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Contents

Manual for K-Notes ................................................................................... 2


Transformers ............................................................................................. 3
DC Machines ........................................................................................... 11
Synchronous Machines ........................................................................... 16
Induction Machines ................................................................................. 27
Single Phase Induction Motor ................................................................. 34

2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.


1

Manual for K-Notes


Why K-Notes?
Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his /
her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for
Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material.
What are K-Notes?
A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE
Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly
useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it
comes handy while traveling long distances.
When do I start using K-Notes?
It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam
(November end onwards).
How do I use K-Notes?
Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective
Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use of
it.

2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

Transformers
Impact of dimensions on various parameters of Transformer
KVA Rating

(Core Dimension)4

Voltage Rating

(Core Dimension)2

Current Rating

(Core Dimension)2

No-Load Current
Core Loss

Core Dimension

Core Volume

Induced EMF in a Transformer

d
dt
d
E2 N2
dt
E1 (rms) 4.44fN1m

E1 N1

E2 (rms) 4.44fN2m

Where E1 and E2 are emf in primary and secondary windings of Transformer respectively.
is the flux in the transformer and m is maximum value of flux.
The polarity of emf is decided on basis of Lenz Law as currents in primary and secondary
should be such that primary and secondary flux should oppose each other.
Also, primary current enters the positive terminal of primary winding as primary absorbs
power and secondary current leaves the positive terminal of secondary winding as
secondary delivers power and this way we can mark emf polarities.

Exact equivalent circuit

Exact equivalent circuit w.r.t. primary

N
N
N
R 2 = R 2 1 ; X 2 = X 2 1 ; Z L = Z L 1 ;
N2
N2
N2
Approximately Equivalent Circuit

R 01 = R1 R 2
X 01 = X1 X 2
Tests Conducted on a Transformer
(i) Open Circuit Test
o

Conducted on LV side keeping HV side open circuited

Equivalent Circuit

Power reading = P = V1 I0 cos 0 =

Ammeter reading I = I 0

cos 0 =

Calculate sin 0 =

V12
------- (ii)
Q = V1 I0 sin 0 =
Xm

V12
-------- (i)
Rc

P
V1 I0

1 - cos2 0

Calculate R c from (i) & Xm from (ii)


(ii) Short Circuit Test
o

Conducted on HV side keeping LV side short circuited

Equivalent Circuit

R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to
HV side.

2
Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01

Z 01 =

We obtain R 01 , X 01 & full load copper losses from this test.

Vsc
Isc

& X01 =

Z012 R012

Losses on Transformers
o

Copper Loss

PCu = I12R1 I22R 2


= I12R01 I22R02
Where

I1 = primary current
I2 = secondary current
5

R 1 = primary winding resistance

R 2 = secondary winding resistance


2

R 01
o

N
N
= R1 1 R 2 ; R 02 = R 2 2 R 1
N2
N1

Core Loss
(i) Hysteresis Loss
x
Pn = KnBm
f

X = 1.6

Bm = maximum value of flux density

Pn = KnBm1.6f
Bm

V
f

V = applied voltage
f = frequency
1.6

V
Pn = Kh
f

f = KhV1.6f 0.6

If V is constant & f is increased, Ph decreases


(ii) Eddy Current Loss

Pe = KeBm2 f 2
Bm

V
f
2

V
Pe = K e f 2 = K e V 2
f
Core loss = Pc = Pe Pn

Efficiency

x KVA cos

x KVA cos Pi x2PCu,FL

X = % loading of Transformer

cos = power factor

Pi = iron loss

PCu,FL = Full load copper losses


KVA = Power rating of Transformer
For maximum efficiency,

x=

Pi

PCu,FL

Voltage Regulation of Transformer


Regulation down

Regulation up

VNL VFL
100
VNL
VNL VFL
100
VFL

Equivalent circuit with respect to secondary


K = Transformation Ratio

N2
N1

No-load voltage V2
Full-load voltage

V2

Approximate Voltage Regulation

VR =

I2 R 02 cos 2 X 02 sin 2
V2
7

cos 2 = power factor of load ZL


+ sign is used for lagging pf load
- sign is used for leading pf load
Condition for zero voltage regulation

R
2 = tan-1 02
X 02
The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be zero for lagging pf load.
Condition for maximum voltage regulation

X
2 = tan-1 02
R 02
The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be negative for lagging pf loads
Three Phase Transformers
In a 3-Phase transformers; the windings placed parallel to each other at as primary & secondary of
single phase transformer.
Rules to draw Phasor diagram
1) Always draw phasors from A to B, B to C & C to A for line voltages.
2) The end points should have same naming as the input or output terminals.
3) If we draw primary phasor from dotted to undotted terminal and if secondary voltage is also
from dotted to undotted, then secondary voltage is in same phase else in opposite phase.
Some examples

Phasor

If you observe carefully, we traverse from dotted to undotted terminal in primary while
going from a2 to b2 , b2 to c2 & c2 to a2 .
Same is the case when we traverse the secondary winding, so secondary voltage are inphase to primary.

Then, we draw reference phasors from neutral to terminal and mark it with phase with
same name as terminal it is pointed to.
Then we plot it on clock & we observe it is like 12 0 clock so name is Dd12
connection.

Another example

Phasor

o Here, we traversed primary from dotted to undotted terminal & in secondary from undotted
to dotted so all secondary phasor are out of phase wrt primary.
Parallel operation of Transformer
Necessary Conditions
1) Voltage ratings of both transformers should be same.
2) Transformers should have same polarity.
3) Phase sequence of both transformers must be same in case of 3- phase transformers.
4) Phase displacement between secondarys of both transformers must be 0 .
If there are 2 transformers A & B supplying a load power SL .

S A = SL

ZB
ZB
; SB = SL
Z A ZB
Z A ZB

ZB = impedance of transformer B (in ohms)


Z A = impedance of transformer A (in ohms)
Auto Transformer
o

Generally, auto transformer is created from 2- winding transformer.

If rating of auto transformer is LV/HV or HV/LV


LV = low voltage
HV = high voltage
Transformation Ratio = K =

LV
HV

1
(KVA rating of 2- winding Transformer)
1 - R

KVA rating of auto transfer =

In auto- transformer, power is transferred from primary to secondary by 2 methods


induction & conduction.

KVAinduction = 1 - K Input KVA

KVAconduction = K Input KVA

% Full load losses = 1 - K %FL losses in2 winding Transformer

If copper & core losses are not given separately, then we consider losses as constant,
same as that of two winding transformer while calculating efficiency
10

DC Machines
Induced emf equation

Ea =

NZ P

60 A

= flux per pole wb


N = speed of machine rpm
P = number of poles
A = number of paralled path

Z = number of conductors
A = 2 for wave winding
A = P for lap winding
If speed is given in rad/sec

Ea =

Z P

2 A

where = speed (rad/s)

PZ
= Km
2


Km =

PZ
= machine constant
2A

Developed Torque

T = KmIa
Km =

PZ
= machine constant
2A

= flux per pole

Ia = armature current

11

Classification of DC Machine
(i) Separately excited

(ii) Shunt excited

(iii) Series excited

(iv) Compound Excited

12

Terminologies

R a : Armature Resistance

R se : Series Field winding Resistance


R sh : Shunt Field winding Resistance
o The only difference between Generator & Motor will be that the direction of armature current is
coming out of positive terminal of emf Ea. In case of motor, armature current flows into Ea.
Performance Equations of DC Machines
For shunt & separately excited machine
Generator:

Ea = Vt IaR a

Motor:

Ea = Vt I aR a

For series & compound excited machine


Generator:

Ea = Vt Ia R a R se

Motor:

Ea = Vt Ia R a R se

Power Flow
Shaft Power

Armature Power

Electrical Power

Pa EaIa
Rotational loss

Copper loss

This power flow diagram is for a dc generator.

If you traverse the diagram from right to left then it is a power flow diagram for a motor.

13

Losses

Rotational loss

Copper loss

I 2R I 2R I 2R V I
BD a
a a se se f f

Ohmic loss

Brush
contact loss

Hystersis N &

Friction &

Windage loss Pf w

Friction

windage

Bearing

Brush

Eddy current

Stray load

PLL i2

N2

N2

N2

Efficiency

VaIa
; for generator
VaIa Ia2Ra VBDIa Pk

Pk = sum of all constant loss


For maximum efficiency
For shunt & separately excited machine

Ia =

Pk
ra

For series & compound excited machine

Ia =

Pk
ra rse

14

Characteristics of DC Generator
External characteristics
If no-load voltage is same for all types of generators:

There are two categories of compound generators/motors


1. Cumulative Compound

=> If series field flux aids the shunt fields flux.

2. Differentially Compound => If series field flux opposes the shunt field flux.
If full load voltage of all generators is kept same
1 series excited

5 separately excited

2 over compound

6 shunt excited

3 level compound

7 differentially compound

4 under compound
Conditions for voltage build-up in Shunt Generator
1) There must be residual flux.
2) Correct polarity of field winding with respect to armature winding so that field flux aids
residual flux for a given direction of rotation.
3) Field Resistance must be less than critical value

R f< R f cr
Critical resistance is equal to the slop of air-gap line.
4) Speed of rotation should be more than critical value for a given field resistance R f .

N > Ncr
15

Braking of DC Motor
Plugging
o

Supply to armature terminals is reversed whole field is left undisturbed.

The current reverses resulting into negative torque & that brings rotor quickly to rest.

I' a =

V E

R ex

EaIa
, = speed of rotor

V - Ea
Before plugging, Ia
Ra

Plugging Torque

Load Torque

EaIa

Breaking Torque = (Load Torque + Plugging Torque)

Synchronous Machine
Induced emf
Phase voltage 4.44 Nph f

Nph : number of turns per phase


: flux per pole
f : frequency
This phase voltage is rms value
Armature Winding
o

Usually, coil span is 180 (electrical)

If coil span = 180 (electrical), coil is called as full pitch coil.

If coil span = 180 (electrical), coil is called as Chorded coil or short pitched winding.

16

Pitch Factor, KP = cos

Induced emf

For nth harmonic

4.44 N

ph

Induced emf

f K P

4.44 N

ph

f K P

n
KP = cos

2
To eliminate nth harmonic
n

=
2
2
=

180
electrical
n

Distributed Winding

m=

number of slots
number of poles no. of phase

Coil Span =

number of slots
number of poles

180
electrical ;
coil span

m
sin

2
Distribution Factor, K d
m sin 2

For nth harmonic, is replaced by n

mn
sin

2
Kd
n
m sin
2

17

n n
by
2
2

o For uniform distribution replace sin


Winding Factor,

K w = KPK d

Induced emf = 4.44 Nphf K w


Armature Resistance
Generally winding resistance is measured using voltmeter ammeter method.
For star connection

Rm =

voltmeter reading
V
=
I
ammeter reading

Rm = 2R
R=

Rm
2

For Delta Connection

Rm =

voltmeter reading
ammeter reading

Rm =

2
R
3

R=

3
R
2 m

This resistance is dc resistance but ac resistance is higher due to skin effect.

Raac = 1.2 to 1.3R

18

Armature Reaction
Power factor
Unity

Generator

Motor

Zero pf lagging

Zero pf leading

Lagging pf cos

Leading pf cos

19

Leakage Flux
Leakage flux links only one winding but not both so if it is present in stator, it wont link to rotor &
vise versa.
Equivalent Circuit

X s = synchronous reactance
X ar X l
= sum of armature reaction & leakage reactance

E V 0 + Ia (R a jX s ) , for Synchronous Generator


E V 0 - Ia (R a jX s ) , for Synchronous Motor
Where is power factor angle (leading)
for lagging power factor we replace by
Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation

EV
V

100%

For zero voltage regulation

Xs

Ra

= tan-1

= 180
cos = load pf leading

20

For maximum voltage regulation

=
cos = load pf lagging
Characteristics of Alternator
OCC & SCC
Open circuit characteristics & short circuit characteristics

ZS =

open circuit voltage at same field current


short circuit current at same field current

Generally, open circuit voltage is given as Line to Line value so, before calculating Z S , we
need to find phase voltage

ZS =

ZS =

Voc / 3
Isc
Voc
Isc I

: For Star Connection


If = constant

: For Delta Connection


= constant

Short circuit ratio

SCR =

Field current required for rated open circuit voltage


Field current required for rated short circuit current

1
X S pu

XS pu = synchronous reactance in pu

21

Finding Voltage Regulation


There are usually 4 methods to find voltage regulation
o

EMF Method

MMF Method

Potier Triangle Method

ASA Method

EMF ASA>ZPF>MMF

Order of voltage regulation:


Power Angle Equation
Output of generator

Pout

VtEf
Vt2
=
cos
cos
ZS
ZS

Qout =

VtEf
V2
sin t sin
ZS
ZS

Input of motor

Vt 2
VE
Pin =
cos S t f cos
ZS
ZS
Qin =

Vt 2
VE
sin t f sin
ZS
ZS

Synchronous Impedance = Z s = R a jXS = Z S

X
tan-1 S
Ra
If R a = neglected, Z s = jXS = XS 90

Pout g

V
Ef Vt
sin ; Qout = t Ef cos Vt
g
XS
XS

22

Developed power in synchronous motor

Pdev =

Q dev =

Ef Vt
E2
cos f cos
ZS
ZS

Ef Vt
E2
sin f sin
ZS
ZS

If ra is neglected, ZS = XS 90

Pdev =

Q dev

Ef Vt
sin
ZS

Ef Vt
Ef 2
=
cos
ZS
ZS

Developed Power is the power available at armature of motor.

In all power expressions, all voltages are line voltages and if we want to use phase voltage, we
must multiply all expressions by a factor of 3.

Parallel operation of Alternators


Necessary Conditions
1) Terminal voltage of incoming alternator must be same as that of existing system.
2) Frequency should be same.
3) Phase sequence should be same.

23

Synchronization by Lamp Method

1) Observe if 3 lamps are bright & dark simultaneously, that means phase sequence of
incoming alternator is same as that of existing system.
Otherwise, phase sequence is opposite and stator terminals must be interchanged to
reverse phase sequence of incoming generator.
2) The frequency of alternator is usually a bit higher than infinite bus.
3) To understand the concept better, refer Ques. 39 of GATE 2014 EE-01 paper.
o If two alternators are supplying a load and we change either excitation or steam input of one
machine is varied, then following effects will happen:
o

If excitation of machine 1 is increased


Parameter
Real Power
Reactive Power
Armature Current
Power Factor

Machine 1
Same
Increases
Increases
Decreases

Machine 2
Same
Decreases
Decreases
Increases

If steam input of machine 1 is increased


Parameter
Real Power
Reactive Power
Armature Current
Power Factor

Machine 1
Increases
Constant
Increases
Increases

Machine 2
Decreases
Constant
Decreases
Decreases
24

Droop Characteristics

droop of generator =

fNL fFL
100%
fFL

Example: Refer Kuestions on Electrical Machines Type-8


Salient Pole Machine
o

In case of salient pole machine, There are 2 reactances

Xd & Xq
X d : Direct axis reactance

Xq : quadrature axis reactance


o

Id = Ia sin 90
Iq = Iacos

=
For synchronous generator

tan =

Vsin IaX q
V cos IaR a

lagging pf
- leading pf

For synchronous motor

tan =

Vsin IaX q
V cos IaR a

leading pf
- lagging pf

Power Angle Characteristics

P=

VtEf
V2 1
1
sin t sin2
Xd
2 Xq Xd
Excitation
power

Reluctance power

25

Slip Test
If machine is run by prime mover at a speed other than synchronous speed & voltages & currents
are observed

Xd =

Maximum Voltage
Maximum Current

Xq =

Maximum Voltage
Maximum Current

Power Flow Diagram


3 EfIa cos

Input

Pe

Shaft Power

3Vt Ia cos
Field

Rotational

SC load

Loss

loss 3Ia2ra

Circuit loss

Power Flow for Synchronous Generator

3 EfIa cos
Pe

Input

Shaft Power

3VtIa cos
Field
Circuit loss

SC load

loss 3Ia ra

Rotational

Loss

Power Flow Diagram for Synchronous Motor

26

Induction Machines
Stator & Rotor Magnetic Fields
o

When a 3-phase supply is connected to the stator, than a magnetic field is set up
whose speed of rotation is

NS =

120f
P

f = frequency of supply
o

If negative sequence currents are applied the rotating magnetic field rotates in
opposite direction as compared to magnetic field produced by positive sequence
currents.

The rotor rotates in same direction as the stator magnetic field with a speed, Nr .

slip s =

Ns Nr
Ns

Nr = Ns 1 s
o

Speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to rotor = sNs

speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to stator = Ns .


Hence, stator & rotor magnetic fields are at rest with respect to each other.

Frequency of emf & current in rotor = sf

Stator

With
respect
to

Stator
Stator
Magnetic
Field
Rotor
Rotor
Magnetic
Field

0
-Ns

Relative Speed of
Stator
Rotor
Magnetic
Field
Ns
Ns(1-s)
0
-sNs

-Ns(1-s)
-Ns

sNs
0

27

0
-sNs

Rotor
Magnetic
Field
Ns
0

sNs
0

Inverted Induction Motor


o

When a 3 supply is connected to the rotor & stator terminals are shorted or are
connected to the resistive load.

Then a rotor magnetic field is set up which rotates at speed Ns with respect to rotor ;

120f
where f is frequency of supply.
P
o If rotor rotates at speed Nr , than slip
Ns =

s=

Ns Nr
Ns

Here, the rotor rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of stator
magnetic field.
o

Speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to stator

= Ns Ns 1 s = sNs
Speed of stator magnetic field = sNs
o

Frequency of emf & current induced in stator = sf


f = supply frequency on rotor.

Stator

With
respect
to

Stator
Stator
Magnetic
Field
Rotor
Rotor
Magnetic
Field

0
-sNs

Relative Speed of
Stator
Rotor
Magnetic
Field
sNs
Ns(1-s)
0
-Ns

-Ns(1-s)
-sNs

Ns
0

Equivalent circuit of Induction Motor

28

0
-Ns

Rotor
Magnetic
Field
sNs
0

Ns
0

If we refer all parameters on stator side

N
N
r2 = r2 1 ; x2 = x2 1
N
N
2
2

N1 = N1 k1
Where N1 = no. of turns per phase on stator

k1 = winding factor of stator winding


N2 = N2 k2
N2 = number of turns per phase on rotor

k2 = winding factor of rotor winding


Tests Conducted on Induction Motor
(i) No-Load Test
o

Conducted on Stator with no-load on rotor side.

It gives No-Load Losses ( Rotational Loss + Core Loss).

(ii) Blocked Rotor Test


o

Conducted on stator side keeping rotor blocked

It gives full load Copper Losses and equivalent resistance and equivalent reactance
referred to Stator Side.

29

R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to
Stator side.

2
Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01

Z 01 =

We obtain R 01 , X 01 & full load copper losses from this test.

R 01 = R1+ R2 ; X 01 = X1+ X2

Vsc
Isc

& X01 =

Z012 R012

Power Flow Diagram

Rotor i/p = Pg (Airgap power)

Mechanical Power Developed

Pin
Stator

Stator

Rotor

Rotor

I2R loss

core loss

I2R loss

core loss

Pg =

3I22r2
s

I2 = rotor current
s = slip

r2 = rotor resistance per phase


2
Rotor Cu Loss = 3I2 r2 = sPg

Mechanical power developed

Developed Torque,

Te =

= Pg sPg = 1-s Pg

1-sPg Pg
Pm
=
wr
1-s ws ws
30

Friction &
windage loss

Torque Slip Characteristics


If core loss is neglected then equivalent circuit looks like as shown

Ve =

Re =

V1 jXm

r1 j X1 Xm

r1Xm
X1 X m
; Xe =
X1 Xm
X1 Xm

Torque developed, Tc

mVe2

r
ws Re 2
s

X Xe

r2
s
2

For Approximate analysis,


Stator impedance is neglected; Tc

3
ws

V12
2

r2
s

R 2

X22

31

o At low slip, s 1

R 2
o

3 sV1
X 2 , Tc =

ws

R2

Tc s

At high slip , s 1
2

3 V1 R 2 1
Tc =

ws X s
s

R 2
X 2 ,
s

For maximum torque

R 2

Sm,T =

R e2 Xe X2

It stator impedance is neglected

Sm,T
And also,

R
= 2
X2

Tmax

and Tmax

3 V12
=
s (2X 2 )

2
s
s
m,T

s
sm,T

, where T is the torque at a slip s

For maximum power

Sm,P =

R2
2

R R X X R
e
e
2
2
2

Starting of Induction Motor


(i) Direct on line starting
o
o

Directly motor is connected to supply.

Te,st
Te,FL

I
= st SFL
IFL
32

(ii) Auto Transformer Starting


o

Instead of connecting the motor to direct supply we reduce the voltage from

V1 to xV1
o

This is done with the help of auto transformer.

Te,st

Ist
SFL
IFL

1
= 2
X

Te,FL

Te,st auto X'mer

Te,FL direct

XV
= 1 = X2
V1

(iii) Star Delta Starting


o

At starting, stator winding is connected in star & in running state stator winding
is connected in delta.
2

Vph =

IY =

V1

1
3

V1

TY
1
3

=
=
2
TD
3
V1

ID
2

Tst
TFL

2
Ist,d

I
S
= st,Y SFL = 3
I

FL
I
FL,d
FL,d

Speed Control of Induction Motor


o

Constant V

Control

T=

At low slip,

s=

2
180 sV1

2Ns R
2

Ns N
Ns

2
V
180 Ns N V1
T=

1 Ns N
2Ns
Ns
R 2
f
2

33

Tst
1 I
= st,Y SFL
TFL
3 IFL,d

For constant torque, Ns N = constant


So, by varying frequency we vary Ns & since Ns N = constant we vary N accordingly.
Crawling
o

Due to harmonies, the actual torque characteristics may look like

Due to this saddle region, the motor may become stable at a low speed & this is called as
crawling.

Cogging
o

If number of stator slots is equal to or integral multiple number of rotor slots, than at the
time of start, the strong alignment forces between stator teeth & rotor teeth simultaneously
at all rotor teeth may prevent movement of rotor. This is called cogging.

Single Phase Induction Motor


o

According to Double field Revolving Theory, a single phase mmf can be resolved into two
rotating fields one rotating clockwise called as Forward field & other rotating anti-clock wise
called as Backward Field.
Both fields rotate at synchronous speed

Ns =
o

120f
P

If rotor rotates at speed Nr , or a slips with respect to forward field.


Than slip with respect to backward field is 2 s

34

Due to these two fields producing opposing torques on rotor single phase IM is not
self starting.

To produce starting torque, we introduce an auxiliary winding which is used at the time
of start & is disconnected during the run stage.

We generally design auxiliary winding such that phase difference is approximately 90


between main winding & auxiliary winding currents.

35

Capacitor Start Motor

Capacitor Run Motor

36