· +=i, lº=‹·i =il=+i,
=lr=i¬i + =·i=i = i =i=i·i·i =i = = r· ==  =l+i-¤= = i
=i == =i r:
==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ +=i+ ¬i= =+ = i l+= i= = ·= 
=i=l= º·i = ·+i =i º=  =·i= i ri == =i r: :==  l=º
=ri+=  -º= ·¤ =+i· = ·=  ==·i+i =  =i¤ =i· =i == = r:
-¤i+i+ ¬i=il+= i¬i ¬i· º+i+¤i+ ==iu+i =¤i -¤i+i+
.== ·=i º· º‹·= +=i+i = i l++l== ==+ º· =i¤ = i =i+i
¤ilrº: º=i =r= = = ·oi =+i r l=  -¤= -=· = i l+-+-=
º+ +u =i+= i·i := ¿i = i =: ri ¬i· -== i ¬·+++ = ·= 
º=i ==i+i =iº l=  l+l=·+ -º-==·i+i = i = i+= = = Š+i
=i= l==i r: ¬=… .== ·i r l=  º=i -¤= -=· = i =i+= i·i
:= ¿i = ·+ ¬i· ¬·+++ = i +¤i=i =+i: =iº:
:= +¤i=i = r· -¤= º· º+·+ ==ui =l=l+lu+i = i
=i+= i·i := ¿i = i =i+i ¤ilrº: := = i+ =  l=º -¤i+i+
=i=i = i =-iŠ== ·¤ + = i+¬==i¬i = i l+= i= l= +i =i+i
¤ilrº: ¬i· := =·r = +i= =i+= i·i =  -º+i= = ==·i+
¬º+i o· = i +=l= =iº == = r =¤i l+l=·+ -¤=i = i
=i+= i·i =  =i·+= = =l+ª+ =  l=º l·-i = =·=i+ =i =+
l= º =i == = r:
:= +l= +i = i l+·i¬¤ + º+i+=i= + +¤i=i = i =r·+º¤
lr-=i =i+i =i+i ¤ilrº: r· -¤= º· =r+i=i =i=i¤ ¬i= =+
=  =i·+= = ¬iui·== =i+= il·+i := ¿i = ·+ = i +i·=ir+
l·+i =i+i ¤ilrº: l= +i·+++ =-¤i¬i = i =r+i=i =i=i¤
¬i= =+ = ·+ = i +l-¬¤ l·+i =iº: := ¬i= =+ =  =i·+= =
+ = += =i+= i·i, =i·=  =i=i = i ==ri = ¬i+il== = ·+
=¤i = i+= = =  +l= -+il=·+ ¬i· +i·=ir+ = i =i++i =+i+
= =i =·· l===i r:
ì) ¬+i+ -=· º· =i+= i·i := ¿i = ·+ = i º=  ·++-¤i
=+i: =i == =i r, l=== = = oi=  =+i· ri - º+·= i = i
¬i==+, -+= i ºe=l=, .== ·=, =i=, +i l= + ¤i=i º·
º=i o¤ = ·= r, l= =+ ==r r, := ==r =  l+¤+ = -·r
=i+= i·i = ri = l==i ¬il·:
:) º+·+ =¤i l+= i= =  -¦-+i =  l=º ¬i=·+i + +=i+i
= i =i+= i·i ¬== - ¬== ·oi =i+i ¤ilrº - l==,
=·i=i, =il=, -i¤¤, ¬i=il+= iº, ¬il¤=  ºr= =¤i
=i= l+=·¤:
:) l= · º=  =r=i=i ==·i+ ¬iuil·= +=i+ ¬i= =+ l= +i
=i == =i r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º,
- = i+= = = =‹·+ =  =i· l= =+ =i= l+·+ ¬i+ = =·+
¬i+ == r = ºr ¤ r ´
- =l==  +=i+ - = i+= = = =‹·i =lr=i¬i = i =l== i =
ºl·+=+:
- ·i . ==i· -·ºl·i
- = =.=i· =¤i ril-+ =  ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i =  l=º
=‹·=i =·i==i (==, =r ¬i+i= =l+uiº ·+ =, ¬·+
=+i¬i =, ·-== i·i ¬il·):
:+ =i+= il·+i = i :Š¿i = ·= , ¬·+++ = ·+i .== ·i r l===
l=  -¤i+i+ -=· º+ l+l=·+ -¤=i º· ri+ +i= = i+= = = 
+=i+i = i i-¤l= -ºr ri =iº: :== +il= l+ui·=  =i +r =+
= · ºiº= l=  ¬== = =i=i¤ ºl·º¬ = º+·+ º=  -l¤=
l+= i= = i+ r +i +ri:
= : º+·+ -¤=i = i +i=+i = º=  =++ = i +i=+i ri=i r,
=ri = º+·=  =¤+i;·+ir+i = ·: = i = i= ri=i r - =l= +
¬= =· :== i ¬+ui·¤i = := = ·: = i =l== i -ºr +ri
l+= i=-i= ·-i = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= =i=i¤ º+·+ - =i·= = ¬==i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i = +i= =i+= i·i + === 
ì
68
ri=i: º=i ==r º· -¤i+i+ :l=ri= = i ·¤+i·==  = º = º-
l= º =i+ = i ==i++i º· l+¤i· l= +i =i == =i r: º=
=i=lr=  -¤i+ º· =i+= i·i := ¿i = ·+, º+·= i = i ºe=l=
=¤i º+·+ =  +=i+i = i == =+ = ·+ = i := i:+i =+i: =i
== =i r: =¤+i == +i=  ¬iuil·= ==iu+ == = +··;
:··+· =l+uiº ¤=i+ =  l=º -¤i+i+ ++i¬i = i -il== l= +i
=i == =i r: :== = += º+·+ ri +ri, =i·=  =i+ = i
=i=lr=  .== ·= =i º·i = i =i == =i r: ++i¬i = i :== i
+l-¬¤ l·+i =i == =i r:
¤¤ ¿+ = ¤t ºt¬, ¤¤ ¿= t = t = ¤t ºt¬
l+= i=-i= ·-i =  =i=i¤ º+·+ -¤=i =  l+º¤+ = ===
=l·= ºr= º+·= i =  ¬i+ º· = =-=i +i o- ri+i +ri -
º·= -= -¤= = i ==i++i¬i = i -=i=· = · ºi+i =¤i -+
º+·= i = i ¬i= l¤= = ·+i r, =i º= ¬+=+ = i ==i- = ri:
:= =·= =, .== ·i r l=  =i=i¤ ==·i+ = i ¬º+ =i+, ¬º+
¤· + ¬º+ ¬+ = º+·+ =  -+= º =  l+¤+ = =i¤+, ¤++
¬i· l·-i l+uil·= = ·+ =  l=º =-Š= l= +i =iº: := ºr=
º· =r= = = ·+i+ l·+i =i=i r Š+il=  -r = ri º+·= i = i
= = =i+i =iº :=i l+¤+ = l¤=i ==i ·r=i r: := =·r
¬l=l¤+i + ===i+i =  =i¤ =i º=  ¬iº=i ¬i·· = i l·-=i
=+=i, Š+il=  =i ¤i=. º- = i =i ·ri r ¬i· =i +i-=+ =
l===i r :== i =i+l==  ¬+=u =ri =· =i: ¬=… =i=i = 
¬iui· º· =i ==r = i l+-iº+ l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº, =  +=
=i.=i· =  ¬iui· º· +ri, := =·· =  ¬i¤i· - === º+
l+= i= - ==ui =··i = i ºr¤i++i .== ·i r, oi== · ¤l= 
==·i+ ¬iuil·= =¤i =i=i¤ º+·=  =  l+-iº+= =i o· = i
l=.·=·i· º+ === º+·+ =  +i·=ir=  =  = º = º- = ·= r:
=i=i¤ º+·+ = º+·= i = i ¬º¬i¬i = i +=il+= = ·+ = i =i
¬+=· r: l+= i= ==ui -¦-+ +i= = ·+ =  l=º º+·= i = i
+=il+= = ·+i .== ·i r: := +l= +i = º+·= i = i = = =l= +
=i=i·i· + =i=·i· =+i+i =iº =¤i -+= i = = =r+i= l·+i
=iº - +r = = =r·+º¤ =+i= r: º+·= i = i = += º= 
l+iª= + -º=iŠ=i, º=  =ir·i =i= = =  = º = ·o+ = =i
-== i == ==i º· += i·i·==  +=i+ º‹· =: l+-+=· = ¬i¤i·-
===;l=.·=·i· º+·+ ==r +¤l== ri =º r: º+·=  -¤i+i+
l+= i= +l= +i¬i = =i=i·i·i = i ¬º+ º+·+ ¬+=+ = i lr-=i
=i+= r: ·=· -··i =, + := +l= +i = -il== ri+ = i ¬º+
º= =+i+i +ri ==== - =i·=  + :+ ¬+=+i = i =r·+ ·= r:
:= += i· `º+·+` = i =i-= l==  ¬i·i+-+·i+ = i º=  =.l·+i
=i+i =i == =i r, =i º=  l+= i= ºl·º¬ =, -¤i+i+ ==·i+i
«i·i =·-=·= i·i;=·= i·i;¬·+ =-¤i¬i =  =r+i= = ¤=i+i
=i ·ri r: ri= = -=·= rº +i+i =i= iº= i· =¤i l=.·=·i·
º+ ¬i¤i· - === º+·+ =  = =i+ =i :·ri =··i = i r=
l+= i=+ = i = il-- = · ·r r:
=i=i¤ º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i = i =·¤+i l= +i·+++ + l+-iº+
º=i ri+i ¤ilrº =i º+·= i = i ¬i· ¬lu=  ·o+ ¬i· ¬+=+
= ·+ =  l=º +l·= = · - l=  + =i=i¤ ==·i+ =  =i¤ ·r= ·
=io+, +=il+= ri+ ¬i· ¤i‹·i-=i =·=+ =  l=º =+i· ri: :+
= i+= =i = i =·¤+i =, -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i -r = =i=i·i·i
=l+-l¤= = i =i+i ¤ilrº ¬i· :·r :==  =i= + += =i+ ·i+i
= i =i+= i·i ri - ºl·+i=+i = i -r¬i= ri+ = = i= i ºr=:
¬=· r= =i=i¤ º+·+ = i º=  l+= i= = i+= = -+i= i· = ·+i
¤ir= r, =i r= l+i-¤= = º = :== -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i=
=+ ¬i· l·-i l+ui·¤ = =l== i =iº+i º‹· =i: ====
=l+ui¬i =  l+=i¤ (Š+i Š+i, = ri + = = - l= =+i º=i o¤
ri=i) =  l+-¤+i = -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i = i= i = =
·ri r: .+i·i=· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i == +ri l=+i =i=i ¬i·
= º· = -+ º· l+¤+ ¤iº l·+i =i=i r: ¬=… ¬º+ =i+, ¤·
¬i· ¬+i = º+·+ = i -+= º
l+uil·= = ·+ =  l=º ==·i+i = i =-iŠ== ·¤ º=  = ·:i+
ºr= r :
:== º+·+ =  -+=i+ =  = ºi=·¤ = i º=  ¬+·+ ¬+=· l==i
r - -== i -º+i=i ++l·i = =·= = · º+·+ = i ¬i· ¬lu= 
==-=i= +i=i =¤i =i++i+ =º=  +Š= =+i+ = i ¬+=·:
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
ì. +r =o +.º+.·i.ºi. (:..·) =  l=º l=oi =+i:
·il·= i:l+= · l·.= - ºŠ=ºil·+i·==. º· :+=i:· = = i=
= ·= · l·= +i=Š· = :+ :l·+i:
:. -º·-=i, ·i.º+i (:..·), +iŠ·= = :l+l-ºl··.= ·
l·-ºil=== · l·.= :+ · i-·+-·=… = ·+l+l· º· +¤· =-·
· l·.= :+ =i-¤ º= i= i, l== ·=·i :··+-+=
l·-ºil=== · l·.= = i·= =, = i¤i, :ì-:+ =i¤ :..· =
º - l= +i =+i:
=i= - o
69
¤|t¤¤
lº== ·i ·-= i =, º· l+-+ = º+·+ =  ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i,
=i== + º+i +·¤ º· º‹ ·+ +i= +=i+i =   l+¤+ º· ¤¤i ¤=
·ri r: ==iu+ -º+i= = i +l= +i = i =‹·i ·+ =  = i·¤ = :
·-i =  l+= i= =iº··i = º+·+ = i º=  =·=il+= ¬ir·i l==i
r: ¬+=+i =  ¬+=i·, -¤i+i+ =·i= ==·i+i ¬i· +i= l== 
=º·i = i ri º+·+ l+= i= = i oil=+i=i ===+i º‹·i r:
º+·+ l+= i= =  ==il+= =¤== -=· ==  ºr¤+ +i=
== ·i·==  +=i+ +i·i=· ==·+i = ·o+ = i +ri l== r:
ri=il=  =ail==  -=· º·, ==iu+i =  =·¬¤, ¬+i+ l+= i=
¬i· =·i=i = i ¬il¤=  =i= =  l=º +i+ui+ =+iº =i= r,
+i-=l+= =i = := l·-i = +=l= =  =¬¤ l·oi: +ri ·=:
º+·+ = i =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i «i·i =·i=i -·==+ = i ¬==i
= i ·o= rº, º=i ==ri º· ++i= l= º =i ·r r, =i ¬º+
+i= l==  =i·+;:= iº+·+ =  l=º l+-+-=· = +l=a r: :=
¬+ = l= =i =i -== = i == ==i =  l=º =.= ·i r l=  r· ¬+
= i -¤i+i+ +i-=l+= =i¬i =  ¬iui· º· ri = i+= =i = i
= º·oi =+i· = i =iº: = ·= = =·i=i -·==+ =  l=º ¬º+iº
=º º=  = i+= = = -++ =ri+=i ==r, = · =¤i, =  =i·+= =
=·= -==i = i == +i l·+i =i ·ri r: º·= :+ := i:+i = i
=l=l+lu+i º= = i+¬+i ==  =il== r l=+= º+·+ = i = i:
=‹·i+ +ri r: l= = += i· +==i+ =-¤i== ·i¤i ¬i· -++
=ri+=i ==ri =  =i·+= = +i= ==il==  =-iŠ== ·¤ = i
+i= l==  º+·+ ==ui =·= -==i =  l=º l+= l== l= +i =i
== =i r - +r º=  º=i =+i= r l==º· ==i· l+¤i· = i
¬i+-+= =i r: := =·= =, = ·= =  +i++i· l== = i l=r+„i
º¤i+= = -++ =ri+=i ==r =  =·-+i =  =i¤ = i+ +i=+i
=+i+ =  l=º º=  ¤¤i = i =: l=== i-¤l= = i ==.==i,
= ==.i·i, ¬+=· + ¤+il=+i = i l+-=¤¤ l= +i =+i:
+.
nt¤ ºt|¤=  ¤t¤tºttt,
¤tt¤t :-¤¸ =+
¢¤ ¤=  |º ¤¤ ¿+ ¤t
|¤|¤-+ º |e= t ¬
¡
s t. ¤t. |¤¬¤ =  ¤tt ;ttt s t. ¤t. |¤¬¤ =  ¤tt ;ttt s t. ¤t. |¤¬¤ =  ¤tt ;ttt s t. ¤t. |¤¬¤ =  ¤tt ;ttt s t. ¤t. |¤¬¤ =  ¤tt ;ttt
z zz zz
z««s z««s z««s z««s z««s
nt¤ ºt|¤=  ¤t¤tºttt
=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i =  l+¤+ = = i= i ¤¤iº r: r: = i= º=
(ì»»·) + ·-i+i r l=  l+= i= ºl·+i=+i¬i = l+l=·+ -=·i
º· ¬==-¬== += i· = i =i=i·i·i =l+i-¤= = i =i == =i r:
l+¤+ +¤i=i = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i ri -= = i+= = = i
====i =l+i-¤= = ·=i r: º+·+ =  =·= =, =i=i·i·i =
=i·º+ r l=  l= = r· ==  -¤i+i+ ==·i+ l+¤+ +l= +i = i
+=il+= = · ºi= r: º=  =i· º+·+ = =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i
=l+i-¤= ri =iº, =i + o· ri := -=i= =  l·-il+·-=  º+
=·¬=  = i = i= = ·= r: +i·i=· ==·+i º· º+·+ -=i=
==a =¤i -ƒ += =  l+++¤ = ·r=i r, l=== +r =·-
l===i r l=  º+·+ l+= i= = =·i=i = i = i: ==r +ri: = :
=i· ==·+ =  -¤i+i+ =i= º+·+ = ·· ·r= r, l=== i º+·+
-=i= º· =+i+=  +=i+ ri == =i r: :=i = i ·+i+ = ·o=
rº, +il= l+ui·=  =¤i === l+= i= = i +-=i+ ·o+ +i=
º+·+ = -¤i+i+;=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i = i += i== = ·= r:
·l¬¤ ºl-+i =, -¤i+i+ l++i=i (+i·i=· =i=i¤, =·i= =¤i
= ==.i· +=) =l= +=u= ;-º+i== =i, -==i, = =¤i·i,
l+¤i+=  =¤i =·¬=  =  = º = =l= + =i=i·i· ri= r - +i l= 
= += =i=·il+=  =r=i=i l-l+· ¤=i+ =: -¦-+ +r r l= 
¬º+ ¬+ = º+·+ l+= i= =  l+¤+ = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ·i+
-il== ri ¬i· + ¬·+ =i=·i·i =  =i¤ l=== · ·i==i·,
-==, = i+= -==i¬i =  l+= i= + -¤i+i+ ¬i=il+= i¬i = 
l+= i= =  l=º = i= = ·: ==·i+ =i=lr=  = º = l++i=+ =
=i=i·i·i = · -¤i+i+ ·+iŠ=== + ºil·+il·=  -== l+= i= = 
l=º = i= = · == = r: =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i =  = : = i+· r
==, =i=i, ==i+ + =-= l= = i -i¤¤ = =·¬i :==
¬l=l¤+i =  =+i·=+ = i ===+ =i =+i ·r=i r ¬i· º=
º+·+ = i+= =i = i l+= i= ri=i r =ri ¬il¤= , =i=il== 
¬i· º+i+¤i+ =i= -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i l=== r: := =·= =
70
l+l=·+ =la =il++i «i·i +-== =i=il==  +l=l+lu·+ +
º+·+ ==·i+ ==ui = i ¤¤i = ·+i -l¤= ri=i - l===
=i=i¤ (ì»:-), =·= i (ì»·:), =l+· + ¬·+ (ì»··),
ºi+= (ì»·»), º=+ + ¬·+ (ì»»:), =i:=·= (ì»»+),
ri+· (ì»»+), =· i== (ì»»:) ¬il· -il== r: ==·i+
¬iuil·= º+·+ === l+= i= =  +i·i = ·i= r ¬=· -== i
== i==i ºi·il¤=  ·+iº=  º+·+ = l= +i =iº: :==  ¬===
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  ¬luº·+ + ·ir i+ -=·
º· -ƒ += =  ¬·ºilu= i·i = =Š= ri= · = i= = ·+ = i =i= i
l===i r (l= =·+, ì»»-): º+·= i =  = i+· =  l=º
=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i º· =i ·+iº=  ¤¤i ri=i ·ri r (=ir=+
ì»»-, · l=== ì»»:, i-=¤ ì»»·, -+·= ì»»», l·=i¤i ì»»»
¬il·): º+·+ = i l+= i= = =l== i =¤i -==  =ail==  ·i¤
=  l+¤+ = l·¤· -iº=i + ¬·+ (:..:) =  l+-=i· = l=oi r:
º+ ·+ l+l++=+ = i l+¤ + +¤i=i = =i= ·il+=  =i=i·i·i
=== º+·+ l+= i= = i == ==i =  l=º =r·+º¤ =i+i =: r:
:== ¬il¤=  =i=i = i =·+ =·+i·i =l+i-¤= l= +i =i == =i
r: :== ==i+i =+i r l=  º+·+ + -== =.‹· -=i=i =  =i¤ = 
l·=i+ = i ·i= = ·, ¬+ =  ¬·· ri -·ºi·i =  ¬i+i= = =i=
=+iº =i == = r: ¬·+ =i= ¬l=l¤ - ===i+ ==ui = =ui·
=  =i·+= = =i +i= l= º =i == = r, l=== ·i+i º¬i = i
= i+·i ri=i: ¬=… =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i = i +==i+ º+·+
l+= i= +l==i+ = i ¤+i=i ·+ =  =i·+= =  = º = ·oi =i=i r
l===  = i·¤ l+= i=-i= ·-i = i º+·+ ==== =l+uiº
l+= l== ·-i = i = = =i= =+· =r-·ir i+ = ºl++i =  ri¤i =
r: =l= + r· ¬+ = i =i=il== , =+=iir+=  =¤i =i-= l== 
l+l+u=i = i ·+i+ = ·o= rº =i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i =  l=º
-l¤= ·¤+il=+i ¬º+i+i ri=i: := ºl·+- =, = ·=, =i·=
=  ¬il·+i=i =r= ¬+ = -¤i+i+ =i= º+·+ l+= i= = i l= =
+=.· = ·o= r, +r ===+ = i = il-- = i =i ·ri r:
-·ir·¤i·==  ¬·+++ =  l=º +i++i· l== = i l=r+„i
º¤i+= = ¬·+++++ l= +i =+i:
¤t¤+ts
+i++i·, º=  =+i·= ºri‹·i ¬+, ==: == = :..-:ì.. =i··
= ¤i: º·, = ·= =  -·i·i =i= = i-¤= r: +i++i· ìì° :.`
¬i· ìì° :·` -·i· l+-+ ·oi=· =¤i ::° +:` º+ :.° ::` º +
·-i=· =  =i¤ i-¤= r: ·i=-+ = i·¤i = l=.= = i : =i== i¬i
= =i·i =+i r: =i+ o· º¤i+= r ¬i· :: =i= º¤i+= =¤i
+=· l+==: = = ¬+= = :ì:ì += l= .=i. r, l=== = :++
+= l= .=i. ¬i·l¬= ++ ¬+ r: +ri =  +i=i+·¤ = · ·=  r =i
= : += i· = i = == =  l=º ¬+= = r =·i =  =i== =
=iº=i+ ì:° =i·=+= ==  l=· =i=i r: := l=.= = ·i+ = i
¬lu= i- ¬il·+i=i =+=r+i ·r=i r: ¬+=l¤= =+=il=
=+=r+i ì:.+: +l=-= r:
l=r+„i =i= º¤i+= = (¬·+++ ¬+) = ·= =  ==i l=.=i =
=== +i·i ¬+=l¤= =+=il=+i ·r=i r: :..ì = i =+=¤+i
=  ¬+=i·, := º¤i+= = i +ì +l=-= =+=r+i ¬+=l¤=
=+=il= r ¬i· .+i·i=· =i= =·i= l= =i+ = i ¤¤i = ¬i=
r: ·i+ «i·i ¤=iº =i ·r =·i=i -·==+ = i+= =, = · ·=¤i
=  ¬=== l=r+„i º¤i+= = ::: -++ =ri+=i ==r -¤ilº=
l= º =º r, l=+= = -+ ¬il·+i=i := i:+i r, l=== ¬i===
ì- =·-+ r: =l= + :+= = ¬lu= =· ==r º+·+ º· ·+i+
+ri · ·r, l=== i := ¬+ = ¬·=i ==i++iº r: = ·= = 
¬·+ l=.=i =  == i== +i++i· = º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i= i = =
r: =l= + -++ =ri+=i ==ri = =·i=i + ril-º = i =lr=i¬i
=  =‹·i+ = -+= i =-¤i== ·i¤i =¤i l= +i= =iºi = i === =
=‹·i=·i r: r: l===  ºl·¤i=-+= º + ·i+ = i =r+ui·i
¬il¤=  =l=l+lu+i = =‹·+ =  l=º ¬= =+i· r:
¤¤ ¿+ ¢¤ ¤tt¤t :-¤¸ =+
+i++i·, = ·= = i rl·= =i=, ¬º+ += l= º+·+ =  l=º
+l=a r: ¤l=  -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i =  l=º :== -l¤=
¬+=· r, l=== + l=+i ¬º+i =-= l= = i ¤i· ºr¤iº ¬i·
¬º+ º+i+·¤ = i ·¬i = ·= rº º+·+ = =i= = == = r -
= · ·=¤i =  =i·+= = º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = =‹·i+ = -¤i+i+
-il¤= ==·i+i =  l=º ¬il¤=  =i= =i+ = i = i= l= +i =i
== =i r: :+ =l=l+lu+i = l+i-¤= = º = -¤i+i+ =i=i,
oi== · =·i=i, =  l=º ¬l=l·Š= ¬i=·+i =l+i-¤= = i =i
== =i r: := =i= = i ·+i+ = ·o= rº, -++ =ri+=i ==ri
=  =i·+= = ºl·+i· =  =·i =  =i¤ (= · ·=¤i ==ri = = +=
=lr=i =·-+ r ) ¤¤i = i =: l=== +i++i· = º+ ·+
=l=l+lu+i =  =i·+= = ¬i=·+i =‹·i+ =  l+¤+ = -+=
=i+= i·i +i= = i =:: := +l= +i = +i= =i+= i·i =  ¬iui·
º· =i=·il+=  +l=l+lu+i =¤i =i= ·-= i = ¤¤i = i =:,
l===  ¬iui· º· ¬i= ¤= = · ==.==i, = ==.i·i, ¬+=· +
¤+il=+i = i ¬·+++ l= +i =i == : +ri º· -·ri ==.=l=+i,
= ==.il·+i, ¬+=·i + ¤+il=+i = i ¬·+++ º- l= +i =i ·ri
r:
¤¬, ¤¸ ºt, = ¤¬, t tt, ¬¤nt ¤ ¤ +t |º¤t
(t¤t ¿) = t ¬·¤¤+
-+i · ¬·+++ l¤l•= -++ =ri+=i ==r = i = ==.il·+i +
==.=l=+i = i ¬i= + =  l=º l= +i =i=i r: :== =l+ª+ = 
l=º º=  -l¤= = i+= = =+i+ = =·· l===i:
=i= - o
71
¤¬, ¤¸ ºt
= ·= =  ¬·+ ¬+i = l=·+, +i++i· = l+l+u +i= l== 
==iu+i =¤i ºi·ºl·=  = i-= º+ == +i= i = i =·=i· r =i
+ri =  =+=il=+i =¤i -= +·- = i º=  ¬r= lr-=i r:
ºi··ºl·=  =i++ = ¬iul+=  =¤i -r·i +=i+i = r-=¬º
l= +i ¬i· l+-¤ilº= =i= + =i ¬º+i ºi·ºl·=  ==.=l=+i = i
=·= ·i· ·o ºiº ¬i· + ri + ¬iul+= =i = ·= ºiº: ¬lu= =·
¬il·+i=i =¤i -il¤= =· ¬il·+i=i ==·i+ ¬º+i ¬i=il+= i
=  l=º -l¤= =iu+ · · ·r r: =ri ==  =lr=i ==ri = i
=+i= r, +i·i=· ¬i·= ¬i·i =  ¤·i = +i= ·i+i +i l·+ =
= = ==+ =  l=º +i= ·i+i = i = i= = ·=i r: -·r ===i+ =
º= =  =·= +-=¬i =  = º = ===i+ l===i ¤i: +ri -l¤=
¬i=·+i =  =·= = i= = ·+ +i= º+i= ==.·· -º=·u r:
+==i+ ==+ = =·=--== = i+= =i =  ¬=== == ·i-ºi=+,
º--ºi=+ =¤i ==i-ºi=+ = i = i= ¤= ·ri r l=== º+i=
¬i=·+i +i= +ri ri =i: +i++i· = +¤ · =i+i = = ·-= iei+
++iº= =¤i =i==i = = -º=·u r: +r ·-i -== ¤=i+ = 
l=º = ƒ =i= = i =l== i ¬·i = · == = r: :==  ¬l=l·Š=
-¤i+i+ =i=i, oi== · ¬il·+il=+i = =-= =¤i º+i+·¤
¬+= = -·ºi· =+i+ = i = i-= =i=· r: =i=lr=  = º = = i=
= ·+ = i =i+ = · ·=¤i =  =i·+= = º+º ·ri r =¤i, =·=
-=i= ¤=i+ =  l=º +r º=  ¬·=i =-¤i== ·i¤i r: =·-+i
= i :+ +l= +i¬i + ¬=·iu= i = i =i+= i·i r: ¬il·+i=i
l+= i= =  l=º l+uil·= =i= = +º -== -¤ilº= l= º =i
== = r ¬i· +l-¬¤ = i+= = =i ¬i+il== l= º =i == = r:
+i++i· = i +i=i+·¤ +i++i· l+l-r -·ºi· =+i+ =  l=º =i
¬+= = r := ===  =i¤, -¤i+i+ -=· º· +º =·=--== o‹·
= ·+ = i == ·=: ¬=… =r+ ==.=l=+i r - ¤=-iŠ= = i
-º=·u=i, =·-= iei+ ++iº= = i -º=·u=i, ºi·ºl·=  -i+
+ = i-=, =-¤i== ·i¤i - = · ·=¤i =¤i -++ =ri+=i ==r
= i =i=·=i, ¬i+ =+u+ = i+= =i = i =i=, = ·:i+ =¤i ·i+
=·= i·i = i ¬il¤=  =r+i= =¤i -+i-·++u=  =i==:
= ¤¬, t tt
-·ºi·i = i -l¤= l+º¤+ ·++-¤i =¤i -l¤= ·· + ri+ = 
= i·¤ +r -== == = +ri ri ºi ·r r: +r ·oi =+i r l= 
º--ºi=+, == ·i-ºi=+ + ==i-ºi=+ ri :+ -==i =  =r+
= i+ r: ri=il=  :+ ==i ¤i=i = i -¤i+i+, ·ir i+ + ¬=·ir i+
-=· º· = i= i =i= r, l=r+„i =  ==r :·r ·i=  · = = =¤
+ri ºi ·r r: :== i =r+ = i·¤ +r r l=  -¤i+i+ ==·i+ =i
= l¤ ºe=l= = ¬i= r, -+=  ºi= :+ -·ºi·+i =  =¤+ = 
l=º + =i = i-= r + ri -º+Š= == +i= , :==  ¬l=l·Š=,
=r+=… ==i ¤·i = +r -·ºi· -º=·u ri+ =  = i·¤ :+= i
-¤i+i+ =i=.i·i = =i l== i +ri ri ºi=i: +i·i=· =i=
ri·=i, =¤i =ir· =  ·-=·i = ¬i=i r =l= + +r ==r :== i
= i+·i +ri -·i ºi ·ri r: º= +i= ·¤ + l+º¤+ =  +·+=  ri+
=  = i·¤ +r ==r ·i=  · = = = i= +ri = · ºi=: :== 
¬l=l·Š= ¤l=  ¬il·+i=i =i=i = i º= = i= = ·+ = i ¬+=+
+ri r - =i=.i·i= ·¤ -= i=i =¤i l+º¤+ == +i= i = i- =i
-+= º=  += i· = i ¬i=-+ =· =i=i r: := ¤¤i = -ºr r l= 
l= =i = i+= = = i == ==i ==i =l+i-¤= = i =i == =i r,
== -==  =i=il==  ºl·+- = i +i= l==  + =i-= l==  ºr¤i+
= i ·+i+ = ·oi =iº:
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i = ==i·i = i -l¤= ºr¤i+ = r= -==  l=º
º=  -º+Š= ==iui+ · · == = r: ¬il·+il=+i = i l=·=i = i
+=.l·+i l=·= = ¬== ri=i r: + =¤= ¬i· =¤+ = ·+ =
+i·i rl¤ +ri ·o=: ¬·+ = ==.i· +=i + =i, -+= i
ºl·i-¤l= =  = i·¤, +º = i+= =i =  +l= +i·i -·=ir +ri
ri=i: ·=· -··i =, +·¤i = i ¬=i+ ¬·=i -=l==i = 
lo=i=  === =‹·i ¬‹·¤+ =+ =i=i r: -==  = º· =, +==i+
= i+= = =i =r= .+i·i == = +ri ·r r: ¬=… + =i == ==i
= i ¬i-i +ri l·oi=: :==  ¬l=l·Š= -++ =ri+=i ==ri = 
-·ºi·+i = i =¤+=i = = r ¬i· := ·i=  = ·+ = i +l= +iº
-¤ilº= +ri ri ºi: r: +r = i+= = =ir·i º=l=+i «i·i =+i·
l= º =i= r, =i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i= = ·+ º· == = +ri ri
ºi=: -¤i+i+ =i=i =  = i-= = i -º+i= =il== r: ¬=… =r+
= ==.il·+i r - +·¤i = i = =i, +==i+ = i+= =i = i
¬== ==i, l+º¤+ +·+=  + ri+i, =ir·i º=l=+i «i·i
= i+= =i =  +-=i+ =+i· l= +i =i+i, -¤i+i+ -i+ + = i-=
= i =il== -º+i=, ¬i· l= +i·+++ =-¤i¬i = +l==a=i = i
= =i:
¬¤nt
= º· ·i =: = ==.il·+i = i ==== +r +ri r l=  l=r+„i =
-++ =ri+=i ==ri = i =‹·i+i +ri l·+i =i == =i: -¤i+i+
-=· º· = i =: ¤¤iº + ¬il·+il=+i =  ==i+ := =i++i = i
ºlr = ·= r -·ri+ = : º=--·ºi·+i = i ºr¤i+ = i r l=·r +
===i = := ¿i = ·+i ¤ir= r ¬i· -+= +º -·ºi· =+i+i
¤ir= r: =l= + + := l+-i= -=· º· +ri = ·+i ¤ir= -
l+-i= -=· º· -·ºi·+ ¬i· l+º¤+ = + ¬+=i+ r: ¬=i =i
-+= = +i·i=· =i= ¬i=il+= iº = =i+ =· = ==r r, +l·
r= º‹· -l=o ¬il·+i=i ++i¬i = i ºr¤i+ = · ==  ¬i· r=
¬il·+i=i +l=l+lu+i = i =r+i= l==, =i -+= i +i-=l+= =i
=  ¬iui· º· = i+= = =+i· l= º =i == = r: .+i·i=· :+
= i+= =i + =·-= iei+ -·ºi· l=+= ¬i¤ui+ ºiu + -+·-i
== +i=  -il== r: =·-¬il·+i=i =i=, =i ¬i=¤¤i =  ==r
=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i, =·i=i -·==+ º+ += l= º+·+ º· l+l=·+ ·lr= i¤
ì
72
= ¬i= r, =  l=º -+= i l·+¤+i + ºil·+il·=  =iri= = 
¬+= = = i+= = =+i· l= º =i == = r: ¤l=  -++ =ri+=i
==ri =  ºi= ¬iui·== =l+uiº +ri ri=i, =i=i = i
ºil·+il·=  ºl·º¬ = =‹·i =l=l+lu+i =  ¬iui· º· ¬i=i+i =
= i+= = =+i· l= º =i == = r, = = º= +i= ·¤, -+= i
ºl··¬¤, ¬i¤lu+ ºiui = i o=i, += =¤, o·i· ¬il· = i
= =i+ ¤¤i ¬i = l·+i =+i:
l++il¤= +l=l+lu+i ¬i· =·-=·= i·i =-¤i¬i =  =i¤ ¤¤i =
¬i· ¬lu=  ¬+=·i =  ==i+ ¬iº: +i++i· = ¤=i ¬i ·ri
= l¤ +¤il=+i =  = i·¤ =i +r ==i+ ¬iº: º+i+·¤ = i ¬i·
=·.=i l¤=i = i -¤i+i+ -·ºi·+i =  l=º º=  ¬·=i ¬+=·
=i+i =i ·ri r: =l+=  = l¤ -·ºi· = i =i= ¬=·ir i+ -=· º·
=‹· ·ri r: :== -¤i+i+ -=· º· =l+=  o=i = i =r+i= l==
·ri r: +i++i· = =l+=  o= =  l+= i= = i = i= i ==i++iº
r: l=== + = += ¬=·ir i+, =i·=  ri·=i ¬i· º+·=  l·=.i·i
= i =i= =i º·i = i =i == =i r: :==  ¬l=l·Š= += l= = 
=i¤ =i= +Š= = i +i· + -= l·-i = =i·+ = i =i++i + =i
=i=i = i ¬i¤lu+i + =i·+ -·ºi· = +i= l==  ==iu+i = 
-º+i= = i l·-i = =i‹· l·+i: := ¬+ = ·++=il+=  l+= i= = i
==i++iº ¬·=i r Š+il=  :== =i=·i·i = i ¬·=i ¬i=·+i
l== == =i r: -r·i= ·¤ + ¬iul+= ·¤ = i +l= +i =  ¤==
+i·i=· -¤i+i+;=i=i¤;-+·-i = i+= = == ri =º r:
==i =i+= r l=  -r·i + = -=i = =i=i¤ -·ºi·i = i ¬·=i
=i= r: := l·-i = =i·=l== ++i= = ·+ = ==i =i+i¬+i = i
==la ri == =i r:
= º· l·º =º ==i = i·=  +·+¬ +i ¬+·+¬ = º = ¬iul+= 
º+·+ = =i =‹· r: º+·+ = ==ª·=i+ -=· º· += l=
º+·+;:= iº+·+ = i ¬i· r=i+ =‹·i ·ri r: +i++i· ¬º+
+i= l== -=i-= l==  ¬i= ¤¤ =¤i º¤=+i ·-i -·ºi·+i = 
l=º =i+i =i=i r: l+l-r =-= l= = ==lu= -·ºi· ¬iul+= 
º+·=  ¬i= ¤¤ = i lr-=i r: +i++i· = ¬iul+=  º+·= i = i
¬i= l¤= = ·+ ¬i· ==·+ l+= i= = ·+ = i ==i ==i++iº
-º=·u r: ¬=… := ¤¤i = -=·+ +i= ¬+=· := += i· r -
=‹·=i º+i+·¤+i·, =l+=  =¤i ¬i¤ui+ -·ºi·+i = i =i=,
-r·i= ·¤ =¤i ºi·ºl·=  -·ºi· = i == ri+i, =+i·= ·-+
=¤i =i==, º+·+ = i =·==i +i¤l== =iº =¤i l+l-r
=-= l= ==ui -·ºi·+i = i =i=:
¤ +t ºt
.+i·i=· =i=i + ==== =l+ui¬i = i + ri+i === =‹·i
¤+i=i =i+i: ¤l=  =¤+=i l+ui·¤ + =i+= -l+ui·¤ = i = i:
=·i= i +ri r -·r ===i r l=  -+=  -·ºi·+ =i=i· = -¤ilº=
+ri ri ºiº=: :==  ¬l=l·Š= ==i= =  ==a += := = i+ = i
=r+i= +ri ·= Š+il=  -·r ===i r :== ==.··i = i
-º=·u=i = = =i ¬i =iº=i: =ir·i º = l=+i «i·i =+i· = i
=: = º·oi º· = i+= = = =i == = +ri ri ºiº=, ¬=… =.= ·=
r l=  -+=  o· =  ºl·º¬ =  ¬iui· º· = i+= = l+= l== l= º
=iº: ¬=… =r+ ¤+il=+i := += i· r - ==a += = i l+lr=
-+i¤, l= +i·+++ =-¤i¬i = i +l==a=i = = =i, =ir·i
º= l=+i «i·i =+i· l= º =º = i+= =, -¤i+i+ =i=i =  = i-=
= i ·+i+ + l·+i =i+i + -¤i+i+ =i=i = i l+¤+ +l= +i =
=i=i·i·i + ri+i:
:= += i· l++il¤= +l=l+lu+i = · ·=¤i = =¤il·+i, =·
=·= i·i =-¤i¬i + ¬il·+i=i +l=l+lu+i = +i= =i+= i·i +
==i+ := ¿ = ·=  º=  -º+Š= +i=+i =+i: =: =i +i++i· =,
l=r+„i º¤i+= º· l+-¤ ·+i+ ·= rº, =i= = i =i == =i
r:
|+·= ¢
-++ =ri+=i ==ri =  ¬= ==  =  ¬+=+ =  ºl·º¬ ¬i·
=i=lr=  ¤¤i¬i =¤i -+i·==  =-¤i¬i =  =i¤ =i¬i·= i· =
+i= =i+= i·i (l=== -·+ , +i++i· =i-= =l+= =i=i+·i,
-¤i+i+ =-¤i¬i =  l++il¤= +l=l+lu =¤i ¬il·+i=i ==·i+
=  ++i+u +l=l+lu -il== ¤) =  ¬iui· º· º=  +¤ +i=+i
=+i: =:, l===  ¬=== -¤i+i+ =i=i = i += l= -=i= =
=i·i =+i: ==·i+i «i·i º+·+ = =‹·i =i =r+ = i+¬+ l¤•=
l= º =º + r - = l¤ º+·+, ¬i¤ui+ ºiu + -+i-·+ -·ºi·+,
=· = iei+ ++ ==iu+, oi= ==iu+, +i-=l-·º, -=il·= iº,
º+·=  =i:·, := i ¬i+i= =l+uiº, ·i-= = i =l+uiº =¤i
l+l-r =i-= l==  +-=¬i = i ·= i+, := = i+ +i=+i = i =r+
-¦-+ r l=  =i=· -++ =ri+=i ==ri =  =.l·º +º = i+= =
¤=iº =iº l=== + º= -·ºi· =+i· = · ==  =i º+·+ -=i=
= i +·+¬ + ¬+·+¬ =.= ·=i = i º·i = · == :
=i= - o
73
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
¡.
+r ·-=i+.=, ¬+= :..», = l=oi =+i ¬i· +r · l·.= :+
·i=·· =i:.· = =+=  - ¬ =i·= = i· = ·+l+·i ºi·il=º-+ =
= ºi=l·= l= +i =++i r: +r ·-=i+.= ¬=·ir i+ ==iei ¬ · =  ·
¬i=  ·i=·· =i:=-+ :+ = ·=i = º - l= +i =+i ¤i =i
=i=il==  l+-i+ =-¤i+, l·„i «i·i l== ++¤º·= = :-»
¬Š==· :..: = i ¬i+il== = i =: ¤i:
z.
·i. =i. l+=+=  =i· =  ·=i :i·-·· + · ¬i =  · l·. = º · · += -··i=.
=  +ui+i¤i+ r: -+=  ºi= = ·= l+-+l+=i=+ = = ·= =
:= iº+·+ =  === l+= i= º· ·iŠ··· = i -ºilu r: :== 
¬l=l·Š= -·r =i== i·i· l-¬i + ¬·+++ = i =i ·+iº=  ¬+=+
+i= r: -·r +l-¬¤ = i+= =i = i = º·oi =+i· = ·+ =¤i º+·+
=  l+l=·+ =i=·i·i =  l=º = i+= = =+i+ = l+-¤==i ril==
r: = ·= l+-+l+=i=+ = ==i· ¬·+¬, ¬·+++ =i· (º+-
=i== ), =·-+ ¬·+++ =i· (=i== i·i·) =¤i =·-+ =i=il== 
l+-i+, + ºi· += = l+= i= = == i+ = º = -il== ·r r: +
=i·=i+ =i++ ¬lu= i· =-¤i+ =  =i+· ¬·+iº=  r =¤i +`=i+
ºi··=` +i==  º+·+ ºl+= i =  =ºi·=  =i r:
=i=·il+=  =i=i·i·i, =·i=i -·==+ º+ += l= º+·+ º· l+l=·+ ·lr= i¤
ì
74
`:= i º+·+` -·· = i ·¤+i º=  l+º¤+ =-¤i «i·i = i =: =i
= i-·i ·i= i = i º=  +¤i ++ ==·+ =  = º = º¤i· = · ·ri ¤i:
¬i· == = +r l+-+ º+·+ =-¤i+ =  l=º º=  ¬i=i =i=.i·
=+ =+i r, Š+il=  +r º= ==iu+i = i -º+i= = ·=i r =i
l+= i=-i= ·-i = i =+l+l+u=i º+ =i-= l==  =r==i = =‹·
r =¤i l=·r l+= i= =  l=º l+l=·+ =·= i·i º=l=+i
=.=··-=i u= = ·ri r:
l+-+ =·¬¤ =¤ (¬i:.+.=i.º+.) + := i º+·+ = i +r
ºl·=i¤i ·i r… .... =i º+i+¤i+ = º = l=.·=·i· +i+i ri =¤i
¬= = ºi= l==  ¬+i = =i+, º= l= = i =·=  -·i+ (=¤i -==
=‹· =i-= l==  ºr=, ºl=ril==  =¤i +==i+) = i =i= i ·,
=i =·¬¤ = i =‹·i+i ·, l=== i ¬l=i·i-º=i+ = = ri ¬i· =i
=i=·i+=  =i=il==  ¬il¤=  =i=i·i·i =  l=º -¤i+i+ =i=i
= i ==r ·: (¬i:.+.=i.º+., · l·.=, := i- · l·.= º·
º i · Š· · ºl·+i. =, ===i=-=-Š+·+, ì»»-)
º+·+ -=i= «i·i := i º+·+ = i ºl·=i¤i := º= i· = i =: r
- -¦-+º¤ +i+i =i =i-= l==  º+ ºi= l==  :l=ri= = i ===
=‹·i+ = =·· = ·, ¬i· =i¤ ri ºil·l-¤l== i =+ = i =·¬i
= ·= rº º= ¬il¤=  =i= ·, l=== =·¬¤ = i =‹·i+i l==....
:= º= i· = i +i+i = i == ==+ ==  =il+= ·r ºi+i, -== 
=r+i=i ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  =il+= ·r+ = =‹·i r (=··i,
ì»»- =i ·i+= º· =i= ì»»ì … ì-+ = i ·ir·i ·r ¤):
· :··+-+= := i· l·.= =i=i+·i (·i:.=) + := i º+·+ = i
:= º= i· ºl·=il¤= l= +i r ºi= l==  ¬+i = l=.·=·i· +i+i,
=i º= l= = i =·¬¤ = · ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i =  = ·+i¤ =
+i=·i+ = ·:
l+-+ º+·+ =-¤i+ (+.º+.···+.·i.¬i.) =  ¬+=i·, º=i
º+·+ l=== ¬= = ºi= l==  ¬+i = i +i+i ri ¬i· l=== i
-¦-+ +ri =  =+i·= ·-+i, +·+ =i+i + +ri =  =i-= l== 
s.
¤ttº ¤
s = t ¤¤ ¿+
+t|º¤º º¤t = t+¸ +t et ¤
¡
sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
z««s
ºr=¬i (ºl=ril==  =¤i +==i+) = i ¬·+++ = ·+i, º-=i
= ·+i =¤i =·=  -·i+i ri; -= := i º+·+ = ri =i=i r: :== 
=r+ =·+i = = = = r - -l¤= =r+i = º+i+·¤ º=i ¬l=l¤
=l=l+lu+i, l=+= i ºil·i-¤l== i, =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i º· = i:
==i· ºl·¤i= + ri =¤i l=== ºil·i-¤l== i+ ===+ =+i+
=  l=º -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =l= + =i=i·i·i ri
(+.º+.···+.·i.¬i., :..:):
:
¬=… l+l=·+ ºl·=i¤i¬i =   ¬+ =i· : = i º+ ·+ =   = r+ =·+ r …
l=  +r =+ l+l+u=i =·¬¤ = =ri+=  ri:
·-i;-¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  l=º =i=·i+=  ri:
==iu+i = i ·++== -º=i= = ·:
-¤= l+l-r =¦i = i r= l+= i=:
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i, -+il=·+ + -== ¬+=·i
º· =. i · · :
=i· ==ri = i =·= -=·i+ -== =  .=l·º .== ·= º·i
= · :
-==  ¬=== ·+ir+i;=i=l= ¬+=+ -il== ri:
º+·= i + º+·+ -=i= = i ¬i· = l=.·=+i· ¬i¤·¤
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ = t |t¤|º …
:= i º+·+ ¬= º=  =r· l++il·= -·· ri =+i r -
ºil·i-¤l== i+, ¬il¤= , =¤i ·i=+l==  r· = º =: :== i
-º+i= := i º+·+ =  º-=i+ ·o+ +i=i - =·= i·i l+=i=i
=¤i º+·+ -=i= - «i·i +º ·i+i = i º+·+ =  l=º oi= =i+
=  -¦-+ = l= +i =+i: =l= + ·=i·++- :==  = i·¤ º= ¬+
º+·+ =  l=º o= =º, =ri º+·+ -=i= =  º+i=i =  = i·¤
-¤i+i+ =i=i =¤i º+i+·¤ º· =r· º=i+ º‹· :
r· ¬·i= i· + := ¬º+ = i+· =  l=º ºl·=il¤= = ·+ = i
= il-- = i: ri·=i =  l=º, :== i ==== r º+i+·¤-=ri+
ºl= +iº ¬º+i+i == º+¤= ¤, += i·º=  = =i ==iu+i = i
75
-º+i=, -¤i+i+ +i-=l-·º ¬º+i+i =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
·i.==i· ·+i: +i+i ·++-¤iº= i =  l=º :== i ==== ¤i, := i
º+·+ =  = º = º¤i· = ·+ =  l=º +º ==·+i = i ºr¤i+
= ·+i =i ¬i= º+·=  -¤=i = r·= · r:
:= i º+·+ = i l+l=·+ ºl·=i¤i¬i º· = i: =+=·=l= +ri r:
-¤i+i+ =i=i + := i º+·+, -== i ºl·=i¤i =¤i ¬+ui·¤i º·
¬i·iº ==i+i r l=  +r .+i·i=· -=i=ºl=+i «i·i ¤=i+i
=i=i r ¬i· -==  l+= i= = -+= i = i: =i=i·i·i +ri r:
:..: =  ¬=·ir i+ := i º+·+ +¤ = -·iº =º =¦ ¬i· -= == 
ºr¤+ +i=i ºl= +iº, l=== l+-+ := i º+·+ l-o· =·==+
-il== r, := =·+ =  =i¬i r: = : =-¤i¬i + =i· =i·
·ir·i+i l=  := i º+·+ = i ¬i= =+ l= +i =iº ¬i· -== Š+i
ril== l= +i =i == =i r := -ºr l= +i =iº l=== l=  +r
=·= i·i, º+·+ -=l=+i =¤i l+= i= =-¤i¬i =  l=º = +=
º¤i· = i =i·+= =+ = · ·r + =iº: · ·il¤l= = · l·.= ºi=Š·
(=i ¬= :i··=i+= · l·.= ·i:· = = r=i=i r),
l=l++iºil==, +.º=.º. + ¬il·+i=i =¤i ==·i+ ¬iuil·=
=-¤i¬i = i =·=  = º= ri =¦ -·i= rº = ri l=  .+i·i=·
:= i º+·+ = i+= = ==·i+ ¬iuil·= +ri r =¤i -+= i = º·
= ¤iºi =+i r: = i+= =i =  ·i¤= i=i+ º=i+i = i = i:
¬·+++ +ri l= +i =+i r: +r l¤=i ==i: =: r l=  +==i+ =
l== := i º+·+ = ri =i ·ri r, +r ¬== = l++-= i = i
= i+·i ·+, º=u+ l+-¤-i =  =-iŠ== ·¤ =¤i º+·= i = 
¬i+· =  l=º =+i r: :== ===i+ ==·i+ =  ¬il¤= ,
=i=il== , º+i+¤i+ -+i-·+ = i = i: = i+·i +ri l==+ +i=i
(·il¤l= = · l·.= ºi=Š·, =·· · +.º+.:.ºi., :: ¬Š==·
:...) ¬i· =i=i = i += i·i·==  º=i+ + ·++== =i= ri
l===i r:
¬= `:= iº+·+` -·· = i º+i= .+i·i=· º= ·i+i = º+·+ = 
=·= = ri=i r =i ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º = =+·+-i= r: :== i
-·ºi·i º= l=-¬iuil·= º+·+ = r: r: :=il=º = =i = =i
:= º= l= º+·+ =i = ri =i=i r (=··i, ì»»-): ºi= l==  +
¬= = ¬+i, == ++i + «iºi º· º+·+ = i `:= i º+·+` +i
`º= l= º+·+ = r+ = i = =i+ ¬== = =r· ¬-ºr r:` :=
º= i· = i -··i+=i = i º+i= º+·+ -=i= :=il=º = ·=i r
Š+il=  =ri =i º+·+ ¤=i+i =+i, +ri =  º+i+·¤ ¬i·
=i=il==  =+ º· += i·i·==  º=i+ º‹· =·ii ¬=i++i+
i-¤l=+i º·i r: - == l=  l+-¤iº+, -i¤¤, ºi= l== 
==iu+i = i ·ir+ =¤i ¬il·+i=i º+ -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = 
==== =i++ ¬lu= i·i = i r++:
=i·= == ·- = := i º+·+ l+= i= = i ¤¤i = i º+·= 
¬i= ¤¤i =  =·= = ·o+i .== ·i r: ·+iº=  ºi= l==  =º·i
=¤i =+l+l+u=i =  = ··, =i ==·i =·i, ¬º+iri == ¬+i,
===i =¤i ºri‹·i ¬+i = = = r, =r+ º+·=  ¬i= ¤¤ r,
l===  +i= º· := iº+·+ ¤=i+i =i ·ri r: +ri ==  l= 
=·l¬= ¬+ =i =ri ºr= =il== º+·+ =l=l+lu+i ri=i ¤i,
¬= =i+ º+·+ l+= i= = i l-= i· =+ =º r: º+·+ -=i= :+
`== i· º‹· ` ==iu+i = ¬il¤=  =i= = =i+ = i ¬i-+i=+ ·=i
r: -+=  ¬+=i· :+ ºi= l==  ==iu+i = =r= ¬il¤= 
==i++iº l=ºi r l=·r ¬=i ==  =i= i· +ri l= +i =+i r: +r
-ºr r l=  := i º+·+ = i ¬+ui·¤i =·¬¤ =¤i =i=·il+= 
=i= ==  =il== +ri r ¬i· := =i.=i·i =i= = ri l++l+= = ·
·ri r: =i=·i ºªiil=+i = º+·= i =  =+i·=+ =  l=º =·=i+
= · l·º =i= r: ¬i· = º· = =·¬¤ + =i=·il+=  =i= = 
ºr= ¤iº = · -= := i º+·+ -·ºi· = i +i= · l·+i =i=i r:
-·ir·¤ =  l=º, ·i= = i ++i = i =-= ==i+i ++ l+=i= = i
ºr= = l=.·=·i·i ¤i º· ¬= -= := i º+·+ -·ºi· =  = º =
º- l= +i =i ·ri r: l===  ¬=== º+·= i = i ++ ·¬= i = 
=i¤ -+= i ·il+ =-= º· = =i+i =i=i r:
º+·= i = i =·l¬= ¬+i = ¤=+ = i =‹·=i =i= = 
ºl·¤i=-+= º ++ l+=i= =·¬¤ + +il+= i = i+i = i =i‹·= ·
º+·+ = i º¤i·=  =+ = · ·r =+i r: := = ·= ++ l+= i=
= i·ºi·-+ =  -·ir·¤ = ·o= r:
=  ·= ++ l+= i= = i·ºi · -+ l=l=· · (=  .º= .·i.=i.)
·ir i+ = l¤ ¬i+i= + r· ·i+ = ++ l+= i= = i·ºi·-+ -¤ilº=
= ·+ = i ==i+ l·+i r, l=== l=  =i++= = ++ =+i+ =  l=º
¬i+-+=  º=i := · ·i = i =i == : :== ·- = i ¬i=l·= 
++iº= ¬i+-+= =iº =i º·i ri=i ¬i· ¬l==-= ++ ¬+i =
º+=++ =  =i·+= = -·r l= · = -º+i=i =+i+i =i == =i:
=  .º= .·i.=i. l=l=· · =   º = o = i+ …-
ì. = ·= =·= i· = ¬i·l¬= ++, ¬+i·l¬= ++ =¤i ¬·+
=l= = i l= ·i+ º· +i ¬·+ l= =i ºl= +i = ¬lu= = = ·+i,
o·i·+i +i = =+i - l=+ ¬+i = º‹· ri +i + ri ¬i· -+ º·
¬i=il==  -º+i= =  l=º ºiui·iº¤ = ·+i:
:. ·=‹·, = i=i l=¤, =i·i=, = i= i, :=i+¤i ¬il· = 
ºiui·iº¤ = ·+i =¤i r· º= i· =  ===i ºiui, º‹·i =¤i
= l¤ -º= = i o·i·+i, =¤+i, ¬i+i=-l++i= = ·+i,
l+= l== = ·+i, -+= i ¬i=·+ = ·+i ¬il·:
:. ++i =  = iei+ =¤i ¬·+ -·ºi·i = i -+= i -·ºi·= =i
= i ¤·= =i=i ==  º=i·u= = ·+ =  l=º ¬lu= = = ·+i,
o·i·+i +i l= ·i+ º· =+i:
+. ++ ·¬= , ºiui·iº= , = ¤= , l+= =i =¤i ·+ºi·i = 
= º = ¬i=il==  == ‹·i, ==i=  == ‹·i, = i+= ¬il· = i
-·ºi·+, l== i =¤i ·+iºi· = ·+i:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
76
= .·i.º= .=i. =i· + ¬º+i =r+ =l=l+lu =  = º =
l+·+l=lo= = i+i = i -+i= l= · ·i r …
``º+·+ =l=l+lu+i ¤=i+i, l=== := i º+·+, = l¤ º+·+,
++ º+·+, -+i-·+ º+·+ ¬il· -il== r =¤i :==  l=º
¬i+-+=  ==== =l+uiº -¤ilº= = ·+i, == l=  ri-·=,
ri·=, º+·=  =r, ==ri=+, l¤l‹·+i¤·, ¬-º=i=, -+i-·+
Š== ¬il·, l=== = .·i.º= .=i. = i =l== i +i+i º=·, +i+i
·++-¤iº=  ¬il· = i ·r=i =i º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i º¤i·
º=i· = ·:``
=·l¬= ¬+i = º+·= i =  =+i·=+ =  l=º ==== =l+ui¬i
= i ¬i+-+= =i r: =+·+-i= + ==· ¬+i = =¤i ·- =  = :
=·l¬= ¬+i = =i l+=il==iº¤ =¤i ==iu+ ºui+ ¬i+i=i+
=l+uiº º·i+ = i =i ·ri r: = ·= =  ºl·+i· =i·i ¬i·l¬= ¬+
= = ·= º+·+ l+= i= = i·ºi·-+ =  =i+ ri·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+
=  ¬·· r: +r º=  +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+ =i r: ri=il= 
= .·i.·i.=i. ri·= = i =i.= ì»»- = ri o·= ri =: ¤i, ++
l+=i= :+ ri·=i = i ¬-+i·ª+ = =ir· l+= i=+ = ¬=¬=
·ri r: º· ·- = º=i ri i-¤l= r, =ri = : == i·i =i= =+iº
=i ·r r - == =r¬i = i·i (=iu+=‹· ·ir i+ -=i+) =¤i
=i·i++ (º¤ ·ir i+ -=i+) = =i= == i·i +i:··=i:=  =i=:
=i= ==r «i·i ·i ¬i· == i·i =i= ==i· ·i=i (= i·ri ·ir i+
-=i+) ¬i· ºi-i¤=‹· (º·+i ·ir i+ -=i+) = =+iº =i ·r r:
r= +r ===+i ri=i l=  +r ==== =l+uiº ¬il·+i=i =¤i
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  -º+i= = i =il==
= ·=i r: ¬il·+i=i + -¤i+i+ ==·i+ ºil‹·+i = :+ ¬+i =
·r= ¬iº r =¤i :+ ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+i º· ¬º+i ·i.==·i = i
.== ·=i =  l=º l+=· r: -+= i l+=·=i = i :+ ==iu+i º·
:=+i ==i· º=i+ +ri º‹·. =i l==+i l=  º+·+ =l=l+lu+i ¬i·
==== =l+ui¬i = i º‹·=i r:
=·l¬= ¬+ -¤i+i+ =¤i ¬il·+i=i =i=i = i -+= i =il== 
=·= =l= = l+-¤ilº= = ·+ = i =r+ = i·¤ ¤ Š+il=  :+ =i=i
= i =i·= =  =·l¬= ¬+i º· `·=i+` = i = i·¤ ==i+i =+i:
:+ =·l¬= ¬+i = `º+·+ ¬+i` = i =+i+i =i+i := -i¤¤ = i
¬i· ¬lu=  ·ii=i =+i ·=i r: :==  = i·¤ º=  ==ª·= -=i=
= i ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º = =+·+-i= ¬+i =  ¬i= ºi= + ¬··
·r+ = i = i++i ¬lu= i· l== =+i r: =ri º=  ¬i· -¤i+i+
=i=i = i ++ ·i+i = l+-¤ilº= l= +i =+i r, +ri º+·+ = i =‹·
¤‹ · = · =‹ ·i+i l·+i =i ·ri r :
¤ttº ¤ s = t ¤¤ ¿+ =   n º¤ ¤ = t+¸ +t et ¤ º¤t
|+¤¤
tte t¤ ¤¤t ¤t¬t¤ = t+¸ + ¢¤ +t|º¤t
=ri º=  ¬i· º+·+ +il=+i, ·ir i+ + ·i+ -=· º· := i º+·+
= i =‹·i+i · ·ri r, +ri ·=·i ¬i· º+i+·¤ =·¬¤ =  = i++ +
+il=+i :==  ¬l++l+= l+= i= = i ·i= + = ¬=¬= ·ri r:
= = =r·+º¤ º+i+·¤ = i++i =¤i ¬lu¤i¤¤i¬i = i ¤¤i
+i¤ = i =i ·ri r: ·ir i+ -=· º· º= = i++i + +il=== ·i¤
r, =i := iº+·+ = i l++l+= = · == = r: =l= + = = =i==i
= ==-+iº r, == ++ ¬lul++=, ì»·. l=== i := iº+·+ = 
º¬ = ·rº+i= l= +i =+i r =¤i ¬·+, == ·ir i+ º+i+·¤
+il=, l=== := i º+·+ =  l=º ¬+ oi= =i+ =  l=º =i+==
= · ºi+ui+ ·o =+ r: +ri º· ·+i+ ·+ +i·+ =i= +r r l= 
= ··i+ + ·i+ -=· º· +il=+i =¤i = i+ +i=+i¬i = :== i
= i: +¤+ +ri r:
+·+=i+ (= ·¬¤) ¬lul++= ì»::,
= -i u+ ì»»: =¤i :..:
+·+=i+ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++= ì»:: = = += º=  =i· º+·+
-·· = i -º+i= r¬i r - oª· :·(=) =, ¬i· º+·= i = i ¬··
=i+ = i ¬+=l= = += ·i+ = i =r+ +·+=i+ ºi= · == =i
r: :+ = i++i =  ¤il¤= ri+ =  =i· = º+·+ = i= i ¬i= =‹·
¤= i r: ++=i+ ==+ = i =l=l+lu+i -ºr = º = =·l¬= ¬+i
= i =+l+l+u=i =  l=º ì»:. =  ·-=  =  == i== = ri ¬lu= 
ril+= i·=  r: =··i ri := ºi+ui+ = =-iu+ = ·+ = i .== ·=
r, +i = = = = = l+-== l·-i l+·- l+= i= =iº l=== º+·+
= i ºl·=il¤= = ·+ =  =i¤ =i¤ -= =·l¬= ¬+i =  =i=· +
¬i=ºi= = = ¤=i+i r, +r -ºr l= +i =iº:
++ (= ·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ì»·.
ri=il=  := ¬lul++= = ++ ¬+i = º+·+ = i l++l+= = ·+ = 
ºi+ui+ r, :== ·i = l=+i ·r =: r, l=·r =·l¬= ¬+i =¤i
¬i·l¬= ++ ¬+i = l+-i= -=· º· º+·+ =‹·i+ =  l=º
:-==i= l= +i =+i r: =·l¬= ¬+ +·+=i+ (=·¬¤)
¬lul++= , ì»:: =  ++ ¬+i =¤i ¬i·l¬= ++ ¬+i = l+-i=
-=· º· º+·+ =‹·i+ =  l=º :-==i= l= +i =+i r: =·l¬=
¬ + +·+=i+ (= ·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ì»:: =   ¬lu= i· ¬ + =  
¬ == = ¬i= r : ==l=  ¬i·l¬= ++ º = ++ ¬ + r =i = ·l¬=
¬ +i = +ri l=+ =i= : ++ (= ·¬¤) ¬lul++= = i : = l=+i r …
= ) =·-+il+= i -º+i= -·· = i :-==i= - ¬lul++= =
º+·+ = i =· +il+= i =l=l+lu +ri =i+i =+i r: ·=·i ¬i·
·i+i =  ++ l+=i=, =i := i º+·+ = i =‹·i+i · ·r r,
º+·+ = i ++ ==lu= =l=l+lu =i+= r, =i =·¬¤ =
=ri+=  r: +r ++ ¬+i = := i º+·+ =  =oi· =  =i¤
=‹·= º+·+ =  ºi= =r+ = i·¤ ·ri r:
=i= - o
77
o) oª· : (iii) l===  ¬===, = i: =i ++ =l= +i -== i
¬- l= ·iº º· +i ¬·+ ===i= =, l= =i =i l+=i ·+iŠ=
+i º ilu= ·¤, = i·ºi · -+, º= =i +i ¬·+ = -¤i =i =·= i·
«i·i + ¤=i: =i ·ri ri , = i ·i =i == =i r : := º i+ui+ =  
= i·¤ ++ ¬ +i = º+ ·+ = i ¤ =+ =   l=º o =i = · · ·i r :
¬=… :+ =i==i = i =·· ri -ºr = ·+ = i .== ·= r:
= + l+l+u=i ¬lul++=, :..:
=i·=- «i·i +.º+. = ·+·-+ ¬i+ =i+i=il== = ·i++l=·i º·
r-=i¬· l= + =i+ =  ºl·¤i= -+= º :..: = =+ l+l+u=
¬lul++= ºil·= l= +i =+i: := ¬lul++= =  : =r+ -¦-+ r
… = ) =+ l+l+u=i =·¬¤; o) =+ l+l+u ==iu+i = i ===
-º+i= ¬i· =) :+ ==iu+i =  -º+i= = ri+ +i= =i= = i
=·+ l+=·¤:
:= ¬lul++= = =l+i-¤= = º = º+·+ = i +¤+ +ri r:
=l= + º+·+ (=+l+l+u ==iu+i = ) === º+ =· -º=i=i
º+i= = º=  =r·+º¤ =l== i l+=i == =i r: ¬i· :+
==iu+i =  -º+i= =  =·= = -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i =l== i
r: := i º+·+ = i oi== · := ¬lul++= = =i= ri == =i r:
+l· -= º=i =l=l+lu =i+i =iº =ri ==iu+i = i -º+i= ri=i
r =¤i -== ri+ +i= =i=i = i =·+ = º = =i·i =iº: :=
¬lul++= = i ui·i :: = =+l+l+u l+·i==i (rl·· =) -¤=
¤il¤= = ·+ = i ºi+ui+ r: =l= + +r -ºr +ri r l=  :+ ¬+i
= º+·+ = i ¬+=l= r +i +ri ¬i· :+ ¬+i =  º=u+ =
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i Š+i =l== i ri == =i r:
º+i +·¤ (= ·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ì»·-
:= ¬lul++= =  ¬===, ·i =r·+º¤ ¬lu¤i¤¤iº = i =: =i
:= i º+·+ = =‹·i r: º=  r, =·i+ l+++¤ ¬+ ¬lu·ii¤¤i,
ì»»ì =¤i ·=·i º+i+¤i+ º=i+ ¬i= =+ ¬lu¤i¤¤i, ì»»+:
:= ¬lul++= =¤i -==  l++=i = i == +r r l=  :==  ¬===
º+i+·¤ º+ ++ =+i=+ = i º+i+¤i+ =·¬i =¤i -== i
=¤+·ii =‹·i+ ¬i· º+i+¤i+ º·¤¤ = i ·i= +, l++l+= = ·+
=¤i ¤·i+ =  l=º -º+Š= -iŠ=+i ·i =: r:
=·i+ l++ +¤ ¬lu¤i ¤¤i, ì»»ì (=i.¬i·.= . ·)
=·i+ l+++¤ ¬+ ¬lu¤i¤¤i, ì»»ì º+i+·¤ (=·¬¤)
¬lul++=, ì»·+ =  ¬===, ì» = ·+·i ì»»ì = i = i =::
=·i+ ¬+i = =i++i+ =l=l+lu+i = i l++l+= = ·+ =  l=º +r
º=  =r·+º¤ =¤i l+-¤ = i++ r: =l= + ì»»ì = :== :.
=-iu+ + : -laº+ (=++·i, :..: == ) =i·i l= + =i ¤= 
r: r· =-iu+ = :==  º=i+ = i = = = ·+ = i = il-- = i =:
r =¤i +º ºi+ui+ =i‹· =º r: =i = : =·¬¤ ºi+ui+i = i
º=i+ = = = · ·= r:
l+= i=-·lr= ¬ + = º+ ·+ = i ==r =+i+ =   l=º = =i …
:= ¬lu¤i¤¤i = i ºr=i =-iu+ º+·+ -=l=+i = 
·=i+ =  = i·¤ l= +i =+i:
+r =-iu+ ¬lu¤i-¤i =.º=.¬i. :»: (E) l·+ i=  ì·
¬=-=, ì»»+ =  =i·+= = +ir·i = =·i = i =-=l=+i = 
¬iui· º· l= +i =+i =i ì =++·i, ì»»: = i =l·= = i =:
¤i ¬i· l=== i l·ºi· :ì l·=·=·, ì»»: = i ==i = i =::
:== =r+ =¦i ¤i º+·+: := = =·i =  =·+ =  ºi= = i·¤
¤i l=  =i·= =·= i· º· ri·= =¤i º+·+ -=l=+i = i
·=i+ ¤i l=  ¬lu¤i¤¤ =r= = ·i· r =¤i :==  = i·¤
-+=  = i= = =iuiº ¬i ·ri r:
= =·i = i =-=l=+i = º=  ¤i, l+= i= ·lr= ¬+
(º+.·i.=·.) = = =i = ·+i, oi== · -+ ¬+i =  l=º =i
º+·+ l+= i= =  l=º ¤+ =i ¤=  r: =+i=+ +
=i.¬i·.=·. ¬lu¤i¤¤i, ì»»ì = i ì· ¬=-=, ì»»+ = 
l·+ =-ilu= = · l·+i =+i, l=== º+.·i.=· = i =i=i
:.. =i·· = ¤·i = · :. =i·· = · ·i =:: := =-iu+ =
º+.·i.=· =  ¬=== l+=i¤ = i+ = i ¬+=l= =i · ·i =::
¬=… = ··i+ =·= i· = i l+-== -iŠ=+i ·i =: l=  + +i·
=i·i ·oi =  :.. =i·· ¬+ = ¬º+i === = l+=i¤ = i
¬+=l= · == =i r:
=+i·¤ ·+i+i=+ = :+ ¬lu¤i-¤i¬i = ·i =i· =
l+·-= = · l·+iŸ:
º+.·i.=i·. = i ¬==… :. =i·· ==  =+ l= +i, =l= +
= += ¬·=i+ ¬i· l+= i=i· «iº ==r =¤i =¬«iº =,
º+·+ =  l=º: +r =-iu+ º=.¬i. ·:· (E) =  =i·+= =
:+ ==i:, :..: = i =+iƒ ·+i+i=+ =  l+·- =  -„¤+ =
l= +i =+i: := =-iu+ = i =-=l= -o· l=r = l=l· l·ºi·
= ·i =: ¤i: +r = · ++ º+ º+i+·¤ =+i=+ «i·i
=¤il==, =+Š= =·i+ ¬+ º=u+ l++i=+ ¬·+++ «i·i
l¤i·r=, º+.·i.=· ¬+i º· ¬iuil·= ¤i:
º+i +¤i+ ¬=· ¬i = =+ ¬lu¤i ¤¤i,
ì»»+ ¬i · :..- (: .¬i: .º.)
ì»»+ = , º+i +·¤ º+ ++ = +i=+ «i·i =i·= = ==i
ºl·+i=+i¬i =  l=º º+i+·¤i+ ¬=· ¬i= =+ = i++i = º =
¬l++i+ = · l·+i =+i: +r ¬lu¤i¤¤i º=.¬i. -. (E) =  
.=l·º :: =++·i, ì»»+ = i º+i+·¤ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++= = 
¬=== = i =:: := =  + =r+ -¦-+ ¤ …
ºl·+i=+i¬i =  º+i+¤i+ º=i+i = i =l+ª++i¤i = ·+i:
+= i·i·==  +=i+i = i = = = ·+ =   ·i-= ==i+iŸ:
-¤i+i+ º+i+·¤ =   ¬+= = ºl·+i=+iº =+i+iŸ:
:+ =l+-++il¤+i =¤i l+= ·ºi = i l+¤i+= i =  =i=+
º ¤ = ·+i:
:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
78
º+i+·¤ º+ ++ =+i=+, =i :.¬i:.º. =  l=º = ··i+ º==i
r, + ì+ l==·=·, :..- = i º=  +: ¬lu¤i¤¤i =i·i = i,
l=== =i·= = :.¬i:.º. ºl= +i = i = i= i r· ==  =·= l·+i:
ì»»+ = i == :.¬i:.º. ¬lu¤i¤¤i = º+·+ (l=== ri·=,
=·i+ l·=i· -il== r) = i ¤¤i ì ºl·+i=+i = i ·=i l·+i =+i
¤i: :== i ==== r, l===  l=º :.¬i:.º. = i++i = º =
¬l++i+ r =¤i l== = ··i+ =·= i· = ¬+=l= =+i ri=i: ==i
º+ ·+ ºl·+i =+iº =i +i· =i·i · oi =   :.. =i·· - :.. =i··
=  =i=· r ¬i· ì... =i. ==· == = i = ¤i: = = º· i-¤=
r, l=== = . : = ·i‹· = ¬lu=  l++- ri, = i :.¬i:.º.
¬lu=¤+i = i ¤¤i ì = -il== l= +i =+i:
+
=l= + +:
¬lu¤i¤¤i = º+·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i =  l=º º+i+·¤ ¬=·
¬i= =+ = i =i‹· l·+i =+i r, +ri ==  l=  º+·+ = i +¤+ =i
+ri r :
¤º ¤t+ tt·¿ t¤ +t|º¤t º¤t s = t ¤¤ ¿+
·ir i+ º+i +·¤ +il=, :..-
=i·= =  º+i+·¤ =  l=º º=  ·+iº=  +il= +Š=·+ = i .== ·=
= i ·o= rº ·ir i+ º+i+·¤ +il= = i ·¤+i = i =:: º+i+·¤
+il= = : =+·+-i= ºil·i-¤l== i+ ¬+i = := iº+·+ = i
=‹·i+i ·= rº, º+·+ = i º=  º=i+i =·+ =i++ = i +.=··i.=
= ·=i r: +r +il= ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  -º+i= =  l=º =·i=i
= i l=.·=+i· ·r·i=i r ¬i· ·=·i ¬i·, ==i= =  u++i+ =i=i
«i·i l= º =i ·r ¬º·++ = +.=· = ·=i l·o=i r: +r +r
=i++ = := i· = ·=i r l=  º+·+ º=  ==iu+ ºui+ =l=l+lu
r: := +il= = =·l¬= ¬+i +i ¬·+ -+-¤, = =.=i· +i
=+·+-i= ¬+i = º+·+ l+= i= = i l++l+= = ·+ =  l=º = i:
= i++i ·i¤i +ri l·+i =+i r: +il= =  ==i+ =  ¬+=i·, +l·
º+i+¤i+ =+i¬i = i =i.=i·i= ·¤ ri+ ==i =i = : =·r = i
º·-il++i o‹·i ri == =i r, Š+il=  :== uioi = ·+ + l+= =
ri+ = i ==i++iº r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, +·+=i+i = i ¬il¤= 
=·+ ·+i ==i l=  =i-= l==  ºr=¬i =  =i¤ =i l= +i =+i r,
-+=  ¬·+ ¬·-+ =i=i = i =l== i = i += i·=i r =¤i -·r
º+·+ = i º=  +-= =+i= · =i‹· ·=i r: :== i ==il+=
ºl·¤i= r l=  ¬i· ¬lu=  ¬+ º+·+ =  l=º oi= =iº=: +il=
= i =-=l= r l=  ===i + +·+=i+i = i := iº+·+ = i =·+
=+i+i =iº: :== :+ ¬+i = i ¬l= ºr¤ == =i r ¬i· ·=·i
¬i· = i= i ¬·+ ¬+i, == l=  ·l=-=i+, = i -l¤= l+= i= =i
= · =i=i r:
·ir i+ ++ +il=, ì»»·
·ir i+ ++ +il=, ì»»· = i .=i· -¤i+i+ =i=i =  ++ ==iu+
-º+i= º· r: :== i -º+i= -¤i+i+ =i=i =  ++ilu= i·i = i
=-Š= = ·+ =¤i º+·+ l+= i= = i -¤i+i+ l+¤+ º¤i=i = i
lr-=i =+i+ =  l=º l= +i =i == =i r: +r +il= ===i = 
=·¬¤ =  l=º l-¬i = i º=  =r·+º¤ ºr= =i+=i r: ¬=…
:= ºi+ui+ =  ¬===, ·+ir+i =l=l+lu+i = i := iº+·+ = i
º=  =r·+º¤ ¬= =+i+i =i == =i r:
·ir i+ º+ ·+ +il=, :..:
·ir i+ º+·+ +il=, :..: = i º+·+ = =‹· ==i ==ri =  =i¤
l+-== ¤¤i = i ºl·¤i= =i+i =i=i r: :==  ¬=== = =
ºi¤l==  ¬+i - lr=i=+, -·i·i º+, ºi-¤=i ¤i·, ¬·=i+
¬i· l+= i=i· «iº ==r - = º+·+ l+= i= =¤i := ==·i+
¬iuil·= ¬i·i=+ =+i+ = i -¦-+ r:
:= +il= = º+·+ =  ==il+= º+i+¤i+ º=i+i = i ºr¤i+i =i
=+i r º· := l+¤+ = Š+i = ·= =+ ¤ilrº, +r -ºr +ri r:
:= +il= = ====i = i º=  =r·+º¤ -¦-+ =i+i =+i r, =i
l=  º-=+i+ r: =l= + = += -¦-+ =  = º = = r= · =i‹· l·+i
=+i r, =i l=  l+·i-i=+=  r:
·ir i+ = +l+l+u=i ·¤+il= =¤i = i+ +i =+i
:= = i++i=+i = =i·= =  =r+ ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+i º· º+·+
=l=l+lu+i =  ·i= º=i+i =  l+¤+ = ¤¤i = i =: r: :== i
.=i· º+·+ =¤i =+l+l+u=i ==ui == =·+i º· r ¬i· +r
l+-== ºr=¬i, == º=  ¬+ = := iº+·+ º+i=i º· ¤¤i +ri
= ·=i: := iº+·+ = i =i= =i :=l=º -il== l= +i =+i r
Š+il=  =·l¬= ¬+i =  =i=·;¬i=-ºi= =¤i =+·+-i= ¬+i
= º+·+ = i = : º=l=+i := iº+·+ =  +i= = =‹·i+i · ·ri r
- =·= i·, º+·+ -=i= =¤i o· ==·i+ =i:
=i·= = : = i º+ ·+ - +il= =¤i l·-il+· - - º+ ·+
= +i=+ - =i·= =·= i·, ì»»·
=i·= =·= i· = i === º+·+ l+= i= +il= =  ¬º+ º+i=i = 
= i·¤ º+·+ =+i=+ := iº+·+ l+= i= =  l+¤+ º· +il= =¤i
l·-il+·-i =+i+ = i l+¤i· = · ·ri r: +r l·-il+·-
:= iº+·+ =  l++l+= l+= i= =¤i º+i+·¤ =·¬¤ º+
=i=lr=  l+= i= =l+i-¤= = ·+ =  l=º ·¤ =º: +il= =¤i
l·-il+·-i = ==i ·i+ =·= i·i, -=l=+i =¤i º+·+ l+= i=
= = i+·= =i=i ¬i· º+i+·¤ =¤i ºi= l==  ==iu+i = 
=·¬¤= =i¬i = i ==ilu= l= +i =+i r:
:= +il= = +.º+.···+.·i.¬i. «i·i ·i =: ºl·=i¤i¬i = i
=·= ·= rº := iº+·+ =  == =·+i = i ºl·=il¤= l= +i =+i
r … º= ¬+ =ri = i =r+ ¬i= ¤¤ +ri = i ºi= l==  +i=i+·¤
ri, +ri º+i+·¤ º=i ¬l=l¤ ¬iº; =l=l+lu+i = i
ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+ º· ==i· º=i+ + º‹· =¤i ºil·i-¤l== i+
===+ =+iº ·o+ = -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i == i·i·==  =i=i·i·i
ri:
=i= - o
79
:= +il= = =i·= =  ==i ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+i = i -il== l= +i
=+i r ¬i· :·r =r·+º¤ := iº+·+ ==iu+ =i+i =+i r: +r
+il= =i+=i r l=  +r ==iu+ ¬·=i =·r =·l¬= r: +il= = i
:-i·i, l=  +r ==i ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+ ==il+= := iº+·+
==·+ ri == = r, l¤=i=+=  r Š+il=  º+·+ =  = i·¤ = :
ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+i = ¬+il== º=i+ rº r:
:= +il= = =i=i =i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+i = i := iº+·+ ==iu+
=i+i =+i r: :+= = ·i +i=l=·i =¤i +·i ·+i = ºr= = ri
º+·+ l+= i= =  º=i+ ·o =i ¤=  r: +i-=+ = :+ ·i+i
=i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+i = l++i- = i =r+ = i·¤ º+·+ ri ·ri
r: =· l+= i=i· = ¬=i ¬i+i-=i+i =i-= = r Š+il=  ¬·=i+
¬i· l+= i=i· º-i=+ + +ri =i=i =  ¬i+-=i+ º· l+++¤
==i+i r¬i r: =··=+ = l+-i= º+·+ ºl·+i=+i =i= ri+
+i=i ¤i, l== º=  ·ir i+ ¬l=+i+ =  = i·¤ ·i= i =+i: =·+i·
= i oi‹·i º+·+ -¤= =+ ¤= i r, oi== · :- l·==·, :..+ = 
·=+i=i =  =i· =, == º+·+ l+=i=, =l== +i· =·= i· +
+ri ¬º+i =l=l+lu+i -r = · ·i:
+il= = l=oi r l=  º=  +·¤i===  ·lr= i¤, +-il+= 
l++i=+, º=i+i l+++¤ =¤i l+·=· l+=·i+i = º+·+ l+= i=
ri+i ¤ilrº: +r º=  == i·i·==  = ·= r, =l= + = º· l·º =º
ºr=¬i, == +º ¬+i = i oi=i =i+i ¬i· +==i+ º+·+
º=i+i = i ¬i= =+, = i -il== = ·+i .== ·i r:
tt+¤t ¤ ¤¤ ¿+{ s = t ¤¤ ¿+ +t|º¤t
¬ ·=i+ ¬i · l+= i =i· «iº == r
¬·=i+ ¬i· l+= i=i· «iº ==r = i º+·+ +il= =r· º= º¬i+
·-=i+.= r, l=== l·-il+·-i + l= +i·+++ =  =·+i = i
.== ·= º·i +ri ri=i: º=  º·+ =  := ·-=i+.= = l···lr = 
= º = = += +r l=oi r l=  «iº ==r = i º=  …
`...:= iº+·= i =  l=º ==·+ =  = º = l+= l== l= +i =iº:
:==  l=º ===== =l+ui¬i = i l+=i¤ º+i+¤i+ ===
ºl= +i¬i «i·i, l=+i ºi= l==  +i=i+·¤ = i ¤i· ºr¤iº,
·i=-+ º·i = ·+ =  -¦-+ =, ¬i· ¬lu=  ·i.==i· º·i = ·= rº
=¤i «iº ==r =  =i=il== -¬il¤=  l+= i= =  =i¤` (=¤+i,
º¤i· =¤ º+·+ l+·-i=+, :..:):
=·ii==‹ ·
=·ii==‹· ·i+ = i = i: := iº+·+ +il= +ri r: =·= i·i
+==i:·
:
º· := iº+·+ -¤=i = i =i+= i·i ·i =: r =ri l=oi
r l=  ·i+ = i +il= = i º=  =r+ -¦-+ r ·i+ = ¬il¤= ,
=i-= l==  =¤i º+i+¤i+ = º = === º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+i:
:= iº+·+ +i= =i= = l=oi =+i r `=i·= =  ì: ºl=-=
===i =  =i¤, =·ii==‹· ·i+ =  : ·ir i+ -=i+ ¬i· ìì
+·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+ +ri =  =r+ ¬i= ¤¤ r: = i=· ¤i·i ·ir i+
-=i+, =·+i+iºi‹·i, =i=i+·i, -·i=i =¤i ¬¤i+= =i·
¬-+i·ª+: =+º· (=·==i), = -= = ¤i·i (= i= ·), ¤=·=‹·
(l==i=º·), ==i¤i (=-º·), = · ·==· == iº, = =i-
== iº, =i·¤=‹· =·+, l¤+= i· =·+ (=-=·) - +r ==i
-·= r ==·+ r, l=·r ºi= l==  º+ +·+=i+ º+·+ =  l=º
=‹·i+i l·+i =i ·ri r: +·+=i+ ¬+, l-l+· -¤= =¤i ·l= =
=l+uiº = = =r+ ¬i= ¤¤ ri=`:
-
·i+ =  =·l¬= ¬+i = := iº+·+ º· .=i· l·º =i+ =  = i·¤
º=i ===i r l=  +r +il= º= ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º =
=+·+-i= ¬+i = =+i·=+ =l=l+lu+i = i := iº+·+ = i +i=
· ·ri r: +il= = +r =i = ri =+i r l=  ºi= l==  ¬i= ¤¤i = i
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i =  =i¤ l+= l== l= +i =i ·ri r:
=l= + := ºl= +i = =i=i·i·i =  -=· =¤i =i= l+=·¤ = i
º¤il=+i -ºr +ri = i =: r: :== ¬i¤ui+ -=i+i =¤i
ºi= l==  -+i-·+ l·.=i·i º· =i .=i· l·+i =+i r: =ri -¤i+i+
=i=i =  º·ºl·=  -i+ =  -º+i= = i =i= r, +ri -·r :==
=i= ºr¤i+ =  l=º = i: -ºr +i=+i +ri ·i =: r:
lr=i¤= º · -
lr=i¤= º·- = i := iº+·+ +il= ·i+ =  ++ l+=i= «i·i +¤
:..: = =+i· = i =::
:
:== i -¦-+ r l=  … `lr=i¤= = 
+·+=i++ = i ·i+ = ¬i+ +i= º+·= i =  +.=·i=  =i+i =iº
¬i· =i¤ ri -º+Š= ºl= +i¬i =  .=l·º :+ ºi= l==  ==iu+i
= i =·¬¤ =i ri: -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i =, +r +il=
-+= i ¬i=il+= i¬i =  =iu+i = =‹·i=·i = ·=  ==la = i
=‹·i+i ·=i: +r ·i+ = º+i= ¬il¤=  =i= =l+i-¤= = ·=i,
l=== +iº= ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+ = i ·o·o + º=u+ = ri o¤
l= +i =iº=i`: := +il= =  ¬=== :.ì. ==  lr=i¤= = i º= 
== = := iº+·+ ==·+ =+i+ = i ¬i-i = i =: r: := -¦-+
= i ºi+ =  l=º, º=  l+-¤ =+ = i º-=i++i = i =: r, l===
+r =+, +i=l·=  ==i= (l=== -¤i+i+ ==·i+, =· =·= i·i
=-¤iº, -l¬=  =-¤i+, l+l= -== -il== r) ¬i· ·i+ (++
=¤i º+·+ l+=i=) =i=i·i·i -¤ilº= = ·=:
:= +il= =  =r+ -¦-+ r …
- ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+·+ = i =‹·i+i =¤i -·r ¬i=·+i +
·i.==i· =  = º = =i=:
- =i=i¤ ¬+i = =r-¬i+i= = i =‹·i+i:
- l-¬i + =i=l= =‹·i+i =¤i lr=i¤= ¬i· lr=i=+ ¬+ =
==iu+ = ·· =  = º = -=·+i:
- º+i+¤i+ ·¬i =l+i-¤= = ·+i:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
80
= = l==i= · +r +il= ¬·+ ·i+i = i +il=+i = .+·i
º=l=-i= l·oi: ·=i r:
=i·o ·
=i·o· = º+·+; := iº+·+ º· ¬== +il= + ri+ =  = i·¤,
º+·+ = i ·i+ ¬i=il==  +il=, :..ì = -il== l= +i =+i r:
¬·+i+ ì: … º+·+ = l=oi r `:= iº+·+ l+= i= = i
º¤l== =i ·i =iº=i`: º= =iui·¤ +iŠ+ = = i: l+ª= ªi +ri
l+= i=i =i == =i:
·
=l= + +r .== · =i+ == = r l= 
:= iº+·+ l+= i= = i =r·+º¤ =i+i =+i r:
= ¤i·= 
= ¤i·=  = i := iº+·+ +il= +ri r º· ++ º+·+ +il=
»
r, =i
:..+ = =i·i = i =:: := +il= = l=oi r l=  ++ º+·+
:= iº+·+ = i º=  lr-=i r: :==  ºi= ¬+ui·¤i +r r l= 
·i+ = ++ º+·+ = i =r·+ =‹·=i =i ·ri r ¬=… `º=  º=i
+il= =+i+ = i .== ·= r =i := º= =‹·i+i ·, l+l·r = · =¤i
l++l+= ·o =i l=  +i=+i+ ri:`
++ º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+ =  ºi= = i·¤ r l= , ¬i= =+=i «i·i
=·ir+i, ¬i·· =¤i -+=  =+i·=+ = =·¬¤ = i =‹·i+i
l===i: ¬=… ·ir i+ -=i+i, +·+=i+ ¬-+i·¤+i =¤i ++ ¬+i
=  l¤l•= ¬- oi= =iº=: =+i= = +i ¬¤i+=  ¬i =º º+·= i
= i =‹·i+i +ri l·+i =iº=i:
:==  ¬l=l·Š= +il= = = ri =+i r l=  ++ º+·+ = -¤i+i+
=i=i = i =i= ri+i ¤ilrº, oi== · ¬il·+il=+i = i: ++
l+=i= º= =i= l·=+i+ =  l=º ·i-= · · =i:
:= +il= = i =r+ -¦-+ = ¤i·=  =  =·l¬= ¬+i =¤i ===i =
+·+=i+ º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+i º=i= ri=i r: ri=il=  =·¬¤,
-¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i= =¤i l+++¤ = i =i= = ri =: r, :=
== = i ril== = ·+ =  l=º = i: -ºr ºl= +iº +ri ==i: =:
r:
=  ·=
= ·= º+·+ ·i·+¤+ :.::
ì.
= = ·= = := iº+·+ = i ºl·=i¤i
º+ ·i¤i l·+i =+i r, =i :..ì = =+i· l= +i =+i ¤i: :== 
¬=== := iº+·+ = i =·= l·+i =+i r, =ri º=  -¦-+ r,
`·i+ = === =¤i º+i+·¤ º¬i+ º+·+ = i =‹·i+ ·+i, =i
==·+i = i =i·-¬==i º· ¬iuil·= ri: = ·= º+·+ = i =i= =
r +ri =  ¬º+iri ==¬+, ºri‹·i ==·+ =¤i ==·i =·: :+
==·+i = === º+·+ = i ¬i+-+= =i = i ºr¤i+= rº, = ·=
º+·+ ºil·i-¤l== i =  =·¬¤ º· .=i· ·=i r, l=== l= 
º+i+·¤ º· º+·+ =  += i·i·==  º=i+i = i = = l= +i =i
== : =i¤ ri ==·+i = i =i·-¬==i = i ·o= rº ri º+·+
l+= i= = i =‹·i+i l·+i =iº: º+·+ ==·+i = i l+= i= ¬+i+
l+= i= +i=+i =  ¬iui· º· l++il== l+= i= =  ¬===
l++l+= l= +i =iº=i:`
+r º=  ¬·=i ºl= +i r =-= l=  +==i+ =·+i =  ¬iui· º·
¬·+++ l= +i =iº l=  +==·+i =  ¬=== l+= i= `=  ºi= Š+i
= i·¤ ·r r: +r =i ·+i+ ·o+i ri=i l=  === =¤i º= l=-
º¬i+ º+·+ =  = : ºr=¬i = = +=i·-¬==i` = += º= 
ºr= r: ¬·+ ºr=¬i º· =i ·+i+ ·+i .== ·i r:
=·+ º · -
=·+ º·- =·= i· + ·i+ = := iº+·+ l+= i= = i º¤l== =i
·+ = i l+¤+ l=+i r: -== i .=i· ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  =·¬¤
º· r l===  l=º =i=l= =‹·i+, º+·+ =l=l+lu+i =¤i ==·+i
= i l+l+u=i ¬i· -¤i+i+ ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i =l+i-¤= = i
=iº:
:= +il= = i -¦-+ r l=  := iº+·+ = i ¬i· ¬i= =+=i =¤i
==lu= =·= i·i l+=i=i = =¤+i =¤i =+·+-i==i = i º¤i·
ri =¤i :== i º+i+¤i+, =i=il==  º+ ¬il¤=  ====i = 
l=º ·i+ = -l¤= ·i¤ =+iº =iº:
== l·-il+·-i = = ri =+i r l=  := iº+·+ = i l+= i= ·ir i+
º+i+¤i+ = i++i =  ¬=== ri l= +i =iº=i, oi== · +·+=i+
(=·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ++ (=·¬¤) ¬lul++=, ì»·. =¤i
==+-==+ º· =·= i· «i·i l+·- =¤i l·-il+·-: ¤l=  :+
·i+i ¬lul++=i = = i= i = l=+i r, -·=i· = i =i == =i r l= 
:= ·i+ = =i =·l¬= ¬+i = := iº+·+ = i =‹·¤‹·= · =‹·i+i
l·+i =iº=i:
=l== +i·
=l== +i· =·= i· =  :..:-.- =  º+·+ +il= +¤+º+ =
l+l=·+ := iº+·+ -= i=i, =i · +=º=· ¬i=  := i· l·.=
=l= · =  ¬=== =i·i = i =: r, = i =i= = ·+ = i =i= = i =:
r: :==  l=º ºil·i-¤l== i+ = º = =+·+-i= ¬+, +i:·
= l==i+· +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+, =·iº· +i+l-=  ¬i· ºi¤i+·=
= i = =i+ l·+i =+i r :
:= iº+·+ l+= i= = i =·= ·i·+¤+ ·-=i+.= :..:, º+·+
l+=i= =  +il= +¤+º+ :..:-.+ ¬i· ·=+i º¤-+¤i+ +i=+i
:..:-:..: = l·+i =+i r: ¬=… º-=i+ l·+i =+i l= 
:= i· l·.= =l= · -¤ilº= l= +i =iº l=== +i:· = l==i+· -
+i=iºl¿+= l=.=i, =·iº· - l=r+= · l=.=i, ¬i· ºi¤i+·= -
= ·=i· l=.=i -il== ri:
:= iº+·+ = i+= = =  ¬- r …
+i:· = l==i+· +·+=i+ ¬-+i·ª+ = r.:.ì: = ·i‹· = i =i==
= := iº+·+ … ·+ir+i = ·· = i -¤iº+i; l-l+· -¤= =+i·
=i= - o
81
= ·+i; º¤i·-º=i· =  l=º =i· ; +·+=i+ l= ·=i = i -¤i+i+
=i¤i¬i = = ºi=·¤; ¬-+i·ª+i = º+·=  · = i = i =ui·;
º= l= º=· l·+i = i l+= i=; º+i·i: :== ¬l=l¤ =r = ·
l+=i¤; ++ ¬i+i= = i ¤i··i+i·i; =ƒi =  l=º -=i+; =i‹·i
ºil= =; ===i=i :== ¬l=l¤=r = ==== =l+uiº;
¬-+i·ª+ ==  ºr¤+ =  l=º =‹·= :
l=r+= · l=.= =  =·iº· +i+l-= i = ==== r.:. =io =i==
= := iº+·+ l+= i=… ¬l=l¤ = ·· =+i+i, =.= ¤=+ +i=i
+i+; ¬l=l¤+i =  l=º l+¤i= -il== iº =+i+i; ¬+=i= +
·i+· =+i+i; =+l+l+u -¤= =+i· = ·+i; =i=l=:
lº¤i+·= = ==== r. ì = ·i‹· = i =i== = := iº+·+ l+= i=;
-i¤i=+ =+i+i, l== i = i-···, ºi+i = i · l= +i =+i+i;
·+ir+i = ·· =+i+i; +i+ o·i·+i:
=l== +i· =·= i· = i := iº+·+ +i=+i =·¬¤ =¤i
=i=·il+=  =i= = i =i= ==  +ri = ·=i: :+ +i=+i¬i =
:= iº+·+ = i ¬i‹· = ¬i= º+·+ = i ri =‹·i+i l·+i =i ·ri r:
-·i·i ¤=
-·i·i¤= = := iº+·+ º· ¬== +il= +ri r =l= + := ·i+
= i º+·+ +il= = -il== l= +i =+i r, =i ¬º= :..ì =
=+i: =: ¤i: := +il= = i ·i·+¤+ r l=  -·i·i¤= = i ·ir i+ +
¬=·ir i+ -=· º· º=o º+·+ ==·+ =  = º = =i+i =iº ¬i·
º+·+ = i +i= == ri =+ = -·i·i¤= = i =l+ =+ =iº: :=
¬+ = i l+= i= `º+i+·¤ l=+ = i =·r l+l= ¬+ =¤i -¤i+i+
=.==i+ ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i` = l= +i =iº:
:= iº+·+ = i º=  ºl= =¤i =.===i = i ·lr = ·oi =+i r;
+il= = i = r+i r …
``-·i·i¤= = ·== ++-ºl= =¤i =i++i· ºiº =i= r: +r :=
:= iº+·+ =  l=º º=  ¬i·- ¬+ =+i ·=i r: = : = i+= =
¬i· =l=l+lu+i, == === == i·i, ºri‹·i = · l= = =¤i ===
= ==¤, º= l= +i+iº, =ir=i· ===i =¤i ¬·+ ==l=+i = i
º= ‹·= · =i‹·+i (ºi·==) ¬il· +ri ri == = r: :+ ==i
=l=l+lu+i = i := º= i· ¤=i+i ri=i l=== º+i+·¤ =  l+¤+
= =i=l= = = =¤i +i.==  ºil·i-¤l== i+ ===+ = i =+iº
·oi =i == ``:
º= l= =¤i := iº+·+ = i = i++i=+i¬i =  l=º -l¤= l+= i=
º· .=i· l·+i =+i r: :==  ¬=== =i =l=l+lu+i -il== = i
=: r , + r …
-·i·i¤= = i =+l+l+u=i = i -=i·+ =  l=º =i· l+= = -=i+
=¤i =º·i = ·· -¤ilº= l= º =iº=; ==l¤= := iº+·+
= i+= = =+i· l= º =iº= ¬i· º+i+·¤-º¬i+ º+·+
=l=l+lu+i = i =‹·i+i l·+i =iº=i, == === == i·i, º= l=
==¤, ºri‹·i · = , l-l+· ¬il·: :+= i º= =i= l= +i =iº=i
l=== º+i+·¤ =  l+¤+ = =i=l= =¤i =+·+-i==i = i
=‹·i+i l==: ºiui·iº¤ = i º+·+ = =‹·i =l=l+lu =  = º =
l+-¤ ·+i+ l·+i =iº=i: =·-=l+=  ¬ºl-r = i ==-+i = 
l=º l++il== ==iui+ · · =iº=: =ii-·=  = ‹· = i l++l+=
= ·+ =  l=º l+l= ¬+ =¤i =·-=·= i·i =-¤i¬i = i =·· =
¬l=+i+ ¤=iº =iº=: =++ l+=i¤ =  l=º == ·º-·lr=
== +i=  =¤i -¤i+i+ l+=i¤ =i==i =  -º+i= = i =‹·i+i +
ºi·=ir+ l·+i =iº=i: º+·+ l+= i= = i +i=+i¬i = =i·-
¬==i =  ºr= º· l+-¤ ·+i+ l·+i =iº=i: = = l==i= i· +r
+il= º=  -== ºi= º ==i +.=· ¬i=i r:
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ |¤= tn =   |=¢ = t¤ ¤ ¬t=t
:= iº+·+ ==i =l=l+lu = i l++l+= = ·+ =  l=º -l¤=
º+i+¤i+ = i++i =  ¬=i+ = =¤i :==  ¬+i=+i+ ºl·¤i=i
= i ·i= + =  l=º .== ·i r l=  := iº+·+ =  º-=i+= =i = =
-+l+++¤ ºl= +iº =¤i = i+º¤il=+i ¬º+iº, l=== + ¬º+
ºil·i-¤l== i+ º·l¤·r = = = · == : +r == ==  l= +i =i
== =i r == ==  l=  º+i+¤i+ = i++i = i = l=+i º·i +i = ·
·i =iº ¬i· º=i +il=+i =+ =i º=i =l=l+lu+i = i =‹·i+i ·+
=  ==iº -·r l++l+= = ·: := ==u = = = = i+º¤il=+i = i
¤¤i +i¤ = i =i ·ri r, =l= + :+ == = +r ·+i+ ·o+i
.== ·i r l=  := iº+·+ === º+·+ = i º=  lr-=i r: =ri
l= =i =i := iº+·+ = i+= = +i +i=+i = i -¤ilº= = ·+ =
ºr= =i=·il+=  l+¤+ ºl= +i = i ¬l++i+=i = i += i·i +ri
=i == =i, +ri +i¤ ·i =: = i+º¤il=+i = i ¤¤i = l++i=+
+ l= +i·+++ ºl= +i = =·· l===i:
=i=il==  º+ º+i +¤i+ ¬=· ¬i = =+
l= =i =i := iº+·+ ºl·+i=+i =  l+= i= = i ºl= +i = l+¤+
º¤i=i =  =i·, =i=il==  º+ º+i+¤i+ ¬=· ¬i= =+ ri
ºr=i = ·= ri=i r: +r =i+i =+i r, l=  º+·= i =¤i -¤i+i+
==·i+i =  =i¤ ¬===ui = + = += =.==i+ ·- + -¤i+i+
==·i+i, =i·=  º+·= i º· =i º=i+ º‹·=i r: ¬+ui·¤i¬i,
l+¤i·i =¤i º·º·i¬i = i ===i=, =ri º=  ¬i· l+l+u
=-= l=+i =  l=º ¬i·· =¤i º-=i =i+ =‹·i+ = =·· = ·=i
r, +ri ·=·i ¬i· :==  += i·i·==  =¤i =+·+-i= º=i+ =i
º‹· == = r - oi== · +l· +i=i+·¤ ¬i=l·=  = º = =i=il== 
=¤i ¬il¤=  ¬=·i=·i = i ri: º= = =-Š= ==·i+ =  =·+ +
·++ri· = =.=i· ==·i+ º· ri+i ri =i= r ¬i· ¬===
=i=il==  + =i-= l==  =·=i+ ¬i+ === r: º+·+ = 
+= i·i·==  º=i+i = i ·+i+ = ·o= rº, .== ·i r l=  º+·+ = i
l+= i= ·i=  · = = l= +i =iº: ¬=… -¤i+i+ ==i= =¤i
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
82
¬il¤=  ·++-¤i = i º+·+ =  ¬+i=+i+ º=i+i = =¤i+ = 
l=º ¬=· ¬i= =+ ºl= +i¬i = i ==i+ l·+i =+i r:
º+i+·¤ ¬=· ¬i= =+ (:.¬i:.º.) º=  º=i -º= ·¤ r
l===  ¬=== º· º+i+·¤ º· º‹·+ +i= º+·+ =  º=i+i = i
ºr¤i+ = i =i == =i r =¤i -+= i =l+ª++i¤i = i =i == =i
r: :.¬i:.º. º= º+i+¤i+ º=i+i =  =i· = =¤= = ·=i r
l=·r =ui·+i -+= =¤i+ =  == i== = ri .+i·i =r=i º‹·=i
r : :== º+i +¤i+ = ·¬¤ =¤i === l+= i= = i +. =· = º =i+i
= i º=  ·+iº=  ==i¬i l===i r : ¬=… : .¬i: .º. =   =i·+= = …
=l+= -=il==  ==iu+i, == ++-ºl= =¤ +·+=i+,
=·-=l+=  ==iu+ == l=¿i, r+i ¬il· = i +==i+ i-¤l=
=¤i ¬i+ +i=i ºi= l==  ¬iº·i¬i º· º+·+ =  º=i+i = i
ºr¤i+ = i =i == =i r:
.== ·= = ..+i·i -º+i= l= + =i+ = ==iu+i º· +=i+i
= i ºr¤i+ = i =i == =i rŸ:
º= +=i+i = i ·+ir+i =¤i -+= i =i+= i·i ·i =i
== =i rŸ:
l+l=·+ =i=·i·i =  =i¤ l=== · ºl·+i=+i l+= ·º · ·
=i == = r:
º+i+·¤ =¤i -¤i+i+ ==·i+i º· º‹·+ +i= += i·i·== 
º=i+i = i ¤·i+ =  l=º = ·= l=º =i == = r:
º=i+i = i = = = ·+ =  =i· =i +l· =r·+º¤ ºi= l== 
¬iº·i¬i = i ¬i-= i ri =i -+= i ==i++i¬i = i
=l+ª++iªii = i =i == =i r:
= =i+l+= ºl·¤i=i =¤i º+i +¤i+ º =i+i =   l=º
¬i= i-==  +i=+i =+i· = i =i == =i r:
º+·+ º=i+ ¬i= =+ =i·-¬==i = i =r·+º¤ ¬+ui·¤i º·
¬iuil·= r: =i·-¬==i = i ºl·=i¤i r - l+l=·+ º=il=+i
=¤i ¬·+ ¬ == = lu= ·i ¤i = i ¬lu= == =+= r+i, l==
¬l+l-l¤== i= == , +ri = i ¬i+i=i+ = i+ -i==i =¤i
-·ºi·= =i = i + = =i+ ºr ¤iº l=+i, l= =i ¬ + = ºi=i =i ==  :
=i· ¬==i
=i·-¬==i = i l+ui·¤ l= =i =i == ·=-= ºil·i-¤l== i+
=iº·ª· = ri ·r =·=i+i =¤i +i=+i+ =·=i+i = i =i+= i·i
=  ¬iui· º· l= +i =i == =i r: -·ir·¤ =  l=º, +l· l= =i
º=  ++ ¬+ = =i= =· = ¬·+lu=  ¬l=l¤ =r+i == · = i
= i·¤ r, =i +ri =  ºl¬+i = i l·+¤+i, == ¤=+ +i ¤i· = i
oi= = ¤=+ = =iui º‹·+i º=  ==il+= º=i+ ri == =i r;
·=·i º=i+ ri == =i r l=  +ri · =  =  ·i-=i = i l=¿i ==
=i+ = l=¿i-= ·i+ -r ri =iº:
l= =i º+·+ ºl·+i=+i =  º+i+¤i+ ¬=· ¬i= =+ = l+l=·+
¤·¤ ri= r: ri=il=  +r ¤·¤ ºr= = l+uil·= +ri ri=:
l+l=·+ ºl·+i=+i¬i =¤i l+l=·+ ¬+i = i +i-=l+= =i¬i = 
¬iui· º·, :+ ¤·¤i =  =i¤ = ¬·+ ¤·¤ -il== l= º =i
== = r: ==lu= ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+, -== i Š+i =i+= il·+i
-º=·u r =¤i +ri º· Š+i ¤·+iº ¤·i r - :+ === i º= 
l=l¤= i-¤l= =  ¬iui· º· ri :.¬i:.º. = i ºl= +i l+uil·=
= i =i=i r: :==  ¬l=l·Š= l= =i =i ·- =  ==lu= = i++i
=+ =i :.¬i:.º. ºl= +i =  ·i¤ =¤i l+-+ +-= = i l+ui·¤
= ·= r:
oi+i=i rl·= =i= ºl·+i=+i, +i=i=· =  ==·i+i «i·i
º+i+·¤ =¤i =i=il==  ¬=· ¬i= =+ (:;º=-¬i:.º) = ·+
= i º +i=
:;º=-¬i:.º = i = º·oi =  ¬=== l+·+l=lo= -¦-+ ·o
=º …
oi+i=i =¤i ¬i=ºi= =  ¬+ = º+·+ -¤=i = i ºr¤i+
= ·+i:
oi+i=i = ==il+= º+·+ +i+i¬i =  l+-+ = l+-=ª=
=i+= i·i =+i· = ·+i, º+·+ -·ºi· = i l+= i= =¤i º+·+
l+º¤+Ÿ:
¬iui·== =i+= il·+i := ¿i = ·+i, l== ·+ir+i = ·:i
= ¤il¬=  =¤i ·+ir+i =i· += =+i· = ·+ =  l=º -º+i=
l= +i =i == Ÿ:
oi+i=i =i+, -==  ¬i=iºi= =   ¬+i =¤i oi+i=i +¤·
= .=·+-+ º· · =iº+ ¬-+i·ª+ = i =i+l¤+ =+i+ =  l=º
+ ¤il·=  -ºr=i · +i:
oi+i=i = º+·+ l+= i= =  l=º º+·=  ¬i¤i· =lr=i
=¤i === º+·+ l·-il+·- =+i· = ·+ = =r+i= = ·+i:
oi+i=i =i+ + ¬i=ºi= =  ¬+i =  =i=il== -¬il¤= 
=¤i º+i+¤i+ ºr=¬i = i ¬·+++ + l+=·i+i = ·+ =  l=º
==== =i+= i·i =+i· = ·+i:
:;º=-¬i:.º ¬·+++ + oi+i=i =  l+¤+ = =i+= i·i := ¿i
= ·+ + -== i l+-=¤¤ = ·+ = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =·· = i r:
:= ¬·+++ =  ·i·i+, -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤ = : ¤¤iº +
=i¬i·= i· l= º =º =¤i -+= i ·lr= i¤ + ¬i= i¬iº -il==
= i =::
¬i¤i· = lr=i º+ º+i +¤i+ l·-il+· -
:= iº+·+ º+i= ¬i= º+·+ º+i=i = ¬== ri+ =  +i=, :== 
¬=== º=  ¬i¤i· =lr=i +i l·-il+·- =i ri= r, =i º= 
º+·=  ==·+ = º+·+ l+= i= =¤i º+·=  ·++ri· = i l+·l-=
= ·= r: :+ l·-il+·-i = ==i+i =i=i r l=  -= -¤i+ = rl¤
=  = i·¤ Š+i r =¤i + º+·= i = i +ri =  l=º +-º+Š=’
=¤i `¬+º+Š=` ·++ri· =  l+¤+ = +i· l·=i= r:
¬l=l¤ =+ ¬¤
:= iº+·+ = i+= = = i +i=+i =+i= ==+ º+·= i = i -·=i·i
= i ·+i+ ·o+i .== ·i ri == =i r: ¬l=l¤ =+¬¤ =  =i·+= =
=i= - o
83
¬·i.=i ==i+i =i == =i r l=  º+·=  Š+i ¤ir= r ¬i· -= = 
¬iui· º· º+·=  -¤= º· =l+uiº =+i· = i =i == =i r: +r
=+¬¤ º-+i+=i +i =i¬i·= i· =  =i·+= = l= +i =i == =i
r, l=== º+·= i =  -+= º =¤i -+= i ¬l=l¤ =·= i· = i
¬º¬i¬i = i ===i =i == =i r:
º=i¤i= ·¤
º=i¤i= ·¤ º=  º=i ºl= +i r (=i .+i·i=· -+i·==  ri=i
r) l=== l= =i -==, -·ºi·, ºl= +i, =+i +i º=u+ ºªii=i
= i = = oi= .== ·=i = i º·i = ·+ = i ¬==i = i l=lo=
¬i-+i=+ l·+i =i=i r: =i =i -·ºi· +i -== ¬iui·==
=iº·ª·i =  =·i=· +i -== = º· ºi+i =i=i r, -= l+º¤+ = 
l=º º=i=  l¤• +i =i= ·i =i=i r, == + -·ºi· +i -==,
=i ·iri+ =¤i ¬+i+ l++=i º· ¬iuil·= ri =¤i = i+= = = 
¬=== l+uil·= +i =+ l= º =º =iº·ª·i = i º·i = ·= ri:
=== º+·+ º=i¤i= ·¤ º=  º=i = i+= = +i -= i= r, l===
l+l=·+ º+i+¤i+, =i=il== , =i-= l==  ¬i· ¬il¤=  =·+=i
=  =¦i =  ¬i=l·=  (-==, =+i +i -·ºi· =  ¬i=l·= ) +
=ir·i (¬i=ºi= ·r+ +i= ==·i+i =¤i =il==  º+i+·¤ º·
º‹·+ +i= º=i+) º=i+i = i =iºi =i=i r: ·=· -··i =, +r
º=  º=i = i+= = r, l===  ¬=== l·º =º =·+i = i +i+i
·++-¤iº=  ¬º+i = i+º¤i=i = -+i= i· = · == = r
(:= i+Š= = i-·· -+, :..:):
:= iº+·+ º+i=i =  l=º := º= i· = i º=il¤= =i =  l+¤+ =
=i¤i =i == =i r: l+-+ =· = = : =·r = i º=il¤= =iº
-º=·u r: =l= +, =i·=i+ =·= º· ¬iuil·=, +ri º· =+i·
= i =: º=il¤= =i º¤i=i =+i+i -i+· .+i·i ==== ri=i:
=ri º=il¤= =i = º+·+ -=i= = i =i.=i· = ¬º+ l=º ¬i=i
==r =+i =+ = =·· l===i, .+i·i .== ·i r l=  :== º+·+
=l=l+lu+i = i l++l+= = ·+ =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i ¬i· º+i+·¤
= i ¬i· ¬i· ¬lu=  =+i=·i·i =‹·i+ º· ·+i+ l·+i =iº: :=
º= i· =  = i+i = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i -+i= l= ºi= = ·+i
º=il¤= =i ºl= +i = i ¬==º+ lr-=i ri+i ¤ilrº:
=l= + +r ·+i+ ·o+i .== ·i r l=  =ri -¤i+i+ ==·i+ -++
:= iº+·+ º+i= ¤=i ·r r, +ri +r º=il¤= =i = i ºl= +i
-i+· -+=  l=º = i+·=· + ri: :== i = i·¤ r, l=  = : =i·
==·i+i =  ºi= l= =i oi= º= i· = i º=il¤= =i ril== = ·+
=  l=º -º+Š= ==iu+ -º=·u +ri ri=: :==  ¬l=l·Š=,
º=il¤= =i =  =i¤ =i+= i= ·¤ =i ¬i == =i r, l===  = i·¤
-¤i+i+ l+-¤=iº ==, ¬l=l¤ =·= i·, -¤i+i+ ºi=  = =i ¬i·
+i-=l-·º oi =i= r: ¬=… º=il¤= =i = i ºl= +i = i =i¤
==== · =i= l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº, Š+il=  + r· i-¤l= = =i=
= ·+ =i+=  +ri ri=i:
º l-¬¤ º+ = i+ =  -==i¬i = i l+= i=
ºl-¬¤ =¤i = i+= -==i¬i = i l+= i= l= =i =i := iº+·+
º+i= = i ¬l=·+ ¬= ri+ ¤ilrº: l= =i =i ==·i+ = i l=+i
ºl-l¬= l= º -+= := iº+·+ = i = i= ==i=+ = i ¬º¬i
= ·+i ¬+l¤= r: r· ¬+ + -¤= = i ºl-¬¤ .== ·= ¬== ri
== =i r, l=== =r-·++-¤i, oi+i º·i=+i =¤i º+·+ =
=‹·i =l=l+lu+i = i l+·i¬¤ = ·+i ==  -il== ri == =i r:
l-¬i =¤i =i= l=
l= =i =i º+·=  ==·+, oi== · º=i -¤i+ l=== i =·¬¤
=r·+ ·o=i r, =  l=º .== ·i r l=  -= ==r = i
ºil·i-¤l== i+ =¤i =i-= l==  ºl=ei = i =r·+ º+·= i = i
===i+i =iº: +r ¬==-¬== =¤i· =i·+=i = l= +i =i
== =i r: ºi-··, l=lo= ·-=i+.= =¤i l¤+i ¬i· · ºi =  «i·i:
·+ir+i = · =  =i·+= = =i =‹·i o=i = º+·= i = i l+l+u =¦i
=  l+¤+ = =i+= i·i ·i =i == =i r:
º=  -¤= = · =· -¤= ==  = =¤
:= º= i· = i =l=l+lu+i = == rº =i= ¬= =· l= =i ¬·+
-¤= º· -=i º= i· = i = i= ·r =i=i =  ¬+=+i = = i= i = =
=io= r: l= =i =i === º+·+ = i+= = = +r ¬- ri+i
.== ·i r:
l+=·i+i =¤i ¬+ =  ==  º = u+ … = ¤= 
(+r ¬- =··· = i· =++·= º· ºil==i =¤i ¬-i= i ·-· = i·
l·=¤ :+ := i==i º· · º·+i+·+=· (º·i) «i·i := iº+·+
+il=, ==i: :..- º· =+i· l= º =º -+= =oiº+ = -a=
l= +i =+i r:)
= i: =i =l=l+lu l=+i =i¤ + l+=·i+i =+ =  º·i +ri ri=i:
º+·+ º=  º=i =l=l+lu r l=== l+·=· =i¤ = i ¬i+-+= =i
·r=i r: := iº+·+ º+i=i = i =i¤ = -= =l=l+lu = 
ºil·i-¤l== i+, =i=il== , =i-= l==  ¬i· ¬il¤=  ºr=¬i = i
l+=·i+i ·o+i .== ·i r: ºr= ·i ºr=¬i = i =il= +i = .+i·i
ºi¤l== =i ·+i =i ·i=  ri=i, Š+il=  = = ºi= ºi = ¬il¤= 
=i+··i =  l=º ·+iºil·=  ·++ri+=i ri+i .== ·i r ¬i· = =
=, == l=  =i=·il+=  ºi= ºi = -== i = += == i·i·==  ri+i
ri = i= i r: :==  ºi= = i·¤ +r r l=  =i=·il+=  := iº+·+
-==, == =r-¬i+i= ¬+º·=  ·++=i+ ri= r, + l=  ¬+·+
¬i=·+i;=i= = =i+ =  ei=: :+ -==i =  l=º =i= .== ·i
r, =l= + º+i= +ri ¬i· + ri -+=  l=º +r ºi¤l== =i =+
ºi= r
ì+
:
l= =i =i =¤=  =  ¬=  = =·+ x =il·=i
=·+ … ºi= º =  º=i+i = i ¬·+++ =¤i =¤+i = l+= i=i r¬i
=iº: +ri =·+ = i =i=i -: = : =  =i¤ ·oi =: r: :+ =·+i
= i ¬i=ºi= =  +i=i+·¤ =¤i = i+¬+ = i +i-=l+= =i¬i = 
¬iui· º· ¬==-¬== =il·=i ·i =i == =i r:
=il·=i … +r r· -¤= =  l=º ¬== ri=i r; +ri º· l=+
ºi= ºi = i ==+i = i =i ·ri r, + ¬==-¬== ¬+i = =i=
l= º =º r, ¬=… -·r =il·=i +ri ·i =i == =i: =l= + ¬=·
l= =i i-¤l= = l= =i º=  ¬- =  ==i· º=i+ º‹·+ = i ==i++i
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
84
ri, +ri =l·=i = i ¬i= =+ .== ·i r, ==, ¬i+i=i+ +i+i «i·i
== º·¤¤ = i -+=  l+=i¤ = ¬i+il== == ‹·i =  -º+i= =
.+i·i =il·=i ·i =i == =i r:
r· ¬=  =il== i = l·º =º º·+=  =¤=  =  =·+i = i =i=iº
+ri ·i =i ·ri r …
+: = =r·+º¤ == i·i·==  º=i+
+: = +¤iº + i-·l= = = ui·
+ì = +¤iº+ i-·l= = ==il+= =ui·
ì = = i: =·=i+ +ri;+¤iº+ i-¤l=
-ì = =r·+º¤ += i·i·==  º=i+
-: = += i·i·==  º =i+
-: = +¤iº+ i-·l= = ==il+= += i·i·==  =·=i+
:= = i+¬+ = =i=il== -¬il¤=  =¤= i = i l+=·i+i ·o+i
.== ·i r - + = += ¬=· ¬i= =+ = i +.=· =, =i·=  ¬il¤= 
====i = i +.=· = =i, Š+il=  = i= i =i==i = =i=
=+l+l+u=i == = i·= i = =‹·i ri=i r (+i+· ¬i·
º·=il+Š.=, :..:): l= =i =i -== =  l=º º=  ¬=  =il== i,
== +i¤ ·i =: r, =+i: =i == =i r: l= =i l+l-r ==·+ =
+l· = i: == = ºi= º ·r r =i -+= i ºr¤i+ =  l=º =i :+
=¤= i = i -º+i= l= +i =i == =i r: +ri ·i =: ¬= 
=il== i¬i = = += := ºl= +i = i -a= l= +i =+i r: +r ¬= 
= += =i= l==  r, Š+il=  ¬=i ==  l= =i + =i=i·i· =i+i
l+ui·¤ = i ºl= +i +ri = i r:
ºil·i-¤l== i+ = ¤=  (¬ = i =   l=º =il== i ì · loº)
ì -¤=i= l= - l= =i ºi= º = i =i= = ·+ = i -r¬i= =¤i
-==  l= +i·+++ =  ·i·i+ ¬+ =  =il==  = i·= i =
=·=i+:
: r+i = i =¤+·ii - =· =l+=  = ‹· , l=¿i = i ==, º·i=,
·i.== ¬il· = i ==i+i:
: ·+l+ º·¤¤ - =+···, =i··, :=+, +i=i+i= +ir+i = 
= i·¤:
+ ºi+i = i =i+i - ºi+i = i ºl= ·+iŠ= -º=i= =¤i ==
=·¬¤ º+i=, == +¤i =  ºi+i = i =·¬¤:
: ºi+i = i =¤+·ii - -¤i+i+ == ei=i = = ‹·i = = +i,
=·i ºi+i =i+ ·+i:
- ·i= ¬ºl-r -º¤i· - ·i= ¬ºl-r = i +-il+=  = º =
:= ¿i = ·+i ¬i· -== i l+º·i·i:
: ¬+i+ ++-ºl= - ¬i= i==  º=il=+i = i ¬+ = =i+i
=i+i ==, =··i+i, ¬·+lu=  ·i-+i, ·l= = =  ·i·i+ ºiui
= i ·i·i =i+i ¬il· =l=l+lu+i l=== -¤i+i+ ++-ºl=+i
º· º =i+ º‹ ·=i r :
· ¬+i+ =i++· - ¬·+lu=  ·i-+i, ¬i= ==i+i, u¬i +
-i· = ·+i ¬il· =l=l+lu+i l=== -¤i+i+ ===i =i++·i
º· º =i+ º‹ ·=i r :
» ==i+ ºiu =¤i ºi¤i - ===i º= ‹· = · =i‹·+i,
+i= il+ri·, ===i º= ‹·+i, == = i‹·iº ¬il· =l=l+lu+i,
l=+= ==i+ =+l+l+u=i º· º=i+ º‹·=i r:
ì. =·¬¤ º+i= - =· = i++i =l=l+lu+i = i =¤+i
ºl== = i ·+i, =-= ==i+i, = =i =·¬¤ º¤il=+i =¤i
-¤i+i+ =i=i =  =i¤ =i=l= =‹·i+i:
ºt|== t ¡ … ¤t|t|t¤|º= t¤ n¸¤= t =  ¬= + = t +¤¸+t
¤ ¤i = ¤=  l+l=·+ ºi= ºi =  =·-=il·= ¬= 
=r ¬i+i= =i+=l+=  ¬+ =r-º=ui =i=·il+=  º=lu=
ºil·i-¤l== i+ -¤=i= l= . . . -ì
r+i = i = ¤+·ii -ì -ì -ì -ì
·+l+ º · ¤¤ -ì -: . -ì
ºi+i = i =i+i -ì -ì -ì -ì
ºi+i = i = ¤+·ii . -ì . .
·i= ¬ºl-r -º¤i· : ì -: .
¬+i+ ++-ºl= -ì -ì -ì -ì
¬ +i+ =i++· -ì -: . .
==i+ ºi u =¤i º i¤i . -ì : ì
=·¬¤ º+i= ì ì : ì
=  = -: -: -: -+
ei= … =··· = i· =++·= º· ºil==i =¤i ¬-i= i · -· = i· l·=¤ :+ := i==i º· · º·+i+·+=· (º· i)
«i·i := iº+·+ +il=, ==i: :..- º· =+i· l= +i =+i -+= =oiº+:
=i= - o
85
=i=il==  = ¤=  (¬ = i =   l=º =il== i : · o )
ì = º·oi - ¬i+i=; º·º·i º¬i+ l+=i¤ =i==i =¤i
= º·oi:
: -¤i+i+ = =i - -¤i+i+ = =i = i =r+i= == l=  =i= 
+·+, =i=  ==i=, ·==l= ¬il·:
: -¤i+i+ r-=l-·º - -ºri· ·= i+i = i -¤iº+i =  =i·+=
= -¤i+i+ r-=l-·º = i º¤i· = ·+i:
+ -¤i+i+ ºi=  = =i - -¤i+i+ = º = -º=·u ºi=  =i==i
=  -º+i= = =i-= l==  ·+=+i = i =‹·i+i ·+i:
: =-= l= - -¤i+i+ =i++-=i, =i=i =  =·+i =¤i
º·º·i¬i º· =l=l+lu+i =  º=i+:
- ¬l=l¤+i = i l-¬i º+ -+= i =i=l= - ·+ir+i = ··i,
º¤i ¬il· =  =i·+= = -¤i+i+ ==iu+i =  l+¤+ =
¬l=l¤+i = i =i+= i·i ·+i:
: ·i.==i· - ºl= ¤i·ºi:;= ·i· ·i.==i· ··:
· l·=i+ - =i= =ir·i ==·i+i = i ¤= =i= r ==,
-¤i+i+ ¬+ = =+iº + =i==i + =+i:
» -¤i+i+ ¬il¤ =  ·++-¤i º· = ¤=  º =i+ - º+ ·+
=l=l+lu+i =  = i·¤ ¬º·+¬ =i=, == · Š=i;l·Š-i,
·= i+ ¬il·:
ì. =i=·i· ==·i+i =  =i¤ =·+ =i= l+=·¤:
ìì ·-i º+·= i ¬i· l+·-i º+·= i = i ¬+ºi=:
ºt|== t z … nt¤t|¬=  ntt= |º=  n¸¤= t =  ¬= + = t +¤¸+t
¤ ¤i = ¤= l+l=·+ ºi= ºi =  =·-=il·= ¬= 
=r ¬i+i= =i+=l+=  ¬+ =r-º=ui =i=·il+=  º=lu=
=i=il==  = º·oi : . : :
=i-= l==  -¤i+i+ = =i . . ì .
-¤i+i+ r-=l-·º ì . . .
-¤i+i+ ºi=  = =i . . . ì
=-= l= ì . ì ì
¬l=l¤ l-¬i º+ =i=l= : ì ì ì
·i.==i· ì : : ì
l·=i+ -ì -: : :
¬il¤ =  ·++-¤i º· = ¤=  º =i+ . ì ì ì
=·+ =i= l+=·¤ . . : .
·-i-l+·-i º+·= i = i ¬+ºi= ì ì ì :
=  = : + ì+ ìì
ei= … =··· = i· =++·= º· ºil==i =¤i ¬-i= i · -· = i· l·=¤ :+ := i==i º· · º·+i+·+=· (º· i) «i·i := iº+·+ +il=,
==i: :..- º· =+i· l= +i =+i -+= =oiº+:
ºt|== t + … ¬t|¤=  n¸¤= t =  ¬= + = t +¤¸+t
¤ ¤i = ¤= l+l=·+ ºi= ºi =  =·-=il·= ¬= 
=r ¬i+i= =i+=l+=  ¬+ =r-º=ui =i=·il+=  º=lu=
¬il¤=  =i= ì : : :
º i· l==  ¬+lu : ì ì :
=i= =· = = =·i l= ·i+i ì : : ì
=i++ -=· ì ì : ì
ºl=-ºui . ì : .
=  = : » » -
ei= … =··· = i· =++·= º· ºil==i =¤i ¬-i= i · -· = i· l·=¤ :+ := i==i º· · º·+i+·+=· (º· i) «i·i := iº+·+ +il=,
==i: :..- º· =+i· l= +i =+i -+= =oiº+:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
86
¬il¤ =  = ¤=  (¬ = i =   l=º =il== i : · o )
ì =i= (+il¤=  ¬i== =i= = i ºl=-=)
: ºi·l==  ¬+lu - =i== +iº= ºi+ ==  = i ==+
: =i= =· = l= =+ l·+ = =· l= ·iº º· -·= r
+ =i++ -=· - =+ -+i-·+, l-¬i -=· ¬il· = =·=i+
: ºl=-ºui - ¬i=-ºi= =  ¬+ = l= =+ ºl=«··i r
=i+i =i+·ª·i =  ¬= i = i l+l=·+ ºi= ºi, -==i +i ¬==
¬== -¤=i = ==+i = i =i == =i r: r· =iº·ª· = 
¬lu= == ¬=  ¬i· l= =i -== =  ==u = l= =i º=  =iº·ª·
= i ¬iºl¬=  =r·ii =  l+¤+ ==i =i=·i·i = i =r=l= = 
¬iui· º· l=º =i == = r, ==i l=  lº== oª· = ¤¤i = i
=: r: =il== i + = l+= º¤ =  l=º ==l= = ¬i= ‹· l·º =º r:
¬il¤=  =iº·ª·i = i º=  ri =l== i r, l=  +r =l+i-¤= l= +i
=i ==  l=  := iº+·+ -== = += =i+ =i +ri =i ·ri: º= 
=i· +r =l+i-¤= = · =+ º· := =iº·ª· = i ¬·+ l+¤+i, ==
-==i ¬i· ºi= ºi =  =i¤ ¤+i+ = ·+ =  l=º -º+i= = ·+ = i
¬i+-+= =i +ri r:
nt¤ ºt|¤=  n t¤t¢
º=  ¬i·- := iº+·+ º+i= =  l=º =i=·il+=  =-¤i ri+i
.== ·i r: ¬·=i ri=i l=  ºr= = -ºi-¤= =-¤i¬i = i ri :=
= i+ =  l=º = ºi=l·= l= +i =iº: =i=·il+=  =-¤i º+·+
º+i= =  º=u+ = =·· = ·=i; =i=i =  =·+ =·+i· = =ri+= 
ri=i =¤i l+·iu l+=·i+ = =i =r+i= = ·=i:
º+i +¤i+ = º = ¬+ =  = º l=  +iº
==== =l+uiº
= =i -º+i=
+i= l==  ==iu+i = i -º+i= ==, ºi+i
+-=+i º·l¤• = = = ·+i
¬ºl-r º = u+
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ ¤ nºº ¤¤ ¿+ =   ¤¸ r¤ ¤ ºt¤ =t+t
=i·= =, º+·+ = i `l+= i= ºl==i+` =  = º = ·oi =¤i
=‹·i+i l·+i =i=i r: l+= i= ==lu= ¤¤iº .+i·i=· ¬il¤= ,
º+i+¤i+ =¤i =i=il== -=i-= l==  ºl·=i¤i º· ri=i r: :=
ºl= +i = ¬= =· r= ·i=+l==  -·º·¤i =¤i =r+i= = i ==
=i= r, =i l=  l+= i=i+ -¦-+i = i ºi= = ·+ = =r·+º¤
=l== i l+=i= r: ====i =  =·+ ¬i· =·+ =i :+ ºi¤ =r+
¤l¤+i =  ¬iui· º· ºl=l¤l+= l= º =i == = r:
·i=+ l== 
º=i=+i= ·¤ º=  º=i ºl= +i r, l===  ¬=== =¤= =+
=r=l= =¤i l+¤+ l+ui·¤ =  l=º ==r =+i: =iº ¬i· =i
==r ºr= = =i=· r, -·r =-Š= l= +i =iº: º+·+ =  ==u
= =i=lr=  l+¤+ ºl= +i =  ¬===, =i+= i·i := ¿i = ·+i
=¤i -== i º=i· =¤= l+¤+ =  ºi= === =r·+º¤ ºl= +iº
r: := ºl= +i =  ·i =r·+º¤ ¬- r - ºr=i, := iº+·+ =
º·+¬;¬º·+¬ = º = ==lu= +: ºl·+i=+i¬i, +i=+i¬i,
+il=+i, ºl= +i¬i, = i++i =¤i ¬+=ui = i =i+= i·i, l=== i
º=i· º+·+ -=i= =¤i =·= i· «i·i -¤i+i+ =i=·i·i =  l=º
l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº: ¬i· ·=·i - := iº+·+ =  º=i+ =¤i
ºl·¤i=i (== i·i·==  =¤i += i·i·== , ·i+i) = i =i+= i·i,
l=== i ¬·+++ + l+=·i+i =r=i=i = º = = i =i == =i r
(-=l=+i, =·= i·, -l¬=  =-¤i+i, ¬i= =+=i, -¤i+i+
=-¤i+i ¬i· ==lu= ·+iŠ=+i = i =i=i·i·i =), =l= + -== i
º=i· -¤i+i+, ¬+i+, ·iri+ =¤i ¬=·iri+ -=· ==  = i
l+¤i+=  =-¤i¬i =  l=º l= +i =i+i ¤ilrº: l+¤i+= 
ºl= +i¬i = =i=i·i·i =¤i =+i=·i·i = i =i= = ·+i ¬·=i
º-i=+ ·++-¤i = i ¬l=·+ ¬= r:
º=  ºl= +i =  = º = º=i=+i= ·¤ = i l= =i oi= =¦ =  =·=
= =i ril== l= +i =i == =i r, =ri =i= =il+=  l+¤+
º¤i=i ¬i· =i=i·i·i =  =·+ := iº+·+ = º=il+= +i -==
-il== l= =i º=  ¬+ = =i= l= º =i == = r: =i=il==  = º
=, º=i=+i= ·¤ l+¤+ ºl= +i = = =.=i· +=i = i =i=i·i·i
¬i· -== -+=  =-iŠ== ·¤ = i º¬ = == =i r (==,
=lr=iº, =ƒ, ¬il·+i=i):
:= iº+·+ = -¤i+i+ =i=i + -¤i+i+ ·i=+l==  =-¤i¬i = i
=l+- =¤i =i¤=  =l== i ri+i ¤ilrº ==, º¤i+=i = i º=i
l+¤+ ºl= +i¬i = =i=i·i·i =i º+·+ =¤i ¬·+ ==lu=
-=i=i = i = i+ºal= = i º=il+= = ·=i ri:
ºt|== t + … |+= ¤¬ =  |=¢ n¤|= º ¬t= ‹s
¤¤i =r ¬i+i= =i+=l+=  ¬+ =r-º=ui =i=·il+=  º=lu=
ºil·i-¤l== i+ -: -: -: -+
=i=il== -=i-= l==  : + ì+ ìì
¬il¤=  : » » -
=  = ì. - :. ì:
=i= - o
87
i-¤· =i=i·i·i =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =-iŠ== ·¤ º+·+ = i
== ==i =  l=º ºr=i .== ·= r: -¤i+i+ -+-i=+ =-¤iº
=¤i º+·+ º-i=+ =  l=º .== ·i r l=  + =r-=i=·i·
ºl= +i¬i =  =i¤ ¤¤iº = · =¤i ==·+ º=u+ ·¤+il=+i ¬i·
·++ril·=  + l=.·=·i· º+·+ l·-il+·- =+i· = ·:
¬il¤ = 
:= iº+·+ =  l=º .== ·i r l=  +r -¤i+i+ =i=i º· ri+ +i=
+= i·i·==  ¬il¤=  º=i+i = i = = = · ¬i· º=  º=i ºi= º
=i= = · l=== =r+ =i== i· -¤i+i+ ==·i+ ri: :==  l=º
=l+i-¤= l= +i =i == =i r l=  ri·= =¤i ¬·+ ==lu=
º+·=  =+i¬i = i -¤i+i+ ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i = i =.=== =+i+ = 
l=º, -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ·i.==i· ·+ ¬i· =ri ==  === ri,
-¤i+i+ ==iu+i = i ri º+i= = ·+ =  l=º ºi·=ilr= l= +i
=iº: :==  l=º º+·+ =¤i ¬·+ ¬il¤=  = i+¬+i =  =i¤ = i
= l‹·+i = i =.=== = ·+ (== = l¤, ===iºi=+, ¬l=l¤
=·= i· ºl-¬¤ = i==), =·= =¤i =·+= -=·i+ -=l=+i = 
+·+=  = i =‹·i+i ·+, =·= -=·i+ =+i¬i = i =r+i =‹·i+ =¤i
-¤i+i+ =i=i = i =l= + º+ =i== i·i =i=i·i·i =‹·i+ = i
.== ·= r: º+·= i = i ¬i· = =i -¤i+i+ -=i=i = i =r+i=
= ·+ = i º+l·i = i =‹·i+i ·+i ri=i:
º+i +¤i+
:= iº+·+ l+= i= = º+·+ ==== =l+ui¬i =  l+=i¤ =
ºi= l==  ==iu+i º+ =+l+l+u=i =·¬¤; ==iu+i =  -l¤=
-º+i=… =l=, ==, ¬iº¤il·=  + =· ¬iº¤il·=  = =i ei=,
=  =·+i = i -il== = ·+i ri=i =i -¤i+i+ º+i+·¤ º+
=-= l= = i .== ·=i =  ¬+= º ri: -= =+l+l+u=i =·¬¤
=¤i ºi= l==  ==iu+i =  == = º = i =+iº ·o+i ri=i =¤i
=l+i-¤= = ·+i ri=i l=  ==i =i=·i·i ¬i· =i=·i·i = i º+i=
=i= l==: := iº+·+ = i +r =i =l+i-¤= = ·+i ri=i l= 
º+·=  + º+·+ -=i= -= ¬+ =  =·¬¤ + =+u+ = =i=i·i·
·r =ri + =i= r +i ¬º+i -== -¤ilº= = ·= r: :==  l=º
=== ¬·=i =·i= i r =i+= i·i = i º=i·: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, +r
·+i+ ·o+i ri=i l=  =‹·=i º+·=  =l=l+lu+i =  ¤== -¤i+i+
=i=i =  -º+i= =  =¤i+=i ==iu+i º· = ri º+·+ -=i=
= ·. =i + = · = :
º+i+¤i+ º=u+ ºl= +i¬i =  .=l·º ºil·i-¤l== i+ l++i- = i
l+=·i+i, ¬·+++ =¤i =¤i+ = ·+i .== ·i r: :== º=i ¤=
== =i r l=  ==iu+ =º·+ =l=l+lu+i =  l=º -l¤= ==iu+
º+i= ri ·ri r l=  +ri: -¤i+i+ -+-i=+ =-¤i¬i =  =i¤
l=== · ==iu+ -º+i=, ¬·+lu=  l+= i=i ¬i· º·-¤ = 
l+++¤ =  l=º l+++=  ·i¤ =+i· = ·+ ri=: +r l+++=  ·i¤
=== l+= i= =¤i º+i+·¤ =·¬¤ ==lu= l+l=·+ ¬=·iri+
º+ ·iri+ l·-il+·-i ¬i· ¤i¤¤iº+i = = º·oi = == = r:
¬=·iri+ º+ ·iri+ l·-il+·-i ¬i· ¤i¤¤iº+i =  ¬l=l·Š=,
º+·+ l+= i= = =i=i·i·i = i +i+ ::+ =¤i :++ =+uil+= 
=-iu+i = ·oi =:, l===  ¬=== -¤i+i+ º-i=+ =-¤i¬i,
º¤i+=i, = i .==i+, ==, =i=il== -¬il¤=  l+= i=, ====
=+i¬i =  l+= i=, ==i= = ·+i¤, =i=il==  =¤i -r·i
++i= ·¤, ¬ºl-r º=u+ =¤i =i=·il+=  =ºl·i =  ·o-·oi+
= i l=.·=·i·i =iºi =:: º+·+ l+= i= =i :·ri = i+¬+i = i
lr-=i r ¬=… º¤i+=i = i =i=i·i·i ¬i+-+=  r: º¤i+=i = i
=i=i·i·i === º+·+ l+= i= =  r· -=· º· ·r+i ¤ilrº -
ºl·+i=+i = i -+i= l= = == ·, -==  l++i=+, l= +i·+++,
l+= i=, l+º¤+, ¬=· ¬i= =+, =i¤ =¤i ¬·+++ == :
º¤i+=i = i ¬lu= i· r l=  + l+++=  ·i¤ =+i· = · ¬i· º+·+
-=i= «i·i :== i ¬+=·¤ = ·+i+ = i l=.·=·i·i ·i+ =·= i·
= i r =¤i +r l+l=·+ ¬=·iri+ l·-il+·-i = ºl·= r:
=i=il==  º+ =i -=  l== 
:= iº+·+ =  = : =r·+º¤ =i=il==  ºr= r, l=·r += i·i
+ri =i == =i ¬i· +l· :·r ¬l++l+= =i‹· l·+i =iº, =i :== 
=r· += i·i·==  =i=il==  º=i+ ri == = r: º+·+ = 
=i=il== -=i-= l==  º=i+i =  ·i =r·+º¤ ºr= r - +==i+
º+·+ ºi= º = i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  l=º º=  =i¤=  ¬il¤=  º+
=i=il==  l+= ·º =++ = i ¬==¤=i =¤i ·=·i, :== 
+= i·i·==  º=i+i = i =·= i· ¬i· º+·+ -=i=, ·i+i =  «i·i
+= i·i =i+i: º= = : -·ir·¤ r =ri º+·+ =  = i·¤ -¤i+i+
==i=, +·+= =i =¤i ·il=-l·+i.=i = i +-==i= ·¤ ¬i·
=i+= i= ·¤ ri =+i: ==+ =  =i¤ º= =i=il==  =·=i+ :=
=·r ¤· = · == r, l=== -¤i+i+ =i=i =¤i º+·= i =  =i¤
= =i-= l==  ·= ·i+ = i i-¤l=+i =++ ===i r:
.== ·i r l=  := iº+·+ =  .=l·º :+ += i·i·==  º=i+i = i = =
= ·+ =  º+i= l= º =iº: :==  l=º -¤i+i+ =i=i =¤i º+·= i
=  =i¤ º=  =·i=·i = i l·-=i -¤ilº= = ·+i ri=i =ri + ·i+i
¬º+i =i-= l==  + =i=il==  ºe=l= º=  ·=· =  =i¤ =i·
== : º+·= i = i ==·+i = i -¤i+i+ =+·+-i==i¬i ¬i· =·+i
=  ºl= ¬i·· ·o+i ¤ilrº ¬i· º+·+ -=i= = i =i, oi== ·
== + :+ = i º¤i· = ·= r == -¤i+i+ = =i¬i = i
+-==i= ·¤ + = ·: == -¤i+i+ =i= ¬º+ =i=il==  +
=i-= l==  =·+i = i ¬i·· + =·¬¤ = ·= r =i ¬i·i = i =i
-+= i ¬i·· = ·+i =io+i ¤ilrº:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
88
º+ ·+ = i ====i = l+i-¤= = ·+ =   l=º º +l+ ·+i=
ºl= +iº
r=+ =i=·i +il=+i ¬i· = i++i ·i¤i = = l=+i ·oi r: +il=
l+ui·¤ ºl= +i¬i = =·=i+ =i+ = i .== ·= r, l=== º+·+
l+= i= = i =+ = l·= =+i+i =iº ¬i· =+=il+=  ºl= +i¬i = i
º+·+ =  =-¤i== ·i¤i =  =·‹·i= ·¤ «i·i =+iº ·oi =iº:
:==  l=º º+·+ =  ==i =i=·i·i = i -il== = ·+i ri=i, =i
º+·+ = i === =+i+ = =l== i l+=i == = r - -¤i+i+
=·= i·, -¤i+i+ ==·i+, ==i ==lu= l+=i= - º+·+,
=-= l=, ==i= = ·+i¤, º+i+·¤ º+ ++, +il¤+ º+ -=i=,
=lr=i º+ =i= l+= i= ¬i· º¤i+=i ·i=, º+·+ -=i=, =+
==r: º=i=+i= ·¤ =  l=º .== ·i r l=  =i¤=  ¤¤i¬i ¬i·
+il= l+ui·¤ =  l=º -l¤= ==r =+i: =iº: º+·+ ==
= i+¬+ = +il=+i ·iri+ + ¬+i+ -=· º· l+= i= =l=l+lu+i
= i l+++¤ + -+=  l=º l·-il+·- ·=i r: r=+ ·oi r, l= 
-l¤= ¤¤iº + l= º =i+ =  = i·¤ +il= -¦-+ ril== = ·+ =
¬‹·¤+ ¬i=i r - == º+i+·¤ =·¬¤ =l+i-¤= = ·+ ¬i·
º+·+ = ====i =i+ =  =i==i =: +l· +il=+i =  =i·+= =
º=i+i =·=i+ =i+ r =i +il= l+ui·¤ ºl= +i = i ¬i· ¬lu= 
=+¤i·==  =+i+i .== ·i r:
= -¤i¬i = i =-iŠ== ·¤
:= iº+·+ = i === =+i+ =  l=º =r·+º¤ r l=  º+·+ = 
=i== = -¤i+i+ =·= i·i = i ºi¤l==  l+¤i+=  =  = º =
=-Š= l= +i =iº: :==  =i¤ ri -·r ¬il¤=  + ·i=+l==  = º
= -+=+ + l=.·=·i· =l== i l+=i+ =  l=º =i =-Š= = ·+i
ri=i: -¤i+i+ =-¤i¬i = i =i= =+ =  -== =+i+ =  l=º
.== ·i r, l=  -·r =r-=i=·i· ºl= +i¬i = -il== l= +i =iº,
-¤i+i+ ºl·º¬ =  ¬=== === º+·+ =i= = ·+ =  l=º º+i=
¬il¤=  =r+i= l·+i =iº, ¬i¤i· =lr=iº =i= ri, =i+= i·i
=  ¬i·i+-º·i+ = ºi··l-=i ri, ¬l= ºr¤i+ +i=i =  lo=i= 
··i·==  = i++iri = i =iº ¬i· =·=--=·i+ ==·+ º=u+
·¤+il=+i =+i: =iº: =i=il==  º·i¬¤ =¤i =i=·il+= 
l=.·=·i·i = i ==i =·= i·i =l=l+lu+i, -¤i+i+ + ·iri+, = 
l=º ¬l++i+ =+i l·+i =iº: :==  l=º ¬=·iri+ º+i=i, ==
º=·i :ì = =r+i= l=+i =i == =i r:
l++ +=  ·i ¤i
==+ =  =i¤ =i= =il+=  =·+i ¬i· ºl= +i¬i = i =+iº ·o+
=  l=º .== ·i r l=  º-i=+ =¤i l+++¤ =  ¬i=l·=  ·i¤i = i
=-Š= l= +i =iº: º=  ·=· =  = i+¬+ = ·= ·i+ +i=i
º-i=+ =-¤i¬i = i =r==i, º=  ·=· = i oª·+ = ·+ +i=
= i++ ¬i· ¬º=i+= i·i l+++=  ·i¤ º+·+ = i l+=·i+i ·o+
¬i· l+++¤ =  l=º =i-= = º·i = · ·= r: º+·+ =  =r·+º¤
=i=il== -=i-= l== , º+i+¤i+ =¤i ¬il¤=  ºr=¬i = 
= i·¤, -== i ====i =  l=º l+++=  =¤i =¤i+ =  ·i¤
=+i+i ¬i· -+= i ºi=+ = ·+i .== ·i r: =i ·- º+·+ =  ==i·
º=i+ == ·r r, +ri := i-¤l= = i = i·¤ r l+++¤ ºl= +i¬i
= i l+= ==i:
=i·= =, = : ¬+i = ==·i =·i =  l++i- = i = i·¤ ·ri r
=·i+ l+++¤ ¬+ ¬lul++= = i ·i=  = =i= + l= +i =i+i,
º=  º=i = i++ =i l+= i= =l=l+lu+i =  l+++¤ = =·i+
ºil·i-¤l=l=  =  =·¬¤ =  l=º =+i+i =+i r:
º+·+ = ====i =i+ =  l=º -+ ==i =i=·i·i = i -il==
= ·+i .== ·i r =i -== =i=ii·+= ri= ri ¬i· l=+ º· -== 
º=i+ º‹·= ri: +r ºl= +i ==i =·= i·i =  l=º º=  =‹·i
¤+i=i r, Š+il=  -·r + = += =ir·i º=i+i =¤i +il=+i = i
º+i+=i= + = ·+i ri=i, =i·=  ¬º+i ¬i=l·=  º¤il=+i = =i
º+·+ = i === =+i+ =  l=º =ri+=  =·=i+ =i+ ri=: :==
···+.·i.¬i.-¬i.º=.·i. ¬i· ···+.·i.¬i:.=i. «i·i º¤il·=
=r+ui·i l+¤i·ui·i¬i, ==i ¬i· ºl·=i¤i¬i = i ¤+i=i ·+i
-il== r, oi== · +l· + -¤i+i+ ºl·º¬ =  lo=i=  ri:
=i= - o
89
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
1.
+r º=  ¤¤i º+ r l=== := iº+·+ =  l+¤+ = ==lu=
+il=+i ¬i· = i++i = =‹· =¦i = i ¤¤i = i =: r:
2.
http://www.world-tourism.org/sustainable/IYE/
WTO-UNEP-Concept-Paper.htm
3.
http://coe.mse.ac.in/eialegal.asp
4.
http://envfor.nic.in/legis/eia/so-60(e).html
5.
http://chhattisgarh.nic.in/tourism/tourism1.htm
6.
-Š=
7.
lr=i¤= º·- ++ l+=i=, :..:, ``l·+i:.· ºil==i ¬i+
· +=º=· ¬i=  := i· l·.= :+ lr=i¤= º·-:``
8.
http://jharkhand.nic.in/governance/
indpolicy.htm#tourism
9.
http://www.karnatakawildernesstourism.org/
WLPOLICY.htm
10.
http://www.keralatourism.org/php/media/data/
tourismvision/VisionIndex.htm
11.
http://gov.ua.nic.in/uttaranchaltourism/
Policy1_vision.html
12.
-Š=: _asset.html
13.
-Š=: _action.html
14.
ei= … =··· = i· =++·= º· ºil==i =¤i ¬-i= i · -·
= i· l·=¤ :+ := i==i º· · º·+i++·+=· (º· i) «i·i
:= iº+·+ +il=, ==i: :..- º· =+i· l= +i =+i -+=
=oiº+:
=i·= = := i º+·+ - +il=== =¤i = i++i ·i¤
ì
90
:= iº+·+ =  -r¬i=i º+i= ¬= =i-= =i = i =i=+i = · ·r
r: º= l= =·¬¤, -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i= ºr¤i+ ¬i· ·l¬¤
¬+ = ·iri+ ·i=-+ = =i+ =  ·i+ ¬i= .==i+i -=· º· º= 
¬== +i-=l+= =i = i =i=+i = · ·r r: ¤i:=· = l==i.=
== , := iº+·+ + ¬i· ¬lu=  ++i =  l++i- =  l=º ··+i.=
oi= l·º: º=il+= ¬+i =  ¬il·+il=+i = i .==··-=i ¬º+i
ºi·ºl·=  =l= = l+-¤ilº= ri+i º‹·i: l·ºi· l==i r l=  +r
`º+ ·= ` = · = i+ +i = º = = ==i = ¬i ¤ui+ ºi u º= l+= = · ·r
r ¬i · -·r = l+= -== +i= i = -¤i¬i = i = ¤i =i ·ri r :
== =+Š= ·ir + +¤ :..: = i ¬=·iri+ := iº+·+ +¤ ¤il¤=
l= +i, =i = : =· =·= i·i =-¤iº =i º+·+ º=i+i = i =i¤
= · ·ri ¤i, ¤i= ·+i ri =:: ¬Š==· :..: = º+i+·¤,
=i++ilu= i· =¤i ¬il·+i=i ==ri + l=== · =+Š= ·ir
:= iº+·+ +¤ :..: = i =i¤ = ·+ = i ¤i¤¤i = i: :+ =-¤i¬i
+ :== i =+i·i = ¬il·+i=i ==·+i =¤i ·l¬¤ ºl-+i:
=-¤i¬i = i -il== + l= º =i+ = i =i =·=+i = i:
``¤i +i=  l==, ==l-+i i-¤= ¤· +·· +·+=  =  º= 
ºl=l+lu = i = r+i r, `r= ¬·+= l¤l== r l=  =+Š= ·ir
«i·i, := -=i= = =‹·i =il==  ==-+i¬i =  =i+=·,
:= iº+·+ = i ·i =i ·ri =i·+=i =  = i·¤ - =i += =i
.+i·i=· º=  rl·= =· =il== r¬i r` - =+l+l+u=i = i ¬i·
.+i·i l++i- ri=i ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i · = ºr¤=i:``
+i+i ·i+, +.º+. = =i-+ = i· =-· +== · +=º=· = i ·l¬¤i
=r-¬·+¬ + ºl=l= +i ·i, ``== ===i r l=  :== i ºl·¤i=
l+= i=-i= ·-i = º= = · · = i -= ¬i= = =i .+i·i =·i
ri=i``:
=+Š= ·ir ¬i= ==i +, ++=· ì»»· =, := iº+·+ +¤ :..:
= i =+il·+i =  l=º º=  º-=i+ (A/Res/53/200) ºil·=
l= +i: =+Š= ·ir º+i+·¤ = i+= = (++º) ¬i· =+Š= ·ir
«.
Š¤t r¤ ¬ ºtt e t¤
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ ¤¢ = t
¬t¤º¤= ºt r ?
¬+tºt ·¬¸ ¤ttt ¤ ;ttt
¡
z««z
==a l+-+ º+·+ =-¤i+ (···+.·i.¬i) «i·i := = i+= = = i
¬i+i=+ l= +i =iº=i, l===  ¬=== =: :..: = = i== ,
= +·i = l+-+ := iº+·+ l-o· =·==+ =i ri=i:
¬i=i¤= i = i = r+i r l=  =+Š= ·ir := iº+·+ = i =i·+=i
=¤i := iº+·+ +¤ = i =+il·+i =i = · ·ri r, º· :==  ºi=
:= iº+·+ -=i= = i º+i= =i¤ =¤i º+·+ ==·+i º· rº
+= i·i·==  º=i+i = i -l¤= =i¤ º‹·=i= +ri = i =: r: ++º
=  º+·+ = i+= = l+·-= , ¬il=+· lr== = i ·l¬¤ º+ -·i·i
¬+ = i :. = ¬lu=  =-¤i¬i «i·i l=o º+ = = ri =+i r,
`¬=i·iri+ º=l=+i + ·l¬¤ ¬+ = = = .+i·i ri l+= i=
º·i¬¤ l= º r... r= := l+¤i· = i l+·iu = ·= r l= 
¬=·iri+ := iº+·+ +¤ = i l+= i=-i= ·-i = := iº+·+
º·i¬¤i =  l=º :-==i= l= +i =iº, l=+= ==i: =  =·=
+= =i+ ri+ = i .+i·i ==i++i r:`
=-¤i¬i =  := ==r =  º+ = := ·i+ º· =i .=i··i· =+i=
-·i+i =+i r l=  := iº+·+ º¤i=i ºi·ºl·=  º+·+ = =‹·i
¬il¤=  ¬=·i=·i, =i=il==  ¬·+i+ =¤i º+i+¤i+ ==-+i¬i
= i r= r: :==  l+º·i=, +r ¬i=ir = ·=i r l=  := º= i· = i
ºl= +i¬i + `r· º= i· =  l++-i= i =  l=º ··-··i.= =  =i=i¤
¬+i, ++i, =·i+ =¤i ==·i ¬+i ==  ºr¤+ =  «i· oi= l·º
r` ¬i· `¬= =‹· -=· º· ¬l== =¤, ¬+u º‹· = ·i+, o++
=¤i =l+=  ==iu+i = i l++i- ri ·ri r, l=== l++= ri+
=¤i = i·ºi·· ==r= =i ¬= =l+=  ¤i·i ==  = ·+ == r`:
:= º+ = :+ ==ri + +r =i = ri r l= , `=·= i· ¬=·iri+
:= iº+·+ +¤ =  l=º =+i· +ri r` ¬i· ¬= =· `:= iº+·+ = 
+i= º· r· =·r =  =i=i¤ + º= l= º+·+ =  = i+= = ¤=iº
=i= r, ==l=  := ¬+ = i =l=l+lu+i = i º=i+º¤ =+i¬i,
=i¤ =¤i l+++¤ =  l=º -l¤= ·i¤ -º=·u +ri r:;
:= iº+·+ º¤i·=  .+i·i=· ¬il·+i=i =i=i ¬i· -+= i =l=,
ºil·i-¤l== i =¤i =-= l= = i ri =·+ =+i= r ¬i· :=i = i·¤
91
¬il·+i=i º+ ·l¬¤i ¬lu= i· ==·+ := iº+·+ = i l+·iu
= ·= ¬iº r: · =i·ir == =·+, ¬=·i= i i-¤= ·il¤l= =
· l·.= ºi=Š·, = i =+i== , =i ¬il·+i=i =l= ¬i· =-= l= = 
=·¬¤ =  l=º = i= = ·=i r, ¬º+i l¤=i ·+Š= = ·= rº
= r=i r, `:= iº+·+ =  +i= = ¤=iº =i ·r ¬lu= =·
= i+= = l++-i= i = i = i+·i ºr¤i+, º=u= i = i l+-¤-
=+i+ ¬i· º+·= i =  =+i·=+ = i = i= = ·= r: -+= =.==i+
==·i+i =  ¬il¤= , =i=il==  +i º+i+¤i+ -+i-·+ = = i:
=‹·i=·i +ri ri=i:`
·i·+i =i=i+i-, l+·-= , = i·= = i· ·=i== ºŠ-¤= =···
= i· +·· :i··=i+= -··i..= + ¬il·+i=i =¦i º· ¬i· ·+iº= 
·l·+¤+ ·o+ º· .=i· l·+i r … `¬·+ =i=i =  == i==
¬il·+i=i =i= +r =i+= r l=  º+·+ =  l+¤+ = i ¤¤i¬i =
ºil·i-¤l== i º+ ¬i+i= =·¬¤, === l+= i=, ºi·ºl·= 
-i+, =ila=  =º·i, =+l+l+u=i, =i= l+=·¤, =l+=  ¤i·i
¬i· =i-= l==  =ºl·i = i -il== ri+i .== ·i r:`
-+= i = r+i ¤i, ``+l· :+ ºl= +i¬i =  == l== º=i+i = i
¤¤i¬i = -il== + l= +i =+i ri =i + = += + ¤¤iº ·+¤ r,
=i·=  -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i ¤¤i = -il== ri+ =  ¬+=· +ri
l===``:
¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ ¤i·i ¬i· = =+i=i =¤i ¬i-= i¬i =
l¤·i ·ri Š+il=  -== i ºi¤l== =iº =¤i -¦-+ -ºr +ri ¤:
-·ir·¤ =  l=º, ¬i=i¤= i = i =+i= ¤i l= , ¬=· := º+i=
= +r ==i+ l·+i =+i l=  ==i =+Š= ·ir =·-+i = i ¬º+ ·-i
=  =i=i¤ + ºi= l==  ¬+i = := iº+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+i ¤ilrº
¬i· l+-+ =  r.=i·i ==·i+ º+·+ = lr-=i ºi+ =  l=º º= 
·=· =  =i¤ ºl=-ºui = == =iº, =i Š+i ri=i´ ==·+i +
++º = i l=o º+ = º=i r, `... = i+ l=.·=·i·i ==i, ==
:= iº+·+ º+i=i =  ¬=== ¬+l¤= =¤+i¬i =  ¬iui· º·
l++-i = ·+ =  =i· =i=i = i += =i+ -·i+i º‹· =i, -¤i+i+
·++=i+ ·º ri =iº= =¤i º· =  º· ==·i+ == · = i l-¤l=
= ¬i =iº = ´`
º=  ¬i· ==i++i +r r l=  := ¬i+i=+ =  = i·¤ = l¿+i º·
=i+ +i= =i= ¬= := iº+·=  =+ =iº, l=== i ºl·¤i= +r
ri=i l=  =i+i ¬i· ===i = r.=i·i = i =r+i = =i= ¬i+ ===
¬i· +==i+ º+·=  = ·· oi=i ri =iº=i: l+i-¤= = º =, +r
ºl= +i === +ri = r=iº=i ¬i· :== +==i+ º+·+ ·++-¤i
= i ==-+i¬i = ¬i· ¬lu=  ¬+i=+i+ º=i+i = i =‹·i=·i ri
=iº=i:
º+ = ¤=i++i ·i =: r l=  ¬il¤=  -·i·+il·=i ¬i·
==ª·=i= ·¤ =  +º ·i· =  ¬=== =‹·i+i ºi ·r := iº+·+
= i+= = i-¤l= ¬i· =i o·i= = · ·=: :== l=oi r,
`¬=·ir i+ =-¤i+, == l+-+ == , ¬i:.º=.º=  =¤i +·· ··
¬i·=+i:.=-+ l+= i=-i= ·-i º· -·i·+i·i ·+iºi· =¤i
l++-i =  l=º ·=i+ ·i= ·r r, l===  = i·¤ ·iri+ +
¬=·ir i+ =·= i· º+·+ ¬i· := iº+·+ = i ¬º+i -i=i º·
l++i=+ ¬i· º=u+ = ·+ = ¬i· =i ¬==¤ ri=i =i ·ri r:`
:== .=i· · = · = ri =+i r l=  `-¤i+i+ =¦ ¬i· = i·ºi··
º+·+ -=i= = i -+i¤ º=  ·=· =  l+º·i= r, Š+il=  = i·ºi··
º+·+ = i l+¤+ ºl= +i = = i: ·o=·i.=i +ri = · == =i ¬i·
-==  -¦-+ ¬º+i ·+iºi· =‹·i+i =¤i .+i·i = .+i·i =+i= i
= =i+i ri=i r:`
=-¤i¬i =  º+ = l=oi r, ``Š+il=  º= l=-¬iuil·= º+·+ = i
¬i== = º=  =i=º· º+ ¬i=i ·+iºi· =i+i =i ·ri r, =i
==+ r l=  -iŠ=-i=i ¬=·ir i+ = i·ºi·-+ ¬=·ir i+
:= iº+·+ +¤ =  .=l·º := iº+·+ = i ¬º+i o· = i ºl·=i¤iº
=¤i l++= ==i= º· ¤iº+ = i = il-- = ·, ==l=  =+-
¬iuil·= º+i= == l¤= ri = · l= +i· == =iº``:
l+-+ ·+iºi· =-¤i+ = i .==··-= ·=i+ r l=  =+i ¬+ = i
l+·-i = i·ºi·-+i =  l=º oi=i =iº: ºr= = ri == = l==
·r r l=  ·l¬¤i ·-i = º+·+, =i l=  º=  º=o =+i -=i= r,
= i =r-·iri+ = i·ºi·-+ ¬º+i l+-i+i =+i+i ¤ir=i r:
:= =i¤, =· =·= i·i =-¤i¬i =  º+ = -·iº =º =¦i º· =i
l+-+ ==  + -== i =r+i=i =-¤i¬i = ¤¤i r:: º= 
¬lu= i·i, = i.=l-+i º=. · ¬· + +r =i+i l= , `+l· r=
º+·+ l+= i= º· =·· ri ¬º+i ·i+ +ri =+i= r... ==·i+
¬iuil·= º+·+ =  =i· º+i= =‹· -==i = i º=i+-i=i rl¤+i
=¤i =·= i· = i l·º =i+ +i= =‹· =+i=  =  º=i=+i =  =i=+
o‹ · +ri ·r ºiº = :`
=-¤i== º+i=i =  l=+i... ¬i· =r--¦-+i+, ¬+= = ºl= +i
=  l=+i, =i=·il+=  º+·+ ¬·++i-¤=, · = ‹·i = =·i r¬i =¤i
=·=--=·i+ ri ·r=i: -·ri+ ¬º+i =i= o·= = ·= rº = ri,
`¬=· :+ ¤+il=+i =  r= +ri l+= i= =º =i ¬=·ir i+
:= iº+·+ +¤ = += º=  ¬i· =· = .+i·i = = +ri ·r=i:`
¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ =  :·-l=· =i ¤¤iº r:, -+=
·i=+il= = i ri =i==i=i ·ri ¬i· = : ===· -=· = · ¬iº:
¬i=i¤=  =·-=·= i·i ==·+ l-= i+= = ·= r l=  = i·ºi··
-=i= =¤i l+-i= =·¬¤ =-¤i¬i + =i·-=i· = ·= 
:= iº+·+ =  l=º +.º+. = i ==¤+ ril== = · l=+i ¬i· ¬=
+ := ¬º+ = i+· =  l=º =+i ·r r (== ¬º+ = i+= =i = 
l=º =º= º¤i· +i ¬il¤=  =r+i= =i= = ·), ==l=  =i
Š+i r= ¬=·ir i+ - := iº+·+ +¤ = i ¬i+-+= =i r´
92
¬i+i.= :+ =¦i º· =+i= -·i=i r -·r ··l= +i· = · l·+i
=i=i r :
-+= i = r+i r l=  +r == =i+= r l=  = = =· =·= i·i ==·+
¬i· ¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ =i=i+·i = i ri :+ =+il·+i = =i=
=+ = i =i= i l·+i =+i - +ri =-¤iº l=+º· =¤== ¬i·
¬il·+i=i ==·+ -¤i+i+ =i=i =  =¦i = i +.=··i.= = ·+ = i
¬i·iº ==i= ·r r:
``r=i· ¬+=+ =, l+-i= =·¬¤ º+ l+= i= =-¤iº -¤i+i+
=i=i =  ¬lu= i·i = i = i: =r·+ +ri ·=i``, ¬il·+i=i =i=i
=¤i =· =·= i·i ==·+i =  ==r + ì:. =·= i·i =  =i=+
lº== =: =, = ·+i = rº =+l+l+u=i =·==+ = = ri:
``-·ir·¤ =  l=º, := iº+·+ =i=i+·i, = ·.=·+-+
:··+-+= ¬i· ¬i:.+.=i.º+. «i·i l= º =º = : = i+= =i =
¬il·+i=i =¤i -¤i+i+ =i=i =  ¬lu= i·i = i ¬i·· +ri r¬i
r, oi== · ¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ = i+= =i =, ¬i· -+=
=i-= l==  º+ =l+=  l+l+u=i = i o=·i r:``
-r¬i= =, =+Š= ·ir + ==i ==lu= ==ri = i ==i+i -
`¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ = i ¬i· = l= º =i ·r ==i = i+= =i
= i == ==i =l+i-¤= = ·+ = i ¬ir+i+ = ·= rº` (º-=i+
ì»»·;+.): =l= + =+i= +r r l=  == ==i l= ==  l=º´
¬=· +r ¬i·iº =ri l+= =i, l=  ¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ =
= = l=+-¤+ =·-+i = i ri = i+·i l==i, =i =+Š= ·ir = i
=·+l+ei ¬i· l+-+ =  =·i=i =  l=º = i= = ·+ =  ·i+ º·
l+i-¤= =+i= -· =:
:= =+Š= ·iª· = i+= = = =‹·i l+==l=+i ¬i· l+·i¬i = 
¤==, := iº+·+ = i ºr= = ri ¬i-¤· =l+ = i ¬i· =i · =
ºr¤=i, ¬i· := r· ==  l=  +r l+-i= -= i= º·i =·r l+= =
ri =iº=i: Š+i =+Š= ·iª· =  =il== ==iu+i = i ·lr = +r
l+-i= o¤ ¬i· :=+i =i·i º+i= =i+.= r´
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
ì
¬+i=i ==i·i= === i=  = · l·.= :++-·i=-+ º·
=i+i·l·= ·i= (l·=-·i=) =  =i¤ = i+·= r: l·=-·i=
º=  ¬·+++ + ¬l=+i+ =-¤i r =i º+·+ =  º=i+i =  =¦i
º· = i= = ·=i r:
n º¤
www.twnside.org.sg/tour.htm
=i= - o
93
= : =i=i =, º+·=  l+-¤- ·+iº=  º+·+ =  l+= ·º · · ·r r
l=== l=  ==·+i = = =-=-= = ==i= ¬i· º+i+·¤ º· º‹·
·r º=i+i = i = = l= ++i =i == : = = ==·i+i +, =i ¬º+i
l=.·=i º· .==··-=i l+= i= ¤iº =i+ = i l+·iu = · ·r ¤,
¬º+ -=· º· =·= -=·i+, -¤i+i+ = º = =¤il== + ===
º+·+ =l=l+lu+i = i -r¬i= = i: := ===  =i+=·, i-¤l=
==i ¤i +=i = i +=i ri =+i r: r:
=+l+l+u=i =·==+ =  l=º = ·+·-+ ¬i=  ºi·i.= = i
=l·=i+i = lº== =i= r: ¤i¤i =·=  =  =i· =, ¬=·iri+
-=· º· =i.=i.·i. =  ¬·+i+ ì = l·º =º : -¦-+i =  ¬iui·
º· º+·+ = i+= = =+i· = ·+ = i ri‹· == =: r: =i.=i.·i. = 
: -¦-+ r `=+l+l+u=i =·¬¤, -==  ¬-i = i === -º+i=
=¤i -== l==+ +i= =i=i = i =·+ l+=·¤`: =l= + +r =i+i
ri -¦-+ ==i =-i =i l·oi= r, =i l=  ¬=·iri+ =·=i++i = 
=i+ º· ¬iuil·= r, º· :·r =i= = ·+i -=+i ri ¬-ºr r:
=¤== -=· º·, === +i := iº+·+ l+= i= º· =i l+-¤ ·+i+
l·+i =i ·ri r -== = i+· =  ==iº += =i+ ri r¬i r:
¬i=i¤= i = i = r+i r l=  º·i+ º+·+ =  ·i¤ = i := iº+·+ =
=·=i =i+i, l=== l=  ºil·i-¤l== i+ =+·+-i= ¬+i º·
-==  º=i+i = i = = l= +i =i ==  ¬i· -¤i+i+ =i=i = i
l+= i= ri, +r ºi= º = =i =i == = +ri ri == =i: ri= ri
=  +¤i =  ¬·+++ = ºlr r: r l=  =+l+l+u=i =º·+ ¬+i =
º+·+ =¤ =·¬¤ = i+= =i =  ¤=iº =i+ = ·+iº=  º+·+ = 
º=i+ =‹· ri ·r r: =i ·- ¬º+ ¬= = ¬+i = i ¬= º+·+ = 
l=º oi= ·r r, -+=  =¤-o¤ === =i ·++=il+= 
=l=l+u+i =  ri¤i =·=i· ri+ = i o=·i r; -+=  ==·i,
=·i+ + == ¬+ º·l¤= ri =iº=; =¤i ºr= = +-=
=+l+l+u ==iu+ ¬i· =i ·== ri =iº=:
ºl-+i: ¬il¤=  == · = i -r¬i= =  =i· = == ==ª·=i+
¬il¤=  ·++-¤i º· º=i+ º‹·+ ==, == = º+·+ l+= i= = i
:.
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ |¤= tnnt=
º nt =   |=¢ ¢= 
¤t|t|t¤|º= t¤ ¢¤
¬t|¤ =  |n=  ¬t
¡
¬+tºt ·¬¸ ¤ttt ¤;ttt
z
¡sss
l+= i=-i= ·-i =  =il+= ·r+ = i º= =i+ =+ ==i+i =i+
==i, l==+ º+i+¤i+ -¦-+i = i =i=  º· ·o l·+i: ¬= =·,
l++i= = i =i‹·= ·, º+·+ = i º= º= =i+ -=i= =  = º = ·oi
=i=i r =i l+-+ == , ¬=·iri+ l+·ii+ = i¤ =¤i ¬·+
¬=·ir i+ l+·ii+ =-¤i¬i = l=º rº l+-i= ¬il¤=  = ¤
¤= i+ =  l=º º+i= ·i=-+ = =i == =i r:
·l¬¤ º+i ·-i = := iº+·+ = i ¬il¤=  i-¤·=i º+… ºi= = ·+
¬i· ==·i+i = i := l+º·i = i i-¤l= = l+= =+ =  l=º
º= =i+ =iu+ =i+i =i ·ri r: = += ¤i:=· = ri, r.=i·i
=i+i = i º+·+ = i ++i l+-i+i =+i+i =i ·ri r: === i=  = 
º=  ¬o=i·, · +-+ (: ¬º=, ì»»») =  ¬+=i·, ¬il¤= 
==-+i¬i =  r= =  l=º +ri =  ·i=i + º=  ·+iº=  =i=·il+= 
l+= i= = i+= = = i -r¬i= = i r l=== i -¦-+ r l=  ¬·+
¬il¤=  =l=l+lu+i, == = l¤ -·ºi· =·++la, ¬i¤ui+ ºiui
=  ·iº¤ ¬i· ºi·ºl·=  ¤i: ¬i¤lu+i =  =i¤-=i¤, ì:,:::
=i+i =, :..,... ºl·+i·i ¬i· ==== :..,... =+=r+i = i
=i=i·i·i = := iº+·+ l+= i= = i = i= l= +i =iº=i¦ ¬-ºr
=i= = i i-¤l= = :== .== ·= = .+i·i =l+uiº o‹·i = · ·+
= i =+i= -·=i r, =i º+·+ = º=  ¬i= ==-+i r:
=l= + l+· =+i +r r l=  :=+ l+-i= -=· º· º+·+
ºl·+i=+iº =i= = ·+ ¬i· .== ·i ==== =l+uiº o‹·i = ·+ = 
l=º ¬i· ¬lu=  = ¤ = i ¬i+-+= =i ri=i, l=== ·-i º·
ºr= = =i ¬il¤=  ·=i+ = i i-¤l= =+i r: r +r ¬i· =i
==i· ri =iº=i: :==  ¬l=l·Š=, = : ¬·+++ =il== = · ¤= 
r l=  := iº+·+ =  ==il+= ¬il¤=  º=i+i = i .+i·i ri =‹·i-
¤‹·i = · ==i+i =i=i r ¬i· ¬== = ºi= l==  =¤i =i-= l== 
=º·i =  =·¬¤ ¬i· =+ =+i¬i =  =ui· =  l=º º+i= º=i
-º=·u +ri ri ºi ·ri r:
¤i:=· =, º=  =i=il==  l++-i ºl·+i=+i (l=º) =  l=º
l+-+ ==  :. = ·i‹· ·i=· ·+ =  l=º ·i.=i ri =+i: :=
ºl·+i=+i = i -¦-+ ·ii =·i.==i·i, ¬i=·+i = · =i+, ¬il¤= 
94
== · =  = i·¤ =i=il==  =+i¬i = =·++la ¬i·
¬i:.º=.º= . =  =·¤+i·==  ==iui+ = i+= = = i l+= ==i
==i ==-+i¬i = i r= l+= i=+i: l=º =  ¬=== º=o
=·= i·i = i+= = := iº+·+ = ==lu= ¤, l=== =i·+i= ·¤
= i+= =, l«-=i¤i =¤+i º¿ ==i+i, ¬i· =i=i¤ ¬+i =
º+·= i =  l=º -i¤i=+ =+i+i -il== ¤i: l=º l=-+ l·ºi·
=  ¬+=i·, :+ º+·+ = i+= =i (=i ¤i:=· =  º+·+
ºilu= ·¤ «i·i =i= l= º =iº=) =  .=l·º `+º ·lr= i¤ º+
º¤il=+i = i =‹·i+i l·+i =iº=i, -·ir·¤ =  l=º, -¤i+i+
=i=i = i .+i·i =i=i·i·i:`
=l= + =i=il==  = i+= =i¬i = i = r+i r, l=  l+-+ ==  = 
l+·-+ = =+i· = i =: l=º +i=+i = º+·+ = i =‹·i+i ·+i º= 
uioi r Š+il=  :+ =l=l+lu+i = i =r+ -¦-+ r = ¤ ¤= i+ = 
l=º º=i := ¿i = ·+i: -¤i+i+ =i=i =  l=º := ¬il¤=  == ·
= i i-¤l= = = = ·=·i ri ºi¤l== =iº ¤i: :==  ¬l=l·Š=,
=iºi+i ¬i+·=i.= := i+il==  = i¬iº·-+ = l=º l=º = ¤ = 
¬===, -·i·i ¤i:=· = ++ -=i= =-¤i+ «i·i =i= l= º =i+
+i= := iº+·+ = i+= = =  lo=i=  ¬il·+i=i = i·+ ==·i+ +
l+·iu l= +i, Š+il=  -·r ¬º+i ¬i=il+= iº, =-= l= ¬i·
º+i+·¤ =  l=º :== o=·i +.=· ¬i+i:
-¬l¤=  l+-¤-i + =i =i=i¤ =i=i = i l=º = i+= = = 
¬ == = ¬i =i l==  =l=l+lu+i =   l=º -= ¤ l·º =i+ = i l+·i u
l= +i: -+=  ¬+=i·, :== =i=i¤i = i -+i+==i =¤i ===
-¤i+i+ ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i =+i+ = i ¬==i + º+i= o·= ri
=iº=: =i=·il+=  ¬·+++= =i lº=i+i +i=+i= + === i=  = 
¤=i=i== i+ l+-+l+=i=+ =  =i=il==  =-¤i+ = rº º= 
=·==+ = ==i+i … `=i+i = º=  +: ¬=·+ ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i
º·i ri ·ri r Š+il=  =·= i· -·r -=i= ¤=i+ =  l=º =r= =i
º=i · ·ri r... :+ ==i ==·i = º=  ri ==-+i r l=  + ==i
=i=i = i, ¤i‹· ==+ =  ¬·· º=  ri =l=l+lu = ·+ =  l=º
¬i= l¤= = ·= r... + ==i =i= º=  ri ¤i.= = = =¤ ºiº=´
.== ·= = .+·i -·ºi·+ ri ·ri r ¬i· =··i ri =i= ri·
=iº=:`
lº=i+i + ¤i:=· =  :... ==·i+i = i -·ir·¤ l·+i =i
¬i¤¤i+ -·º, = = =  -·ºi· =¤i ¬·+ ¤i.= =+i ·r r, ==l= 
-+=  ºi= := -·ºi·+ =  l=º º+i= =i= +ri r: :=i =·r
=+i= +r -·=i r, l=  +l· r.=i·i =i+i = := iº+·+ l+= i=
= i =‹·i+i l·+i =iº=i =i Š+i ri=i - Š+i º=  =i+ =  =i=
·=· =i+i =  =i=i = º+·=  ¬i= l¤= = ·+ = i ri‹· = +ri ==
=iº=´ ¬i· == Š+i ri=i == = i: º+·=  +ri ¬iº ri +ri -
l=  l+-+ -=· º· ¬º¬i+=i· ¬il¤=  ·++-¤i + =u·, ¬·+
·-i = :== .+i·i ¬i= ¤=  := iº+·+ -¤= ri, +i º+·= 
¬º+i rl¤+i =·= = ¬i· + ¬i= ¤=  º+·+ -·ºi· = i ¬i·
=i+ == ´
¬=·ir i+ === º+·+ +il=+i = i =+i= ==+ :+ =¦i º· = i:
·+i+ +ri l·+i =i=i: :==  l+º·i=, +r ==i+ l·+i =i=i r
l=  ==i ·-i = i =·· = =·· =i=·il+=  =·¬¤ = i+= = =i=
= ·+ ¤ilrº, l=== l=  º= l= = i =·¬¤ ¬i· ¬il¤=  l+= i=
ri ==  :
ºl-+i: ==la =  ==+ º· ºl=a º+·+ ==·+i = ri·=i,
l·.=i·i, =i·=  =l+ui¬i, =i.=i·i =¤i =+i·=+ = ··i = .== ·=
= .+i·i l++-i l= +i =+i: :==  ºl·¤i=-+= º, º+i+¤i+
+= =i+ =  =i¤-=i¤, =i=·il+=  =i++ = =i ¬+il==
=·=i+ ¬iº: =ri º=  ¬i· :+= = .+i·i=· ==r ¬= oi=i
º‹·i r +i -+= i ··-i ri ¤= i r, +ri +r o=·i r=-i =+i
·r=i l=  =l+ª+ = .== ·= = .+i·i := iº+·+ =+iº o‹·i ri
=iº=i, =i === l+= i= =  ºl= +¤+=a=i =  l+ra r:
¬== = =·i -= il= = ºl·= := iº+·+ +il=+i =  l+ra = i=
= ·+ = i =™= .== ·= r ¬·+¤i :==  = i·¤ =i=i¤ º+
¬il·+i=i =i= ¬i· =i .+i·i ¬il¤=  == · = i l-¤l= = ¬i
== = r: + ri =+l+l+u=i =·¬¤ + =l+=  ==iu+i =  =‹·i-
¤‹·i = · l= º rº ·i+ = =i º· ri=: := =·= =, +-il+= ,
== +i= i =¤i == +i= i ==ir ·+ +i=i º=  ¬=·iri+ =-¤i
= i ¤¤i¬i = ===, `=+l+l+u=i l=+` +i := iº+·+ =  ·i+i
=¤i ¬iui·== º-=i+i = i =i¤ = ·+ = i =i= ·oi =:: =+Š=
·ir ¬i= ==i «i·i :..: = i ¬=·ir i+ := iº+·+ +¤ ¤il¤=
= ·+ =  l+¤+ = i =i ==== =¤i ·+iº=  ¤¤i =  ¬iui· º·
·o+i .== ·i r:
¬ |º¤ |¿·¤¬t
¡.
+r ·-=i+.= =+l+l+u=i =·==+ =  l=º = ·+·-+ ¬i= 
ºi·i.= = i ºi¤+i =·=  = i =+i·i =  l=º =+ ì»»» = º-
l= +i =+i ¤i:
z.
¬+i=i ==i·i=, === i=  = · l·.= :++-·i=-+ º·
=i+i·l·= ·i= (l·=-·i=) =  =i¤ = i+·= r: l·=-·i=
º=  ¬·+++ + ¬l=+i+ =-¤i r =i º+·+ =  º=i+i = 
=¦i º· = i= = ·=i r:
=i= - o
95
¤ ¤t|t=  et ¤t
ì := iº+·+ = i -r¬i= = ·+ =  l+¤+ =  ºi= Š++i = i·¤ ¤´ -==  ºi= +i+=  = i+ r´
: ==·i+i =  =i¤ := iº+·+ = i -r¬i=i ¤¤i¬i =¤i ºl·=i¤iº l+uil·= = ·+ =  l=º Š+i ºl= +i ¬º+i: =:´ -==  ¬- Š+i r´
: := iº+·+ = i º¤i· = i+ = · ·ri r´ =iº = i+ =+i ·ri r´ -·ºi· = i+ =+i· = · ·ri r´ :==  ºi= Š+i -¦-+ =¤i =·+ r´ := iº+·+
=  +i= º· l= + ¤i.=i = i =‹·i+i l·+i =i ·ri r´
+ :==  =‹· lo=i‹·i = i+ r´ -+=  Š+i -¦-+ r´
: =i· lo=i‹·i = i+ r´ ¬il¤=  =r+i= =  Š+i l+= ·º -º=·u r´
- Š+i-Š+i -·ºi· r ¬i· := iº+·+ = ri i-¤= r´
: := iº+·+ l+= i= ¬i· l+++¤ =  l=º Š+i = i++ ¬i· +il=+i r´
· Š+i := iº+·+ ==i·i= ¤i¤¤iº+, l·-il+·- +i ==·i+i ¬i· -=i=ºl=+i =  -+--i=+ l++= r´
» -=i= ºi= ºi =  = º = Š+i l+= ·º -º=·u r - -=i=, =i=i·i·i, =r= il·=i, ¬·+´
ì. Š+i = i: º=il¤= ·¤ º¤i=i r +i ¬i+ +i=i r´ -=º· l= == i l+++¤ ri=i´
ìì := iº+·+ = i l-¬i = = ·i =i ·ri r´
ì: := iº+·+ ¬·+++ = = i+-= i+ -il== r´
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ =   ¬·¤¤+ =   |=¢ et ¤t
ì º+ ·+ = = ui
ì.ì ¬+ = := iº+·+ = i l+= i= = = r¬i :== i ·-=i+.=i= ·¤
ì.: -¤ilº= =l+ui¬i = i =r+i, =‹·i=·i = i :l=ri=
ì.: l+l=, =·= i·i := i:+i = i =r+i; -¤i+i+ ==·i+i =  -+il=·+ = i := i:+i = i =r+i; +l· = i: =i=i·i·i r, =i -== i ·+i·i
ì.+ º+·+ := i:+i = i = º·oi - l++-, ¬+= =, -+il=·+
ì.: º+ ·= i = i = º· oi
ì.- +i+i ·++-¤iº=  =¤i º=·; -¤i+i+ + =· -¤i+i+
ì.: º+·+ =l=l+lu+i - -·ºi· - l+-¤ ¬i= ¤¤
ì.· º+ ·= i = i ¬i+-+= =iº
ì.» =·l¬= ¬+i = º+·+
ì.».ì º+·= i = i =r+i, = º·oi
ì.».: =l=l+lu+i (·l= =, == i·i ¬il·) + -+=  =·i= 
ì.».: ++ l+=i= «i·i -º=·u = ·i: =: ¬i+i= =l+uiº
ì.».+ -¤i+i+ =i=i =  l=º ¬+=·
ì.».: =i= = +i l·+ = = = =· ·r=i r´
ì.».- ·¤·+i¬i =  l= -=, -·ir·¤ =  l=º, ===i =i++·i «i·i º+·= i º· ¬i= =¤
ì.ì. -=i= ºi= º
ì.ìì -·ºi·+i = i l+= i= =¤i -+= i l+º¤+ (Š+i =¤+i r ¬i· Š+i +ri)
ì.ìì.ì º+·+ -·ºi·+i = i =l¤; l+-¤ ¬i= ¤¤
s.
s = t ¤¤ ¿+ n º¤ ,
¤|t¬t¤ º¤t ¤ ¤t¤t =  
|¤º= ¢¬ =   |=¢ ¢=  et ¤t
sŠ¤ n-n ;ttt
96
ì.ìì.: º¤i· =i==i; l= =+ =+i: r
ì.ìì.: Š+i =¤i =i ·ri r´
ì.ìì.+ =¤+ =  º=o =·i= 
ì.ì: =iº
ì.ì:.ì º=il¤= =i = i -º+i=, º+·=  := i:+i «i·i -º+i= = i =i ·ri º=il¤= =i = i ºl= +i
ì.ì: =i=i·i·i - +==i+ ==+ = ¤= ·ri l+l=·+ º= i· = i =i=i·il·+i, ==, ¬il¤=  =r+i= ·+ +i=i =-¤i¬i =  =i¤ =i=i·i·i,
l+·-ii l++-i= 
ì.ì+ º+·+ l= = =i== = .+i·i ri=i r´
: º+i+¤i+ º=i+
:.ì -¤= =  º+i+·¤ = i +==i+ i-¤l= = i l·ºi·
:.ì.ì ++, =+l+l+lu=i, =·l¬= ¬+´
:.ì.: =l= -º+i=
:.ì.: ¬i=-ºi= ri ·ri ¬·+ l+= i= =l=l+lu+i
:.ì.+ =i++-=i++· =·=‹· = i -+= º
:.ì.: º i=  l==  = =iu+
:.: =· = iei+ ++ ==iu+i = i -¤i+i+ ==·i+i «i·i -º+i=
:.:.ì := iº+·+ = ºr= ¬i· -==  =i·
:.:.: Š+i := ==iu+i ==  -+= i ºr¤ = = =i ¬i: r´
:.: =·l¬= ¬+
:.:.ì -¤i+i+ -º+i= =+i= º+·+ -º+i=
:.:.: =i=·i+ ¬iuil·= =·¬¤ º+i= - =i=·il+=  =·l¬= ¬+ =¤i =.·¬¤ ¬+ - :+=  =i¤ =  ¬=· -ºr = · =¤i :+= i
·+ir+i; ==·i+i = i =i=i·i·i
:.:.: ºi·ºl·=  =·¬¤ =l=l+lu+i, º+i=
:.:.+ =·¬¤ =l=l+lu+i = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i =i=i·i·i
:.:.: =lr=i¬i =¤i ¬·+ = =.=i· +=i º· l+l-r º=i+
:.+ ºi= l==  ==iu+i = i -º=·u=i, ==, ==, -¤i+i+ l+=i¤ =i==i ¬il· - := iº+·+ = ºr= ¬i· -==  =i·
:.: º·¤¤ =iº··
:.- ¬ºl-r º=u+
:.-.ì º+·+ := i:+i «i·i ¬º+iº =º =·i= 
:.-.: l=.·=·i· ºlu= ·¤ «i·i ¬º+iº =º =·i= 
:.: = =i = i -º+i= ==, =i· = =i
: ¬il¤=  º=i+
:.ì ºi·ºl·=  =¤i +==i+ ·++=i+; Š+i -+= = i: =·=i+ ¬i+i r´
:.: ¬i== +il¤=  ¬i+, º+·+ = Š+i =·=i+ ¬iº r´
:.: =l= -º+i= - ºi·ºl·= , º+·+
:.+ =l= -+il=·+ - ¬+lu
:.: -¤i+i+ =i=i = i º+·+ ¬+ = ·i.==i· (=lr=i¬i ¬i· º= ¤i =  l=º ¬==-¬==)
:.:.ì º+·+ ºl=ei+i = ·i.==i· =  ¬+=· - = º·oi
:.:.: =+iº - =i:·, +i+i ·++-¤iº+
:.:.: -+ ·i.==i· =  ¬+=·
:.- º=i+
:.-.ì +-=¬i + .==i+ = i = i==i = =‹·i=·i
:.-.: º+·+ ºl=ei+i = = ƒ =i= = i .== ·= = i ¬iºl=
:.-.: ++i¬i = i º=i++
:.-.+ ¬i=·+i -=· = =‹·i=·i
:.-.: º·ºl·=  ·++=i+i = =·=i+
:.-.- =‹·i+ + l·=i+
:.-.: = i+ =i= r =i :== =‹· +ri ·r
:.: := iº+·+ = r· =i=·i· = i l= =+i lr-=i l== ·ri r - l+l= ºl=ei+, =·= i·, -¤i+i+ =·= i·´
=i= - o
97
+ =i=il==  º=i+
+. =+=i ir+= i+ ¬i = ‹ ·
+.: l+-¤iº+
+.: º+·+ = =‹· ¬º·iu
+.:.ì +-i
+.:.: · r ·+iºi·;+ -+i+ ·ii
+.:.: =l+=  ¤i·i
+.+ =l==  =¦
+.+.ì =l==  =l== iº - =lr=i¬i = i = i+=i·
+.+.: =lr=i¬i = i º+·+ ¬+ = ·i.==i·; l= + l+=i=i =, = i= = i -=· (= -= =.=··i, ¬= -= =.=··i), ¬i·=i ¬i· =·i = 
l=º ¬== +=+ - ¬il¤= 
+.+.: º+·+ =  =·= = l+¤+ ºl= +i = =lr=i¬i = i =i=i·i·i
+.: =il=
+.- ¬·+ ril-+ =  ==·i+ ¬i· -+= i º+·+ = =i=i·i·i
+.: ¬i= =i=·il+=  =i=; ¬l=l·Š= =i= = ri o¤ l= +i =i ·ri r - ·+iŠ===, =i=·il+= 
+.· º+·+ = -¤i+i+ =i=i = i ¬º¬iº ¬i· Š+i + º·i ri ·ri r´
+.» =r ¬i+i= =  ¬+=+ (º=i+, ¬iº=i ===i=, =il= ==u, +=)
+.ì. := iº+·+ = =‹·+ =  l=º -¤i+i+ =i=i = i Š+i ºl-¬¤ l·º =º´
: =i -=  l==  º =i+
:.ì -¤i+i+ =i=i = i º+·= i =  =i¤ =-= l=, ·+iri·i =¤i -¤i+i+ = =i =  =¦i º· ===i=
:.: ºi·ºl·=  = º = =·=i+, -= º· +iº= ¬i+ =  ·i-=
:.: º·-+ º=i+
- l-¬i º+ ·+ir+i
-.ì ·+ir+i = ··
-.: =i=l= = =i+ =  l=º = i+= =
-.: =¤+i = ··, = i+ ¤=i ·ri r
: = -¤i== ·++-¤iº
:.ì -¤i+i+ -+-i=+ =-¤i¬i = i º+·+ l+= i= = =l== i: -+= i =i+= i·i = i -=·
:.: =i= ==i =·= i = º+·+
:.: := iº+·+ l+= i= ¬i· -¤i+i+ -+-i=+ =-¤i¬i =  ¬lu= i·
:.+ l+¤+ º¤i=i; ¤¤iº
:.: +: =-¤i== ·++-¤iº l=== l+l=·+ =i=·i·i ¬i· ¬lu= i· ui·= i = i ºl=l+lu·+ ri
:.- º+·+ =  l=º =+i: =: +: =-¤iº
:.: ¬·+ =·= i·i l+=i=i = i =i=i·i·i l= = -=· º· r - º+·+, ++´
· +il=+i + +i=+iº
·.ì Š+i ·i+ + -¤i+i+ -=· º· := iº+·+ +il=+i, l+++¤ l++= ¬i· l·-il+·- r´
·.: := iº+·+ = i -r¬i= = = r:´
·.: := iº+·+ = i+= = =i= = ·+ =  ºi= Š+i º·¤i ¤i´
·.+ Š+i := iº+·+ = ºr= º+·+ ¤i´
·.: =l+ª+ =  l=º Š+i +i=+i r´ - ¬+= =, ==== =l+uiº, l+l= l++-= i = i .==i+ l= ·i+ º· ·+i
·.- Š+i ==·i+ ¬iuil·= º+i=i =  l=º = i: =r+i= r´
·.: º+·+ =l=l+lu+i + º+·= i =  l=º l·-il+·-, ¬=· r =i
·.· ++ l+=i= = i =l==  = =·=i+ - =·¬¤ = º+·+ =  º¤i·=  =  = º =
» ¤i¤ªiiº+ + l·-il+·-
».ì l= =+ =+iº
».: l= +i·+++ l= = r· ==  r¬i r
».: =+i· = ·+ = i ºl= +i
».+ ¬=·ir i+ ===i= == ++-= i (=i+=·= ¬i·l¬= ¬+) ¬i· ¬·+ =rº¬i+ º+i+·¤ ===i=
:= iº+·+ =·=, ºl·¤i= =¤i º=i+i =  l+-=¤¤ =  l=º º=  ·i¤i
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:Š+ -·=º=  ¬·+++, =++= i== =¤i ¬l=+i+ == r r =i ì»·: =
º+ ·+ =   = ·= = -¤i+i+=i =i =   ¬lu= i·i ¬i · -+= i º+ ·+ =
l==+ +i= =i=i =   = ¦i º· = i= = · ·ri r Ÿ: r=i·i =i++i r l= 
º+ ·+ === =¤i = ·--i ¤¤º ¤ ri == =i r , =ri =i = =i l+=  l+¤ +
+l=  +i ¬º+i: =iº ¬i · º+ ·+ ==  ºr ¤ ¬i · -== ri + +i= =i=i
= i = ·+= ·+i·i ri Ÿ:

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