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Analytical Chemistry Laboratory 2

Spectrophotometric Analysis of a Two Component Mixture
Mr. *****
Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology

Chromium and Cobalt ions both absorb visible light though their absorbance maxima are fairly well separated. By measuring the absorbance at two different wavelengths of a solution containing both ions, it is possible to simultaneously determine the concentration of each ion in the solution. An unknown solution containing these species was analyzed using a spectrophotometer. The concentration of cobalt in the mixture calculated using Beer’s law was 0.0131 M, while chromium was 0.0185 M. is a proportionality constant called the molar absorptivity. ε has units of M-1 cm-1 when b and c are expressed in cm and moles per liter respectively. This relationship between absorbance (A) and εbc is known as Beer's Law. Beer's Law is successful in describing the absorption behavior of dilute solutions only. At high concentrations, the average distance between the species responsible for absorption is diminished to the point where each effects the charge distribution of its neighbors. This interaction, in turn, can alter their ability to absorb a given wavelength of radiation. Because the extent of interaction depends upon concentration, the occurrence of this phenomenon causes deviations from the linear relationship between absorbance and concentration. A similar effect is sometimes observed in solutions containing high concentrations of electrolytes. The proximity of ions (in addition to other factors such as temperature) alters the molar absorptivity of the absorbing species. Methodology The spectrophotometer was set to the 575 nm chromium maximum. The absorbance reading of a 0.02 M solution of cobalt nitrate at this wavelength was taken,

Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce the proper operation of a spectrophotometer and how its use relates to chemical analysis. This will be achieved by recording absorbance measurements of a two component mixtures, and calculating its concentrations using Beer’s Law. Discussion Overview When a beam of parallel radiation passes through a layer of solution having a thickness, b (cm) and a concentration, c (moles/liter) of an absorbing species, a consequence of interactions of the photons and the absorbing particles is attenuation of the beam. The transmittance (T) of the solution is the fraction of the incident radiation transmitted by the solution. The absorbance (A) of a solution is defined as the negative log of the transmittance (T) of the solution. The absorbance is directly proportional to the path length through the solution and the concentration of the absorbing species. That is, A= εbc where ε

including the absorbance of the unknown chromium-cobalt mixture. The wavelength of the spectrophotometer was adjusted again to about 510 nm and the maximum was located for cobalt absorption using a 0.06 M solution of cobalt nitrate. After the maximum was located, the wavelength value was recorded. The absorbance of the 0.06 M cobalt nitrate solution, the absorbance of the 0.04 M chromium nitrate solution, and the absorbance of the unknown chromiumcobalt mixture was read. Instrumentation

species are chromium ion and cobalt ion, both of which absorb strongly in the visible spectrum. The following data was obtained from the experiment:
0.06 M Cr soln. 0.8017 0.314 0.02 M Co soln. 0.0158 0.0984 Sample 0.2575 0.1661

AλCr AλCo

A spectrophotometer measures the amount of radiant energy absorbed by a species. It consists of a source (incandescent filament) that emits a continuous range of wavelengths. The radiant energy is focused by optics which includes a prism or grating; these define a beam of radiant energy of a specific wavelength range. The detector determines the intensity of the radiation before and after the beam is passed through the sample in a cell:

In simultaneous determinations of two species it is necessary to generate two equations in order to determine the two unknown concentrations. In a spectrophotometric analysis these equations can be developed from the Beer-Lambert Law. Absorbance = A = e b C To solve the simultaneous equations that are generated when applying Beer's law to mixtures of absorbing species, one must know the molar absorptivity of each component at each wavelength. The molar absorbtivity of each compound at a given wavelength can be determined from the relationship between A and c in Beer’s law. Beer's Law requires the use of monochromatic radiation and it is under this restraint that the linear dependence of absorption and concentration occurs. If two or more species in a sample absorb at a specific wavelength, the instrument cannot distinguish between the individual species; it can only determine the total absorbance of the sample. In the mixture of the two species, Cr and Co, absorb at the same wavelength the total absorbance at that wavelength is: Atotal = ACr + ACo and, Atotal = e1bCCr + e2bCCo The most convenient way to construct two equations is to measure the total absorbance of the solution at two different wavelengths, 510 nm and 575 nm. Solving simultaneously: CCo = 0.0131 M and CCr = 0.0185 M. Conclusion

Interpretation In this experiment, a two component solution will be studied. The absorbing

The spectrophotometer was used in the analysis of the two components in the mixture which is cobalt and chromium. The calculation basically focuses on one formula – the Beer’s law. Beer's law states that absorbance of electromagnetic radiation is directly proportional to concentration: if there is more than one absorbing species in solution, the total absorbance is the sum of the individual absorbance of all the absorbing species, provided there is no interaction among the various species. By measuring the absorbance at different wavelengths (510 and 575 nm), different absorbing components could theoretically be measured by this technique. Hence calculating concentration from absorbance using Beer’s law: CCo = 0.0131 M and CCr = 0.0185 M References 1. Christian, G.D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th edition. New Jersey. John Wiley, 2004. 2. Englis, D. T. and D. A. Skoog, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed., l5, 748.