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A carbon dioxide/water chemical system at equilibrium

A chemical system is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium when ________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
Although a bottle of soda appears calm and unchanging, at the nano-scale there is a mixture of
dynamic chemical reactions occurring.
Lets break it down.
Stimulus
Spot the differences between
the sealed bottles of carbonated
soda and the
non-carbonated drink.
1. Draw and label a diagram
of this in the space.
2. Write the equation for the
dissolving of carbon
dioxide gas in water.
When CO2(g) dissolves in water
heat is released. Show this
energy in the equation with the
symbol H.
3. Now when aqueous
carbon dioxide dissolves in
water the pH = ________.
_____________________
_________ is formed. It is
a weak acid.
Try this for yourself by blowing
CO2-rich air into water and
universal indicator.
Write the equation showing this
reaction.
4. To explain the low pH we
have to show how H+ ions
are formed and released
into solution.
Write the equation for this
reaction to show the products
formed when carbonic acid
dissolves in water.

Response

Equlibrium
experession

ways to upset carbon dioxide/water chemical system at equilibrium!


Equations

External stimulus

Instantaneous
effect on the
system

How the system readjusts to a new equilibrium

increase concentration of H+(aq)

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

decrease concentration of H+(aq)


by

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

increase concentration of CO2(aq)

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

decrease concentration of CO2(aq)

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

H2CO3(aq) <=> H+(aq) + HCO3- (aq)

CO2(aq) + H2O(l) <=> H2CO3(aq)

increase the volume of H2O(l)


Increase the pressure of the
system by

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

decrease the pressure on the


system by

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

increase the heat energy of the


system by

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

decrease the heat energy of the


system by

The system acts to _____________________ the ________________________________________


by _______________________________________________________________________________
and ______________________________________________________________________________

CO2(g) <=> CO2(aq) + H

Highlight and list the external changes that may be made to solutions at equilibrium. Play with these equations to find other ways to disrupt the equilibrium.

A carbon dioxide/water chemical system at equilibrium


A chemical system is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium when ________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Although a bottle of soda appears calm and unchanging, at the nano-scale there is a mixture of
dynamic chemical reactions occurring.
Lets break it down.
Stimulus

Response

Spot the differences between


the sealed bottles of carbonated
soda and the
non-carbonated drink.

shows the ratio


of concentration
of products/
concentration of
reactants at a
specific
temperature

1. Draw and label a diagram


of this in the space.
2. Write the equation for the
dissolving of carbon
dioxide gas in water.

Equlibrium
experession

K = [CO2(aq) ]
[CO2(g) ]
CO2(g) <=> CO2(aq) + H

When CO2(g) dissolves in water


heat is released. Show this
energy in the equation with the
symbol H.
3. Now when aqueous
carbon dioxide dissolves in
water the pH = ________.
_____________________
_________ is formed. It is
a weak acid.

CO2(aq) + H2O(l) <=> H2CO3(aq)

K = [H2CO3(aq) ]
[CO2(g) ]

Try this for yourself by blowing


CO2-rich air into water and
universal indicator.
Write the equation showing this
reaction.
4. To explain the low pH we
have to show how H+ ions
are formed and released
into solution.
Write the equation for this
reaction to show the products
formed when carbonic acid
dissolves in water.

H2CO3(aq) <=> H+(aq) + HCO3- (aq)

K = [HCO3- aq)] [H+(aq)]


[H2CO3(aq) ]

ways to upset carbon dioxide/water chemical system at equilibrium!


Equations

External stimulus

Instantaneous
effect on the
system

How the system readjusts to a new equilibrium

increase concentration of H+(aq)

The system acts to decrease the concentration of H+(aq)


by using them to form H2CO3(aq)
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the left.

decrease concentration of H+(aq)


by

The system acts to increase the concentration of H+(aq)


by converting H2CO3(aq) to H+(aq) and HCO3- (aq)
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the right.

increase concentration of CO2(aq)

The system acts to decrease the concentration of CO2(aq)


by converting them with H2O(l) to form H2CO3(aq)
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the right.

decrease concentration of CO2(aq)

The system acts to increase the concentration of CO2(aq)


by converting H2CO3(aq) to CO2(aq) and H2O(l)
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the left

increase the volume of H2O(l)

All species are diluted in the same ratio so there is no effect on the equlibrium yield.

Increase the pressure of the


system by

The system acts to decrease pressure


by converting CO2(g) to CO2(aq) and heat
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the right.

decrease the pressure on the


system by

The system acts to increase the pressure


by using heat and converting CO2(aq) and to CO2(g)
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the left

increase the heat energy of the


system by

Both the forward and reverse reactions are increased BUT the system acts to decrease heat energy
by converting CO2(aq) to CO2(g) thus cooling the system
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the left

decrease the heat energy of the


system by

Both the forward and reverse reactions are decreased BUT the system acts to increase heat energy
by converting CO2(g) to CO2(aq) thus heating the system
and so shifting the equilibrium yield to the right

H2CO3(aq) <=> H+(aq) + HCO3- (aq)

CO2(aq) + H2O(l) <=> H2CO3(aq)

CO2(g) <=> CO2(aq) + H

Highlight and list the external changes that may be made to solutions at equilibrium. Play with these equations to find other ways to disrupt the equilibrium.