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INTRODUCTION

I. Define Population
A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species
which live in a particular geographical area and have the capability of
interbreeding. The Latin word populous, meaning people, gives us the
root population. Words from the Latin populous have something to do with
people. A population is the group of people living in a particular place. In the
future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to
economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards.
According to one report, it is very likely that the world's population will stop
growing before the end of the 21st century.

II. What is Population Explosion?


Population explosion refers to the rapid and dramatic rise in world population that
has occurred over the last few hundred years. Between 1959 and 2000, the worlds
population increased from 2.5 billion to 6.1 billion people. According to United
Nations projections, the world population will be between 7.9 billion and 10.9
billion by 2050. Most of the growth is currently taking place in the developing
world, where rates of natural increase are much higher than in industrialized
countries.
III.

Causes of Over Population Explosion


a) Birth Rate

The term birth rate could be defined as the rate at which the births take place in a
population during a particular time or period. Since it is a rate, the involvement of
time for the number of births is very important. Usually, the period is defined for a
calendar year (from 01st of January to 31st of December of a particular year).

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b) Fertility Rate
The ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area
expressed per 1000 population per year. Fertility rate is generally expressed as
the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 in a calendar year. The fertility
rate varies significantly across different countries with developed nations have
low rates (1 2 or 2 3 children per female) and developing nations have high
rates with sometimes up to 7 8 children per woman.

c) Early Marriage/Universal Marriage System


Child marriage or early marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered
into by an individual before reaching the age of 18.The legally prescribed
marriageable age in some jurisdictions is below 18 years, especially in the case of
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girls; and even when the age is set at 18 years, many jurisdictions permit earlier
marriage with parental consent or in special circumstances, such as teenage
pregnancy .

d) Poverty and illiteracy


Poverty is general scarcity, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of
material possessions or money. It is a multifaceted concept, which includes
social, economic, and political elements. Illiteracy having the maximum influence
on increasing poverty causes poverty across the world. Poverty as we all know
defined as a miserable state of living condition without the basic needs of life food, clothing and shelter.

e) Population amount among different state in India

Current Population of India 2015


Rank

State or union territory

Population (2011

Density (per

Sex ratio

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Census)

km)

01

Uttar Pradesh

199,581,477

828

908

02

Maharashtra

112,372,972

365

946

03

Bihar

103,804,637

1102

916

04

West Bengal

91,347,736

1029

947

05

Andhra Pradesh

84,665,533

308

992

06

Madhya Pradesh

72,597,565

236

930

07

Tamil Nadu

72,138,958

555

995

08

Rajasthan

68,621,012

201

926

09

Karnataka

61,130,704

319

968

10

Gujarat

60,383,628

308

918

11

Odisha

41,947,358

269

978

12

Kerala

33,387,677

859

1,084

13

Jharkhand

32,966,238

414

947

14

Assam

31,169,272

397

954

15

Punjab

27,704,236

550

893

16

Haryana

25,353,081

573

877

17

Chhattisgarh

25,540,196

189

991

18

Jammu and Kashmir

12,548,926

56

883

19

Uttarakhand

10,116,752

189

963

20

Himachal Pradesh

6,856,509

123

974

21

Tripura

3,671,032

350

961

22

Meghalaya

2,964,007

132

986

23

Manipur

2,721,756

122

987

24

Nagaland

1,980,602

119

931
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25

Goa

1,457,723

394

968

26

Arunachal Pradesh

1,382,611

17

920

27

Mizoram

1,091,014

52

975

28

Sikkim

607,688

86

889

UT1

Delhi

16,753,235

9,340

866

UT2

Pondicherry

1,244,464

2,598

1,038

UT3

Chandigarh

1,054,686

9,252

818

UT4

Andaman and Nicobar


Islands

379,944

46

878

UT5

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

342,853

698

775

UT6

Daman and Diu

242,911

2,169

618

UT7

Lakshadweep

64,429

2,013

946

Total

India

1,210,193,422

382

940

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IV. Effects of Population Explosion


A. Unemployment
Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for
employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a
measure of the health of the economy. The most frequently cited measure of
unemployment is the unemployment rate. This is the number of unemployed
persons divided by the number of people in the labour force.
B. Manpower utilization
i.

Pressure on infrastructure

With the continuing growth in urban population across the globe, both public and
private sector stakeholders are coming together to develop and implement
solutions that alleviate pressures on existing infrastructure and resources while
also enhancing quality of life for urban dwellers. This study highlights steps that
are being taken by hardware and software vendors, systems integrators,
governments, and other members of the smart city eco-system in creating
sustainable solutions that effectively address challenges faced by modern day
cities.

ii.

Resource utilization

Population growth impacts on natural resources management, bio diversity


conservation, Environment, Health, and socio economic development. Ugandas
population is dependent on the Environment for survival, with 90% of the
population involved in agriculture. With population growth, mans activities have
increased along mount hills and rivers causing contamination, depletion. As well
planning for big populations becomes difficult. All these are a great threat to the
environment and accelerators of climatic change.

iii.

Inequitable income distribution

Economic inequality, also known as income inequality, wealth inequality, or the


gap between rich and poor is the disparity of any of various measures of
economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a
population, or among countries. Economists generally focus on economic
disparity in three metrics: wealth (wealth inequality), income (income inequality),
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and consumption. The issue of economic inequality can be relevant to notions


of equity, equality of outcome, and equality of opportunity.
iv.

Decreased production and increased cost

Every nook and corner of India is a clear display of increasing population.


Whether you are in a metro station, airport, railway market, temple, or even in a
social/ religious gathering, we see station, road, highway, bus stop, hospital,
shopping mall, all these places are overcrowded at any time of the day. According
to the Indian census, carried out in 2011, the population of India was exactly
1,210,193,422, which means India has crossed the 1-billion.

V. Reasons for Increase in Population


a. Decline in the death rate: At the root of overpopulation is the difference
between the overall birth rate and death rate in populations. If the number of
children born each year equals the number of adults that die, then the
population will stabilize. Talking about overpopulation shows that while
there are many factors that can increase the death rate for short periods of
time, the ones that increase the birth rate do so over a long period of time.
The discovery of agriculture by our ancestor was one factor that provided
them with the ability to sustain their nutrition without hunting.
b. Better Medical Facilities: Following this came the industrial revolution.
Technological advancement was perhaps the biggest reason why the
balance has been permanently disturbed. Science was able to produce
better means of producing food, which allowed families to feed more
mouths. Medical science made many discoveries thanks to which they were
able to defeat a whole range of diseases. Illnesses that had claimed
thousands of lives till now were cured because of the invention of vaccines.
Combining the increase in food supply with fewer means of mortality tipped
the balance and became the starting point of overpopulation.
c. Technological Advancement in Fertility Treatment : With latest technological
advancement and more discoveries in medical science, it has become
possible for couple who are unable to conceive to undergo fertility treatment
methods and have their own babies. Today there are effective medicines
which can increases the chance of conception and lead to rise in birth rate.
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d. Immigration: Many people prefer to move to developed countries like US,


UK, Canada and Australia where best facilities are available in terms of
medical, education, security and employment. The end result is that those
people settle over there and those places become overcrowded. Difference
between the number of people who are leaving the country and the number
of people who enter narrows down which leads to more demand for food,
clothes, energy and home .This gives rise to shortage of resources.

VI. Factors Controlling Population Density


a. Geographical factor
Physical conditions, such as climate (temperature and rainfall), landforms in
terms of altitudes, the quality of the soil and the availability of energy and mine
resources are the important geographical determinants of population distribution.
Another important factor is the relationship between the location of one place and
other places of importance .Climate is one of the most important natural
conditions which have historically played a vital role in the development of hum
life, for it is the main factor determining the formation of botany environment and
of vegetable and animal associations.
b. Availability of natural resources
1. Fuel: In addition, the cost of transportation and of constructing, maintaining
and operating agricultural equipment, is high; and the high altitude also
adversely affects human activity and lots of fuel is used. It has been
estimated that high mountains, which generally tend to discourage human
settlements, occupy more than one million square miles of the earth's land
surface.

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2. Water Bodies: Availability of water plays a significant role in determining


the population of a given area. Water is the basic necessity for several
purposes including irrigation, industries, transport and domestic affairs.
Rivers are the greatest source of fresh potable water. Therefore, most of the
population is concentrated in the river valleys.

3. Mineral Resources: Minerals act as great source of attraction for people


from different areas, which results in higher density of population. The
higher population densities in the Chota Nagpur Plateau of Jharkhand and in
the adjoining areas of Orissa are largely due to the availability of minerals.

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4. Social and Economic Factors of Population Distribution:


Geographers are not unanimous in their opinion that the distribution of
population is determined mainly by physical factors. Some are of the view
that social and economic factors are more important than physical factors,
and that, as society becomes more complex, these physical factors become
less important in determining population distribution.

VII. Aims and Importance of Population Study


Population study is broadly defined as the scientific study of human populations.
Major areas studied include broad population dynamics; fertility and family
dynamics; health, aging, and mortality; and human capital and labour markets.
Researchers in population studies also focus on methodology. Population study
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is an interdisciplinary area of study; scholars from demography, epidemiology,


sociology, economics, anthropology, and various other disciplines study
populations. Various associations and centres exist throughout the United States
and elsewhere.

VIII. Methodology
i. Decline in the Death Rate:
The fall in death rates that is decline in mortality rate is one fundamental causes
of overpopulation. Owing to the advancements in medicine, man has found cures
to the previously fatal diseases. The new inventions in medicine have brought in
treatments for most of the dreadful diseases. This has resulted in an increase in
the life expectancy of individuals. Mortality rate has declined leading to an
increase in population.

ii. Rise in the Birth Rate:


Thanks to the new discoveries in nutritional science, we have been able to bring
in increase in the fertility rates of human beings. Medicines of today can boost the
reproductive rate in human beings. Thus, science has led to an increase in birth
rate. This is certainly a reason to be proud and happy but advances in medicine
have also become a cause of overpopulation.

iii. Migration:
Immigration is a problem in some parts of the world. If the inhabitants of various
countries migrate to a particular part of the world and settle over there, the area is
bound to suffer from the ill effects of overpopulation. If the rates of emigration
from a certain nation do not match the rates of immigration to that country,
overpopulation makes its way. The country becomes overly populated.

iv. Lack of Education:


Illiteracy is another important cause of overpopulation. Those lacking education
fail to understand the need to prevent excessive growth of population. They are
unable to understand the harmful effects that overpopulation has. They are
unaware of the ways to control population. Lack of family planning is commonly
seen in the illiterate lot of the world.

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IX. Result and Discussion


I think to control populations govt should adopt a policy of one child only it
doesn't matter its a boy or a girl. By 2021 India will be very near to china in
comparison of population. Friends we say why India is still the developing
country. The main reason is populations. If this happen then by any mean India
will sure become developed country by 2050 whereas in case of china they will
remain the most populated country in the world till 2040 and will also be declined
below African countries.
In India UP, Maharashtra, Bihar and many other states where populations is
increasing tremendously, over there govt should take serious action regarding
this issue and should adopt one child policy. Not more than one. If there are twins
then it can be ignored.

YEAR

POPULATION

INCREASING %

1970

3,706,618,163

20.2

1980

4,453,831,714

18.5

X. Conclusion
What will happen in 2025?
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While Chinas spectacular growth has already benefitted from demographic


dividend, India is yet to do so. By 2025 India will be more populous than China. Its
population will also be much younger. More than 10 million new workers will join
the labour force, every year, for the next two decades. This is equivalent to the
entire population of Sweden joining the labour force.
The demographic dividend will benefit growth not only through the swelling of
the labour force, as the baby boomers reach working age, but also due to
societys ability to save more because working age happens to be the prime years
for savings, and the increased fiscal space that will divert resources from
spending on children to investing in infrastructure and technology.
By 2021 India will be very near to china in comparison of population. Friends we
say why India is still the developing country. The main reason is populations. If
this happen then by any mean India will sure become developed country by 2050
whereas in case of china they will remain the most populated country in the world
till 2040 and will also be declined below African countries.

XI. Population Control


Education:
Education forms the backbone of an individual and economy. Once educated
people know and understand the harms which a high population growth rate
possesses. Education, especially women education, can work wonders in
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controlling population. An educated man and woman can readily understand the
benefits of a small family.
Without sufficient education most measures like awareness campaigns and
women empowerment will prove to be insufficient and pointless. So it is
important that people understand the importance of education and educate their
children.

Family Planning:
India was the first country to adopt family planning (in 1951) as the government
sponsored programme. But after the efforts of Indian government for about 50 years,
birth rate in India has come down only slightly (only from 41.7 in 1951 to 28.3 in 1997
per 1,000 per year). This showed that voluntary family planning programme was not
very successful. In 1976, Indian government thought of introducing a programme of
compulsory sterilization which required one parent to undergo sterilization after a
couple had produced two children. But due to public resistance, this programme was
again changed to voluntary programme.

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