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A STUDY OF TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS OF

SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN RELATION TO


THEIR OCCUPATIONAL SELF EFFICACY IN
BANGALORE SOUTH
Master of Education Dissertation Proposal
Submitted By

NEHA.S
REGISTER NUMBER 1426212
Name of the Guide

Dr. Jose Cherian


Head of Department
Department of Education
Christ University
Bangalore

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
Christ University, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560029
2015-2016

TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION

03

NEED FOR THE STUDY

04

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

05

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

08

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

08

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

10

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

10

VARIABLES OF THE STUDY

11

DESIGN OF THE STUDY

11

10

TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY

11

11

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

11

12

SAMPLING PROCEDURES

12

13

HYPOTHESIS

12

14

LIMITATIONS

12

15

REFERENCES

12

1. INTRODUCTION
Education is derived from the Latin word educo meaning to train, to lead forth, to rise up etc. In
the early prehistory education began, as the adults trained the young with knowledge and skills
which was necessary for their society. In the pre-literate society education was achieved by oral and
imitation. Storytelling, knowledge, skills and values were passed on from one generation to the next.
In India we follow two types of education system namely, formal education and informal education.
Formal education is made universalised as education for all by the SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN,
which are the largest initiatives in the world. The SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN emphasizes on the
Right to education (article 21A) where Every child between the ages of 6 to 14 years has the
right to free and compulsory education. The government schools shall provide free education to
all the children. Private schools shall admit at least 25% of the children in their schools without
any fee. Formal education follows a structured system of education where there are primary,
secondary, tertiary and higher education system.

Primary (1-7 standards), secondary (8-10

standards), tertiary (11-12 standards) and higher education (UG, PG, M.Phil., PhD).
In India the Guru or the teacher is held in high esteem. Indeed, there is an understanding that
if the devotee were presented with the guru and God, first he would pay respect to the guru, since
the guru had been instrumental in leading him to God. Teacher is who provides education to the
students. Teachers with specified professionalism, qualification or credentials become teachers in
the schools, colleges and universities. The main objective of a teacher in a formal approach to
learning includes a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills, knowledge and/or thinking
skills. Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy.
The teaching method used by the teachers considers students' background knowledge,
environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the
relevant authority. There is a significant difference between primary school and secondary school
teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a
teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In
secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the
week and may have ten or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their
teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher
and parent during the course of the day. The teachers effectiveness of teaching in the secondary
school plays a significant role. Where the 5 functions of teaching namely: Preparation and
planning for teaching, Classroom management, discipline, motivation, interaction, evaluation,
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Knowledge of subject matter and B.B. Summary, Personality characteristics of Teachers, and
Interpersonal relations of teachers are been assessed periodically so as to keep a check on the
effectiveness of teaching by the teachers.
For an educational institution to grow successfully the teachers effectiveness should be
assessed periodically along with the occupational self-efficacy of the teachers so as to bring about
changes in the teaching methods and transforming the beliefs of the teacher for the best potentials of
the teachers. Self-efficacy refers to ones belief or confidence of executing the courses of action in
managing a wide array of situation, whereas occupational self-efficacy refers to assesses workers
confidence in managing workplace experience. Bandura stated that four influences lead to the
development of self-efficacy beliefs. To have a balanced growth in the educational institution there is
a necessary to maintain a correlation between occupational self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness.
2. NEED OF THE STUDY
SECONDARY

EDUCATION

MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION

SYSTEM

(SEMIS) Aims at creating a comprehensive database on secondary and higher secondary


education for facilitating planning, monitoring and related secondary education management
activities. Where profile of institution, enrolment repeaters, pass outs, teacher provisions,
infrastructure and teaching learning facilities and school level income & expenditure will be
looked upon. Woolfolk, Rosoff and Hoy (1990) reported that the teachers beliefs of personal
efficacy affect their instructional activities and their orientation toward the educational process.
Enactive attainments and actual experiences are sources of self-efficacy beliefs.
Medley (1982: 1894) has asserted, Teacher effectiveness must be defined, and can
only be assessed, in terms of behaviours and learning of students, not behaviours of teachers
Teacher Effectiveness in the present study means study of teachers functions. Teachers are
plenty but effective teachers are few in number. As teachers the effectiveness will be
increased not only by changing teaching methods but also by academic qualities, personal
qualities and societal qualities. In traditional curriculum, a teacher delivers information to
students who inactively listen and acquire facts. However, it is no longer applied for current
generations that are more dynamic. Teachers teaching methods are to be change time to time,
like there should be two way learning, initiating group activities, group discussions to be
conducted etc. To bring in change in method of teaching and the belief that a teacher believes
in delivering information is to be assessed periodically.

Moralization, modernization of teacher effectiveness is a major task in the


occupational self-efficacy. To bring about improvement in an educational institution
occupational self-efficacy training programmes to be given to teachers. The study is mainly
upon bridging the relationship between teacher effectiveness and occupational self-efficacy.
Further the study can be studied on the developing the strategies for acquiring Occupational
self-efficacy.
3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Teacher effectiveness related reviews
Taylor et al. (1970)
The researcher has used a questionnaire method of investigation to explore science teachers'
perceptions of effective teaching in science subjects. The questionnaire consisted of 106 statements
which 58 science teachers were asked to rate 'for the extent to which they considered a statement was
an attribute of an effective science teacher'. A consideration of the statements with the highest mean
ratings indicated an ideal stereotype of an effective science teacher whose teaching was pupilcentred, goal-directed, informed by an understanding and an enthusiasm for science as a field of
study, characterised by good-humoured discipline, concern for safety in the laboratory, and up-todatedness in subject matter and with curriculum innovation. Clearly, as the authors themselves noted,
some type of halo effect may have operated here which served to obscure the distinction between
attributes contributing to effective teaching and attributes which make up the ideal teacher. A factor
analysis of the statements identified eight factors which the authors interpreted as representing styles
of effective science teaching, each of which they considered 'may be effective in a different way and
under different conditions'.
David F. Robitaille , University of British Columbia :

Criteria for Assessing the

Effectiveness of Teachers Secondary School Mathematics (Mar., 1975)


The study is concerned with the problem of teacher effectiveness in the teaching of secondary
mathematics on two fronts. In the first place, highly effective teachers of secondary mathematics
were compared to minimally effective ones on the basis of certain aspects of their respective
backgrounds and their performance on several paper-and-pencil tests. Secondly, selected teaching
behaviours of the members of the two groups were compared. The population for the study consisted
of the 167 teachers of secondary mathematics in a public school system in Montreal, Quebec. Each
of the teachers was rated on a scale ranging from 1 (minimally effective) to 5 (highly effective) by
each of four judges working independently of one another. The four judges were the Assistant
Director of Secondary Education, the two Mathematics Coordinators (including the writer) for the
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school system, and the particular teacher's principal. Usable ratings were obtained for 127 of the
teachers. For these ratings, the inter-judge reliability was computed to be 0.94. This method of
evaluating teacher effectiveness was deemed the best of the available alternatives, including that of
pupil gain scores. Ryans (1960) has commented on the difficulties involved in the use of such gain
scores as a criterion of effectiveness. Each teacher was assigned the sum of his four ratings as an
effectiveness score and those whose scores placed them among either the top or the bottom twenty
per cent of the resulting distribution were asked to participate in the study. The final sample consisted
of 23 highly effective teachers (effectiveness scores in the range 16-20) and 20 ineffective teachers
(scores in the range 4-9). The results reported here indicate that there are measurable and observable
differences between highly effective and minimally effective teachers of secondary school
mathematics.
Chris Kyriacou, Department of Education, University of York : Research on Teacher
Effectiveness in British Secondary Schools (1983)
The researcher studies the teacher effectiveness based in British secondary schools that has been
divided into four main categories: studies based on teachers' opinions regarding effective teaching,
studies based on the relationship between rated teaching ability and other variables, studies based on
observations of teaching and studies based on pupils' opinions regarding effective teaching. A
qualitative study is been conducted with the support of few research articles. The study implies that
Research on teachers' and pupils' opinions regarding the characteristics and behaviour of effective
teachers suffers from a failure to distinguish adequately between the effective teacher and the
likeable, ideal or good teacher. The notion of the effective teacher itself can be broken down into a
number of aspects. For example, one researcher may be employing the term effectiveness with
regards to getting pupils through external examinations, whilst another researcher may primarily be
concerned with developing pupils' interest in a particular subject. The different aspects of
effectiveness need to be explored more fully as distinct aspects, since teacher characteristics
associated with one aspect of effectiveness may well differ from those associated with another
aspect.
Occupational self-efficacy related reviews:
1. StephenW. Raudenbush Michigan State University Brian Rowan University of
Michigan Yuk Fai Cheong Michigan State University, Contextual Effects on the
Self-perceived Efficacy of High School Teachers (Apr., 1992)

The study explores that teachers who exercise control over key working conditions and
work in highly collaborative environments have elevated self-efficacy. To implement the analysis,
the researcher gathered data on the self-efficacy of high school teachers in a sample of 16 urban
and suburban high schools in California and Michigan. A questionnaire was administered in each
school asking teachers to report their perceptions of self-efficacy for each of the classes they
taught and to report on various characteristics of these classes. The questionnaire also asked about
the personal and professional backgrounds of the teachers and their perceptions of the
organizational settings in which they worked. The data were analysed within a two-level
hierarchical linear modelling framework described by Raudenbush and Bryk (1 988). The
analysis began with a decomposition of the variance in teachers' self-perceived efficacy in to two
components: an inter-teacher component, which reflected variance in a given teacher's sense of
efficacy across classes, and an inter-teacher component, which reflected variation in the relatively
stable or global component of self-efficacy. The analysis was then expanded to investigate a
series of hypothesis about the sources of variation at each level of analysis. The hypothesis and
their rationale are presented. Only teachers of academic subjects (mathematics, science, social
studies, and English) were selected for the analysis. The final sample included 315 teachers who
provided information about 1,258 classes. An analysis of inter-teacher variation revealed that
teachers who exercise control over key working conditions and work in highly collaborative
environments have elevated self-efficacy.
2. Piety Runhaar, Karin Sanders Wageningen University, Promoting
teachers knowledge sharing: The fostering roles of occupational selfefficacy and Human Resources Management (May 27, 2015)
The researcher studies the Teachers professional development as a key to improve
education. Knowledge sharing is a learning activity with which teachers not only professionalize
themselves, but contribute to the professional development of their colleagues as well. The paper
presents two studies, aimed to explain knowledge sharing by teachers occupational self-efficacy
and Human Resources Management (HRM). In the first study we examined the impact of HRM
from a content perspective, and focused on a bundle of Human Resources Management
practices, namely, high-commitment Human Resources Management (HC-HRM). Multilevel
analyses of survey data from 410 teachers, from 30 teams, in one school, showed that highcommitment Human Resources Management strengthened the relationship between occupational
self-efficacy and knowledge sharing. The second study examined the moderating impact of
Human Resources Management from a process perspective. In this study we focused on
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distinctive Human Resources Management: employees perceptions of a visible Human


Resources Management within the school. Multilevel analyses of survey data from 282 teachers,
from 47 teams, in four schools, showed that a distinctive Human Resources Management
strengthened the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and knowledge sharing.
Although the findings are encouraging and enabled us to formulate some practical implications,
the study limitations also gave rise to suggestions for further research.
3. Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh

Doha-Qatar University,

Qatar,

Samar A.

Khasawneh The Hashemite University, Jordan, Huda A. Khalaileh


University of Jordan, Jordan: Teacher self-efficacy and classroom
management styles in Jordanian schools (October 2011)
The researcher studies two main purposes in the study. The first was to identify the degree
to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their
level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between
classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in nature and
was conducted using a survey design. A variety of statistical techniques were utilised in this
research. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) means and standard deviations
were used as the main statistical techniques. Findings of this study revealed that Jordanian
teachers practise the instructional classroom management style more than the other management
styles: behaviour management and people management. However, people management was rated
the style least practised by Jordanian teachers. Further, Jordanian teachers who participated in this
study perceived themselves to have a higher level of personal teacher efficacy compared to
general teacher efficacy. Finally, personal teacher efficacy has the highest and significant
relationship with each of the classroom management styles and classroom management styles
overall. However, general teacher efficacy was found to be correlated insignificantly with each of
the classroom management styles and classroom management styles overall.
4. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A STUDY OF TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN
RELATION TO THEIR OCCUPATIONAL SELF EFFICACY

5. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
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Teacher Effectiveness
Medley (1982: 1894) has asserted, Teacher effectiveness must be defined, and can only be
assessed, in terms of behaviours and learning of students, not behaviours of teachers Teacher
Effectiveness in the present study means study of teachers functions. The teachers teaching
effectiveness is on five areas:
Preparation and planning for teaching,
This include statements pertaining to the ability of the teacher in preparing,
planning and organizing for teaching in accordance with the course objectives by using
different source material.
Classroom management, discipline, motivation, interaction, evaluation
This area includes statements pertaining to the ability of the teacher to successfully
communicate, motivate the students and evaluate the teaching learning process and also to
maintain discipline in the classroom within the framework of democratic set-up.
Knowledge of subject matter and B.B. Summary
This area includes statement on the ability of the teacher in acquiring, retaining,
interpretation and making use of the contents of the subject he/she is dealing within the
classroom situations. Delivery of course content, and its presentation including Black
board summary constitute essential aspects of the teaching learning process.
Personality characteristics of Teachers
This area includes statements pertaining to the personality make-up and its
behavioral manifestations that have their own level acceptability or unacceptability in the
teaching profession. Ability to arouse A perceptive Mass and seeking active participation
of pupils constitute essential demand characteristics of effective teacher.
Interpersonal relations of teachers.
The ability of the teacher to adopt himself/herself to maintain cordial relations
with his/her colleagues, pupils, their parents and other persons in the community with
whom he/she is to interact as part and parcel of his/her profession from the basis to have
statements pertaining to this area.

Occupational Self efficacy


Woolfolk, Rosoff and Hoy (1990) reported that the teachers beliefs of personal efficacy
affect their instructional activities and their orientation toward the educational process. Enactive
attainments and actual experiences are sources of self-efficacy beliefs.
9

Occupational self-efficacy in the present study means to assesses the secondary teachers
confidence in managing workplace experience. Occupational self-efficacy is influenced by six
factors namely:

Confidence :
Confidence is dependence of ones own abilities.
Command :
Command is sense of control over the situation.
Adaptability :
Adaptability is ability to adjust.
Personal effectiveness :
Personal effectiveness is the inclination towards continuous development.
Positive attitude :
Positive attitude is the ability to evaluate optimistically.
Individuality :
Individuality is independence in making decisions and setting standards for
performance.

6. SAMPLING
A representative sample of 200 is drawn from the population. Simple random
sampling method is used for selecting the sample. The present study intends to determine
the effectiveness between occupational self-efficacy upon teacher effectiveness of
secondary school teachers. As teacher effectiveness is declining, the study intends to find
out how occupational self-efficacy influences teacher effectiveness. The study also
intends to find out how demographic variables (gender, type of school and salary of
teachers) influences the occupational self-efficacy upon teacher effectiveness. The study
is confined to secondary school teachers of private and government schools in Bangalore
South. The study is limited to schools that follow the Karnataka state board syllabus.
7.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To find out the relation between Teacher Effectiveness and Occupational Self efficacy.
To predict the influence of Occupational Self Efficacy on Teacher Effectiveness.
To check the effect of gender and occupational self-efficacy on teacher effectiveness.
To check the effect of type of school and occupational self-efficacy on teacher

effectiveness.
To check the effect of salaries of teachers on teacher effectiveness.
I.
II.
III.

8. VARIABLE
Dependent Variable - Teacher Effectiveness
Independent Variable - Occupational Self Efficacy
Demographic Variables
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i.
ii.
iii.

Gender : Male and Female


Type of School : Government and Private
Salaries of secondary school teachers

9. DESIGN OF THE STUDY


The present study employed survey method and is descriptive in nature.
10. TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY
The variables in the above study is been measured by survey method on the standardized
tools.
Teacher Effectiveness Scale TES Dr.(Mrs.) Umme Kulsum
To measure the level of Teacher Effectiveness of secondary school teachers on the
basis of 5 functions of Teacher effectiveness.
Occupationl Self Efficacy Scale (OSES) Sanjyot Pethe, Sushama Chaudhari, Upinder
Dhar
To measure the level of Occupational Self Efficacy of Secondary school Teachers

11. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES


Inferential:

Mean, standard deviation,

Differential:

Co-relation

T test

Regression

ANOVA

12. SAMPLING PROCEDURE

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A representative sample is drawn from the population 61,927 teachers from 6146 schools
in Bangalore city (SSA, DISE 2010-2011) where Simple random technique method is used for
the secondary level teachers of private and government schools in Bangalore south.
13. HYPOTHESES
Hypotheses 1 : There is no significant difference between teacher effectiveness on
occupational self-efficacy.
Hypotheses 2 : There is no significant prediction of occupational self-efficacy on teacher
effectiveness.
Hypotheses 3 : There is no main and interaction effect between male occupational selfefficacy and female occupational self-efficacy on teacher effectiveness.
Hypotheses 4 : there is no main and interation effect between the levels of occupational selfefficacy on teacher effectiveness.
Hypotheses 5 : There is no main and interaction effect between private schools and
government schools on teacher effectiveness.
Hypotheses 6 : There is no significant difference of teacher effectiveness of teachers between
teachers having high and moderate salary.
Hypotheses 7 : There is no significant difference of teacher effectiveness of teachers between
teachers having moderate and low salary.
Hypotheses 8 : There is no significant difference of teacher effectiveness of teachers between
teachers having low and high salary.
14. LIMITATIONS:
The study is limited to private and government schools of Bangalore south.
The study is limited to the secondary school teachers.

15.REFERENCES
Education.(n.d.).In

Wikipedia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education
Teacher.
(n.d.).
In
Wikipedia.

Retrieved,
Retrieved,

from
from

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teacher
Daramola, C. O. (Ph .D), Dept. of Educational Foundations, University of Ilorin,
Ilorin, Nigeria
BARNES, D. (1969) language in the secondary classroom, in: BARNES, D.,
BRITTON, J. & ROSEN, H. Language, the Learner and the School (Harmondsworth,
Penguin).
BENNETTS, .N. (1978) recent research on teaching: a dream, a belief, and a model,
British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 48, pp. 127-144.
http://ema.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/05/19/1741143214564773.abstract
http://mie.sagepub.com/content/25/4/175.abstract
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