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Transformers ............................................................................................. 3

DC Machines ........................................................................................... 11

Synchronous Machines ........................................................................... 16

Induction Machines ................................................................................. 27

Single Phase Induction Motor ................................................................. 34

1

Why K-Notes?

Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his /

her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for

Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material.

What are K-Notes?

A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE

Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly

useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it

comes handy while traveling long distances.

When do I start using K-Notes?

It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam

(November end onwards).

How do I use K-Notes?

Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective

Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use of

it.

Transformers

Impact of dimensions on various parameters of Transformer

KVA Rating

(Core Dimension)4

Voltage Rating

(Core Dimension)2

Current Rating

(Core Dimension)2

No-Load Current

Core Loss

Core Dimension

Core Volume

d

dt

d

E2 N2

dt

E1 (rms) 4.44fN1m

E1 N1

E2 (rms) 4.44fN2m

Where E1 and E2 are emf in primary and secondary windings of Transformer respectively.

is the flux in the transformer and m is maximum value of flux.

The polarity of emf is decided on basis of Lenz Law as currents in primary and secondary

should be such that primary and secondary flux should oppose each other.

Also, primary current enters the positive terminal of primary winding as primary absorbs

power and secondary current leaves the positive terminal of secondary winding as

secondary delivers power and this way we can mark emf polarities.

N

N

N

R 2 = R 2 1 ; X 2 = X 2 1 ; Z L = Z L 1 ;

N2

N2

N2

Approximately Equivalent Circuit

R 01 = R1 R 2

X 01 = X1 X 2

Tests Conducted on a Transformer

(i) Open Circuit Test

o

Equivalent Circuit

Ammeter reading I = I 0

cos 0 =

Calculate sin 0 =

V12

------- (ii)

Q = V1 I0 sin 0 =

Xm

V12

-------- (i)

Rc

P

V1 I0

1 - cos2 0

(ii) Short Circuit Test

o

Equivalent Circuit

R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to

HV side.

2

Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01

Z 01 =

Vsc

Isc

& X01 =

Z012 R012

Losses on Transformers

o

Copper Loss

= I12R01 I22R02

Where

I1 = primary current

I2 = secondary current

5

2

R 01

o

N

N

= R1 1 R 2 ; R 02 = R 2 2 R 1

N2

N1

Core Loss

(i) Hysteresis Loss

x

Pn = KnBm

f

X = 1.6

Pn = KnBm1.6f

Bm

V

f

V = applied voltage

f = frequency

1.6

V

Pn = Kh

f

f = KhV1.6f 0.6

(ii) Eddy Current Loss

Pe = KeBm2 f 2

Bm

V

f

2

V

Pe = K e f 2 = K e V 2

f

Core loss = Pc = Pe Pn

Efficiency

x KVA cos

X = % loading of Transformer

Pi = iron loss

KVA = Power rating of Transformer

For maximum efficiency,

x=

Pi

PCu,FL

Regulation down

Regulation up

VNL VFL

100

VNL

VNL VFL

100

VFL

K = Transformation Ratio

N2

N1

No-load voltage V2

Full-load voltage

V2

VR =

I2 R 02 cos 2 X 02 sin 2

V2

7

+ sign is used for lagging pf load

- sign is used for leading pf load

Condition for zero voltage regulation

R

2 = tan-1 02

X 02

The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be zero for lagging pf load.

Condition for maximum voltage regulation

X

2 = tan-1 02

R 02

The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be negative for lagging pf loads

Three Phase Transformers

In a 3-Phase transformers; the windings placed parallel to each other at as primary & secondary of

single phase transformer.

Rules to draw Phasor diagram

1) Always draw phasors from A to B, B to C & C to A for line voltages.

2) The end points should have same naming as the input or output terminals.

3) If we draw primary phasor from dotted to undotted terminal and if secondary voltage is also

from dotted to undotted, then secondary voltage is in same phase else in opposite phase.

Some examples

Phasor

If you observe carefully, we traverse from dotted to undotted terminal in primary while

going from a2 to b2 , b2 to c2 & c2 to a2 .

Same is the case when we traverse the secondary winding, so secondary voltage are inphase to primary.

Then, we draw reference phasors from neutral to terminal and mark it with phase with

same name as terminal it is pointed to.

Then we plot it on clock & we observe it is like 12 0 clock so name is Dd12

connection.

Another example

Phasor

o Here, we traversed primary from dotted to undotted terminal & in secondary from undotted

to dotted so all secondary phasor are out of phase wrt primary.

Parallel operation of Transformer

Necessary Conditions

1) Voltage ratings of both transformers should be same.

2) Transformers should have same polarity.

3) Phase sequence of both transformers must be same in case of 3- phase transformers.

4) Phase displacement between secondarys of both transformers must be 0 .

If there are 2 transformers A & B supplying a load power SL .

S A = SL

ZB

ZB

; SB = SL

Z A ZB

Z A ZB

Z A = impedance of transformer A (in ohms)

Auto Transformer

o

LV = low voltage

HV = high voltage

Transformation Ratio = K =

LV

HV

1

(KVA rating of 2- winding Transformer)

1 - R

induction & conduction.

If copper & core losses are not given separately, then we consider losses as constant,

same as that of two winding transformer while calculating efficiency

10

DC Machines

Induced emf equation

Ea =

NZ P

60 A

N = speed of machine rpm

P = number of poles

A = number of paralled path

Z = number of conductors

A = 2 for wave winding

A = P for lap winding

If speed is given in rad/sec

Ea =

Z P

2 A

PZ

= Km

2

Km =

PZ

= machine constant

2A

Developed Torque

T = KmIa

Km =

PZ

= machine constant

2A

Ia = armature current

11

Classification of DC Machine

(i) Separately excited

12

Terminologies

R a : Armature Resistance

R sh : Shunt Field winding Resistance

o The only difference between Generator & Motor will be that the direction of armature current is

coming out of positive terminal of emf Ea. In case of motor, armature current flows into Ea.

Performance Equations of DC Machines

For shunt & separately excited machine

Generator:

Ea = Vt IaR a

Motor:

Ea = Vt I aR a

Generator:

Ea = Vt Ia R a R se

Motor:

Ea = Vt Ia R a R se

Power Flow

Shaft Power

Armature Power

Electrical Power

Pa EaIa

Rotational loss

Copper loss

If you traverse the diagram from right to left then it is a power flow diagram for a motor.

13

Losses

Rotational loss

Copper loss

I 2R I 2R I 2R V I

BD a

a a se se f f

Ohmic loss

Brush

contact loss

Hystersis N &

Friction &

Windage loss Pf w

Friction

windage

Bearing

Brush

Eddy current

Stray load

PLL i2

N2

N2

N2

Efficiency

VaIa

; for generator

VaIa Ia2Ra VBDIa Pk

For maximum efficiency

For shunt & separately excited machine

Ia =

Pk

ra

Ia =

Pk

ra rse

14

Characteristics of DC Generator

External characteristics

If no-load voltage is same for all types of generators:

1. Cumulative Compound

2. Differentially Compound => If series field flux opposes the shunt field flux.

If full load voltage of all generators is kept same

1 series excited

5 separately excited

2 over compound

6 shunt excited

3 level compound

7 differentially compound

4 under compound

Conditions for voltage build-up in Shunt Generator

1) There must be residual flux.

2) Correct polarity of field winding with respect to armature winding so that field flux aids

residual flux for a given direction of rotation.

3) Field Resistance must be less than critical value

R f< R f cr

Critical resistance is equal to the slop of air-gap line.

4) Speed of rotation should be more than critical value for a given field resistance R f .

N > Ncr

15

Braking of DC Motor

Plugging

o

The current reverses resulting into negative torque & that brings rotor quickly to rest.

I' a =

V E

R ex

EaIa

, = speed of rotor

V - Ea

Before plugging, Ia

Ra

Plugging Torque

Load Torque

EaIa

Synchronous Machine

Induced emf

Phase voltage 4.44 Nph f

: flux per pole

f : frequency

This phase voltage is rms value

Armature Winding

o

If coil span = 180 (electrical), coil is called as Chorded coil or short pitched winding.

16

Induced emf

4.44 N

ph

Induced emf

f K P

4.44 N

ph

f K P

n

KP = cos

2

To eliminate nth harmonic

n

=

2

2

=

180

electrical

n

Distributed Winding

m=

number of slots

number of poles no. of phase

Coil Span =

number of slots

number of poles

180

electrical ;

coil span

m

sin

2

Distribution Factor, K d

m sin 2

mn

sin

2

Kd

n

m sin

2

17

n n

by

2

2

Winding Factor,

K w = KPK d

Armature Resistance

Generally winding resistance is measured using voltmeter ammeter method.

For star connection

Rm =

voltmeter reading

V

=

I

ammeter reading

Rm = 2R

R=

Rm

2

Rm =

voltmeter reading

ammeter reading

Rm =

2

R

3

R=

3

R

2 m

18

Armature Reaction

Power factor

Unity

Generator

Motor

Zero pf lagging

Zero pf leading

Lagging pf cos

Leading pf cos

19

Leakage Flux

Leakage flux links only one winding but not both so if it is present in stator, it wont link to rotor &

vise versa.

Equivalent Circuit

X s = synchronous reactance

X ar X l

= sum of armature reaction & leakage reactance

E V 0 - Ia (R a jX s ) , for Synchronous Motor

Where is power factor angle (leading)

for lagging power factor we replace by

Voltage Regulation

Voltage regulation

EV

V

100%

Xs

Ra

= tan-1

= 180

cos = load pf leading

20

=

cos = load pf lagging

Characteristics of Alternator

OCC & SCC

Open circuit characteristics & short circuit characteristics

ZS =

short circuit current at same field current

Generally, open circuit voltage is given as Line to Line value so, before calculating Z S , we

need to find phase voltage

ZS =

ZS =

Voc / 3

Isc

Voc

Isc I

If = constant

= constant

SCR =

Field current required for rated short circuit current

1

X S pu

XS pu = synchronous reactance in pu

21

There are usually 4 methods to find voltage regulation

o

EMF Method

MMF Method

ASA Method

EMF ASA>ZPF>MMF

Power Angle Equation

Output of generator

Pout

VtEf

Vt2

=

cos

cos

ZS

ZS

Qout =

VtEf

V2

sin t sin

ZS

ZS

Input of motor

Vt 2

VE

Pin =

cos S t f cos

ZS

ZS

Qin =

Vt 2

VE

sin t f sin

ZS

ZS

X

tan-1 S

Ra

If R a = neglected, Z s = jXS = XS 90

Pout g

V

Ef Vt

sin ; Qout = t Ef cos Vt

g

XS

XS

22

Pdev =

Q dev =

Ef Vt

E2

cos f cos

ZS

ZS

Ef Vt

E2

sin f sin

ZS

ZS

If ra is neglected, ZS = XS 90

Pdev =

Q dev

Ef Vt

sin

ZS

Ef Vt

Ef 2

=

cos

ZS

ZS

In all power expressions, all voltages are line voltages and if we want to use phase voltage, we

must multiply all expressions by a factor of 3.

Necessary Conditions

1) Terminal voltage of incoming alternator must be same as that of existing system.

2) Frequency should be same.

3) Phase sequence should be same.

23

1) Observe if 3 lamps are bright & dark simultaneously, that means phase sequence of

incoming alternator is same as that of existing system.

Otherwise, phase sequence is opposite and stator terminals must be interchanged to

reverse phase sequence of incoming generator.

2) The frequency of alternator is usually a bit higher than infinite bus.

3) To understand the concept better, refer Ques. 39 of GATE 2014 EE-01 paper.

o If two alternators are supplying a load and we change either excitation or steam input of one

machine is varied, then following effects will happen:

o

Parameter

Real Power

Reactive Power

Armature Current

Power Factor

Machine 1

Same

Increases

Increases

Decreases

Machine 2

Same

Decreases

Decreases

Increases

Parameter

Real Power

Reactive Power

Armature Current

Power Factor

Machine 1

Increases

Constant

Increases

Increases

Machine 2

Decreases

Constant

Decreases

Decreases

24

Droop Characteristics

droop of generator =

fNL fFL

100%

fFL

Salient Pole Machine

o

Xd & Xq

X d : Direct axis reactance

o

Id = Ia sin 90

Iq = Iacos

=

For synchronous generator

tan =

Vsin IaX q

V cos IaR a

lagging pf

- leading pf

tan =

Vsin IaX q

V cos IaR a

leading pf

- lagging pf

P=

VtEf

V2 1

1

sin t sin2

Xd

2 Xq Xd

Excitation

power

Reluctance power

25

Slip Test

If machine is run by prime mover at a speed other than synchronous speed & voltages & currents

are observed

Xd =

Maximum Voltage

Maximum Current

Xq =

Maximum Voltage

Maximum Current

3 EfIa cos

Input

Pe

Shaft Power

3Vt Ia cos

Field

Rotational

SC load

Loss

loss 3Ia2ra

Circuit loss

3 EfIa cos

Pe

Input

Shaft Power

3VtIa cos

Field

Circuit loss

SC load

loss 3Ia ra

Rotational

Loss

26

Induction Machines

Stator & Rotor Magnetic Fields

o

When a 3-phase supply is connected to the stator, than a magnetic field is set up

whose speed of rotation is

NS =

120f

P

f = frequency of supply

o

If negative sequence currents are applied the rotating magnetic field rotates in

opposite direction as compared to magnetic field produced by positive sequence

currents.

The rotor rotates in same direction as the stator magnetic field with a speed, Nr .

slip s =

Ns Nr

Ns

Nr = Ns 1 s

o

Hence, stator & rotor magnetic fields are at rest with respect to each other.

Stator

With

respect

to

Stator

Stator

Magnetic

Field

Rotor

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

0

-Ns

Relative Speed of

Stator

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

Ns

Ns(1-s)

0

-sNs

-Ns(1-s)

-Ns

sNs

0

27

0

-sNs

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

Ns

0

sNs

0

o

When a 3 supply is connected to the rotor & stator terminals are shorted or are

connected to the resistive load.

Then a rotor magnetic field is set up which rotates at speed Ns with respect to rotor ;

120f

where f is frequency of supply.

P

o If rotor rotates at speed Nr , than slip

Ns =

s=

Ns Nr

Ns

Here, the rotor rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of stator

magnetic field.

o

= Ns Ns 1 s = sNs

Speed of stator magnetic field = sNs

o

f = supply frequency on rotor.

Stator

With

respect

to

Stator

Stator

Magnetic

Field

Rotor

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

0

-sNs

Relative Speed of

Stator

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

sNs

Ns(1-s)

0

-Ns

-Ns(1-s)

-sNs

Ns

0

28

0

-Ns

Rotor

Magnetic

Field

sNs

0

Ns

0

N

N

r2 = r2 1 ; x2 = x2 1

N

N

2

2

N1 = N1 k1

Where N1 = no. of turns per phase on stator

N2 = N2 k2

N2 = number of turns per phase on rotor

Tests Conducted on Induction Motor

(i) No-Load Test

o

o

It gives full load Copper Losses and equivalent resistance and equivalent reactance

referred to Stator Side.

29

R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to

Stator side.

2

Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01

Z 01 =

R 01 = R1+ R2 ; X 01 = X1+ X2

Vsc

Isc

& X01 =

Z012 R012

Pin

Stator

Stator

Rotor

Rotor

I2R loss

core loss

I2R loss

core loss

Pg =

3I22r2

s

I2 = rotor current

s = slip

2

Rotor Cu Loss = 3I2 r2 = sPg

Developed Torque,

Te =

= Pg sPg = 1-s Pg

1-sPg Pg

Pm

=

wr

1-s ws ws

30

Friction &

windage loss

If core loss is neglected then equivalent circuit looks like as shown

Ve =

Re =

V1 jXm

r1 j X1 Xm

r1Xm

X1 X m

; Xe =

X1 Xm

X1 Xm

Torque developed, Tc

mVe2

r

ws Re 2

s

X Xe

r2

s

2

Stator impedance is neglected; Tc

3

ws

V12

2

r2

s

R 2

X22

31

o At low slip, s 1

R 2

o

3 sV1

X 2 , Tc =

ws

R2

Tc s

At high slip , s 1

2

3 V1 R 2 1

Tc =

ws X s

s

R 2

X 2 ,

s

R 2

Sm,T =

R e2 Xe X2

Sm,T

And also,

R

= 2

X2

Tmax

and Tmax

3 V12

=

s (2X 2 )

2

s

s

m,T

s

sm,T

Sm,P =

R2

2

R R X X R

e

e

2

2

2

(i) Direct on line starting

o

o

Te,st

Te,FL

I

= st SFL

IFL

32

o

Instead of connecting the motor to direct supply we reduce the voltage from

V1 to xV1

o

Te,st

Ist

SFL

IFL

1

= 2

X

Te,FL

Te,FL direct

XV

= 1 = X2

V1

o

At starting, stator winding is connected in star & in running state stator winding

is connected in delta.

2

Vph =

IY =

V1

1

3

V1

TY

1

3

=

=

2

TD

3

V1

ID

2

Tst

TFL

2

Ist,d

I

S

= st,Y SFL = 3

I

FL

I

FL,d

FL,d

o

Constant V

Control

T=

At low slip,

s=

2

180 sV1

2Ns R

2

Ns N

Ns

2

V

180 Ns N V1

T=

1 Ns N

2Ns

Ns

R 2

f

2

33

Tst

1 I

= st,Y SFL

TFL

3 IFL,d

So, by varying frequency we vary Ns & since Ns N = constant we vary N accordingly.

Crawling

o

Due to this saddle region, the motor may become stable at a low speed & this is called as

crawling.

Cogging

o

If number of stator slots is equal to or integral multiple number of rotor slots, than at the

time of start, the strong alignment forces between stator teeth & rotor teeth simultaneously

at all rotor teeth may prevent movement of rotor. This is called cogging.

o

According to Double field Revolving Theory, a single phase mmf can be resolved into two

rotating fields one rotating clockwise called as Forward field & other rotating anti-clock wise

called as Backward Field.

Both fields rotate at synchronous speed

Ns =

o

120f

P

Than slip with respect to backward field is 2 s

34

Due to these two fields producing opposing torques on rotor single phase IM is not

self starting.

To produce starting torque, we introduce an auxiliary winding which is used at the time

of start & is disconnected during the run stage.

between main winding & auxiliary winding currents.

35

36

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