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4 Introduction impedance. Admittances are ¥s with the same conventions. In the past (partly due to lack of computer-aided typesetting), some authors got sloppy and omitted, substituted, ‘or interchanged zeroes and Os. (It really wouldn't matte if only it were consistent and clear) Coupling, k, is a unitless ratio. When coupling in dB is intended, kan is used for clarity. The dielectric constant will never be k ‘The wavelength is represented by 2. The symbol A should ony be used for wavelength. Itis confusing to use it as a function parameter, particularly if it should nd up inside a hyperbolic function. There are usually wo wavelengths involved; 2g is the wavelength without a dielectric (free-space wavelengt) and Agi the guide ‘Wavelength (wavelength ofthe actual structure), We will avoid omiting the subscript unless the context i clear. ‘We have tried to use natural logarithms (logarithm base e) throughout for ease of comparison. Many equations appear inthe references with the base 10 logarithms ‘The conversion to natural logarithms is quickly accomplished vi: Ta; =n 10 1 /logioe =2.3026.. ay ‘The logarithms are explicitly subscrpted here for clarity, but his will not be done anywhere else, Losses that are expressed in nepers can be converted to dB with the following relations: Loss =Inx (nepers) 2) 20In (4B) =ip TG = 85858 In. = 8.6858 x nepers (13) Loss = 20 logio x For other mathematical functions the notation conventions of the Handbook of ‘Mathematical Functions by Abramowitz and Stegun (1) are followed. This is most ‘convenient because itis an excellent all-in-one reference containing definitions, equations, tables of values, graphs, and approximation formulas for virtually every special function we could encounter. ‘The notation commonly used for expressing impedance or admittance is: Z=R+jX <> _ Impedance =Resisance +j Reactance as) Y¥=G+jB <= Adminance = Conductance +j Susceptance as) ‘The impedance (admittance) is often normalized (divided by) a reference impedance (adminance) which is denoted Zo (Yo). Impedance is expressed in Ohms (Q), and ‘Admittance (1 / Impedance) is expressed in Siemens (S) or mbos. When susceptances (or eactances are given ina reference they can be converted to inductance and, capacitance with 10 oR 1.2 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ‘As a guide to using this book, I would just like to outline briefly the expected design procedure depicted in Figure 1.2.1 a6 aa ag) as)