HEPATITIS

M.ANKUR BMB MSc FIRST YEAR PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by viruses, medications, or toxic agents. Viral or non-viral hepatitis. nonViral hepatitis-Acute or chronic hepatitis-

Currently 11 viruses are recognised as causing hepatitis . Two are herpersviruses (cytomegalovirus, CMV) and Epstein-barr viruses (EBV) and 9 Epsteinare heterotropic viruses.

Most common Infection with the hepatitis A virus leads to inflammation of the liver.

ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION
Mostly transmitted by oral-fecal route oralvia eating food and drinking water infected with a virus called HAV. Hepatitis A can affect all age groups. Once a person is exposed to the virus it takes between 2 and 6 weeks to produce symptoms

FEATURES
The Hepatitis virus (HAV) is a Picornavirus; Picornavirus; It is non-enveloped and contains a singlenonsinglestranded RNA packaged in a protein shell. shell. A virus is icosahedral. There is only one type of the virus.

SYMPTOMS
a short, mild, flu-like illness. flunausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. loss of appetite. weight loss. jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces). itchy skin. abdominal pain.

TREATMENT
Avoiding alcohol and fatty foods. Should get plenty of rest and eat a nutritious diet. Also ensure not to spread HAV by washing their hands after using the toilet and before preparing food.

IMMUNIZATION
The first single injection in the arm gives protection for a year. The second booster injection at 6 to 12 months extends protection for up to 10 years. Routinely recommended for young children living in areas with high incidence of hepatitis A, and anyone travelling to countries where hepatitis A is endemic.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
To prevent hepatitis A, remember to: Wash hands well after using any washroom. Eat only freshly cooked foods. Drink only commercially bottled water or boiled water in places where sanitation and the water supply are questionable and do not eat non-peelable raw fruits or nonvegetables unless cleaned thoroughly.

Likely to cause chronic long-term illness and longpermanent damage to the liver if not treated. Most frequently passed on through the exchange of bodily fluids with an infected person.

FEATURES
A member of the Hepadnavirus family. family. Consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. protein. The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity.

LIFE CYCLE

MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Having unprotected sex with an infected person. Sharing drug needles . Getting a tattoo or body piercing with dirty (unsterile) needles and tools that were used on someone else. Getting pricked with a needle that has infected blood on it . Sharing a toothbrush, razor, or other personal items with an infected person. An infected woman can give hepatitis B to her baby at birth or through her breast milk. Through a bite from another person.

SYMPTOMS
A short, mild, flu-like illness. fluNausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Loss of appetite. Weight loss. Jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces). Itchy skin.

TREATMENT
Antiviral medication is given as treatment to those with chronic symptoms to help prevent further liver damage. These medications may be injected or given in pill form. Examples are Interferon Alpha, Lamivudine and Baraclude.

IMMUNISATION Three immunisation injections are given over a period of 3-6 months. 3A blood test is taken once the course of injections is completed to check that they have worked. Immunity should last for at least 5 years.

It is caused by the virus HCV. It is spread the same way as hepatitis B, through contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or body fluid . Like hepatitis B, hepatitis C causes swelling of the liver and can cause liver damage that can lead to cancer.

CHARACTERIC FEATURES

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small , enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense singleRNA virus. virus. It is the only known member of the hepacivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviridae. There are six major genotypes of the hepatitis C virus, which are indicated numerically (e.g., genotype 1, genotype 2, etc

MODE OF TRANSMISSION
By sharing drug-injecting equipment drug(needles, heating spoons, etc). By using non-sterilised equipment for nontattooing, acupuncture or body piercing. Through exposure to blood during unprotected sex with an infected person. Through blood transfusion.

SYMPTOMS
a short, mild, flu-like illness. flunausea and vomiting. diarrhoea. loss of appetite. weight loss. jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces). itchy skin.

TREATMENT
Combination the antiviral drugs interferon and ribavirin. The antiviral drugs may cause significant side effects headaches which includeincludefluflu-like symptoms, nausea ,tiredness, body aches ,Depression ,skin rashes

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Cover open wounds, don't share razors or manicure tools. Practice safe sex. Don't share needles, razors, toothbrushes, manicure tools or other items that could bear contaminated blood. Don't allow yourself to be pierced with nonnonsterile equipment. Limit alcohol intake.

It is caused by the virus HDV. It is spread through contact with infected blood, dirty needles that have HDV on them, and unprotected sex with a person infected with HDV. Hepatitis D causes swelling of the liver.

GENOME
The HDV genome exists as a negative sense, singlesingle-stranded, closed circular RNA. With a genome of approximately 1700 nucleotides, HDV is the smallest "virus" known to infect animals.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Since the hepatitis D virus cannot infect on its own without hepatitis B, use the preventive measures outlined in hepatitis B.

It is caused by the virus HEV. Hepatitis E spread by drinking water infected with the virus. It causes swelling of the liver, but no longlongterm damage.

FEATURES
It was originally classified in the Caliciviridae family, the virus has since been classified into the genus Hepevirus of the family Hepeviridae. Hepeviridae. The virus itself is a small non-enveloped nonparticle.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Wash hands well after using any washroom. Eat only well and freshly cooked foods. Drink only commercially bottled water or boiled water in places where sanitation and the water supply are questionable, and Don't eat non-peelable raw fruits or nonvegetables unless cleaned thoroughly.

Alcoholic hepatitis is the most common precursor of cirrhosis To prevent alcoholic hepatitis, - Limit the amount of alcohol consumption.

Toxic/drugToxic/drug-induced hepatitis is caused after inhalation or ingestion of a toxin, or the use of certain medications. contraceptives and anabolic steroids. To prevent toxic/drug-induced toxic/drughepatitis, remember to: -Be aware of the lethal contents of all chemicals. -Face the spray away from the body.

Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition in which the liver is attacked by the body's immune system. Granulomatous hepatitis is a condition in which abnormal collections of white blood cells collect in the liver.

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