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Great plains and praires

1. Where
a. Stretches N-S from Edmonton in Canada to the southern tip of
Texas. Western perimeter hugs the Rocky Mountain range and
eastward perimeter ends at the borders of ND, SD, Nebraska,
Kansas, OK and TX. Map
2. What major characteristics:
a. Flat with exceptions of Black hills
b. Perfect for the growing of grass
3. Agriculture
a. Great plains are the continents premiere wheat growing regions
a. Winter Wheat is northern TX and southern NB.
b. Spring Wheat is grown in SD and the Canadian prairies.
c. Soft international market for wheat has lead to a
diversification of crops.
d. Alberta produces more barley than wheat
e. Sunflowers are important in Canada, worlds leading
producer of canola oil
b. Ranching is prominent in Northern Texas and has spread
throughout the High Plains all the way to parts of Canada
a. Ranchers in Texas larges in country land that can not be
irrigated need more because little grass grows
4. What and where is the Ogallala aguifer? ADV and DIS
a. Located underneath all of Nebraska and stretches down to the
Northern part of Texas.
b. Immediate benefits of the aquafers are agriculturally productive
regions such as the High Plains. Irrigation helps boost the
production levels of wheat, cotton and sorghum. BUT water being
used now isnt being replaced by rainfall in the same amounts.
New sources will need to be developed
5. Population
a. Fewer opportunities in farming has forced people to move
to large urban cities
b. Regions larger cities attracted younger populations
b. What are the causes and consequences of population decline since 1980
in many rural counties of the U.S. Great Plains?
a. Many rural counties have lost significant portions of their
populations to the larger regional cities. Energy booms
have created jobs in larger cities and in service industry
c. Why is economic development difficult in many parts of the Great Plains
and Prairies?
a. Lack of opportunities for younger generations
b. Most highways and railroads run east-west, making it
difficult for traffic to go through towns not located along
travel routes

6. What major activities support of economy of Winnipeg? Of Edmonton? Of

Calgary? Of Denver? What role do Minneapolis St. Paul, Kansas City and Dallas
Fort Worth play in relation to the Great Plains?
a. Winnipeg- acts as the exit center for agricultural products.
Facilitates the transport of products from Canadian prairies to
eastern Canada
b. Kansas City- wheat, dairy farming, federal government largest
c. Dallas-Ft. Worth- financial center, support and service industries
for interior
7. What other major natural resources are present in the Great Plains and Prairies?
What is the significance of oil, natural gas, and coal resources to the economic
and political power of Alberta?
a. Coal, petroleum and natural gases are becoming more important
b. Alberta Tar sands give the region significant power economically,
300 billion in reserves
California (Chapter 15)
1. Identify characteristics of Californias physical, economic and cultural diversity
that cause geographers to divide the state in several different regions.
a. CA is split up into different regions because of its extreme
diversity in population, physical environments and diversity
i. Coastal Ranges and heavily forested areas in the North
ii. Flat fertile valleys in the middle of the state
iii. Sierra Nevadas and the Cascade range in the north and
eastern parts of the state
iv. Deserts and plateaus in the South
b. NorCal and SoCal are different not only in physical environments
but in populations sizes, ethinc makeup and ideologies.
2. Adv/ dis of location
a. hub for international trade to the US from the Pacific. Also, it is
the main focus point of the western coast in the US.
b. Earthquakes
c. Land is fertile but water problem
3. California agriculture?
a. Largest agricultural industry in the country
i. $37.1 billion market value of agriculture
1. More than the combined total of #2 and #3 states
ii. Produces nearly all of the countries supply of certain
speciality crops
1. Almonds, apricots, artichokes, broccoli, kiwifruit,
iii. Has no competition with these products because CA is the
only place where most of these fruits and vegetable can
4. inequities water
i. CA massive agricultural industry maintains high demand for
water. Two of the most productive counties, Central and

Imperial countries receive very little rain fall (20 inches)

while 70% of the states rainfall occurs in the northern part
of the state.
b. In what ways have these inequities been reduced?
i. State and federal water projects have been initiated to
redirect water from NorCal to SoCal.
ii. Projects such as the Metropolitan Water District and Los
Angeles Aqueduct were built to transfer water from distant
c. Give examples of ways in which economic, environmental and political
considerations affect development of water supplies?
i. Maintaining the distribution of water is extremely
expensive and alternative methods as well as sources of
water for the South are being considered
ii. Loss of freshwater that has been channeled to the southern
parts of the state can be damaging to natural habitats
iii. Gradual build up of salts in the soils in valleys that are
heavily irrigated pose a potential problem
5. Why has California historically been extremely attractive in relation to other parts
of the U.S., but less so in recent years? What are some major causes and
consequences of Californias cultural diversity?
a. The boom of industries in the energy, agricultural and service
sectors has attracted millions to the state for jobs
b. Causes of CA diversity is its relative close location to Southern
Americas, Asia
i. Major destination for peoples entering American from those
c. Consequences are challenges to school systems and issues with
racism and ethnic tolerance
6. What are some reasons for the states importance in electronics and other high
tech businesses? What other activities are important to the economic base of
the south coastal metropolitan region?
a. CA receives considerable funding from the FED government for
defense spending
b. Federal Defense and Aerospace funding is centered in CA
c. Universities and their diverse intellectual resources are key to the
locations of electronic companies
d. Aerospace has been critical to SoCal
e. Governemnt spending is a huge economical base for SoCal
Native American lands