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Experiment 3: Kinematics of Human Motion

Laboratory Report
Kamylle Consebido, Hazel Dacuycuy, Jose Gerardo Del Rosario, Ira Gabrielli Delos Reyes,
Ancilla Diamante
Department of Occupational Therapy
College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines
Abstract
Kinematics of the human motion
such as displacement, velocity, and
acceleration are discussed in the
experiment. Displacement vs. time and
velocity vs. time graphs were made as a
method of graphical analysis in regards to
human motion. All factors including time,
speed, and distance could all affect the
kinematics of human motion. The reaction
time was also obtained which varies from
person to person.
1. Introduction
The concepts of kinematics have its
relevance when it comes to transportation
vehicles such as cars, buses and trucks.
These vehicles have a built in speedometer
that measures the instantaneous speed,
which can be derived from distance and
time. This experiment aims to inform
students
on
how
to
draw
displacements/velocity versus time graphs
for uniform motion and uniformly
accelerated motion. Students would also
determine their normal reaction time and
their reaction time while being distracted.
2. Theory
Speed is a scalar quantity that refers
to the distance covered by an object in a
certain amount of time. Since it shows the
distance/time ratio, it is also called the
average speed.

Average speed =

distance
time

Velocity is a vector quantity that


refers to the rate at which an object changes
its position. The change in the position from
a starting point to an end point is called the
displacement.
Displacement : X= Xf Xi
Velocity=

x Xf Xi
=
t Tf Ti

On the other hand, acceleration is a


vector quantity that refers to the rate at
which an object changes its velocity.
Anytime an objects velocity is changing,
the object is said to be accelerating. This
case is called the constant acceleration. The
average acceleration of an object over a
given interval of time can be found using
this equation:
Ave . Acceleration=

velocity Vf Vi
=
time
Tf Ti

3. Methodology
This experiment needs a meter stick, timer
and a Vernier Logger Pro. Through Logger
Pro, a position vs. time graph, and a velocity
vs. time graph entitled, 01b Graph
Matching was opened. A member of the
group stood in front of the motion detector
and moved to match the graph.

In order to have a graphical analysis


of motion in our next activity, a group
member was tasked to walk in a straight line
for a total of ten (10) seconds, measured
using a timer, starting from rest. The
distance she travelled every second was
measured with a meter stick. Her total
displacement at each second was recorded,
and divided by its corresponding time in
order to determine the average velocity. The
instantaneous velocity at the end of each
time interval was calculated by multiplying
the average velocity by 2.

In order to determine each of the


group members reaction time, a group mate
(Member B) held a meter stick vertically at
the zero mark while the member being
observed (Member A) positioned his/her
thumb and index finger at the 50cm mark.
The meter stick was dropped without
Member A knowing beforehand and she/he
caught it with his/her thumb and index
finger. The mark where she/he caught it
from the 50cm mark was recorded. The
procedure was repeated but with Member A
being distracted by another member.

4. Results and Discussion


Table 1. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.
Time graph (moving away with constant
velocity)

As it was shown, the person moving


in a constant velocity have a linear graph. As
time elapses, the distance between the
starting point and the person increases which
shows an upward slope, from the point of
origin to the maximum distance traveled.
Since the person moved in a constant
velocity, the acceleration is also constant.
Table 2. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.
Time graph (moving towards with
constant velocity)

When a person approaches the point


of origin at a constant velocity as time
elapses, the effect is the same, as the graph
is still linear and shows a slanted projection.
But this time it starts from a distance to the
point of origin, showing a downward slant
as opposite to the previous graph. The graph

also has the same pattern as the one


mentioned before since the person still
moved in a constant velocity.
Table 3. Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.
Time graph (moving away with increasing
velocity)

These tables show a person moving away


from a starting point, thus showing a
position vs. time graph with an upward
slanting projection. However, the person
moved with increasing speed which signifies
an increasing acceleration. Thus, upward
projections can be noted on the velocity vs.
time graph.
Table 4. Position vs. Time (graph
matching)

In this velocity vs. time graph, our


member is required to move in such a way
that her acceleration should allow the red
line to match the graph presented. As the
line goes downward, the acceleration of the
member should decrease and increase when
the graph goes upward. When the graph
forms a straight line, the acceleration must
be constant. However, the red mark did not
exactly match the graph since there might
have been particles that may have interfered
with the detection of the acceleration,
instead of our member alone. The device
might have sensed those random particles
which caused the uneven results of the
graph.
Table 6. Total Displacement vs. Total
Time

Position vs. Time


15

Throughout this activity, our member


moved in such a way that her velocity
remained constant. Matching of this position
vs. time graph has been made possible
because as the person moves away from the
origin after a few seconds, the red line
instantly makes an increasing slant. As the
red line hits the straight mark, the person has
stopped from a certain point, causing the red
line to match the straight mark. Then a few
seconds, the member walked back towards
the origin, which formed a decreasing slant.
Eventually, the red line hit the straight mark
again, meaning our member stop from that
point onwards.
Table 5. Velocity vs. Time (graph
matching)

10
5
0

Table 7. Instantaneous Velocity vs. Time

Instantaneous Velocity vs. Time


15
10
5
0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Table 8. Total Displacement, Average


Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity at
each second.
Time
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Total
Displacement
(m)
0.72
1.45
2.28
2.93
3.66
4.35
5.22
6.13
6.99
7.82

Average
Velocity
(m/s)
0.72
0.73
0.76
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.75
0.77
0.78
0.78

Instantaneous
Velocity (m/s)
1.44
1.45
1.52
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.49
1.53
1.55
1.56

Table 6 show the position in regards


to time. The position moves away from the
origin in respective to time. Tables 7and 8
are the results that show the values for
average velocity of each total displacement
are close to each other and they are expected
since the average velocity is the total
displacement during an extended period of
time. Due to this, it is observed that when
total displacement increases, the average
velocity also increases. Through the use of
the formula, VInstantaneous = 2(VAverage), the
values for instantaneous velocity were
attained. They, too, showed evidences of
increase as the total displacement and
average velocity increased.
Table 9. Reaction times of each group
member.
Member
Consebido
Dacuycuy
Delos Reyes
Del Rosario
Diamante

Reaction
time (s)
0.21
0.21
0.08
0.17
0.21

Reaction time
while distracted (s)
0.23
0.22
0.26
0.22
0.30

The results show that each members


reaction times vary and that their reaction
time while distracted are evidently higher
than their normal reaction time. Reaction
time was computed using the formula,
, where d represents the distance

from the 50cm mark of the meter stick that


was caught by the member and g represents
acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s2).

5. Conclusion
According to the results gathered, the
activities show that as the person moves in
constant velocity, a linear graph is created in
the position vs. time graph. As time elapses,
the distance between the starting point and
the location of the person increases thus it
shows an upward slope. When the velocity
is constant, the acceleration is also constant,
thus a straight line is plotted in a graph to
show constant acceleration. On the other
hand, it has been also observed that when
total displacement increases, the average
velocity also increases. Lastly, reaction time
varies from person to person and distraction
can affect the reaction time of a person.
6. Applications
1. To determine the height of a building
using a stopwatch is to drop a rock from the
top and monitor the time taken to reach the
ground.
The
physics
formula
of
1
H= a t 2 , where a is the constant
2
gravitational acceleration of 9.8 m/ s

and t is the duration of fall in seconds, thus


the result of this equation H which is the
distance travelled by the free-falling object,
can be used to find the height of a building
in meters.
2. To make a possible explanation based on
physics principles, it is a must for a driver to
be aware of the facts, like speed, position,
possible acceleration etc. in order to have a
stable maneuver for the vehicle. When
cellphones are used while driving, the
drivers attention might be diverted from the
road which might possibly to lead to sudden
and unwanted accidents in the highway. A
driver should be mindful of his position in
the highway in order to set the right limit for
his speed and acceleration in a certain lane.
3.

7. Reference
Sternheim, M., & Kane, J. (1991). General
physics. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.