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Sarah Carson
Mr. Lewis
IDT
2/1/15
IDT Personal Study Guide
Day 1

Input
The data that is entered into a computer. The act of entering data into a computer.

It did anticipate the four components essential to modern computing. These


components are input, storage, processing and output.

output

The computer-generated information that is displayed to the user in some discernible form
such as a screen display, printed page, or sound.
electronic

Adjective for describing a device or result that is dependent on the action of electrons to work.
storage

In computing, any device in which (or on which) information is stored.


processing
The manipulation of data by a microprocessor or embedded processor according to
instructions given to it by a program or embedded in the chip itself.

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hardware
The physical parts of the computer system that you can touch and feel such
as the keyboard, monitor, and computer case.

software

The programs and data that make computer hardware function.


microprocessor

The main processing unit of a computer or information processing device; the "brains" of the
machine carrying out instructions, performing calculations, and interacting with the
components used to operate the computer. The microprocessor handles the fetch, decode, and
execute steps of the computer.
information processing

Capturing, storing, updating, and retrieving data and information. A computer is an


information-processing machine.
RAM (random access memory)

The memory that is available on a computer for storing data and programs currently being
processed. It is automatically erased when the power is turned off. Information in the RAM
that needs to be stored for future use must be saved onto a disk or a tape.
hard disk or hard drive

The main device that a computer uses to store information. Hard disks are rigid aluminum or
glass disks about 3.5 inches in diameter in a personal computer, and smaller in a laptop. They
are coated with ferromagnetic material and rotate around a central axle. Data is transferred
magnetically by a read/write head. A hard disk drive for a personal computer may contain as
many as eight hard disks, rotating around the same axle.
optical disks and drives

Optical disks are used to store computer or media data. Common formats include CD-ROM, CD
RW, DVD, HD-DVD and Blu-ray. Optical drives use laser light to read the data stored on optical
disks. Commonly, optical drives can record and read data
removable media

A portable device allowing for the storage of computer data. Examples can include, Memory
Sticks, magnetic tapes, CD-ROM, and DVD R.
integrated circuit

A complete circuit on a chip, built by a chip fabrication process.


embedded processor

A chip designed with a specific set of usable instructions. The user cannot change the
instructions an embedded processor was programmed to understand.
artificial intelligence

A branch of computer science which tries to simulate aspects of human intelligence, including
the ability to learn from experience and to use reason to solve a problem or respond to a new
situation.
transistor

A type of switch that contains no moving parts and uses electricity to turn itself on and off.
binary code

A coding system that relies on the use of bits0s and 1sto encode information.
execute

To carry out an instruction after it has been decoded.


bit
A binary digit, a 0 or a 1.

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pixel
Short for picture element. A pixel is the smallest logical unit of visual information that can be
used to build an image. Pixels are the little squares that can be seen when a graphics image is
enlarged. The more pixels in an image, the better its resolution.

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American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)


(Pronounced ass-key). An agreed method for pairing the alphanumeric character set with
binary representations used in computers.

Execute
Fetch

Decode

micron
A unit of measure that is one millionth of a meter; synonymous with micrometer.

quadrupeds
Four-footed animals.

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Day 2:

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internet

The connection of many smaller networks to form a large, global wide network.
network
A group of interconnected computers, including the hardware and software used to connect
them.

World Wide Web


Also known as WWW or Web. A hypermedia-based system for browsing Internet sites. It is
named the Web because it is made of many sites linked together; users can travel from one
site to another by clicking on hyperlinks. The World Wide Web is a network of information
servers, principally the ones using HTTP to serve up HTML documents. The servers are linked,
not in any tight or formal sense, but because an HTML document from one server might
contain pointers to documents on many other servers.
hypertext

Text that has hyperlinks. When hypertext is viewed with an interactive browser, certain words
appear highlighted by underlining or color; clicking on a highlighted link leads to another
location with more information about the subject. The term was coined by Ted Nelson around
1965 for a collection of documents (or "nodes") containing cross-references or "links" which,
with the aid of an interactive browser program, allow the reader to move easily from one
document to another.
HTML (hypertext markup language)

The language used to create Web pages, with hyperlinks and markup for text formatting
(heading styles, bold, italic, numbered lists, insertion of images, etc.).
link

A link in an HTML document that leads to another place on the same page, to another page on
the same Web site, or to another Web site. A browser usually displays a hyperlink in some
distinguishing way, such as a different color, font, or style. When the user activates the link
(by clicking on it with the mouse), the browser displays the target of the link. Text or graphics
can be links.
hyperlink
A link in an HTML document that leads to another place on the same page, to another page on
the same Web site, or to another Web site. A browser usually displays a hyperlink in some
distinguishing way, such as a different color, font, or style.

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Web address
Another way of saying URL. A Web address or URL is the unique location name for a specific Web
page. A good example is www.nasa.gov, the home page address of the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration.

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URL (uniform resource locator)
The address for an Internet Web site, generally beginning: http://. A standard that specifies the
location of an object on the Internet, such as a file or a newsgroup.
hosting
To provide the data space for one or more Web sites. Web hosting businesses provide space to
businesses and individuals who don't have the resources or desire to have their own Web server. Web
hosting businesses are responsible for maintaining the equipment necessary to keep all the sites they
host up and running 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
packets
The defined block of information consisting of header, data, and trailer that serves as the information
exchange method on the network.

data
An item or items of information. Data becomes information when it is conveyed in a context that has
meaning to people.
router
In a network, this device is used to determine the pathway used to transmit any signal between
different network nodes.

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file size
The length of a file, typically measured in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (MB).
bandwidth
The amount of data a cable can carry.
download
To transfer files or data from one computer to another. To download means to receive; to upload
means to transmit.

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bps
An abbreviation for bits per second. This is the common measurement used for
comparing the speed at which devices such as modems can transfer data.

Wi-Fi is a method of transmitting wireless data through microwaves.


Using Wi-Fi one can not only connect to the internet but also to a wireless network(s)

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speech

recognition
The ability of a computer or other electronic device to understand the spoken word. Speech
recognition allows you to use just your voice to direct a device to perform a command or to take input.
Instead of typing in a letter, for instance, you could simply dictate it to the computer.
gesture commands
The ability of a device such as a computer to recognize hand signals.

Conducting Path

Switch

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Power

Source

Electrical Load

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semiconductor
A material that when combined with some other material can be turned into an insulator or a
conductor.
transistor
A type of switch that contains no moving parts and uses electricity to turn itself on and off. Silicon ,

an abundant nonmetallic element, Using silicon as a poor conductor.