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TITLE PAGE

THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON


MARITAL INSTABILITY

A CASE STUDY OF EMOHUA IN RIVERS STATE

BY

SUBMITED TO

AUGUST, 2009
CERTIFICATION

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEGDEMENT

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ABSTRACT
This research deals with the existing problem of the impact of economic crisis

on marital instability. A case study of Emohua Local Government of Rivers

State, Nigeria.

This study deals with the research problem and reason for investigation and

overview of the possible consequences of divorce on marriage and family.

A survey was made on relevant literature regarding the impact of economic

crisis on marital instability; other ethnographical case studies were equally

reviewed and the consequences of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)

as an economic recovery policy in Nigeria.

Standard methods of empirical research were applied and the proposed

hypothesis tested, and data analysed, from the data analysed a number of

findings were made. Recommendations were made to cover marital instability.

The current trend in marital instability is basically on the present economic

crisis in the country.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE.................................................................................................................1
CERTIFICATION..........................................................................................................2
APPROVAL PAGE.......................................................................................................2
DEDICATION................................................................................................................2
ACKNOWLEGDEMENT...............................................................................................2
ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................3
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................4
CHAPTER ONE............................................................................................................6
1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................6
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.......................................................................13
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY.............................................................................14
1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES................................................................................15
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.........................................................................15
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS......................................................................................16
CHAPTER TWO.........................................................................................................18
LITERATURE REVIEW / THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK..........................................18
2.0 THE CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS...........................................................18
2.1 ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A DETERMINANT OF MARITAL ..............................22
2.2 CONSEQUENCES OF MARITAL INSTABILITY ON CHILDREN, SPOUSES
AND SOCIETY.................................................................................................24
2.3 ECONOMIC CRISIS; THE STATE OF FAMILIES IN NIGERIA...........................27
2.4 OTHER CAUSES OF MARITAL INSTABILITY....................................................29
2.5 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK............................................................................33
2.6 SOLUTIONS TOWARDS IMPROVING COUPLES RELATIONSHIP TO AVOID
MARITAL BREAKDOWN.................................................................................38
CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................40
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY................................................................................40
3.0 SCOPE OF THE STUDY .........................................................................40
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN ...............................................................................41
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY ........................................................................41
3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ...............................................................................42

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3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ..................................................................42
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS ........................................................................44
3.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY .............................................................................45
CHAPTER FOUR.......................................................................................................46
DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS.......................................................46
4.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................46
4.1 SHOWS THE SEX DISTRIBUTION AND THEIR PERCENTAGE.....................47
4.2 SHOWS THE AGE DISTRIBUTION....................................................................47
4.3 SHOWS THE DISTRIBUTION BY AGE OF MARRIAGE...................................47
4.4 SHOWS THE MARRIAGE TYPE AND THEIR PERCENTAGE.........................48
4.6 SHOWS THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BY RESPONDENTS AND THEIR
PERCENTAGE.................................................................................................49
4.7 SHOWS THE INCOME PER ANNUM AND PERCENTAGE..............................49
4.8 SHOWS THE RESPONDENTS OPINION ON WHETHER INSUFFICIENT
INCOME AFFECTS THEIR MARRIAGE.........................................................50
CHAPTER FIVE..........................................................................................................54
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND
SUMMARY.......................................................................................................54
5.0 INTRODUTION.................................................................................................54
5.1 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS..............................................................................54
5.2 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................56
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................................................57
5.4 SUMMARY .....................................................................................................58
REFERENCES...........................................................................................................60
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................................................................................62
APPENDIX..................................................................................................................64
QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................................................................65

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Marriage and family have been a fundamental aspect of the society and

as such has attracted the interest of the sociologist.

Marriage can be defined differently by various scholars. It can be

defined “as a means of forming both political and economic alliance

between two unrelated linage and groups” (Ademola 1990:15). It can

also be defined as the approved social pattern whereby two or more

persons establish a family. (Osita-Njoku) and Umaoma 2001:42).

However, marriage is the oldest institution of the society (Lan Robertson

1977:10).

The family like marriage takes device forms. The traditional patterns of

family organization in African societies are based on the extended

family system. The kinship group is subsurned into social, economic

and political unit. The family is both a primary and informal system of

socialization.

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Marriage offers security, emotional or psychological support e.t.c. to both

partners and their offspring’s.

The structure of the family in any given society is related to the structure

of the economy, society and policy. The functions performed by

marriage and family are very vital to the growth and development of any

society. This has its importance or imperative for the sociologist to

devote more time in this area.

Back then amongst the Ikwerres, married life is the normal condition for

both men and women and polygamy was a symbol of high status and it

was ideal.

However, the great majority of the Ikwerre marriages are monogamous,

a reflection on the one hand the new tendency of the literate

professional and “white collar” class to acquire modern status symbol

(thus cars are replacing plural wives as status symbols). And to conform

to the norms of their Christian faith (Uchendu 1965:20).

Many sociologists have traced marriage instability to traditional

polygamous family would be conflict ridden in relatively urban

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environment than the monogamous family. That is to say that traditional

polygamous family is more stable in matrilineal rural societies than it is

when it comes into contact with western ideas about marriage. (Forde

1977:78) had argued that the traditional family system offers the best

stability for and that the best emergence of urban life and modern

economy with an occupational differentiation brings stability.

Gluckman (1959:66) was of the view that the major determinant of

stability or instability is the kinship system where there is payment of

valuable bride wealth in exchange for a woman, there is bound to be

marital stability. Yet some sociologists have also argued from the

religious and educational perspective. They hypothesized how ones

religion vis-à-vis that of the spouse could engender stability or instability

or marriage (Ademola 1985:350).

From whichever perspective it is being viewed we must accept the fact

that marriage and family institution are like any other social institution

which is bound to experience certain difficulties and changes during the

process of social transformation. It is therefore, unlikely that given the

adverse economic state of Nigeria which dated back to the early 1980s

that marriage and family institution as parts of the social system would

remain unscathed by the prevailing economic pathology’s.

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The concern of this study is motivated by the severity of the economic

crisis the national economy is passing through which according to

former president Ibrahim Babangida “has defiled solution”. The national

economy was going through a critical phase of unprecedented

economic problems, which unfortunately was the result of the

accumulation of wrong policy. Nigeria has all the potentials to be the

strongest economic power in Africa and one of the strongest in the

world by virtue of her population, abundant natural resources and

untapped man-power e.t.c.

The astronomical rise in the price of house hold goods and services

was attributed to the fall in the Naira value. The UBA monthly digest put

the percentage rise in house hold goods at 22 percent of 1981, 24

percent for 1983, 39 percent for 1984, 40 percent for 1986. And for

accommodation in many of the cities, it was 46.2 percent in 1988. The

removal of oil subsidy single handled pushed price of certain house hold

goods and services up.

The economic condition of Nigeria workers and the masses in general

deteriorated, the inflationary trend was uncontrollable, and

unemployment was on the increase as our tertiary institution were

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turning out graduates in their thousands while companies were folding

up and engaged in massive retrenchment of workers. The government

itself was in this purge exercise through its parastatals and ministries

that laid-off thousands of workers in the name of rationalization and

efficiency. The Nigerian Airways sacked 60 percent of its works force

and Nigerian Rail cooperation reduces its staff strength by 10,000.

Fashoying T. (1990:68). The national unemployment level was colossal

as many house holds become victims of the SAP which include pruning

of force and privatization and the effect were as tremendous as they

were vastating.

ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF EMOUHA L.G.A

The present Emohua Local Government was carved out of the old

Ikwerre Local Government area in 1991, with it`s headquarters in

Emohua.

Emohua Local Government area has twelve large clans comprising of

OGBAKIRI, EMOHUA, OBIBB, RUNDELE, RUMUEKPE, ELELE

ALIMINI, AKPABU/OMUDIOCA/ITU, EGBEDA, UBIMINI, and ODEGU.

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The people of Emohua are endowed with rich cultural festival like Orji,

Eri Uvo Oregbu, Egelege, Minikoro, Otuna Uknu, Ogba Ohia Wonunu

and other cultural festivals.

ECONOMY: prior to the colonial era, Emohua was an agrarian

society. Modernization and industrialization has brought a lot of social

changes in Emohua L.G.A. people now work in factories, we now have

doctors, teachers, civil servant engineers, lawyers e.t.c.

Farming was the main stay of the economy prior to the colonial era

crops like yam, cassava, and palm trees are cultivated. This reflects

some of the names which parent give to their new born babies such

name like Dimkpa, Ogbumgbada are a true reflection of the people’s

economic life. Animals like goats, sheep’s, dogs, and birds are also

domesticated. A man’s wealth in tradition system was judge by the size

of yam, beans, number of wives and children he has.

MARRIAGE SYSTEM: A man’s wealth was usually measured by the

number of wives he has and this gives eloquent testimony while

polygamy was dominantly during the pr-colonial era.

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Also a lot of prestige was attached to it. Upon the coming of the colonial

masters, monogamy is now the dominant marriage system due to the

introduction of Christianity which preaches monogamy and against

polygamy.

RELIGION: Christianity is predominantly the religion of the people of

Emohua. There are different Christian groups; they include the Roman

Catholic, the Anglican and Pentecostals. There are also a significant

number of pagans and traditionalists.

LANGUAGE: The language pattern of Emohua people is Ikwerre but

quite different from that of the Ikwerre Local Government.

BELIEF SYSTEM: The people of Emohua believe in the existence of

one true God whom they refer to as Chiokike. He is said to be the

creator of Heaven and earth. They also believe in the existence of

personal god (chi) whom they believe guides each individual from evil.

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1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The marriage institution we believe does not operate in isolation of the

economy and cannot therefore be left unscathed by the ongoing

phenomenal economy adversity. The accompanying dislocations are

very severe on the social and economic lives of Nigerians. The high rate

of unemployment, low and inadequate income, inflationary trend,

transportation cost, scarcity of food and general socio-economic

hardship has put every Nigerian and the family under severe stress.

The current “family in crisis” concern is basically about family break

down. Serious concern is primarily expressed over the ending of marital

relationship and the consequences on the children and the society,

Diana (1992: 54).

There has been mounting opinions of the public, opinion leaders

through various communication agencies on the increasing rate of

marital cases in our various courts of law. Economic crisis might have

caused problems in the family system and this could have risen from

pressures imposed by the current economic climate that has made it

possible for most of the families to provide their basic social and

economic needs. This could be as a result of inadequate income or lack

of it. Lose of job and livelihood. The consequence is inability to

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positively contribute to the upkeep of the home leading to loss of power

in the running of the home.

It is the concern of this study to investigate the impact of all these on

marriage institution and family by examining a survey data collected in

Emohua local government area of Rivers State to ascertain to what

extent or degree this economy adversity has affected the spouses with

particular reference on the instability of their marriage.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY

The objective of this research work includes the following:

a. To investigate if there has been substantial use in the level of marital

breakdown in Emohua, from the period of 1995 to 2005.

b. To investigate the impact of economic crisis on marital instability in

Emohua.

c. To show whether economic crisis was a factor and a significant

determinant of marital instability in Emohua.

d. To investigate if the environmental factor has a hand in marital

instability.

e. To demonstrate the vital role played by the economy in marital life vis-à-

vis other social relationship.

f. To also investigate whether there are other factors that affected marital

instability.

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g. To investigate finally if poverty could lead to marital instability.

1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher for proper

analytical study of the impact of economic crisis on marital instability in

Emohua.

1. There is a relationship between modernization and marital instability.

2. There is a relationship between insufficient income and marital instability.

3. There is a relationship between unemployment and marital instability.

4. There is a relationship between childlessness and marital instability.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is my expectation that the findings of this research will assist policy

makers in fashioning out good and suitable economic and social

policies that will go a long way to checkmate the economic, social and

political problems which has adversely affected the instability of

marriage.

ACADEMIC SIGNIFICANCE

This research work would be of immense help in building theories to

solve future problems.

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It would act as a reference in the library for students of various

disciplines.

This study will help to understand social change in our societies.

It will serve as a guild for the younger ones in helping them avoid

marital crisis / instability.

This would also help couples understand the environment and present

situation and proffer a lasting solution before their marriage collapses.

1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS


In the research work, most words are used interchangeably. Therefore,

for a proper understanding and comprehension of the analysis a

definition of concepts and clarification of term is necessary.

INSTABILITY: Is the quality of a situation in which things are likely to

change or fail suddenly.

MARITAL INSTABILITY: This depicts a marriage that is crisis ridden

which unavoidably may lead to separation or divorce of the couples.

This could also be as a result of intolerance by both couples.

MARITAL STABILITY: In this study, it implies marriage that is in

harmony, peace, understanding, and has created a conducive

atmosphere for the successful rearing of children of the union into

adulthood by their parents.

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MARRIAGE: This is a socially sanctioned union between one man

and one or more women with the expectation that they will play the role

of husband and wife. It could be simple said to be the legal relationship

between a husband and a wife.

FAMILY: In this study, it refers to a group of persons united by ties of

marriage, blood or adoption constituting a single household interacting

and communicating with each other in their respective social roles of

husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and

sister and creating and maintaining a common culture.

The family has different configurations such as conjugal, nuclear and

extended.

CONJUGAL FAMILY: This denotes the husband - wife unity.

NUCLEAR FAMILY: This refers to the husband and wife with or without

children.

EXTENDED FAMILY: This includes relatives beyond the nuclear family

such as grand parents, brothers and sisters of the husband and wife

and their children.

MONOGAMY: This means the marriage of one man to one woman.

POLYGAMY: This is a marriage of one man to as many women

(spouses) at the same time.

CONJUGAL RIGHTS: These are sexual rights or privileges implied by

and involved in the marriage relationship, the right of sexual intercourse

between the husband and the wife.

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CULTURAL CONFLICTS: This is the difference in culture and

background and the diversity of culture which both spouses involved in

marriage are subjected to.

POLYGAMY: In this study, it is used interchangeably with polygamy.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW / THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0 THE CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to

the sharp transition to a recession.

It is still used as part of Marxist Political economy, usually in the specific

formulation of the crisis of capitalism. It repress to a period in which the

normal reproduction of an economic process over time suffers from a

temporary break-down. This crisis period encourages intensified class

conflict or societal change or the revival of a more accumulation

process.

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An economy could be said to be in crisis if some or all of the following is

found wanting:

a. Unequal distribution of growth and development

b. Low per capita income

c. Low domestic income

d. Devaluation of the currency

e. Mono type economy e.t.c.

THE CONCEPT OF MARITAL INSTABILITY

It could be described as a situation whereby a husband disintegrates

himself from his wife. It could be in the form of divorce, separation e.t.c.

This could be as a result of sudden change by either of the spouse. This

could be economical, physical or social change.

Collins (1988:457), said that divorce is accompanied by almost endless

range of emotions like anxiety, guilt, fear, depression, sadness, anger,

bitterness, frustration, pain and sometimes thoughts of suicide.

Booth and Johnson (1998:255-272), describe marital instability as the

breakdown of communication between husband and wife which could

be caused by various variables.

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Marital instability has a direct negative effect on both spouses, their

children and the society at large. These effects could be psychological,

emotional e.t.c.

The twentieth century has been marked by more research efforts and

activities to proffer solutions to man’s problem. Social science as a field

is fraught with numerous variables that need to be x-rayed to arrive at a

reliable answer; one of such efforts will be the review of relevant

literature that will be considered in this research.

Many authors have demonstrated diverse views in their approach to the

study of marital instability in African societies. Glukman (1965) sees the

major factors at play in the stability of the family as been rooted in the

kinship system. He argued strongly that matrilineal societies fosters

long duration of marriage because the genetrical rights are acquired

through the lineage groups but where genetrical rights are acquired by

the individuals, marriage duration will be short or medium as in

matrilineal societies where genetrical rights are transferred.

However, many authors of books, Journal and researchers have come

out openly to trace out and place in their own view what causes this

marital instability are variable like education, death of spouse, infertility,

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sex, age difference, religion, mother-in-law, low level of income,

unemployment, retrenchment, structural adjustment programme.

RELIGION AS A VARIABLE

Couples are affected by their religion, its values and beliefs, Arderner

(1962: 62) observed in his simple survey report that Roman Catholics

had the lowest incidence of divorce. Okedeji, and Okedeji (1966: 19) in

a sample of 112 of Ibadan magistrate Courts divorce cases, up to 100

were Muslims and a cross check records showed that out of 708

divorces for a period of 3 months, 650 divorces were Muslims.

Fletcher (1966 : 58) in his research study among the Busoja observed

that religious affiliation affects the stability of the family.

THE AGE VARIABLE:

Adekun (1995: 95) asserted in her research study carried out in Lagos

metropolis that over 50 percent of the 4.6 percent divorce and

separated cases are higher among women who married before the age

of 20. Goode (1963) seem to concur Adedokun’s report when he noted

the importance of age in marriage. He observed the age of the man is

more affected than that of the woman because of the wider scale of

exterior factors operating upon it since he has primary responsibility to

his family. He pointed out that in America, the man of first marriage was

24 years but which dropped to 23 years and then to 22 years. As a

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result of this drop in marriage, most under aged are incapable of

providing for their family hence, there were lots of divorce cases.

2.1 ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A DETERMINANT OF MARITAL

INSTABILITY:

For more than a decade and half, Nigerians and many African states

has been under severe economic crisis. However, it is pertinent to point

out that there is dearth of researchers that have directly on the impact of

economic crisis on marital instability; consequently there is not much to

rely on how household economics in periods of crisis affects the stability

of marriage. However, no one can doubt that economic factor is related

to family instability. Rates of non-supports, desertion, divorce, and

separation in fact mortality and juvenile delinquency are higher in the

neighbourhoods of the lowest income and worst housing (Burges 1973

pp: 152) Rabbs and Selznic (1961:45) argued that there is an adverse

relationship between marital instability and socio-economic factors like

levels of income. The economic crisis brought about unemployment

through retrenchments and non-availability of jobs for members of the

family who can no longer meet up their expected family roles. The

retrenched workers are the liabilities of their families where they will not

be able to cope with responsibilities as a result of their unemployment

status. This has created an atmosphere of instability in the home.

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As a result of the economic crisis, the government introduced the

structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) to revamp the dwindling

economy. The basic thrust of the package impacted on the family, first

the reduction of the labour force by government and its parastatals

increased the level of unemployment and subsequently marital

instability.

Secondly, the removal of subsidies with respect to certain items such as

oil, had a direct adverse effect on the part of common people because

transport fares and other prices were hiked which tremendously

reduced the ability of the family in satisfying its basic needs and this has

brought about frequent rift between couples, Onyeiwu (1995:255).

Another aspect of SAP economic policy which needs re-examination is

the devaluation of the Nigerian currency which unleashed a devastating

effect on the family, because it resulted to the decline in the value of the

naira, personal and family incomes and standard of living. Because of

the rate at which the naira was losing its value under SAP, the masses

could not adequately afford the essentials of life. Their livelihood was

threatened and the family became the worst hit, (Onyeiwu 1995: 61 –

68).

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As a result of inflation, homes and heads are broken daily over

insufficient food allowances. This phenomenal rise in the cost of living

the extreme hardship it has imposed on the family is another

determinant of family instability. Guardian Newspaper Tuesday April 26,

1988: 11.

Winch (1971: 65) reported in his study on social effects of economic

depression on family in Illinois, USA, 1980 that depression has crucial

effects on interrelationship of members of the family, solidarities and

pattern of participation in the family.

Going from the above, it can be seen that economic depression

drastically affects the life of a family. It makes a once happy family to

become a war front where peace can no longer reign.

2.2 CONSEQUENCES OF MARITAL INSTABILITY ON


CHILDREN, SPOUSES AND SOCIETY
CHILDREN: Evidence gotten shows that divorce of parents plays a

prominent role in marring the future of an individual. The worst hit of this

type are children. This is due largely to the fact that the socialization

process has been hampered.

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Studies in Africa shows that children whose parents have had a divorce

or are separated are more likely to be fostered out than children whose

mothers are not divorce. It is pertinent to note that children whose

parents are divorced or whose marriage is unstable usually do badly in

schools. Many juvenile delinquents are gotten from amongst homes.

Children who find themselves in unstable homes usually are aggressive

in nature. They find it difficult in establishing any stable relationship due

to the fact that their parents who are role models make their lives hell,

thus, they shy away from making any stable affairs. It must be noted

that many such children tend to become deviants by virtue of the fact

that there was no one to monitor and control their behaviour.

SPOUSES: In a divorce situation, the worst hit is usually the woman,

she suffers more emotionally. The woman in traditional African societies

suffers a lot. She is usually blamed for the failure of the marriage.

Socially, she is looked with scorn and contempt.

It must be noted that in the traditional African society, the man gets the

children, the woman becomes the loser all round. She thus faces a lot

of stigma and isolation even from her natural family (Ellis 2002: 252).

In the case of the man, he may be forced to play alimony to the divorce

wife if the court ruled on that (though it is modern phenomenon) and in

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most cases, the man gives a false account of his earnings therefore

paying a little sum to the divorced wife.

SOCIETY: Although many divorced people later remarry, men are more

likely than women to remarry and enter into the second marriage. In

Great Britain, this means that marital breakdown places a considerable

financial burden on the society. The society in most cases is faced with

the problem of catering for the divorced and their offspring. The amount

spent in Britain cannot be estimated but probably well over 200,000,000

pounds is spent each year by the government in catering for the

divorced and separated or caring for widows and their dependents.

The society spends a great deal of time, efforts as well as finance,

which is expended on the voluntary with the marriage guidance,

counselling and assistance. These facts leads to a reduction in working

hours due to the stress involved in conflict and the instability of the

family. This is a burden to the government as it loses valuable working

time and money, which would have been used to develop a particular

society.

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2.3 ECONOMIC CRISIS; THE STATE OF FAMILIES IN
NIGERIA
Due to the poor economy which resulted in low per capital income, both

parents now work so as to be able to cater for the needs of their family.

Almost all fathers work outside the home and about 75 – 90% of

married women who have no children work outside the home during

their years of fecundity. Younger wives (21 – 29) years are twice likely

to be working as older wives (30 – 44) years. Presently more than 55%

of all married women with little children are in the labour force. Bureau

of the Census (1984: 26).

The dual career syndrome of women is one of the challenges which has

taken place in our families due to the low wages and salary of their

husbands. At the turn of the century, only about 15% labour consisted

of women and 85% of these women who did not work outside the home

were single.

Sociologist and economist have termed the upsurge of women into the

work place as one of the phenomena of this century. It is not as though

women had not previously contributed to the economy of the family. In

the pre-colonial era, women helped their husbands to work in the farms.

During the industrial revolution in Britain, women worked outside their

homes for a living. The single ones among them contributed to the

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upkeep of their parental home which they used to maintain their

residence while the married ones contributed to the families to which

they are married into.

In the 1970’s, inspite of the emphasis on fractional roles, millions of

women spurred by economic needs, personal desires and the effect of

the women’s right movement on traditional roles and values had poured

into the labour market of the nearly 28 million employed wives in the

United States, well over half have children under the age of eighteen at

home and almost a quarter of (23%) have at least one child under the

age of six. U.S Bureau of Census (1984: 26).

Lots of women are now postponing child bearing due to the fact that

they want to keep their jobs since they need the income to sustain their

family.

Studies on the level of marital satisfaction when both husband and wife

are employed outside their home, it shows that a little thing could result

in the collapse of the marriage of which employment is no exception.

One of the earliest studies carried out by Cark Don shows that wife’s

employment has an effect on marital happiness. According to him, the

marital relationship suffered by comparison with couples who had pre-

school children. Once the children are of school age, those couples in

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which the woman was working by choice and liked her work reported

better marriages than those couples in which the wife disliked going to

work or if, the wife was not employed outside home.

Some studies have been done to determine the effects of a wife’s

employment or lack of employment on the husband’s satisfaction with

marriage. One study revealed that men whose wives are employed

experience marital discord and is under more stress than the men

whose wives are home makers.

2.4 OTHER CAUSES OF MARITAL INSTABILITY


INLAW’S INFLUENCE:

In the traditional African society, the in-laws play a vital role in seeing to

it that a family stands or falls. The mother in-law in usually the most

potent of all in the family as in most cases she would like to dictate how

the family should be run. Mother in-laws are said to be especially a

source of trouble due to the fact that they are emotional and direct with

each other than men. They are usually charged with the responsibility of

maintaining ties between parents and children.

The kin and in-law influence is felt in several ways. They may come in

the form of criticism or an attempt to dominate.

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CARING FOR ELDERLY RELATIVES:

An increasing source of in-law and kin stress involves caring for the

elderly. It is as directly felt as other pressures but does not involved an

intentional effort to stir up trouble for instance, this is often the case with

responsibilities towards ageing parents and grand parents. Traditionally,

women bear the burden of this situation than men due to the fact that

they have more direct dealings with them than men do.

The men are the primary source of financial support, whether of their

own parents or of their in-laws. When the situation calls for the care of

in-laws, conflicts might arise between the spouse due to the care or lack

of care on the parent by the spouse. A vital example might be a

daughter in-law who resents running errands for her in-laws or having to

take them out, or a critical example of a mother in-law who is not fond of

her daughter in-law. This type of situation has caused marital instability

and in most cases it has lead to divorce.

In terms of money spent on parents, the daughter in-law recent the

amount spent on them. In most cases they are selfish and do not want

money to be spent on their in-laws but only for themselves, their parents

and their children.

OTHER DEMANDS:

30
One of the stresses that couples report involved those outsiders who

make demands on the couple that interfere with their marriage and

family life. This particular importance of dual worker families who often

already feed over burdened. These demands may come from

neighbours or the community. Some couples complain that

communication is all but non existence except for routine matters and

discussion of problems. Sex may be infrequent because there is so little

time as a result of outside demands. Patterns of over activity may be a

sign of trouble in the marriage if the partners desire to spend more time

as possible with each other. However, most couples even those with

conflicts between them; seem serious in their desire to find more time to

spend with each other.

POVERTY

Poverty could be said to be one of the major causes of marital

instability because it is believed that there is no “lasting love without

money” meaning the absence of money breaks the bound between

love. Spouses especially the women who get married because of the

man’s wealth find it difficult to cope when the money becomes absent

and may end up asking for divorce from the man.

31
This kind of case are found mostly on our young ladies who believe

money rules the world and money buys and build love and cannot cope

with any man who cant meet up with their needs and expectations.

INFERTILITY

This is a common problem and is mostly found among the Nigerian

homes. When a couple after one or two years of marriage are unable to

bear a child, they begin to question the woman and call her all sorts of

names forgetting that in most cases infertility are seen amongst the men

because they have a very low sperm count and that makes them

impotent or for the woman because her womb is not strong enough to

have a child or because of the number of abortions she has had.

Childlessness is a serious issue that leads to marital instability because

the mother of her husband will always ask for her grandchildren and will

always blame the woman and due to the pressure of the mother to the

son he may decide to send her out of the house or get married to a

second wife.

Marital instability has many factors and lies on the man, woman and the

state of their economy. Taking a critical view of a man who receives his

salary, forgets he has a wife and children at home and starts spending

the money on little girls or a man who consistently cheats on his wife.

There are cases of women getting married to men because of the

32
material things they possess at that given time forgetting that not

everything that glitters are gold and that change is the only permanent

and constant thing in life. Now when these changes occur and they are

unable to cope with the changes, they begin to bring out characters that

tend to shake the marriage and before you know it marital instability

sets in.

ARRANGED MARRIAGE

The couples into this are married not because of love but because their

parents want them to get marriage because of their own interest or for

political position so they give their children as an exchange for what

they get in return.

Any marriage that is not based on love, trust, understanding, respect for

each other can never work because the most important ingredient to a

successful marriage is absent.

Improper courtship and failure to seek advice from experienced

couples.

2.5 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK


This research work takes its theoretical framework from the

modernization theory. Modernization is described by Daniel Learner

(1988: 40) as a systematic process involving complementary changes in

the demographic, economic, political, social, communication and

33
cultural sectors of a society. Modernity may presumably be

conceptualized in terms of the society as an entity or it may be

segmented into phases such as social, economic or political. Taken

literally, it refers to anything which has more or less recently replaced

accepted way of doing things. Some features of modernity include such

manifestation as mass education, urbanization, industrialization,

bureaucratization, rapid communication and transportation.

A Inkeles and D.H Smith (1974: 16) noted that many modernity may be

conceived as a form of civilization characteristics of our current

historical epoch, much as feudalism or the classification empires of

antiquity were characteristics of earlier historical eras just as feudalism

was not present in the world in the 11th to the 15th century, so modernity

is not found every where on the globe. And just as modernity, feudalism

did, so modernity varies in accord with local conditions, the history of a

given culture and period when it was introduced. Within these limits

there exists a syndrome of characteristics easily recognized at both the

national and international level which makes them modern.

Moute Palmer (1973: 34) states that modernization refers to the process

of moving towards that idealized sets of relationships posited as a

modern. At the same time, he also indicates that the term “modern” will

be used to refer to an idealized pattern of social, economic and political

34
arrangements that is yet to be achieved a lot is approximated by the

worlds most economically developed states.

Puts differently, this orientation centers on a relatively recent and still an

on going historical process whether the world modernization is used or

substituted, such has the same meaning. Diamante assets that it should

not be necessary to define precisely what is meant by modernization,

except to say it is the sort of transformation.

These changes in the economical, political and social spheres of life

has brought about disintegration of the status quo of the family. Women

now seek for salaried job outside their homes and thereby making them

breadwinners of their spouses. The men in the other hand are being

faced with coping with these changes. Most couples now work outside

their homes and apart from each other and their families, while their

children are now left in the hands of maids who have little or nothing to

offer to them morally, educationally and otherwise. Due to these

pressures in meeting with the needs of their families, a lot of families

have now being disintegrated.

Over the years the marriage instability has affected the growth and

development of many Nigerian homes and children. Several factors

could be responsible for this ugly situation. This study therefore focused

on identifying some of these causes. A sample size of 120 subjects was

35
thus interviewed in Emohua Municipality of the Rivers State, Nigeria.

Responses from the subjects interviewed were analyzed with

descriptive percentage and statistics. Result indicated these cause are

in clusters of five, viz, absence of love and trust, anti-social vices,

economic, socio-cultural and sex related conditions. It was also

discovered in this study that self-control, peer group influences and

spending quality time at home are the most positive indicators to

marriage stability in our Nigerian homes.

STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME

This refers to the implementation of policies as institutional changes

necessary to modify the structure of the economy so as to enable it

main both its growth and the viability of its balance of payments in the

medium term. It is a package of economic recovery programmes aimed

at adjusting the structural setting of the economy in order to pull the

nation out of the present economic addrums and pull her hopeful on the

path of sustained reliant growth.

CUSTOMARY OR TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE

The processes and rituals vary a great deal throughout Africa. In

Emohua in particular, it involves the introduction of the families through

the intermediary, the introduction of the spouses, consent, payment of

bride price and libation rituals. The exchange that takes place ties the

36
two kin groups together so that many people are interested in the

success of the marriage.

RELIGIOUS MARRIAGE

This could be Islamic or Christian marriage. The Christian marriage as

introduced by the missionaries has tended to emphasize legalistic and

prestige factors at the expense of the societal integration aspects. As

Christian marriage is supposed to be monogamous and Muslim on the

other hand permits a man to marry more than one wife at any given

time with the koranic injunctions of equal treatment of them all by their

husbands.

ORDINANCE OR CIVIL MARRIAGE

This kind of marriage takes place in a registry. This allows for only one

wife at any time. Either of them may remarry provided legal divorce has

occurred in court. It often gives the wife and children stronger

inheritance rights than they have with customary marriage.

ECONOMIC CRISIS

In this work an economy is said to be in crisis if it has these under listed

features:

1. Increasing high rate of unemployment

2. High rate inflation

37
3. Unequal distribution growth and development

4. Stagnant economic growth and development

5. Low per capital income

6. Low gross domestic income

7. Mounting external debt

8. Low stability of the exchange rates

9. Devaluation of the currency

10. Political instability scaring away investors

11. Dependent and agro based (mono) economy.

Economic crisis thus is the hardship and unpredictability in the economy

associated with the above stated indices which make the satisfaction of

basic needs of individual and families difficulty. This situation militates

against stability.

2.6 SOLUTIONS TOWARDS IMPROVING COUPLES

RELATIONSHIP TO AVOID MARITAL BREAKDOWN

SUPPORTIVE FRIENDSHIP

The support that friendship offers and the positive role that friends play

in a family’s life have well been documented. It seems especially

important for couples to have friends who are experiencing with them

the same stage of the family life cycle and the same demands and job

38
for example, newly wedded couple whose friendship may have been

primarily with those who are single seem especially in need of making

new couples friends who are also undergoing the change to life. (Titus

1980: 189). A friendship endures the passage of time but friendship

reflects a connectedness primary of those similar ages, stages, tasks,

economic and social aspirations.

RELIGIOUS COMMITMENT

Research has consistently shown a strong positive correlation between

religious commitment and marriages success and happiness revealing

a belief that religious involvement is a major cause of marital and family

solidarity. It is not clear whether the positive correlation between

religious and marital stability is really a matter of cause and effect or if

the factors present in the personalities and background of religious

people work to keep their marriages together. It has been suggested for

example that those who are religious are more conventional and as

such, are more likely to follow a “conventionalized” patter of marriage

for life.

To investigate this point, the variables of conventionalized was

controlled for in one study, and it was reported that there was still

evidence that marital satisfaction and religious participation were

positively correlated. (Hunt and Hart on 1984: 133).

39
As a support for marriages and families, religion serves as a set of

guiding principles teaching the importance of love and personal sacrifice

for the good of those who are loved. Religion also stress duty and

responsibility as good qualities to embrace not only as personal

attributes but enhances good relationship.

Finally, for any relationship / marriage to work out without experiencing

any form of instability, there should be the key ingredient which are

love, respect, and understanding and most especially trust. Couples

should know and understand each other very well.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


This study was carried out in fourteen communities that made up

Emohua Local Government Area in Rivers state. They are:

ODEGU
UBIMINI
EGBEDA
OMUDIOGA
AKPABU
ELELE ALIMINI
RUMUEKPE

40
RUNDELE
IBAA
OBELLE
EMOHUA
OGBAKIRI
ITU

These communities are predominantly rural which means the people

there live in egalitarian society.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


The research design used in this study is the survey research design

this is amide at collecting information using a questionnaires, interview,

and observations to seek opinion of respondent on the impact of

economic crisis on marital instability in Emohua.

3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY


The sample size is from each of the community that made up Emohua

Local Government area. It is note worthy that a total of 230 people

were used to represent the population and were administered with

the questionnaire. At the end of the whole exercise 120 questionnaires

were returned.

THE SAMPLED COMMUNITIES ARE;


EMOHUA
NDELE
OBAKIRI
ELELE ALIMINI

41
TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
VILLAGES QUSETIONNAIRES QUESTIONNAIRES
ADMINISTERED RETURNED
EMOHUA 70 35
NDELE 65 32
OBAKIRI 50 28
ELELE AZIMINI 45 25
TOTAL 230 120

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES


The random sampling technique was used for this study due to

the fact that it is justifiable for every member of the Community

has the same opportunity to be chosen. From this random selection,

respondent were selected for this interview.

3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The primary and secondary types of data collection techniques were

used.

PRIMARY SOURCES

Primary data are those information in which the researcher obtain

by him or herself. This could be directly or indirectly. Examples of

primary source of data are questionnaires, interview and

observation.

THE QUESTIONNAIRE

42
These are structured questions organized by the researcher with

the view of gathering information from the respondents. The type of

questionnaires used is fixed alternative type, this was considered

as appropriate because of the type of people involved. This will

help the researcher to obtain specific answers, it will also allow the

respondents to check their information and again it makes the

study more objective.

PERSONAL INTERVIEW

In as much as questionnaires were used, the researcher chose to

use interview as another means of gathering information. Interview

were conducted so as to afford the researcher the opportunity of

clarifying certain information the respondents could not understand.

Also there are questions that could not be asked in the

questionnaires. These interview were however constructed so as to

help in understanding the minds of the interviewers.

OBSERVATION

Since the researcher has spent half of her life in Emohua and has

been a witness to those changes in both economic social and

political spheres and the inherent change in marital life of the

people. This helps the researcher to imagine the impact of economic

crisis on marital instability.

43
SECONDARY SOURCES

These are already made work or information on a particular aspect

in which a researcher used to obtain information. These include;

textbooks, magazines/ newspapers, journals, papers published and

unpublished presented at various seminars, workshop, reports, diaries,

and symposia.

3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Since our study centers on the impact of economic crisis on marital

instability in Emohua L.G.A using the data collected through

questionnaires distributed. Two hundred and thirty two questionnaires

were distributed and 120 questionnaires were duly filled and retuned.

A list of factors and strategies were granted and the required to

rate on a four point scale of Strongly Agreed [SA] Agreed [A]

Disagreed [D] ,Strongly Disagreed [SD]. The researcher’s

questionnaires were answered using the arithmetic mean, which

became the basis of data analysis and discussion of research

question as well as the research findings.

44
3.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher was constrained by various factors which include the

following. Also most of the respondents were illiterate and they also

appears to be skeptical on what might be the out come of their

information, that is whether harmful or profitable. As a matter of fact,

to carry out a study like this, it is bound to experience the following

difficulties (Limitations).

1. The researcher encountered time factor as allocated for the research

study. Thus, time factor have been one major plight faced by this

research work, hence the time used in carrying out this project research

was limited and thus has contributed into not getting much information

on a work of this nature and complexity.

2. Another problem the researcher encountered was financial constraints

to enable her work through data collecting process. and;

3. Inadequate libraries for historical data collections and related materials.

However, the researcher overcomes the limitation through self discipline

and creativity. As a matter of expedience the issue of time constraints

as mentioned above was able to overcome through the use of study

time table that the researcher prepared for herself so as to meet up

academic work and the research work.

45
While the case of inadequate libraries materials for historical data

collection and related materials were taking care of through the global

information network (internet).

These and many more the researcher used to overcome the limitation

of the study.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION

The data presentation and data analysis of this study is based on the

responses gathered from the various respondents sampled as indicated

in the previous chapter (Chapter Three- Methodology)

A total of two hundred questionnaires were sent out and only 120 of the

questionnaires were satisfactorily completed and returned.

Therefore, a percentage of 47% of the questionnaires were returned

and used for the study.

46
4.1 SHOWS THE SEX DISTRIBUTION AND THEIR PERCENTAGE

TABLE 4.1 SEX DISTRIBUTION


SEX NO. OF RESPPONDENT PERCENTAGE %
Male 80 66.7
Female 40 33.3
TOTAL 120 100

This data shows that 66.7% of the respondents are male, while 33.3%

are female. This is primarily because male respondents were more co-

operative.

4.2 SHOWS THE AGE DISTRIBUTION

TABLE 4.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION


AGE RANGE NO OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE %
20-24 20 16.7
25-29 10 8.3
30-34 20 16.7
35-39 15 12.5
40-44 10 8.3
45-49 5 4.1
50-54 20 16.7
55 & ABOVE 20 16.7
TOTAL 120 100

From the above table, the researcher found out that 16.7 percent of those

interviewed were in the age bracket of 20-24, 30-34, 50-54 and 55 years and

above, 8.3% were in the age bracket of 25-29 and 40-44 years, the age

bracket of 35-39 years 12.5% and 45-49 years were 4.1%.

4.3 SHOWS THE DISTRIBUTION BY AGE OF MARRIAGE

47
TABLE 4.3 AGE OF MARRIAGE
NO. OF
YEARS OF MARRIAGE PERCENTAGE%
RESPONDENTS
1-5 60 50
6-10 10 8.3
11-15 20 16.7
16-20 10 8.3
21- ABOVE 20 26.7
TOTAL 120 100
The Table above indicates that 50% of the respondents have been married

between one and five years, 8.3 percent revealed that they have been married

between 6-10 years, 16.7% indicates that they have been married for 16-20

years. Finally, 26.7 percent have been married for the period of 21 years and

above.

4.4 SHOWS THE MARRIAGE TYPE AND THEIR PERCENTAGE

TABLE 4.4 TYPE OF MARRIAGE


TYPE OF MARRIAGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
MONOGAMY 110 88
POLYGAMY 10 12
TOTAL 120 100

The data in Table 4 shows 88 percent of respondents practice monogamy

while 12 percent practice polygamy.

4.5 SHOWS THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP AND THEIR


PERCENTAGE.

TABLE 4.5 OCCUPATIONS


OCCUPATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
Unskilled 15 12.45
Semi skilled 60 50
Skilled 40 33.4
Professional 5 4.15

48
TOTAL 120 100

The above table indicates that 12.45 percent of the respondents are unskilled,

50 percent are semi-skilled, and 33.4 percent are skilled while 4.15 percent

are professional.

4.6 SHOWS THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BY RESPONDENTS


AND THEIR PERCENTAGE.
TABLE 4.6 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS
EDUCATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %
Primary 40 33.4
Secondary 60 50
University /HND 10 8.3
No Formal Education 10 8.3
TOTAL 120 100
The data above indicates that 40 respondents who constituted 33.4 % had

first school leaving certificate, 60 respondents which is 50% had secondary

certificate, and 10 respondents which is 8.3 % are university graduates while

another 10 respondents which is 8.3% had no formal education.

4.7 SHOWS THE INCOME PER ANNUM AND PERCENTAGE


TABLE 4.7 INCOME PER ANNUM
INCOME (N) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %
LESS THAN 40, 000 60 35
40,000-60,000 38 33
61,000-80,000 10 12
81,000-100,000 6 9
101,000-120,000 3 7
121,000-140,000 2 3
141,000 AND ABOVE 1 1
TOTAL 120 100
The table above reveals that 35 percent of the respondents earn less than N

40, 000 per annum, 33 percent earn N 40, 000 – 60, 000, 12 percent earn N

61, 000 – 80, 000, 9 percent earn N 81, 000 – 100, 000, 7 percent earn N 101,

49
000 – 120, 000, 3 percent earn N 121, 000 - 140, 000 and only 1 percent earn

N 141, 000 and above.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCH QUESTION 1
There is a relationship between insufficient income and marital instability.

4.8 SHOWS THE RESPONDENTS OPINION ON WHETHER


INSUFFICIENT INCOME AFFECTS THEIR MARRIAGE.
TABLE 4.8.1 INSUFFICIENT INCOMES
OPINION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %
Very Significant 60 50
To a moderate extent 40 33.4
Very Minimal 15 12.45
Not at all 5 4.15
TOTAL 120 100

In the above analysis, 60 respondents believe that there is very significant

effect of economic crisis on their marriage, 40 respondents agreed to a

moderate extent, 15 respondents said very minimal while 5 respondents said

that the economic crisis does not affect marriage at all.

Since the percentage of the respondents that agreed to the fact the insufficient

income has a significant effect on their marriage, therefore the researcher

accepts that there is a relationship between insufficient income and marital

instability in Emohua Local Government Area.

TABLE 4.8.2: HYPOTHESIS II

There is a relationship between unemployment and marital instability.

50
OPINION RESPONSES PERCENTAGE %
Agreed 26 22
Strongly Agreed 65 54
Disagreed 15 13
Strongly Disagreed 14 11
TOTAL 120 100

From the above data, 26 respondents agreed that unemployment has affected

the instability of their marriage, 65 % strongly agreed, 15% disagreed and 14

strongly disagrees.

HYPOTHESIS III

There is a relationship between modernization and marital instability.

TABLE 4.8.3 Do you think that the increasing participation of women in wage

labour accounts for the increasing rate of marital instability in Emohua?

OPINION RESPONSES PERCENTAGE %


Agreed 50 42
Strongly Agreed 40 34
Disagreed 20 16
Strongly Disagreed 10 8
TOTAL 120 100
Since the greater percentage agreed that the increasing participation of

women in wage labour accounts for the increased rate in marital instability and

strongly agreed respectively, therefore, the hypothesis that there is a

relationship between modernization and marital instability, it cannot be

disputed and it has therefore been accepted by the researcher.

RESEARCH QUESTION 1

TABLE 4.9.1

51
Has the present increase in unemployment affected the stability of your

marriage?

RESPONCES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %


Agreed 40 34
Strongly Agreed 60 50
Disagreed 15 12.45
Strongly Disagreed 5 4.15
TOTAL 120 100

The table above shows that 50% of the respondent supports the fact that the

present unemployment in the state affects the stability of their marriage and

12.45 % disagrees meaning that something urgently needs to be done as to

secure people’s homes.

RESEARCH QUESTION II

TABLE4.9.2 Economic depression has affected the instability of your

marriage negatively?

RESPONCES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %


Agreed 50 42
Strongly Agreed 40 34
Disagreed 20 16
Strongly Disagreed 10 8
TOTAL 120 100

RESEARCH QUESTION III

TABLE 4.9.3 Do you think that the insufficiency of your income is affecting the
instability of your marriage?
RESPONCES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %
Agreed 15 12.45
Strongly Agreed 60 50
Disagreed 40 3.4
Strongly Disagreed 5 4.15

52
TOTAL 120 100

The table above shows that 50% of the respondents understand that there is a

significant influence in the insufficiency of their income to the instability of their

marriage.

RESEARCH QUESTION IV

TABLE 4.9.4 Has SAP led to the breakdown of many homes?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %


Agreed 26 22
Strongly Agreed 65 54
Disagreed 15 13
Strongly Disagreed 14 11
TOTAL 120 100
The table above shows that majority of the respondents are of the opinion that

SAP has led to the breakdown of many homes with 54% taking the lead and

followed by 22%. 13 % disagrees and 11 % strongly disagrees.

RESEARCH QUESTION V

TABLE 4.9.5 Do you think to proffer solution to the shortcoming economy to

stabilize your marriage?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE %


Agreed 40 34
Strongly Agreed 50 42
Disagreed 20 16
Strongly Disagreed 10 8
TOTAL 120 100

The table above shows that 42% of the responders suggest that solution

should be provided to the problems of the economy. Therefore, the lowest

53
number of 8% that strongly disagrees is insignificant compare to those that

supported for solution. Which means that to proffer solution to the shortcoming

economy of the country will be helpful to the clan.

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION,

RECOMMENDATION AND SUMMARY

5.0 INTRODUTION

The investigation carried out was on the impact of Economic crisis

on Marital instability. Few of the questionnaires and the research

questions formulated for the study were analyzed using simple

percentage on the premise of factual information obtained from

the questionnaires retrieved. However, this chapter will be focused on

the discussion of finding, conclusions, recommendation, and summary.

5.1 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The discussion of findings are based on the few questions that

were given preference and the research questions analyzed in

chapter four [4] from the responses of the respondent to (15) of the

questionnaires show that the insufficiency of their income affect the

stability of their marriage. 50% of the total respondent affirmed this

statement.

54
In another development, unemployment was also observed as a cause

effect of marital instability. Tables 4.9.1 declare that unemployment

affects the stability of marriage with 50% responses against 4.15 of the

total respondent.

RESEARCH QUESTION 1:

Has the present increase in unemployment affected the stability of your

marriage?

From table 4.9.1, 60 response of the total responders indicate strongly

agreed which means that, the issue of unemployment has to be solved

in relevance to solve marital instability in Emouha.

RESEARCH QUESTION 2:
How has the Economic depression affected the instability of your
marriage negatively?

Base on the responses on table 4.9.2 we are convinced that, the

depression of the economic affects the stability of their marriages

RESEARCH QUESTION 3:

Do you think that the insufficiency of your income is affecting the


stability of your marriage?

55
The answer was strongly agreed 60 of the responses from the total

respondent was in support that the low income they get from their salary

has an effect on their marriage.

RESEARCH QUESTION 4:

Has SAP led to the break down of many marriages?

From the table 4.9.4, 54% of the responses strongly agreed while 11%

strongly disagrees. This means that SAP has also being a major cause

of marital instability

FINAL RESEARCH QUESTION 5:


Do you think, to proffer solution to the economic crisis to stabilize your

marriage?

In table 4.9.5 shows that 42% against the lowest by 8% that strongly

disagrees. From the highest percentage the total respondent was in

support for the solution because they know that there is no problem

without solution.

5.2 CONCLUSION

The economic crisis of instability has dealt a heavy blow on the

marriage institution and in most cases, it has shattered so many homes,

setting partners at the extreme pole apart.

56
Family happiness has paid dearly for this. Families are no longer what

they use to be in the past, the extended family system could not help

the matter rather it now becomes a catalyst. The society is not left alone

because the family is a primary unit of the society and therefore,

anything that affects the entire society affects the family. But above all

the children are the worst hit. We now have abandoned babies here and

there.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

Base on the findings of this research work, it is my wish to make these

recommendations:

a) The government should make polices that will create job opportunities

to her citizenry

b) There should be government support for couple[s] who lost their job.

c) The policy of retrenchment of workers should be jettisons

d) There should be a child support service from the government.

e) Couples should invest their income on meaningful activities rather

frivolous expenses.

f) There should be less pressure on the couple by extended family.

g) Before getting into marriage couples should be advised to go for proper


counselling.

57
h) To avoid any form of marital instability there should be the key things
which are love, trust, understanding and communication. This will stand

the test of time.

5.4 SUMMARY

The major aim of this study is to investigate the impact of economic

crisis on marital instability in Emohua Local Government area of Rivers

State in particular and the large Nigeria society in general. This is due

mainly to the importance of marriage in human society. The family is an

important institution which can never be ignored by sociologists; also it

is the nucleus of the human society.

From the above, the disintegration of the family nay marriage brings

about the total disintegration of the society. Its concomitant effect is

social disintegration. Marital instability is a serious problem which

should not be overlooked and it needs serious attention. Marital

instability is a social problem that requires a social change. In order to

remedy any problem we have to first find out its causes then move to

proffer a solution.

The impact of economic crisis on marital instability could be remedied

through good governmental economic policies and its strict

implementation, job security, positive family counseling, welfare

packages to cushion the effects, employment opportunities etc.

58
RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

1. Has the present increase in unemployment affected the stability of your

marriage?

2. How has the economic depression affected the instability of your marriage

negatively?

3. Do you think that the insufficiency of your income is affecting the stability of

your marriage?

4. Has SAP led to the breakdown of many marriages?

5. Do you think, to proffer solution to the economic crisis to stabilize your


marriage?

As a matter of fact, primary and secondary data collections were used

and analyzed using simple percentage.

Again the literature review of this study is very much educative and

informative that one cannot do without. It covers the concept of

economic crisis; it also talks about other causes of marital instability and

solutions towards improving couples relationship to avoid marital

breakdown. It also checks out if the economic crisis is a determinant of

marital instability.

Finally, the objectives of the study are achieved such as: to attempt an

explanation of marital instability and its negative sides; to see if there is

a significant influence of economic crisis on marital instability.

59
REFERENCES

Arderner, E. W. (1962): Divorce and Fertility: An African Study.

Oxford University Press. London.

A.Inkeles and D.H. Smith (1974): The Becoming Modern: Cambridge.

Harvard University Press.

Booth A. and D.R. Johnson. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success

(Journal of the Family Issues 9:255 – 272).

Burges E.W. (1973). On Community, Family and Delinquency.

University of Chicago Press Limited.

Bureau of the Census (1984:26)

Daniel Learner (1958): The Passing Traditional Society,

New York Free Press of Glance Inc.

Fletcher R. (1966), The Family and Marriages in Britain, Penguin

Gary R.I., Collins (1988) Christian Counseling. Milton Kegness, England.

World Publishing.

60
Goode, W.J. (1963) World Revolution and Family Patterns.

The Free Press. New York

Houston, P.B. and Hunct C.L. (1984) Sociology, McGrawHill Book Company,

London

Haralambus M. and Heald R.M. (1980) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives.

Oxford University Press.

Monte Palmer (1973): The dilemmas of Political Development.

Itaka, III F.E Peacock Publishers Inc.

Okedeji and Okedeji (1996), Issues in the Political Economy of Structural

Adjustment Programme in Nigeria. Siji Publishers P.H.C.

The Guardian Newspaper

Tuesday April 26, 1988: 11

Winch R. F. (1971). The Modern Family.

Hold Rinehart and Winston. New York

Gluckman, M. (1963). Institution of Primitive Society,

Oxford University Press, London

61
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ademola A. (1958). Sociology: An Introduction,

African Text Macmillan Publishers, London.

Arderner, E. W. (1962): Divorce and Fertility: An African Study.

Oxford University Press. London.

A.Inkeles and D.H. Smith (1974): The Becoming Modern: Cambridge.

Harvard University Press.

Burges E.W. (1973). On Community, Family and Delinquency.

University of Chicago Press Limited.

Diana L. et al (1992), The Family and Marriages in Britain,

Penguin.

Glasser and Glasser (1970), Family in Crisis

Merton R.K. (1968), Social Theory and Social Structure:

Fress Press New York

Haralambus M. and Heald R.M. (1980) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives.

Oxford University Press.

62
Uchendu V.C. (1965): Case Studies in Cultural Sociology. Hill Richart and

Winston, New York.

Poil M. (1968), Concensus and Conflicts in Africa Society: An Introduction to

Sociology. Longman London

Onyeiwu S. (1995), Issues in the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment

Programme in Nigeria. Siji Publishers P.H.C.

Osita Njoku and Uwaoma (2000); The Family: A Socio-Psychological

Approach. Rescue Publishers, Owerri.

Winch R. F. (1971). The Modern Family.

Hold Rinehart and Winston. New York

Wilkins E.J. (1979); Elements of Social Science: MacDonald and Evans

Limited, Plymouth, New York.

Journals and Nerwspapers:

Newswatch, August 7, 2002

U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1984

The Guardian Newspaper, Tuesday April 26, 1988

63
APPENDIX

Rivers State College of Education


Rumuolumeni Campus
Department of Social Studies,
P.M.B. 5047,
Port Harcourt.
30th April 2009

Dear Sir/ Madam,

I am a Student of the Department of Social Studies in the Faculty of Social

Science in Rumuolumeni- Port Harcourt.

I am currently conducting a research work on the topic “THE IMPACT OF

ECONOMIC CRISIS ON MARITAL INSTABILITY IN EMOHUA LOCAL

GOVERNMENT”.

I shall be grateful if the attached questionnaire is duly filled and returned as

instructed therein.

Please be assured that any information you supply in the questionnaire will be

treated in absolute confidence and would only be used for the purpose of this

work.

Yours Faithfully,

Omodu Nyekachi K.

64
QUESTIONNAIRE
Please tick Yes or No to fill the gaps appropriately to correspond to the

options chosen as your best answer to each of the questions below.

SECTION A

Tick the appropriate answer

1. Sex: Male
Female

2. Age: 23 – 29 30-39
50-59 60 and above

3. Marital Status: Married Separated Widow


Widower Divorce

4. Occupation: Unskilled Skilled Professional

5. What is your religion? Muslim Christianity


Traditional Others specify

6. Level of Education: No Education Sec/Commercial Sch.


HND/University Diploma/NCE T.T.C Commercial

7. How many wives do you have or does your spouse have?

Only 1 2 or more

8. For how long have you been married: 4 years 5-9 years

10-19 years 20 – 29 years 30 years and above

9. How many children do you have? 1 – 2 3–4

7 and above None

65
10. Are you still working? Yes No

11. How much do you earn annually? Less than N 4,000

N 4,000 – N 6,000 N 6, 000 – N 8, 000

N 8, 000 – N 10, 000 N 10, 000 – N 12, 000

N 121, 000 – N 140, 000

12. Is your spouse still working? Yes No

SECTION B

13. Do you think that your monthly income is still adequate for your basic family

needs? Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

14. Do you think that insufficiency of your income is affecting the instability of your

marriage? Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

15. Has the present increase in unemployment affected the stability of your

marriage? Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

16. Has SAP led to increase of retrenchment of workers?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

17. Has SAP led to the improvement of standard of living in Emohua?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

18. Do you think that SAP led to the breakdown of many homes ?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

66
19. Has SAP caused an increase in the level of inflation in Nigeria?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

20. The increase in participation of women in wage labour, does it account for the

increase in marital instability?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

21. How has the economic depression affected the instability of your

marriage? Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

22. Has the environment affected your marriage negatively?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

23. Finding out about your spouse ugly side, does it lead to the instability of your

marriage?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

24. Does marriage become unstable when love, trust, understanding, patience

begin to fade away?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

25. Has infertility led to the instability of your marriage?

Agreed Strongly Agreed

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

67