Structural Details in Concrete

Structural Details in Concrete

M.Y.R. Bangash

OXFORD

BLACKWELL SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

LONDON EDINBURGH BOSTON MELBOURNE PARIS BERLIN VIENNA

Copyright©M.Y.H. Bangash 1992

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British Library

Cataloguing in Publication Data Bangash, M.Y.H.

Structural Details in Concrete I. Title

693

ISBN 0-632-02853-X

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Bangash, M.Y.H.

Structural details in concrcte/M.Y.H. Bangash. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-632-02853-X

1. Concrete construction-Details.

TA681.5.B36 1992 624. 1'834-dc20

I. Title.

92-2868 CIP

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements Conversion Factors

I II III IV V VI

General Requirements for Structural Detailing in Concrete Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs

Stairs and Staircases

Columns, Frames and Walls

Prestressed Concrete

Composite Construction, Precast Concrete Elements, Joints and Connections

Concrete Foundations and Earth-Retaining Structures Special Structures

VIlLI Bridges

VIII.2 Concrete Shells

VIII. 3 Water Retaining Structures and Silos VIII.4 Nuclear Shelter

VIIL5 Nuclear, Oil and Gas Containments

VIII.6 Hydro-Electric and Irrigation/Hydraulic Structures

VII VIII

Bibliography Index

vii IX XI

1 41 59 71 85

107 127 151 152 179 207 219 222 234

257 259

Preface

A number of books on various aspects of concrete design and detailing have been published but this is believed to be the first comprehensive detailing manual. The aim of this book is to cover a wide range of topics, so simplifying and reducing the work required to prepare structural drawings and details in reinforced, prestressed, precast and composite concrete.

The book initially provides a list of extracts from relevant codes and current practices. Where drawings are carried out using imperial units, a conversion table is provided to change them into SI units.

The book is divided into eight sections: Section I deals with the general requirements for structural detailing in concrete, basic drafting criteria and the properties of materials. Section II is devoted entirely to the structural detailing of beams and slabs. Section III covers reinforced concrete detailing of stairs and staircases. A comprehensive description is given of the detailing of reinforced concrete columns, frames and walls in Section IV. The reader is also referred for more information to the later section on integrated structures.

Section V covers prestressed concrete systems with some basic structural detailing of beams and anchorages. Again the reader is referred to other sections, in particular Section VIII regarding the use of prestressed tendon elements in integrated structures. Section VI presents structural detailing in composite construction, precast concrete elements, joints and connections.

Section VII includes basic structural detailing of reinforced concrete foundations and earth-retaining structures. An effort is made to include a number of foundation drawings so that the reader can appreciate the quality and design required for a specific job.

Students of civil and structural engineering who have worked through to this part of the book will have acquired the background necessary to draw the majority of reinforced, prestressed, precast and composite concrete structures commonly encountered in professional practice. To assist the reader in his/her completion of drawings, an unusually large number of drawings have been incorporated into the text since they are generally the principal communication between the structural engineer/designer, architect, builder and client.

Case studies in Section VIII which include the structural detailing of the following special structures in concrete:

• reinforced concrete beam/slab bridge deck,

• culvert bridge super and substructures,

viii Preface

• continuous RC girder deck,

• reinforced concrete box bridge deck,

• open spandrel arch bridge - reinforced and prestressed,

• reinforced concrete rigid frame bridge details,

• composite/steel - concrete bridge deck,

• reinforced concrete rigid frame bridge,

• bridge bearings and substructural layouts,

• samples of reinforced concrete cylindrical shells, hyperbolic shells: groin type hyperbolic paraboloid shells and domes, water retaining structures and silos with elevated towers, nuclear shelter,

pressure and containment vessels for nuclear power plants, gas and oil installations and cells for offshore platforms,

hydroelectric and irrigation/hydraulics structures, spillways, piers, intakes, switch yard foundations, electric manholes, chutes, gates, tunnels and culverts.

An increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of the designer in planning reinforcement and structural details so that the detailer can do his/her work thoroughly without having to complete the design himself. Improved methods and standards presented in the text should result in better construction and reduced costs.

The book will serve as a useful text for teachers preparing a syllabus for technician and graduate courses. Each major section has been fully explained to permit the book to be used by practising engineers and postgraduate students, particularly those facing the formidable task of having to design/detail complicated structures for specific contracts and research assignments. Contractors will also find this book useful in the preparation of construction drawings.

M. Y. H. Bangash April 1992

/

- 1 ._- --

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to express his appreciation to friends, colleagues and some students who have assisted in the early developments of this book by suggesting relevant changes. The author has received a great deal of assistance, encouragement and inspiration from practising engineers and contractors, particularly those for whom he has acted as consultant. The author is indebted to all those people and organizations who are referred to in this book and to the following, in particular, for making this book a reality:

Indian Concrete Journal, Delhi, India The Indian Road Congress, Delhi, India

The Public Works Departments, Delhi and Mahrashtra, India The Governments of Ivory Coast and Ghana

The Institution of Civil Engineering Library, London, UK Kaiser Engineers and Contractors, California, USA Bechtel Engineering, California, USA

Chatterjee, Polkes, Consulting Architects, Delhi, India

Dr F. Garas, Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd, Southall, UK United States Bureau of Reclamation, Washington DC, USA Pakistan Engineering Congress, Lahore, Pakistan

West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA),

Pakistan

Punjab Public Works (PWD) Department, Lahore, Pakistan Gammons (India) Ltd, Delhi, Bombay, India

Mott McDonald, Croydon, Surrey, UK

Birkenhead Project on Silo, Australia

The Atomic Power Construction Ltd, Sutton, UK The former Central Electricity Generating Board, UK TVA Tennessee Valley Authority, Tennessee, USA

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, USA The International Association of Shell Structures, Spain British Standards, London, UK

American Concrete Institute, Detroit, USA

The Offshore Technology Conference Center, Houston, Texas, USA The UK Atomic Energy, Winfrith, Dorset, UK

A number of original drawings have been modified to comply with the current drafting codes and requirements.

The undertaking could never have been achieved without the patience, encouragement and understanding of the author's family.

x Acknowledgements

Artwork Acknowledgements

111.6,7,8,9 Birchwood Concrete Products

VA PSC Equipment Ltd

V.5,6,7,8,9,1O,1l BBRV, Simon Carves

V.13,14 Cabco

VIII.1.19 Overseas Projects Corporation of Victoria, Australia

VIII.2.3.a,2.16 S. Eggwertz, Consulting Engineer

VIII.2.6,7,8 Perkins and Will, Chicago

VIII.2.10 S.D. Castillo

VIII.6.3,4,5

Kaiser Engineers and Constructors Inc.

_ I U_''''' 1_- ---

Conversion Factors

Length

1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 foot = 0.3048m

Area

1 foor' = 0.0929 m2 1 inch? = 645.2mm2

Mass

lIb = 0.454 kg

Force

11bf = 4.448 N

1 kip = 4.448 kN

1 kip/ft = 14.594kN/m

Density

11b/ft3 = 16.018 kg/rn '

Pressure

11b/m2 = 6.895 kPa (N 1m2) Llb/ft" = 47.880 Pa

1 kip/in" = 6.895 MPa (MN/m2) l kip/ft'' = 47.880kPa

Prefixes in SI units G = giga 109

M = Mega 106

k = kilo 103

m = milli 10-3 Pa = Pascal

Section I

General Requirements for Structural Detailing in Concrete

----- --- -

1.1 Introduction

This section gives general requirements for structural detailing in concrete. A slight departure from these requirements can be expected because each project is different. Individual structural engineers and designer detailers also influence the style of working drawings and schedules. Moreover, structural detailing in concrete can vary since it can be considerably affected by external requirements including those of authorities such as gas, electricity, water, municipal, etc.

1.2 Drawings

Full drawings are prepared by structural engineers acting as consultants as part of the tender documentation. The architects are involved in the preparation of the site and other general arrangement plans. The main contractors are involved in preparation of temporary work drawings, including shoring and formwork. During the contract, drawings are sometimes modified by minor amendments and additional details. These drawings are generally updated as the projects progress. The drawings, which are distributed to other engineers including those providing services and to contractors, are prints taken from the original drawings made on tracing paper, called negatives. These negatives are provided with thick borders as a precaution against tearing. Plastic film on the other hand gives a smooth hard wearing surface. Almost all drawings are done in ink. A typical drawing sheet contains the following data in the panel on the righthand side of the drawing.

Starting from the top NOTES

REVISION ...

NAME OF THE ENGINEER NAME OF THE CLIENT/ ARCHITECT

DRAWING TITLE ...

Example Specification etc.

751110 Rev D (details of amendments) Bangash Consultants

Bangash Family Estate

SCALES/DRAWN BY/DATE ...

BANGASH ESTATE CENTRE FOUNDATION LAYOUT

1: 20, 1: 50, 1: 100/Y. Bangash/13 July 1992 Underneath the name of the person

and the date

The drawing numbers may run in sequence such as 751 or 1, 2, 3 or 100, 101, etc.

DRAWING NUMBER

The International Standard Organisation (ISO) recommends A or B ranges for paper sizes and most common are Al (594 x 841 mm) and B1 (707 x lOOOmm), for structural

4 General Requirements

detailing in concrete A2 (420 x 594mm) size is recommended. For small sketches and detailing and specifications, design teams and contractors use A4-sized (210 x 297 mm) sheets. All major drawings and site plans carry the north sign.

I.2.1

Drawing instruments

The most general instruments required for good drawings are: a drawing board, woodcase pencils, clutch pencils, automatic pencils, technical drawing pens, erasers, scales, set squares, templates and stencils. A description of these is excluded from this text as they are well known.

I.2.2

Linework and dimensioning

Drawings consist of plan, elevation and section. The structure is viewed 'square on' to give a series of plans, elevations and sections. The two basic types are: first-angle projection and third-angle projection. Dimensioning varies from country to country. Some examples are given later on in this section and in other sections of the book.

1.2.2.1 Line thickness

The following line thicknesses (based on ISO line thickness) are recommended for concrete drawings:

General arrangement drawings

Concrete outlines on reinforcement drawings Main reinforcing bars

Links/stirrups

Dimension lines and centre lines

0.35mm 0.35mm 0.70mm 0.35-0.70mm 0.25mm

Colour code Yellow Yellow Blue

White

The line thickness increases in the ratio 1: V2, for example, 0.25V2 = 0.35 etc.

1.2.2.2 Dimensioning

As stated in Section 1.2.2.1, dimension lines of 0.25 mm thickness are shown in several ways. Some are given below. A gap is necessary between the dimension line and the structural grid. Dimensions are given in different ways. In SI units, dimensions are given as follows in various countries:

Britain (BS 1192) All major dimensions shown, say, 1700 for 1700mm Codes:

Sweden Switzerland Italy

Japan Germany

1700 mm rather than 1700 1.700m

1700

1.7 m and 1700 1.7m

.. ,

General Requirements 5

USA Pakistan/India

Major dimensions in ft (feet), smaller dimensions in inches Same as USA on some projects in metres and millimetres.

1.2.3

Grids and levels

A point on the drawing can be located by a grid reference. A grid is a series of vertical and horizontal lines on the plan of the structure. They are sometimes called building grids. They may not have identical spacings but it is preferable that the spacing is constant in the same row between the grid lines. The grid lines are identified by letters and numbers. On sections and elevations, various levels are marked. Typical examples are shown in Sheet No. 1.1 for grids and levels and a proper notation is shown for reference beams and columns.

6 General Requirements

GRIDS AND LEVELS

(a) Levels on section and elevation.

SHEET NO. 1.1

S.F.L LEVELS ON PLAN

10·000

__ Y-I- EL

,---l ,10445 '

~ __J

FH.

110'335

S.F.L. 10·000

(b) Grid lines and reference system
~ ® cr
I 3A2 382 3(2
®- .. ----~ ,
• • ~ LI"\ ~
<r co co L.J
N N N N
2B4
2A2 §I 2B2 2(2
0--· .
• •
~ ~ e-r-
<r co L.J
~ .-
G}---. 1A2 1B2 1[2
• •
(c) Columns and grid lines (d) Stepped levels Q._
UJ
®-;- l-
V)

[, 1140 ·050 1
1140'0001
--t-
~ i I
"fi'
HOl ' -, ..
--I 45° SPLAY
base , IIUNDER
l " l
, 1 1 "
-t mill ' I General Requirements 7

1.2.4

Sections and elevation marker

The exact style cannot easily be determined as it varies from country to country. In a way, it is not important what style is used, as long as it is simple and dear. The markers are located on the plane of the section or elevation with indicators pointing in the direction of the view. The section markers must be shown in the correct direction and the letters must read from the bottom of the drawing. Some of them are shown later on various drawings and details in this book either with horizontal and vertical thick lines

j_j

or arrow heads of the types shown. In some important cases two thick lines are shown. Where sections are indicated they are marked as shown below.

x-x

A-A

Similar markers can be seen on different drawings. The author has deliberately changed these markers on drawings to give the reader a choice of any marker that he or she wishes to adopt.

1.2.5 Symbols and abbreviations
aggregate agg centres crs
bitumen bit centre to centre c/c
blockwork blk centre line <L
brickwork bwk finished floor level FFL
building bldg structural floor level SFL
column col average av
concrete conc external ext
damp proof course/ dpc/dpm figure FIG or fig
membrane internal int
diameter dia, 0 holes his or HOLES
drawing drg radius rad
elevation EL inside/outside dia id/od
foundation fdn sheet sh
full size FS horizontal/vertical hor/vert
setting out point SOP not to scale NTS or nts
setting out line SOL bottom B or b
near face NF top Tor t
far face FF existing level
each face EF (plan) x 100000
each way EW section ..sz.IO ooo 8 General Requirements

HOLES, RECESSES, NIBS AND KERBS

(a) Holes in concrete structures

GROUP

SHEET NO. 1.2

(b) Pockets and recesses

PKT. 30 DEEP

, -H-1'

--M-

I I 1~4NO. PKT

t-+----t 90 DEEP

I

(c) Nibs and kerbs on beams

NIB ,.....----- 200 DEEP

BE AM -------

I

1==r---

, I

KERB L---150 HIGH

General Requirements 9

square

right hand sketch number approximately specifications pockets

kerb

nib

sq rh sk

no or NO appro x spec PKT KERB NIB

metre millimetre minimum

m mm mm

With reference to reinforcement far face outer layer Fl

far face second layer F2

near face outer layer Nl

near face second layer N2

bottom/top face outer layer Bl/TI or b l/tl bottom/top face second layer B2/TI or b2/t2

1.2.6

Holes, pockets, recesses, nibs and kerbs (curbs)

They are either shown as thin cross-lines or single diagonal lines with appropriate symbols. A typical example is shown on Sheet No. 1.2.

10 General Requirements

I.2.7 Reinforcement size

A standard range of bars and sizes is available for use in reinforced concrete. They may be hot-rolled (mild steel, high yield steel) or cold-worked (high yield steel). Bars are made in a range of diameters from 8 to 40 mm. Special sizes of 6 and 50 mm are seldom available. The specification for steel covers chemical composition, tensile strength, ductility, bond strength, weldability and cross-sectional area. It is important to compare these bars with the American system bars. It is useful in case the drawings are done using American steels.

Bars
Britain. Europe,
Japan. Russia:
Bar types (mm) 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40
USA. Canada,
S. America:
Bar types (mm)
denoted by #
or no. #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #R #9 #10 #11 #14 #IR
(22 mm) (29mm) (35 mm) (43mm) (57mm)
Area (rnrrr ) 50 78 113 201 314 387 491 645 804 1006 1257 1452 2581 1.2.7.1 Spacing and arrangement of bars

Bars are spaced on the basis of a number of factors which include beam sizes, aggregate sizes, spacers, concrete cover and many others including requirements imposed by other services. Sheet No. 1.3 gives a summary of spacing and arrangement of bars. Both single and group bars are shown. A number of other combinations are possible. When bars of different diameters are used, they tend to be grouped in similar sizes. Some of them are:

10,12,16; 16,20; 20,25; 16,20,25; 20,25,32.

I.2.8

Fabric

Fabric reinforcement is manufactured to BS 4483 and to STM requirements. There arc four types of fabric, made from hard drawn mild steel wire of fy = 485 Nzrnm" or from cold-worked high yield bars:

(a) Square mesh fabric

regular bars of lightweight (A Type). They are used in walls

and slabs.

main wires 100 mm crs (B Type), cross-wires 200 mm crs. main wires 100mm crs (C Type), cross-wires 400mm crs. lightweight square mesh (D Type) encased conditions for

fire resistance mainwire cross-sectional area 252 mm"; fy = 250N/mm2•

(b) Structural fabric (c) Long mesh fabric (d) Wrapping fabric

General Requirements 11

The following chart gives the parameters for fabric reinforcement:

Mesh type Size of wires Area Weight
(mm) (mm") (kg/m")
Main Cross Main Cross
1. Square mesh (200 x 200)
A393 10 10 393 6.16
A252 8 8 252 3.95
A193 7 7 193 3.02
A142 6 6 147 2.22
A98 5 5 98 1.54
2. Structural fabric (100 x 200)
B1131 12 8 1131 252 10.90
B785 10 8 785 252 8.14
B503 8 8 503 252 5.93
B386 7 7 385 193 4.53
B283 6 7 283 193 3.73
B196 5 7 196 193 3.05
3. Long mesh fabric (100 x 400)
C785 10 6 785 70.8 6.72
C636 9 6 636 70.8 5.55
C503 8 5 503 49.0 4.34
C385 7 5 385 49.0 3.41
C283 6 5 283 49.0 2.61
4. Wrapping fabric
D49 (100 x 100) 2.5 2.5 49 49 0.76
D98 (200 x 200) 5.0 5.0 98 98 1.54 1.2.9

Cover to reinforcement

The distance between the outermost bars and the concrete face is termed the cover. The cover provides protection against corrosion, fire and other accidental loads. For the bond to be effective an effective cover is needed. Various concrete codes allow grouping or bundling of bars and in such a case the perimeter around a bundle determines the equivalent area of a 'single bar'. The cover also depends on the grade of concrete and the full range of exposure conditions.

The table overleaf gives the nominal cover for such conditions. For concrete against water and earth faces, the cover shall be at least 75 mm.

1.2.10

Dimensional tolerance and spacers

Dimensional tolerance should be allowed at several stages in reinforced concrete detailing, e.g. bar bending, provision of shutter and fixing of reinforcement.

On-site minimum cover = Nominal cover - Tolerance of 5 mm.

Spacers as shown in Sheet No. 1.3 are needed to achieve the required cover between bars and the shutter. They are cast into the concrete. There are different types of

12 General Requirements

SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT OF BARS

SHEET NO. 1.3

(a) Spacing of bars

INDIVIDUAL TW INNED BUNDLED
• • .- - - -- • • ._ A & &_
b b b b
. - - - • • .-
• • - -- I • I
I a II a I lal lal I a II a I I a I I a I
b ~ ~ hagg b ~ h + 5mm b ~ ~ hagg b~h + 15mm
agg agg
a ~¢e and
a >¢ e and a >hagg + 5mm a ~ hagg +15mm
hagg IS THE MAX SIZE OF THE COARSE AGGREGATE (b) Bar arrangements (i)

b

GA PS VERTICALLY IN LINE

• •

BAR SIZE

(ij)

Ill. l JlI I ,SPACE, 30 Il ft Jlj) I·

~ ~ I lUll! I L-. _._._._._ • .......J

(iii)

• •••••••

• •••••••

• •••••••

• • • • •

• • • • •

•• • • •••••••• ••••••••

(iv)

75 75

... '" ~. _ .....

••• •• • •• ••• •• • •• • •••••••••

75

••• N •••

••• • •• •••••••

General Requirements 13
Conditions of exposure Nominal cover" (mm)
Mild 25 20 20** 20** 20**
Moderate 35 30 25 20
Severe 40 30 25
Very severe 50+ 40*** 30
Extreme 60*** 50
Water/cement ratio 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45
Concrete grade c30 c35 c40 c45 c50 * All values in the table are for hagg maximum aggregate size of 20 mm. ** To be reduced to 15 mm provided hagg > 15 mm.

*** Air-entrainment should be used when concrete is subject to freezing.

spacers. They are normally plastic or concrete, but spacers in the form of steel chairs are also used. They serve to support the steel. All spacers must prevent the dislodgement of the reinforcement cage. They can be used for vertical bars in walls and columns and are clipped into the bars.

14 General Requirements

SHAPE CODE SHEET NO. 1.4
SHAPE METHOD OF MEASUREMENT TOTAL LENGTH OF BAR tu SKETCH & DIMENSIONS TO
(ODE OF BENDING DIMENSIONS MEASURED ALONG (ENTRE LINE BE GIVEN IN S(HEDULE

20 A A STRAIGHT
I
/1
32 hYF A+h c
I
A ., A
/1 ~
33 h~ 3J A +2h C :::>
A A
~ I
34 ~~ j A+n I

A I A
35 r~ ~-~ A+2n I I

A ~n A
37 _l~r A+ B -l12R - rt> AI
I
f---- B
I
38 11r r~~t A+B+ (-R-2<t> AI I
I.- B fT B

OR
.i.r A I
! A
B @r I j BI
A+B+(-R-2<t>
T~(~
WHERE 0 IS AT LEAST 2¢
r B~.!- (----! , A+ B+ ( B i
41 ~.----+ 0 A+B+(-r-2<t> A ,.,
............
i-A--j , IF THE ANGLE TO THE t 0
HORIZONTAL =-- 45° General Requirements 15

1.2.11

Bar shape codes

The standard shapes for the bending of reinforcing bars are generally given specific numbers called shape codes. They are listed on Sheet Nos. 1.4 to 1.8. Where construction demands a special shape not available in these sheets, a special shape code 99 of any form should be used.

16 General Requirements

SHAPE CODE (CONTINUED)

SHEET NO. 1.5

SHAPE METHOD OF MEASUREMENT TOTAL LENGTH OF BAR (l) SKETCH & DIMENSIONS TO
CODE OF BENDING DIMENSIONS MEASURED ALONG CENTRE UNE BE GIVEN IN SCHEDULE
/,,~C~ IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL 1. C
~/! ttn IS 450 OR LESS y' I
42 A+B + C + n A
,~ .
, , IF THE ANGLE =- 450 -"
f---A--1 A+2B+C+E-2r-4~ 0 43

IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL IS 450 OR LESS

A+ 2B + C + E

A ~

~

t C

45

A + B + C - 1/2 r - ¢

r

. ,

48

A+ B+ C

49

L~ A'~

D '~~_. __ .q:;' , E

~'i--c-i'\7sl-

IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL IS 450 OR LESS

A+ B+ C

.I. ....... A B..,.....·_i

D __ ~___ E

~- . -r

T'~

l_~ANDARO)

~B--i

A+B-l/2r-¢ (SEE SHAPE 37)

52

A

B~

(

A

C

- r

General Requirements 17

SHAPE CODE (CONTINUED)

SHEET NO. 1.6

SHAPE METHOD OF MEASUREMENT TOTAL LENGTH OF BAR (ll SKETCH & DIMENSIONS TO

CODE OF BENDING DIMENSIONS MEASURED ALONG CENTRE LINE BE GIVEN IN SCHEDULE

53

A+B+C+D+E - 2r - 4¢

C

r--, o

t

54

A+B+C-r-2¢

55

OR

A+B+C+D+E - 2 r - 41/)

1- A "'

J I~~E-~ ~ lJ U

f--c-

A+B+C+D+E -2r-4¢

A

B

o

2(A+B)+20¢

c

o

IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL IS 45° OR LESS

A+C

65

r (NON STANDARD)

~

A

r

~

A

72

2A + B + 25 ¢

18 General Requirements

SHAPE CODE (CONTINUED) SHEET NO. 1.7
SHAPE METHOD OF MEASUREMENT TOTAL LENGTH OF BAR (l) SKETCH & DIMEMSIONS TO
CODE, OF BENDING DIMENSIONS MEASURED ALONG CENTRE LINE BE GIVEN IN SCHEDULE
C .i.d.
I- f ~
C
73 A 2A+B+C+10<b
ttB-- A
r\ B

74 [[J 2A+ 3B+ 204> 0

~~+ Ai.d.
E
75 tHA 90 A+B+C+2D+E+104>
l B 0
, C ..
C I...

,- A ) Aid.

81 ~\) tB 2A+ 3B+ 224> ~ BI )
I
~ A
B (o.d) B (o.d)
83 * ~ t-. A+2B+C+D VaEND
-2r - 4<b C
DOWN
BEND
~ UP
wB~ B
85 A+B+ O,57C+D AI ::J=rc
-1/2 r-2,S7<b
NON STANDARD D
--
f
B
0 -+ WHERE B IS NOT GREATER HELIX
THAN A/S A = INTERNAL <b (mm)
86 C B C B = PITCH OF HELIX (mm)
_j_ B 1T' (A+d)+84> C = OV ERALL HEIGHT (mm)
I (MAX) 12 m
-'--- 20 General Requirements

REINFORCEMENT, ANCHORAGE, LAP LENGTHS AND LINKS

SHEET NO. 1.9

ANCHORAGE (BS8110 CLAUSE 3·12'8)
(a) Equivalent straight anchorage lengths
of standard hooks and bends (mm)
ANCHORAGE fy BAR SIZE, mm
TYPE VALUE N/mm2 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40
HOOK +-t4¢ 1641 250 128 160 192 256 320 400 512 640
£:
- 2441 460 192 240 288 384 480 600 768 960
EQUIVALENI CENGTH
BEND = h.
t~ ~".r 841 250 64 80 96 128 160 200 256 320

L 1241 460 96 120 144 192 240 300 384 480
~
" 'I
EQ.UIVALENT
LENGTH L=h. (b) Minimum overall depth of various U-bars (mm)

B r fy

N/mm2 8

SHAPE CODE

10

12

16

20

25

32 40

(HOOK) (HAIRPIN) 641 241 250

B '--- £-=== 841 3<:& 460

'--__ 10<:& 4<:& 460 - - - - - 250 320 400

60

75

120

150

50

100

195

65

80

100

130

160

IIROM(; .. NE~)---- 1-10_¢+2_¢+-2_5_0~_80 __ ~1_00-+ __ 12_0~_16_0-+_2_00~ __ 25_0~_3_20-+_4_00_

1241 3¢ 460 100 120 145 195 240 - - -

1441 4¢ 460 - - - - - 350 450 560

240

General Requirements 19

SHAPE CODE (CONTINUED)

SHEET NO. 1.8

99 ALL OTHER SHAPES - TYPICAL DETAILS SHOWN BELOW.
-A-l"E0
IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL 10
IS 450 OR LESS & r. IS 12<1> A
99 ·~~n OR LESS. I ~ I
A + B + C + 2n OR
I-c E+2n+B-~ T C
AA IF ANGLE WITH HORIZONTAL [0 ,~Y
IS 450 OR LESS
99 A+B+C-2 (r+ <1»
r IF ANGLE IS GREATER THAN '-l X
B~ r-C---\ 450 & r EXCEEDS 12 <I> (SEE NOTE 3)
LENGTH TO BE CALCULATED.
r- Ib
A A + B+ 11/3 C
99 l@:S_j
'~ ~
99 C A B- 4A + 20 ¢
! r ~
-.-l=Ai__l A i
99 1 ~r :2J_D sl :::JD
CALCULATE ,-
-Y- -IEl=t,

C ·1 C - . --- ._- -

General Requirements

21

Sheet No. 1.9 gives data for the reinforcement anchorages, lap lengths and links for various bar sizes and for various yield strengths of steel.

22 General Requirements

BARS, COUPLERS AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

(i) r S1 ·1

( e e 0 0
0 e ~ c
i REDUCER
SLEEVE ( 2C C~INSERT
(ii)

~ R EINFORC fNG BAR

(iv)

SHEET NO. 1.10

¢ BAR DIAMETER

ctb OUTSIDE DIAMETER L LENGTH

P PITCH

Lt TH READED LENGTH OF EACH BAR

~ S2 ~

WEDGE

(v)

() () L P Lt SLEEVE S1 WEDGE S2
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
20 35 55 1-581 40 140 200
25 43 75 1- 814 45 150 210
32 50 100 2·117 192 292
40 60 125 2-540 65 240 340 Construction joints (vii)

LEVEL 5

LEVEL 4

COUPLER

General Requirements 23

1.2.12

Anchorage length and reinforcement joints

Both cases and mats of reinforcement are assembled from individual bars of manageable lengths and weights. In order to maintain continuity of the reinforcement for large components, reinforcing bars are coupled by using bar couplers. The joints can be in tension or compression. A simple tension joint is formed with a single sleeve which is compressed onto the bar using a hydraulic press. Couplers can be developed using a combination of a threaded sleeve and a stud. The object is that the tensile strength of such an arrangement must at least be equal to the strength of the bar. Sheet No. 1.10 gives couplers with specifications and construction joints where they can be used.

The minimum lap length for bars T12 and T25 can generally be taken as 300mm and 350 mm respectively.

The American Concrete Institute (ACI Clause 11.5.5.3) Code 318-77 gives useful comparison. The tensile lap length (Id) in SI units is given by:

where db = 0 is the bar diameter; f~ = cylindrical strength of concrete; fy yield

strength of steel; Ab = area of the bar.

The lap length of the compression steel is specified as:

On Sheet No. 1.9, Tables (a) (b), the hook details are given. They are mostly in agreement with ACI code 318-77 except for the following:

4db or 40 or 4d are relevant for bars #3 to 8, Sd., or 50 or 5d are relevant for bars #9 to 11, 6db or 60 or 6d are relevant for bars #14 to 18.

Hence while following the American practice they must be included. The value of B in Table 1.9.2 is taken to be 12db. For minimum laps of compression bars in unwelded splices for bars less than 32 mm, the Russian recommendation is 20 to 30 times the diameter of the bar.

Local Bond. Sometimes the reinforcement details may be influenced by the effects of local bond stress. For minimum lap of compression a suitable length of 20 times the bar size is provided.

24 General Requirements

INTERCONNECTED BEAMS

SHEET NO. 1.11

(a) Beam grid (i)

(ii)

2T20-03 27R10-13 - 200 M2

2T25-02 SPACER

3T25-018

BEAM L..------SECONDARY BEAM

PRIMARY,

SECONDARY BEAM .pRIMARY~

2T20-~T t BEAM-I

2T20-04T

1I4-ft'f-' -'~'+--22R10 -11 - 200 S I

I ~----aI+--27 R10 -12 - 200M1 I

• 'L_ .. ~'.~~,..... 2T25-05B

~G U-BARSJ \ 2T25-078

T }' r·. "";., t---:---l,
.. I I
I
-------..... I
I I
B~ . It, . .-. '. I
.. L CONNECTI
:: .. ,. ~ ~ ..... '- r
I I

I

(d)

Holes in a beam (i)

=m;~~~~ ~ii:~

~ r-HOLE-~

~~45~ ~~iJ

(b)

Beam monolithic with walls

[END SUPPORT

I

(i)

6T20- 02T

(c) Cantilever beams

I

I '

: I"". ,..__--_,.I-----~

I ~_. I

~ -4::0Sl or 45¢..j

. ,

(e) Shear resistance of bent-up bars

(ii)

30T12-04-200 LINKS

Asb = AREA OF BENT- UP BARS

2T20-01B - .... ---

General Requirements 25

Sheet No. 1.11 shows some details of interconnected beams with and without holes and shear bars.

(a) Beam grid (Sheet No. 1.11)

Cases (i) and (ii) show the layout and a typical detailing of primary and secondary beams. Main reinforcement, shear links or stirrups and connecting U-bars are clearly indicated.

(b) Beam monolithic with a wall

When a beam is monolithic with a wall, the minimum lap or bond length of a hook shall be 0.1 X beam length or 45 times the diameter of the bar. The total steel area of the top bars with hooks shall not be less than half of the total area of main steel. This is shown in case (b) on Sheet No. 1.11.

(c) Cantilever beams

A cantilever beam shall be reinforced in a manner shown in case (c), on Sheet No. 1.11. Again, the top hooked bars of total steel area As shall have a bond length not less than half of the effective span length. Where bars are extended beyond 0.5 x length or 45 times diameter, the area of steel shall not be less than half the steel area As.

(d) Holes in a beam

There are several ways of reinforcing holes in a beam. The most well known are the square and the orthogonal layouts which are shown in case (d) on Sheet No. 1.11. In all cases the bond length beyond the hole shall not be less than 45 times the diameter of the bar.

(e) Bent-up bars

Sometimes shear links and their shear amount cannot resist enormous shear faces. The bent-up bars are introduced to resist these shear forces. A typical layout is shown in case (e) on Sheet No. I. 11.

26 General Requirements

CURTAILMENT OF BARS IN BEAMS

SHEET NO. 1.12

(a) Continuous beams without bent bars with hooks

~END SUPPORT

12 }0·081

WITH FREE SUPPORT

(b) Continuous beams with straight bars and end anchorage

NOTE: Ccf:45¢ C=0·251

C=0·151

20%

60%

100%

(c) Simply supported beams

100%

0·081

0·081

(d) Haunched beams

(i)

END HAUNCH--

"'-- MAIN HAUNCH SLOPE 1: 3

General Requirements 27

1.2.13

Curtailment of bars in beams

Bending moments and other loading effects vary from one section of the span to the other. Where maximum effects are achieved, a correct amount of reinforcement is provided. As the maximum effects are reduced, economy of reinforcement is achieved by stopping-off or curtailing bars (BS 8110 or any others). The codes generally give clear-cut rules for curtailment in different elements of structures. Cases given on Sheet No. 1.12 are based on BS 8110. Where other codes are involved, the bibliography should be consulted and the drawings modified and prepared accordingly.

28 General Requirements

BENT BARS AND COLUMN LINKS

SHEET NO. 1.13

(a) Bent bars in deep beams

(i)

ITCH

NKS

ATERAL MENSION

NeutraL

(ii)

(b) Transverse reinforcement and vertical spacing of links

(i)

(ii)

I~

LINKS F
THE FU
LAP LEN

1- A
n r<
P
~
LI
- ... L
J.. 01

U U
y OR LL GTH

LONGITUDINAL BARS

(iv) Isometric

General Requirements

29

1.2.14

Bent bars and column links

Case (a) on Sheet No. 1.13 gives bent bars as recommended by the European Code on Concrete (UC3). This case is similar to the structural detailing of bent-up bars adopted for many years in France and Germany.

Case (b) on Sheet No. 1.13 refers to column links. Longitudinal bars are the main steel, and links which contain the main steel are provided to prevent the main steel from bursting through the sides of the column. Where column lengths are such that bar splices are required they should have adequate lap lengths. The links can be of a square or a continuous helix type. A square cage is shown in the isometric view. In order to achieve continuity in the column-foundation system, starter bars of adequate length from the foundations are produced and are lapped with the main longitudinal reinforcement of the column. Details of these are fully described later on in this book.

30 General Requirements
SLAB REINFORCEMENT SHEET NO. 1.14
(a) Isometric view
(i) (ij)
MAIN STEEL d
DISTR IBUTION 3¢ FOR R BARS
~TEEL 4¢FOR T BARS UP
TO 20T
<, 50¢ FOR T BARS
), OVER 20T
ST D BEND PAST
STD BEND + «n

It.
SUPPORT WALL

(b) Simple end 40% As MIN

As

o 1l ,MAX, t,.

1= SPAN ••

1 (c) Restrained end

support

, 0-15 I» ,

MIN UNLESS

rl---+--SPECIFIEO 50 % As MIN

(d) Continuous internal support

0-31*x

I MIN )<--,--;-~---71'

50% AsTOP

MIN, 0-15P~x MIN

50% AsTOP

As

Ix = GREATER OF ADJACENT SPANS 1 or 11

COLUMN 11

I = SPAN

(e) Cantilever slab

UNLESS SPECIFIED

As TOP- 1- 5 k» or 0-31 ill
, 0-5k • , 0-75k» or '
MIN 0-151.
I I 50
L- '" ~ ~
NOMINAL_j I L t-~O % As I
US!: MIN As
TENSION MIN
0-21
k MAX I = SPAN
I ... 50%As TOP

% As IDP

• or 45¢

WHI CHEVER IS THE GREATER

(CANTILEVER)

General Requirements 31

1.2.15

Slab reinforcement and method of detailing

Sheet No. 1.14, case (a), item (i) gives an isometric view of the main steel and distribution steel in a simply-supported concrete slab. A specification based on BS 8110 is given when the wall support is given to this slab. For different end restraints cases (b) to (d) on Sheet No. 1.14 show the reinforcement arrangement and anchorages. The specifications indicated are based on the requirements of BS 8110. This sheet can be modified for other codes.

Sheet No. 1.14, case (a) shows various types of restrained ends which can be adopted for slabs. Case (b) on Sheet No. 1.14 indicates the procedure for bar curtailment in a slab recommended by BS 8110. A typical bar arrangement is shown in cases (c) and (e) on Sheet No. 1.14.

32 General Requirements

FLAT SLABS WITH DROP PANELS

SHEET NO. 1.15

Slab division

(i)

f- COLUMN STRIP -r MIDDLE STRIP ~COLUMN STRIP "I

-,r-- I
I I
-.:t
c, -- <D
0: <D -
...... .: t\ .r; t\. -
Vl
Z - _.
L ~ t_/' -: V
:::J
~ -.:t
0 --
w L/')
-
- t--

c,
iX
...... N
Vl
-- U')
l.U L/')
~ - -
0
0
L
- ~

-.:t
--
N
9: r: t\ r; t\ -
0::
......
Vl._ l- -: V ~ tJ
z
L
:::J j_~
t
[3/4 11/4 J 11/2 11/4 l3/3 (iii) D"
MIN { O·
1 0
13 l1 l3 As (STRIP)

40% As (STRIP) MIN

iscontinuous edge ?St·av. AT COL. STRIP

-11*

O'1l MAX

(ii) Section th rough flat floor slab

General Requirements 33

1.2.16

Flat slab

A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly on and built monolithically with the columns. As shown on Sheet No. 1.15, the flat slab is divided into middle strips and column strips. The size of each strip is defined using specific rules. The slab may be of uniform thickness supported on simple columns. It is more economical to thicken the slab around the columns and to provide columns with flared heads. They are called drops and stiffen the slab over the columns and, in turn, reduce the shear stress and reinforcement. Flat slabs become economical where a number of panels of equal or nearly equal dimensions are required or where, for a limited headroom, large clear floor spaces are required. These flat slabs may be designed as continuous frames. However, they are normally designed using an empirical method governed by specified coefficients for bending moments and other requirements which include the following:

(a) There should be not less than three rectangular bays in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

C5 Cl . C3

(b) The length of the bay 4 etc. shall not be greater than '3 X Width '3'

(c) The length of the adjacent bays should not vary by more than 10%.

Cases (i) and (ii) on Sheet No. 1.15 give a full picture of the panel division system and the reinforcement layout.

The drop panel is 1.25 to 1.50 times thicker than the slab beyond the drop. The minimum slab thickness is 125 mm or et36 for interior continuous panels without drops and end panels with drops or C/32 for end panels without drops or eJ40 for interior continuous panels with drops. The length C is the average length and width of the panel. For some unknown reason, when the last edge of the slab sits on a column, the details of such an edge shall be carried out as shown in case (iii) on Sheet No. 1.15.

34 General Requirements

LAPS AND BAR CURTAILMENT

SHEET NO. 1.16

(a) Restrained ends

(i) U-Bars in top (il) U-Bars extended (iii) 'Trombone' bars (iv) L-Bars in top

Ta-

Ta-

,,---___"""t---- F

,,----14-- F

Ta-

CONSIDER NO N - S T D RADIUS VERTICAL LEG>8¢

KEY F = FA CEO F VERT I CAL BA R IN RESTRAINING MEMBER

Ta=TENSION ANCHORAGE LENGTH

(b) General recommendations for bar curtailment in slabs

14----- FACE OF SUPPORT

-M SUPPORT

BM ENVELOPE

AS TOP

0'5

AS BTM

TOP BARS SHOWN STAGGERED BOTTOM BARS SHOWN ALTERNATE

'/2 LAP TO SUIT

T d:: TENSION ANCHORAGE LEN GTH

N = NORMINAL 12¢ or d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) WHICHEVER IS GREATER

BTM = BOTTOM

E:: EFFECTIVE END ANCHORAGE REQUIRED IF SIMPLE SUPPORT

¢ = BAR NOMINAL SIZE

BM,M-=BENDING MOME NT

(c) Continuous beam/slab with straight bars

INTERNAL SPAN [1

EXTERNAL SPAN [2

['/4 j L l, 14 l21 ' i 12/4
~
t·· • : • : : : : • :0
- - -7- • • • • • • _.
I I BARS__/
BARS <... BEAMS

General Requirements 35

The general layout of the reinforcement is based on both bending moments (in spans) and bending moments in addition to direct loads (on columns). Typical examples are shown in Sheet No. 1.16.

36 General Requirements

COMPOSITE SECTIONS AND CONNECTOR TYPES

SHEET NO. 1.17

H ~ n ITr m

f ... t T

E±-t} ~!f

General Requirements 37

1.2.17

Composite sections

This book gives a number of cases for detailing composite sections later. The following are the main types:

(a) steel sections encased in concrete;

(b) steel beam flanges embedded in concrete;

(c) steel studs in concrete welded to flanges of steel beams or any other sections.

Sheet No. 1.17 gives some composite sections.

38 General Requirments

EXAMPLES OF TABULAR SHEET NO. 1.18
METHOD OF DETAILING
NQTATION
COL -COLUMN
y SECT -SECTIONAL
L ELEV-ELEVATION
(i) 1 l DIMS-DIMENSION
""' ~-
-r-
(ii)
X Z A1=b JhELI

I A2 J
r -. ,
l:J /4 A2 ·1
~
- ~ 0
-: I'-- - Z
:::::i
A1 co LJ
Z
LJ') C)
Plan r- LJ Elevation
(iii)
COLUMN BASES
RE INFO RCEMENT LEVEL
BASE No. OFF X Y Z
B1 B2 D
(iv) (v) (vi)
(
E
LAP ~ A I- ~ A t
LENGTH _r7S KICKER 1 1 1
'£V~ E E E '-~I'- , E E E ,
I
f
~ i • ~ ~, •
-IF F
I B F
LEVEL D 't ~
__l _ _r:L_'_k'Y_ . - • !. ......

- ---; l<-
E E E E E
A-A
(vii)
LEVEL REINFORCEMENT COLUMN DIMS
COL No.OFF SEa ELEV
C D E F A B General Requirements 39

1.2.18 Reinforcement designation and tabular method of detailing

In this section a comparative study is given for reinforcement designation. Drawings are modified to replace British Reinforcement Designation and others are noted below.

Country

Reinforcement designation

Britain

4T25-05-250t or T, B

(4 number of 25 mm diameter high tensile bar of No; 5 at 250mm centres top (t, T) or bottom B) 4R8-06-300 Links

Sweden

4025 C 250

408 C 300 stirrups

Pakistan/India

4No. 25 mm 0 250 mm C/C

4No. 8 mm 0 300 mm stirrup spacings

Germany

4Biigel (bars) 025 Shu = 25 em

Soviet Union (now CIS)

250 (5) 4 NL 25 L ... (L = length of the bar)

France

4025 C 250

408 C 300 stirrups

USA

4#8250 crs

# 4 stirrups No. legs 300 mm crs (written in Imperial units)

All bars in slabs and other structures are designated using examples based on the Tabular Method of Detailing which is shown on Sheet No. 1.18.

40 General Requirements

1.2.19 Structural details and concrete behaviour

The choice of a structural detail can significantly influence the performance of a structure. Bond, anchorage, bearing, fire, corrosion and other properties of concrete have to be taken into consideration individually or in combination in the design and detailing of concrete structures. Where coating, grouts, binders, sealants and patching are needed, epoxy compounds are used or specified with concrete details. Since concrete is weak in tension, it is important that where bond is most important, structural details must ensure the force transfer between steel and concrete. In the case of bearings, structural details must be adequate to transfer forces from one member to another with a limited area of high local stresses. Structural details must cater for thermal expansion and creep where they are expected. The fire endurance of concrete structures is an essential part of a good design. The endurance period is generally taken as one hour plus. For high seismic risk, a certain minimum number of bars must be provided as continuous longitudinal steel for beams. For beams framing into both sides of a column, these bars must extend through the column for at least twice the beam depth without splices. The structural engineer must indicate quantities of reinforcement, cut-off points and length and location of splices to satisfy code requirements. Where concrete structures are subject to impact, reinforcement details must take into account potential zones of spalling, scabbing and cracking. The bars must span these areas.

Section II

Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs

. __ -

11.1 Reinforced Concrete Beams

Beams are structural elements carrying external loads that cause bending moments, shear forces and torsional moments along their length. The beams can be singly or doubly reinforced and can be simply supported, fixed or continuous. The structural details of such beams must resist bending, diagonal tension, shear and torsion and must be such as to transmit forces through a bond without causing internal cracking. The detailer must be able to optimize the behaviour of the beams under load. He must liaise with the structural engineer on the choice of structural details needed for particular conditions.

The shapes of the beam can be square, rectangular, flanged or tee (T). Although it is more economical to use concrete in compression, it is not always possible to obtain an adequate sectional area of concrete owing to restrictions imposed on the size of the beam (such as restrictive head room). The flexural capacity of the beam is increased by providing compression reinforcement in the compression zone of the beam which acts with tensile reinforcement. It is then called a doubly reinforced concrete beam. As beams usually support slabs, it is possible to make use of the slab as part of aT-beam. In this case the slab is generally not doubly reinforced.

Where beams are carried over a series of supports, they are called continuous beams. A simple beam bends under a load and a maximum positive bending moment exists at the centre of the beam. The bottom of the beam which is in tension is reinforced. The bars are cut off where bending moments and shear forces allow it. This aspect was discussed in Section 1.2.19. In a continuous beam the sag at the centre of the beam is coupled with the hog at the support. A negative bending moment exists at the support. Where a positive moment changes to a negative moment, a point of contraflexure or inflection occurs at which the bending moment is zero. An adequate structural detailing is required to cater for these changes. Again this aspect is discussed in Section I. The reinforcement bars and their cut-off must follow the final shape of the final bending moment diagram.

Where beams, either straight or curved, are subjected to in-plane loading, they are subjected to torsional moments in addition to flexural bending and shear. The shape of such a moment must be carefully studied prior to detailing of reinforcement. The codes including BS 8110 give a comprehensive treatment on the provision of shear reinforcement, namely links and bent bars. Again, whether the beams are simply supported, rigid or continuous the shear force diagram will give a proper assessment of the number and spacing of such bars.

Beams and Slabs 43

In circumstances where the bars are given lap lengths, they must be in line with the provisions of a code. As discussed in Section I, all bars are checked for bond using standard formulae, so that it should be possible to transfer stresses from one material to the other. The structural detailing of reinforcing bars must prevent relative movement or slip between them and the concrete.

As discussed earlier, the increased compressive area of concrete obtained by using a T-beam is not available at the support. Over the support, the compression zone lies below the neutral axis. In order to strengthen the beam at the support a greater depth with a haunch is provided. The beam will have a different section at the support from that at the centre. Special care is needed to design and detail such a beam.

44 B earns and Slabs

BEAMS

SHEET NO. 11.1

(a) Simply supported rectangular beams

(i) Ai

28 R10-03-175

(ii) Isometric view

~-MAIN BAR

(iii)

~~

040504 04 04

B-B (-(

(b) Simply supported L-Beams (i) Downstand

(ii) Upstand

" ... 2120- OB
3T20-10
.:
I I <, '"
• •
L__. - 3T20 09 B (c) Simply supported doubly reinforced beams

(i)

(ii)

MAIN COMPRESSION STEEL -----,

LINKS

A-A

BRICKWALL

.....

Beams and Slabs 45

Since beams are reinforced in the longitudinal direction against bending, Sheet No. 1I.1. a shows structural detailing of simply supported reinforced concrete beams for light loading (1I.1.a(i)) and for heavy loading (lI.l.a(iii)) together with an isometric view (If.Lafiij) indicating how main bars and links are placed. The reinforcement layouts are self-explanatory, for example under 1I.1.a(i), 28RlO-03-175 means twenty eight numbers of round ten millimetre diameter mild steel bars of identification number 3 are placed at 175 mm centre to centre. All such bar sizes and spacings are determined from the loading and secondary conditions such as fire and corrosion. Where downstand and upstand beams in construction become necessary, an optimum reinforcement layout should be devised. One such layout is shown in Sheet No. 1I.1.b. A typical doubly reinforced concrete beam layout is given in 1I.1.c(i) and II.1.c(ii).

Sheet No. B.2 demonstrates how links and bent bars are placed in relation to main reinforcement. The examples chosen are for rectangular, Land T-beams with a single system of links. A double system of links is specifically included in II.2.b(iv). Straight and inclined bars for resisting shear are detailed under 1I.2.c.

Sheet No. 1I.3.a gives reinforcement layouts for both inverted and upright T-beams. A composite bending moment diagram is given in 1I.3.b(i) with cut-off positions along with two types of reinforcement layouts. A single continuous beam is shown in 11.3.b(ii). A continuous beam with bent bars in a frame is detailed with several crosssections in 1I.3.c. Continuous beams with slabs and columns are detailed separately in Section IV.

46 Beams and Slabs

LINKS AND BENT BARS (a) Links in beams

(i)

SHEET NO. 11.2

),. ".

LINK DETAILS BAR INFORMATION (ii)

(iv) Beam lap

.. LINK ,.

BAR INFORMATION (b) (i) Links in rectangular beams

111111111

(ii) Links in L-Beams

ENDS OF BINDER~ SLAB REINFORCEMENT

(iv) Double system of links

TOP LINK COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT IN BEAM

DOUBLE ~~SYSTEM OF LI NKS

(iii) Links in T-Beams

-----o::---~

I ILSLAB

REI NFORCEMENT

SLAB REINFORCEMENT

(iii)

(iv)

Beams and Slabs 47

REINFORCEMENT LAYOUTS (a) Simply supported T -beam

(0

SHEET NO. 11.3

(ii)

252025 ~

bw = 300

2T25

Lf1 N

.--

Esso

:I150

11

2T20

150

(b) Continuous beams (i) COMPOSITE BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

CUT OFF POSITIONS -OF TOP STEEL OVER SUPPORT

MAIN

OF

(ii)

TENSION BOND

ZONE ~ I ~II LENGTH

f ·Z·

jBENT UP BAR

7

I,

TENSION ZONE

(c)

r ~TENSION ZONE 1

Ii. SUPPORT

Continuous beam in a frame with bent bars

(i) ~A ~B ~[

r

~ TENSION ZONE~

., v:"

" l' "

• "" "? ""?

.I'.>

o I .'

• •

[-[

A-A

B-B

48 Beams and Slabs

ONE-WAY SLABS ON WALLS AND BEAMS

SHEET NO. 11.4

(a) One-way simple slab

1------------------------ --------

MAIN BAR

1 _..A

1

1 ._

1

~-------------------------------

DISTRI BUT ION BAR

PLAN

I •••••••••••••••••••••• I I I I I • I I II I I I I I I ••••• 1

SECTION 1-1

I:[CI;Y ;OV:RY '}t-SRICKWALL

SECTION 2-2

(b) Simple slabs supported on concrete beams

(i) (ii)

r--LACER BARS

LACER BARS~
,L· · • I
• • • • .J
300to 45° I
l
- ~
(a) I L
/10 r- ••

:

,

.1.

l

104-----

Beams and Slabs 49

11.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Slabs are divided into suspended slabs and supported slabs. Suspended slabs may be divided into two groups: (1) slabs supported on edges of beams and walls and (2) slabs supported directly on columns without beams and known as fiat slabs. Supported slabs may be one-way slabs (slabs supported on two sides and with main reinforcement in one direction only) and two-way slabs (slabs supported on four sides and reinforced in two directions). In one-way slabs, as shown on Sheet No. lI.4.a, the main reinforcement is provided along the shorter span. In order to distribute the load, a distribution steel is necessary and it is placed on the longer side. One-way slabs generally consist of a series of shallow beams of unit width and depth equal to the slab thickness, placed side by side. Such simple slabs can be supported on brick walls and can be supported on reinforced concrete beams in which case lacer bars are used to connect slabs to beams, a typical detailing of this is shown in II.4.b. Bond and anchorage details will be the same as for simple beams. This has been discussed in Section I.

50 Beams and Slabs

TWO WAY SLAB

SHEET NO. 11.5

(a) Simply supported two-way slab

(i) 21

1 A__

r
!
I
BAR DETAILS BAR DETAILS
~

_.._ PLAN

(ii)

26T12-150

•••••••••••••••••••••

SECTION 1-1

(iii)

COVER MIN BARSIZE

SECTION 2-2

1 __..

Beams and Slabs 51

Slabs with reinforcement in two directions or two-way slabs bend in two directions. The principal values of bending moments determine the size and number of reinforcement bars in each direction. Most codes give formulae and tables of coefficients for computing bending moments in both directions. A typical layout for a two-way simply supported slab is shown on Sheet No. 11.5.

52 Beams and Slabs

BEAM AND SLAB ARRANGEMENT (a)

SHEET NO. 11.6

(b) Typical one-way slab detailing r------36T16-5-200 T1

I ,---BT12-7-200T1

r------ 40T25-7-150 T1 (STAGGERED)

B

[

r-~-- -_._-- r------ r--r:l-

r-Ht- -r--- - -r.- .-r---- - _..t-L~- 20T12-3-200 T2

, - r~ or- ~ r -, I, I (STAGGERED)

1600 l = fT) IL- '-D i

! 1 ~ ._ I I

I I I I

I I I

I 1600 I I I

I 12001 I

I .(3) - L (5) -.11 1 _II

I .1 ... 10T12-4-200 T2

I'" , " 1 i

I I Nil I

4~O ~ I i I

i • ' I _. I \ !

I' i "I I H-'l SUPPORTS

I I I I I I I

I I I, I T1 TOP COVER = 20

I -r- 1 I I 81 ~8~19r= 20

I fT) 'I I END= 40

I -- -.. ~I- I

COLUMN 83 __ -=tl- - - - - - - -I- -r- - - - -_- -I~_(OLUMN (3

-W-------------L

, PLAN 19T25-1 I 200 B 1

(i)

-r- 150 20T12-6-200 82

(ii) ~ . 4 5

6

----- ------=-------____..

Beams and Slabs 53

In R.C. building construction, every floor generally has a beam/slab arrangement and consists of fixed or continuous one-way or two-way slabs supported by main and secondary beams. Sheet No. 1I.6.a shows such an arrangement. The usual arrangement of a slab and beam floor consists of slabs supported on cross-beams or secondary beams parallel to the longer side and with main reinforcement parallel to the shorter side. The secondary beams in turn are supported on main beams or girders extending from column to column. Part of the reinforcement in the continuous slabs is bent up over the support, or straight bars with bond lengths are placed over the support to give negative bending moments. In large slabs separate reinforcement over the support may be necessary. This is also demonstrated in Section I. A typical one-way continuous slab/ beam arrangement is given in Sheet No. II.6.b for the general arrangement given in II.6.a.

54 Beams and Slabs

FLAT SLAB WITHOUT DROP PANELS SHEET NO. 11.7

(i) 16 T16-13 - 250T2
12T25-7-200 T2 12T25 -5-200J
15T20- 6-250. T2stg
~ 125~
2 rh
~tJ -I- - -I- - - .. - ~ L -
<;:)
- <;:)
::i- ._,. t-
o - .,....
Lf) - N ~ 8T20-11- 25]-
rn • + ....l
0 .,.... . " N - . 12T25-12-175 1
Lf)
N I. - ~ (141. -I- l _..~ (4l ..l
N '" --. • -.
I-r- - - -r- .1-
ffl
.,....
I 1600
-~ 1350
• (2) ... 1 ( 4) .J 9T16-8-250 T1
• • • - .
18T16-13-200 ,
T2
-.:t
I
fA rn At
150 500
2T25-9J I. (1 +2) .... 1. (2+3) 10 9 ~1 (1 1+1 ..I, COVER T1=30
2T25-1 81ult ' . - .. ;-0 • " .
.1- 81=25
I I END=30
stg =stuggered
at f = atternati ve
. - .., .... .L
.~ rn ~ -r-
.,.... 8:
0
~ +J
::} 1 -.:t I
-;, 2 ill
3 .... - .. -- --
~ - ~I<- -
Lf)
.....
'-- 6 T25 -1 ] 20082 nlt
6T25 -2 .
10T20-3 175B2alt.
L-- PLAN

10T20-J

(ii)

13

6

- ~
8 14 ,
I '1 J r 6 II I
.. _.
II~ .L
,.
! 19\0 L 4 I , I
9.10 9 10
M A-A

Beams and Slabs SS

A flat slab, as discussed earlier, if supported directly on and built monolithically with columns, may differ from a two-way slab in that it is not supported on beams. The slab may be of uniform thickness supported on simple columns. Generally the slab around the columns is thickened in order to provide columns with flared heads, known as drops. The drop stiffens the slab over the column and reduces the shear stress and the reinforcement. Codes also recommend the distribution of bending moments between column strips and middle strips as shown in Section I. A great deal of research has been carried out on flat slabs without drops. Flat slabs without drop panels and with drop panels are respectively detailed on Sheet Nos. 11.7 and II.S.

Continuous slabs with mesh fabric are given on Sheet No. 11.9. Ribbed slab panel with reinforcement details are given in II.9(iii).

Sheet No. 11.10 gives a reinforcement layout for a simple panel under missile impact. In Section IV, additional structural detailing is demonstrated for beam/slab column arrangements.

56 Beams and Slabs

FLOOR SLAB

SHEET NO. 11.8

3t.T12-01-150 T1 I

36T12-04150B1

34T12 01150T1

- - - I
- - ...
I 32T12....()1-200 T2
--.-- . -Et --.-- ----1 - .- -.- r----- . -$- . -_.-
-05-150 T2
r ~ I
r
i 24 T1 0-0 6-200
A I A
t_ t


24T12-08-250B2 I
- 1 -
30T12-05-150

. --- re, ._ r--. __ . I-- -_ --- -$--
LU -_. -
32T12-01-200 T2 1
"l
r 18T10'{)3 -250 T1 32T12-02-15081 1eT10-03-250T1 30T12

I

FLOO~C;~~~OPLAN I

1 5 1,3

-1,-·

1.3 ~I r':

. L_E_ILL 2,4 8 I ~

I SECTION A-A

SCALE'1:50

B2

T2

Beams and Slabs 57

CONTINUOUS SLAB REINFORCED SHEET NO. 11.9

WITH MESH FABRIC AND RIBBED SLAB PANEL

DETAILS OF FABRIC HERE

(i) Flat slab

{?- - ............. ----/ ""'--- -=l

U U U

(ii) Waved fabric

10T16-9-T2 2/RtB

10T25-5-T2

8T16-4-250T1 FABRIC 2T25-3-250T1

1 I 1 I 1.1
16R8-1O LINKS Ht+-l r 1 r 1 f _l_jf 16R8-6-300 Utf<S
1 I· I n
5120 -5 82 1 I J 3T25-10-B1 I I
I 2T25-2-81 STAGGERED
6 T10 -11-150 B1
16R10-7-300 UNKS
5T20 -8-B2 2/RIB
12R8-12-~ LINKS (iii) Ribbed slab panel

-_" __ ._-

58 Beams and Slabs

R.C. DETAIL OF TARGET SLAB

SHEET NO. 11.10

1625

--:r-
I 51T4.5-31c/c TOP
I 51T 6.25- 31 clc 60T TO M
~
- ~
l!..
4 7T 4.5-31 clc TOP 47T6. 25-31 ct« BOTTOM

PLAN

51T4S-31c/c

••••••• ••
24 T4.5-65 clc LINK
51T6.25-31 clc
..... •• SECTION AA

4114.5- 31 c Ic ~- :: ~"II ~l
4 7T6.25-31 clc _ ..
.......

SECTION BB Section III

Stairs and Staircases

60 Stairs and Staircases

--- I I U _

STAIRCASE REINFORCEMENT

(a) Straight stairflight supported on brickwork

SHEET NO. 111.1

A-A

6T12-05-25OT

(ii)

21T12-05-2Sl B 7T16- 01-150B


..._

7T16-04-15OT
7T16 - 02 -150B 7T16- 03-150 PLAN (Small scale) (b) Straight stairflight on beam supports

EDGE OF FLDOR SLAB

DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTION MRS 13 12 - -

(i)

(iii) BEAM STEEL

(ii)
BEAM STEEL
(iv) ~ ~- I ~
I I
I
I I
___ II

• •
(v) , , ~

BEAM STEEL r:- ,.---

:" I' · ~

I I

I I

._-.

Stairs and Staircases 61

111.1

Stairs and their Types

Stairs lead from floor to floor. They are of several types. The common ones are:

(a) a sloping slab spanning from one floor to a landing or another floor;

(b) a sloping slab carried on sloping beams from one floor to another or to a landing.

Typical reinforcement details are given for these staircases on Sheet Nos. 111.1 and 111.2. As seen there are several variations in the presentation of the structural detailing of staircases. In all situations the staircases have landings and waste as shown in the key diagram (i) on Sheet No. m.2. The dimensions are established in II1.3.a and III.3.b. The rise of the stair does not usually exceed 150 mm and the tread 250 mm including a nosing of about 25 mm beyond the vertical surface of the rise. The load for which these staircases is designed varies with the type of building. In all circumstances, the detailer must check specifications with the structural engineer prior to carrying out reinforcement details.

62 Stairs and Staircases

STAIRCASE WITH SLAB CONSTRUCTION

(i)

WAIST= SLAB DEPTH (a) Slab construction

(i)

CLEAR SPAN

LESSER OF LANDING WIDTH OR 1800mm

(ii)

LANDI NG

EXTERNAL WALL

\ I
r-, -; " I ~
\ .AREA
~ IWITH
,FUGHT FUGHT 1
----T----
AREA WITH
FLIGHT 2
-,


FLIGHT 2

~ PLAN
(b) Parts of a staircase (i)

/

SHEET NO. 111.2

LESSER OF LANDING OR 1800mm

G - GOING

N - NOSING P-PITCH R - RI SE

T - TREAD W - WASTE

(iii) I· ~ 1. ~

Stairs and Staircases 63

STAIRCASE ELEVATION

SHEET NO. 111.3

2 + 3T10 - 18

10T12 -22-150 10T12-23-150

17

9T12-25 -150

4T20-19 -300

rtI~1I 11.~6 jq 25 .r

SECTION A-A SCALE 1: 50

LANDING $Z

2+3T10-18

5 T10-20- 300

6T10-21-250

21 T1 0 -17-150

3 T10-19-3&0

9T12 -25-150

STAIRCASE ELEVATION

SCALE 1 :-50

1st

G S2'

64 Stairs and Staircases

STAIRCASE WITH THE BEAM SLAB ARRANGEMENT

A B
75 3600 3600
KICKER
I.J'l
e- .rh
1 l f ~T ~ -I -.,_
j 21T12 - 06 -350T I T -r
,I .~
, rg II
I ~
,
I " II 166
.-
I m III ~~
0 II
I.J'l
-.0 150 _SOQ JOO
m 11 60~

I II
'I co 1,1
~ ~ ~ ~~
N
,
N
2 - 0 -
~ ~ N J~
~
.- ,
m N
I ~ II ~
N ill
,11 24T12- 05 - 300B
,. I I
o 3T12-04 ~ "00 6T12 -I 104- ~-! ~
I.J'l 300T r" -'0 Iii
e-
m I' ' t- Nt-
N 0 II
I .- 0 .- 0
t- m ~~
II m I I
.. ,- II -I-
~ 12M1 -06-350T ...I L 10 T12 -07 - 300T
II ... .
3 r ... ~1. ~ - I- -'-
I SHEET NO. 111.4

'l

I

PLAN

For staircase reinforcement

details see Sheet Nos. 111.1 and 111.2.

Stairs and Staircases 65

The dimensions and other specifications are derived from the general layout of the building or structure where the stairs are to be used. Two typical layouts given on Sheet Nos. IlI.4 and 111.5 show the exact positioning of these staircases with respect to gridwork and floor levels. Sheet No. 111.4 gives beam/slab/column reinforcement layouts with respect to a staircase. Sheet No. I1L5 gives a beam/slab/column plan on a section showing levels and grid work. These staircases will have the reinforcement details as outlined on Sheet Nos. III.1 and III.2.

There are a number of other types such as stairs cantilevered from a side wall, spiral stairs with sides cantilevered out from a central column and free-spanning spiral stairs. They can be easily designed and detailed. They are not included as their use is very limited.

Precast concrete staircases have recently become very popular and a number of companies are involved in producing them. In this book Birchwood prestressed concrete staircases are shown on Sheet Nos. IIL6 to 111.9. Sheet Nos. 111.6 and I1L7 give sectional elevations and plans of staircase details. The stairs are connected to precast concrete floor units which themselves are connected to cross-landings and bearings. Sheet Nos. IIL8 and 111.9 show typical reinforcement details for stairs, bearings and landings. Loading and material specifications are given on each drawing. The standard accepts vinyl tiles, sheet or carpet direct. Where any two or more members join, it is recommended to use site-applied screed to the landing. Dimensions and details for the rise and going for these stairs are given below:

Staircase type

Rise (max.)

Going (min.)

Private - giving single access

Common - giving joint or multi-access Disabled

Institutional and assembly buildings Any type not described

220 190 170 180 190

220 240 250 250 250

The above information has been abstracted from Building Regulations Documents K:1985, M:1987 and amendment 1:1988

66 Stairs and Staircases

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES

COL. 500x 300

A

B

150 -+-f- __ ----=3::...::.S=50 ----,>f-- __ _____:;4=50'-=-0 ---,f'-:f-150

c

o LIl

~

N

3A2 0 3E2 ~

500 X 300 ~ 6 SOx 300

3~~~~~~~~~==~~

I~~I "i,~

L-~ li5501 ~ I 1

1 1 150 STEP P'~ ~I I

I ~ r1' I

250 M 0 ~1 __ 2~_..i5.2.!.l.QL~

OO~ 1\ STAIR '----1

No ,

~ m I~ I' o:l (

o N I~ 01

~ m 01

m 1650 I 125 ~~I

L ~ ..-._. NO

j i ' SFL ~I.

11 1". 111101501 I

UP ON I I I

~ 125 I I I

2 rr---------r r- =--:=...Lj__2JL2 __ .~

)-----,I~--+-+H-l- ---=-=-~ -_ -~~ll--- _ _:. -450 X300 - T

o .1 ~m I ,

o I (l)X 0

~ m .- 0 1 ~ ~ ~I

~~ 1 0 ~ I . ~ 9~

~ 1 ~ + 150S!g~W ~I

I /// 1 I

+- __ ....,t- ..... ~_-_.-_r-~._-_2.__A_2-=~_.--,.~-~rr- ... 1 -=~_-_1 A_2~_-_-=-=__-__.f'-t-' ~!

500x300 ~ 650x300

N

1

SHEET NO. 111.5

150

o o

KERB--~~ 150 HIGH.

o o LIl r-

SFL 1110.0001

150 WALL

o o LIl m

o LIl

SFL 110· 150

NIB f4-200 DEEP

1'-175

Stairs and Staircases 67

BIRCHWOOD PRECAST CONCRETE STAIRCASE

n,
0 ;::
0
ill '"'
N ~
ill
0 N
0
0
-e- SHEET NO. 111.6

l331S ,0 dOl 01 Ot2£

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68

II T031985 0013888 291 II

Stairs and Staircases

BIRCHWOOD PRECAST CONCRETE STAIRCASE

E

<,

z -"" v

II

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6.+ I I ' I I -..0'

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1 I

'1, 1

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+----------- ---S-=-2£-£------------~

Stairs and Staircases 69

BIRCHWOOD PRECAST CONCRETE STAIRCASE

Reinforcement Details-1

SHEET NO. 111.8

IZ 110 23

w II:-$- f'- -$ $
'0
0 " ,W
T "
'. "
,
w ,
~ ~ ,!!'
'"
,
, .. : l
~ " ,
" '0 : I
" ~ :-$
"-$ , '" ,~
STAIRFLIGHT MK: FI L
I No. regulred
Volume of Concrete 1.12 cubic ne t res
Tot 0 I We I 9 h t of F I I 9 h t . 2.771 tonnes 1325 ~

~14 R8 11100

1415

SUPERIMPOSED LOADING = 4 kN/m2

1315

100

r~ 112 20 230 1 .I __}_ 11021 230 B

1. Treads and risers finished smooth to receive carpet or vinyl

tiles direct.

2. Concrete strength 40 N/mm2 at 28 days.

3. Baluster pockets 55 x 55 x 140 deep.

4. All laps to be 40d.

5. Cover = 20mm.

-1--------------

""'- -

~!4 RB 22 100 s

LANDING MK: LI I No. r e c c t r e d

Volume of Concrete' 0.110,9 cubic metres Tot 0 j We I 9 h t 0 fLo n din 9 • 0.4010, ton n e s

70 Stairs and Staircases

~---- 1&.",1 I, I _

SHEET NO. 111.9

0
0
-
lJ) N
tr-
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I'- CD
a::
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-
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StLI . 9'8S1 IV S~3SI~ II DOl
OSI SGGI BIRCHWOOD PRECAST CONCRETE STAIRCASE

Reinforcement Details-2

CD N I-

If) ..... N

SGGI
- -
OL
-------- -------
- - - -
- - -
$
- - - -
N
u,
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4-0 Cll

o 3

Cll ~

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- 0 o f:>

If) ...

© Birchwood Concrete Products 1991

Section IV

Columns, Frames and Walls

72 Columns, Frames and Walls

COLUMN DETAILS AND SCHEDULE (a) Typical arrangement

(i) _crOO (ii)

4T25-01 ~1 )1 02

YAA ~ 11

A-A

( ... ) 2R10-0B III

19R10-02-200

SHEET NO. IV.1

.., ......... ~ ... EAM

Fi~"'''''''

: ~,~

(GLUM ~ »> OOWELS ~'I~ IN RXKETS

L

4T30-0 3

19R1 0-04 -250

L

(b) Column schedule

COLUMN SCHEDULE
Column Type (- 35 No 58-6 B -35No.
Reference
R1~L
-~
~l--._p;;.!- ..... ~
--
00 0-
, ,
a a a
a N N
a rn A-A l- I- 8
a , N N
a r;- ~ rn
..:t
I.J"\ a ,
N ..- C>
I- 0::: ..-
C> 0::: ,
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w 0:::
~ I.J"\
LJ N
1stSFL :i2
4·500 I.J"\
_H. r-, - r..
~
I.J"\ - m=
:; ~- 1-- ~.;-~
r-- - ~ --...; .. ......,k...
Vl
0
~
C> rn ..:t I-
a , , ~
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rn a ,
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LJ ..:t..:t
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e-
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I 1
1 (c) Column elevations

(i) (ii) 8 9

2~ ~

-~ g-

8 9

A-A C-(

~iii)

- ~ RoofSFL
r- 1-.- 8·000
120-8-
T20-9
a
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COLUMNS 58.68

Columns, Frames and Walls 73

IV.l Columns

Columns are usually under compression and they are classified as short columns or long and slender columns. Long columns are liable to buckle under axial loads. The length of the column is the distance between supports at its end or between any two floors. The effective length of a column is governed by the condition of fixity at its ends in position and in direction. Codes give the values of the effective length for a number of cases by multiplying the actual length by a factor. Columns may also be loaded eccentrically or there may be a bending moment imposed on them in addition to concentric (axial) and eccentric loads.

Reinforcement in the form of longitudinal bars is provided both in short and long columns. These reinforcements are necessary to withstand both tension and compression loads. The most efficient location of the longitudinal reinforcement is near the faces of the columns. Such locations reduce the possibility of the reinforcement buckling with the resulting inability to take the load for which the column is supposed to be designed. Such buckling is prevented by lateral reinforcement in the form of ties or closely-spaced spirals. Again, codes give detail specifications for their design including sizes, spacings and the strength of concrete. The minimum number of longitudinal bars in a tied column should be four and the minimum diameter of bar is 12 mm. Typical details of columns and ties are given in Section I. They give locations of longitudinal reinforcement in specifically shaped columns and the method of providing ties to stop them buckling in any direction.

In any large job, it is necessary to give elevations to columns with their respective cross-sections and a column bar schedule must be provided to give column reference, column type and elevation and reinforcement details at various elevations. Sheet No. IV.1 gives, in brief, all these requirements for a specific construction. As column design is based on requirements already discussed above, sizes and reinforcement may change but the layout will be identical to the one given on Sheet No. IV.I.

The reinforcement bars, depending upon a specific construction, may require couplers, provided on the lines suggested in Section I. Care is taken to provide adequate laps where construction joint detailing is needed. Again a reference is made to specific codes and to Section I.

74 Columns, Frames and Walls

R.C. DETAILS OF SLAB BEAMS AND COLUMNS

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Columns, Frames and Walls 75

In most constructions, carrying out integrated structural detailing in concrete is unavoidable. Generally in framed constructions, slabs, beams and columns are involved. Sheet No. IV.2 gives a general plan for a typical floor showing main and secondary beams, slabs and columns. Sheet Nos. IV.3 to IV.6 give examples of detailing. Various R.C. components needed for the floor are shown on Sheet No. IV.2. All structural details are self-evident and indicate how an integrated structure can be designed and detailed.

76 Columns, Frames and Walls

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Columns, Frames and Walls 77

R.C. DETAILS OF SLAB BEAMS AND COLUMNS

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R.C. DETAILS OF SLAB BEAMS AND COLUMNS

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Columns, Frames and Walls 79

R.C. DETAIL OF INTERIOR COLUMN SHEET NO. IV.6

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80 Columns, Frames and Walls

-- -_. -

SHEET NO. IV.?

STRUCTURAL WALLS

(a) Wall reinforcement isometric view

DETAILS OF

FLOOR SLAB

WEEP HO LES

SECONDARY HORIZONT AL

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BAR 80T20-08-250

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DETAILS OF No

OF STARTER BARS 80T25-175

Columns, Frames and Walls 81

IV.2

Reinforced Concrete Walls

Reinforced concrete walls are generally subjected to axial loads. A typical isometric view of the reinforcement mesh is given on Sheet No. IV.7.a. A schedule is prepared for long, short and starter bars and their cut-off lengths together with opening and closing corners. The sizes of these bars depend on a specific construction and loads carried by a wall. Sheet No. IV.S gives reinforcement details for an integrated structure, beams, slabs and walls (including shear walls and laterally loaded walls). Again codes are consulted for wall specifications and minimum bar diameters and wall thicknesses.

IV.3

Portal and Frames

Sheet No. IV.9 gives reinforcement details for three different types of portals and frames. Again the thicknesses of frames and bar sizes depend on types of load. The general layout will still assume the same shape as indicated on Sheet No. IV.lO. The frame corner reinforced with loops is shown on Sheet No. IV.1O. It is practised in Germany and is widely recommended by the Eurocode on Concrete and by the American Concrete Institute.

82 Columns, Frames and Walls

STRUCTURAL WALL

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Columns, Frames and Walls 83

PORTALS AND FRAMES

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(b) Rectangular portal with straight edges

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84 Columns, Frames and Walls

FRAME CORNERS WITH LOOP SHEET NO. IV.10

REINFORCEMENT (GERMAN PRACTICE)

(With Permission of DIN Deutsches

Institut Fur Normung E.V. Berlin, p. 63 DIN 1045)

Bar diameter dbr > 5 em and> 3 ds :S 5 em and :s 3 d,

Hooks, bends, loops, links 15 d;8 20 d, d1 and d2 ::l> 100 em d, = 0 bar diameter in em

Sections 1-1 and 2-2 are required for the design.

Transverse reinforcement or links shall be the same as on Sheet Nos. IV.8 and 9.

Section V

Prestressed Concrete

V.l General Introduction

Prestressed concrete has attained worldwide recognition in the development of industrialized construction and design. Prestressing consists of introducing imposed deformations by tensioning prestressing wires, cables or strands and tendons to a high stress which decreases with time due to various losses such as shrinkage, creep, steel relaxation, friction and wobbling effects. The word prestress is associated with the following:

(a) pretensioned concrete; (b) post -tensioned concrete.

In the case of pretensioned concrete structures, the tensioning of the tendon is carried out before concreting. The prestressing force is held temporarily either by a speciallyconstructed prestressing bed or by a mould or form. When the concrete strength reaches the specified transfer strength, detensioning and stress transfer to such structures can be performed. In practice these structures are prefabricated.

In the case of post-tensioned concrete structures, the tensioning of the tendon is carried out after casting and hardening of the concrete. This method is more effective in the design and construction of high-rise and long-span concrete structures. The design and detailing of such structures are influenced by the serviceability classification, which includes the amount of flexural tensile stresses allowed while carrying out the design/ detailing of such structures. They are then classified into individual classes which are given below:

Class 1:

Class 2:

Class 3:

no flexural tensile stresses.

flexural tensile stresses but no visible cracking.

flexural tensile stresses but surface width of cracks not exceeding 0.1 mm for members in very severe environments and not exceeding 0.2 mm for all other members.

The structural detailing of prestressed concrete members must take into consideration durability, fire resistance and stability. The relevant codes include BS 8110 which should strictly be followed for the correct evaluation of design ultimate loads and the characteristic strength of concrete and steel.

Generally high strength concrete is used for prestressed concrete work. The steel used in prestressed concrete is generally of a much higher strength than mild steel. This aspect is discussed later on in the choice and evaluation of prestressing systems.

Prestressed Concrete 87

Material data and prestressing systems are given on Sheet Nos. V.l to V.14. In such the prestressing tendons can be bonded and unbonded. The structural detailing is affected when the prestressed concrete structure is designed with bonded and unbonded tendons. Before the prestressing load is transmitted into various zones of concrete with bonded or unbonded tendons, it is necessary to protect the areas immediately under the anchorages against bursting effects caused by large loads generated by prestressing tendons.

A conventional steel in the form of reinforcing cages or helicals is provided below the anchorages in concrete to take much of the bursting effects. Codes give assistance in the design of such reinforcement, known as the anchorage reinforcement. The end areas where the anchorages rest are known as anchorage or end blocks. The purpose of such reinforcement is to transfer forces from anchorages smoothly into the concrete without causing internal cracks. The prestressing loads are affected by losses, elastic shortening of concrete, shrinkage and creep of concrete, relaxation of steel, anchorage slip and friction and wobbling effects. Again codes are consulted on these losses due to short and long term loads.

In order to sustain effectively the bending moments, deflections and shear, particularly in post-tensional systems, the tendon should be given a profile over its length where parasitic or secondary moments are to be avoided in a continuous structure. The tendon or cable shall then have a concordant profile.

V.2

Prestressing Systems, Tendon Loads and Material Properties

V.2.1

Available systems

(a) Wire/strand directly tensioned.

(b) Macalloy System using high tensile bars. (c) Freyssinet System (France).

(d) BBRV System (Switzerland).

(e) CCL System (Britain).

(f) KA System (Germany).

(g) VSL System (Switzerland).

The details of the above systems are given below.

Sheet No. V.l gives data for strand characteristics for standard, super and Dyform strands. Sheet No. V.2 is a table giving basic data for Macalloy bars listing tendon sizes, characteristic loads, bearing plates and duct sizes.

Sheet No. V.3 gives further data on cold worked high tensile bars and cold drawn and pre-straightened wire used generally in pretensioned concrete structures. Sheet No. V.4 is a monogroup for a well-known 15/15 mm normal strand system used in the Freyssinet System. A similar monogroup exists for other strand sizes. Sheet No. V.5 gives the BBRV System where a single tendon formed from individual wires is used. Sheet Nos. V.6 to V.9 give comprehensive data on BBRV tendon systems. Data for the small capacity BBRV systems are given on Sheet No. V.lO. Sheet No. V.11 shows the large tendon developed by BBRV to initially take up a WOO-tonne prestressing load. This type of tendon is used in the Dungeness B prestressed concrete pressure vessels. The stress-strain curve of this tendon and its basic data are given on Sheet Nos. V.12, Sheet Nos. V.13 and V.14 give structural detailing and data for Cabco prestressing tendons manufactured by Cable Cover Ltd.

88 Prestressed Concrete

STRAND CHARACTERISTICS

SHEET NO. V.1

Nominal Nominal Characteristic Characteristic Initial
size area strength load load
fpu Pk 0.8 Pk 0.7 Pk
mm rnrrr' N/mm2 kN kN kN
Standard 7 - wire (normal and low relaxation) to BS 3617
12.5 94.2 1750 165 132 115
15.2 138.7 1640 227 182 159
Standard 19 - wire (normal and low relaxation) to BS 4757
18.0 210 1760 370 296 259
Super 7 - wire (normal and low relaxation)
12.9 100.6 1830 184 147 129
15.4 143.2 1750 250 200 175
Dyform 7 - wire (low relaxation)
12.7 112 1870 209 167 146
15.2 165 1820 300 240 210
18.0 223 1700 380 304 266
Maxrmum relaxation for initial load 0.8 Pk 0.7 Pk
Normal relaxation strand 12% 7%
Low relaxation strand 3.5% 2.5% Prestressed Concrete 89

DATA FOR MACALLOY SINGLE BAR STRESSING SYSTEM

SHEET NO. V.2

Initial load Size of Size of
Minimum bearing duct
Size of tendon centre of 0.7 Pk 0.8Pk plate (int. dia.)
Bar No./mm anchorage kN kN mm x rnrn mm
1/20 228 260 100 x 100
2/20 455 520 200 x 100
3/20 100 single 683 780 300 x 100
1/22 263 300 125 x 125
2/22 526 600 250 x 125 40 for
3/22 788 900 375 x 125 each
1/25 ] 350 400 125 x 125 bar
2/25 120 single 700 800 250 x 125
3/25 1050 1200 375 x 125
1/28 ] 438 500 140 x 140
2/28 120 single 876 1000 280 x 140
3/28 1314 1500 420 x 140
1/32 ] 560 640 150 x 150 ] 42.5 for
2/32 150 single 1120 1280 300 x 150 each
3/32 1680 1920 450 x 150 bar
4/32 2240 2560 300 x 300 110
1/35 665 760 175 x 150 ] 45 for
2/35 1330 1520 350x175 each
3/35 1995 2250 525 x 150 bar
1/40 175 875 1000 200 x 175 ] 50 for
2/40 1750 2000 400 x 175 each
3/40 2625 3000 600 x 175 bar
4/40 350 3500 4000 400 x 350 140 90 Prestressed Concrete

COLD WORKED HIGH TENSILE BARS SHEET NO. V.3

Nominal Nominal Characteristic Characteristic
size area strength load Initial load
fpu Pk 0.8 Pk 0.7 Pk
mm rnm? N/mm2 kN kN kN
20 314 1035 325 260 228
25 491 1020 500 400 350
32 804 995 800 640 560
40 1257 995 1250 1000 875 COLD DRAWN AND PRE-STRAIGHTENED WIRE (NORMAL AND LOW RELAXATION)

Nominal Nominal Characteristic Characteristic
size area strength load Initial load
fpu Pk 0.8 Pk 0.7Pk
mm rnrrr' N/mm2 kN kN kN
4 12.6 1720 21.7 17.3 15.2
5 19.6 1570 30.8 24.6 21.6
7 38.5 1570 60.4 48.3 42.3
Maximum relaxation for initial load 0.8 Pk 0.7 Pk
Normal. relaxation wire 8.5% 5%
Low relaxation wire 3% 2% Prestressed Concrete 91

jFREYSSI' MONOGROUP-15/15 mm NORMAL STRAND SYSTEM

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