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Anthony Iacone

HUSH/Fall 15
Mrs. Giresi
Portfolio Narrative
Political 1A

Standards:

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SSUH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th
century.

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a. Explain Virginia’s development, including the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation,
relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of
Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and development of slavery. (45-48; 68-69)
b. Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons, relations with Native
Americans including King Phillip’s War, the establishment of town meetings and the
development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the
half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter. (51-54)
c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies, including the Dutch settlement of New
Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania. (55-59)
d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. (41)
e. Analyze the impact of location and place on a colonial settlement, transportation, and
economic development; including the southern, middle, and New England colonies.

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Narrative:
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In the beginning, the Virginia Company was founded to create settlements in the newly
discovered land of America. The company was created with the intent to not only create these
settlements but bring back several resources and crops, such as tobacco being a major crop, back
to Britain. America’s earliest days were a very awkward time for the newly settled country. There
were growing conflicts with natives over land, due to the fact that the settlers came to America
for land but the natives were there first. The conflicts with the Powhatan tribe are a prime
example. The Powhatan tribe lived in the New England area, mainly Virginia, and that is where
colonists first began to settle. These rising conflicts resulted in King Phillip’s War, a series of
battles and attacks between colonists and the Powhatan. The end result was the death of
Powhatan leader, Metacomet or “King Phillip”, and the death of around 600 colonist and 3,000
Powhatan natives. The House of Burgesses was one of the earliest legislature’s created to bring
order and prevent further conflicts such as King Phillip’s War. Even with the newly formed
legislature, there were still ongoing problems such as Bacon’s Rebellion. This rebellion was
caused by a man named Nathaniel Bacon who lead an uprising of the common people to
governor William Berkeley with the belief that the early government held too much power. This

lead to even more structure for American government such as more town meetings and stronger
legislatures. New Amsterdam was a Dutch colony which is now otherwise known as the island
of Manhattan. The island served as a valuable trading port. The English saw this and captured it,
renaming it New York.


Economic 1A
Standards:

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SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North
America developed.

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a. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. (75-76)
b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population and African-American culture.
(68-71)
c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism. (78, 124)
d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening. (79)

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Narrative:
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As the economy began to grow in America, the British began to put mercantilism into
effect. This policy basically means that Britain was saying that the American colonies only
existed for Britain’s economic benefit. Also with growing economy in America, it meant a
growing demand for labor, so Europeans looked to Africa for slaves. This saw the creation of the
Middle Passage/Triangle Slave Trade, which was a trade route going from Europe to Africa to
America and then back to Europe. With the slaves coming from Africa into America, this created
a very large African-American slave population, and created brought a whole new culture to
America. Benjamin Franklin, one of the main founding fathers, was a man of many interests
outside of the founding of our nation. Franklin was a major Enlightenment thinker, expressing
belief in individualism and encouraging the people to go beyond traditional beliefs to advance
forward. The Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals in colonial America. Many
religious leaders began to think that the people had drifted away from their beliefs and the
church, so there was a major focus on bringing people back to the church in attempt to bring
order to the chaos of early settlements.

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Social 1A
Standards:

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SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution
a. Explain how the end of the Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and
Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.
b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act,
and the Intolerable Act as seen in the Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of
Correspondence
c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence.
(111)

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Narrative:
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With the end of the French and Indian War and the introduction of the 1763 Treaty of
Paris, Britain was faced with a major advantage and major disadvantage for the American
Revolution. Britain was left with a weaker army and a major loss of money after the French and
Indian War but also gained a majority of the land in Canada, neighboring the American colonies.
Due to lack of funding, Britain put in place the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the
Intolerable Acts. All of these acts resulted in the same thing, upset colonists. Groups such as the
Sons and Daughters of Liberty were formed in protest to Britain’s control of the colonies.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was a major turning point for gaining support for the
revolution. Common Sense expressed anger towards Britain and encouraged to people to rise up.

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Standards:

Political 1B

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SSUSH5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the
adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.

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a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shay’s Rebellion led to a
call for a stronger central government. (140-141)
b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on
ratification of (151-152, 143) the Constitution as put forth in The Federalists Papers
concerning form of government, factions, checks, and balances, and the power of the
executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of
powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery. (146-148)
d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights. (153)
e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams, include
the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties
(Alexander Hamilton) (192)

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Narrative:
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Following the American Revolution, the country was in a scramble to establish a strong
government. A major reason for this desire for a stronger government were the weaknesses in the
Articles of Confederation. The articles had little to no power over the states and basically gave
each state all the power. One example of these weaknesses showing through is Shay’s Rebellion.
Shay’s Rebellion was a series of protests against the states and their ability to set their own taxes,
and more often than not the people were being taxed very heavily. In response to the people’s
actions, the Constitution was written. The Constitution established a strong central government,
with three branches that would all have equal power over one another. The Constitution also
established the basic freedoms of the people. The Bill of Rights, another name for the first ten
amendments of the Constitution, was written by James Madison to establish strong protection of
personal freedoms and prevent to government from having too much control over the people.
With the creation of this central government and the creation of the Constitution, this also saw
the development of different political parties, something first president George Washington
feared from the beginning. Early political parties included the Federalist party, believing in
strong government, big business and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Another early

political party was the Democratic Republicans, who believed in an economy based around
small farms, strict Constitution interpretation, and a weaker central government. The Federalists
were led by founding father Alexander Hamilton and future president John Adams, while the
Democratic Republicans were led by future president Thomas Jefferson and his followers. The
development of these political parties began the political split in the United States. During the
presidency of George Washington, founding father Alexander Hamilton created a program to
reduce the debt of the Revolutionary War. This program was one of the first programs put in
place by the new federal government. It also included the tax on various alcoholic products such
as whiskey. These taxes led to the movement known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The leaders of
this rebellion were mainly farmers who used their extra grain and corn to create whiskey to sell,
they were the one’s being heavily taxed.

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Terms:
Articles of Confederation
Shay’s Rebellion
Constitution
Bill of Rights
James Madison
Federalist party
Democratic Republican party
Alexander Hamilton
John Adams
George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
Whiskey Rebellion


Social 1B


Standards:

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SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution
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a. Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence.
(111)

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SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the
American Revolution

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a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources including the writing of John
Locke and Montesquieu of the Declaration of Independence and the role of Thomas Jefferson.
(112)
b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the
roles of Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette
c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader, including the creation of a professional
military and the life of a common soldier, crossing the Delaware River, and Valley Forge.
(109,118)
d. Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis and the Treaty of Paris, 1783. (124-125)

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Narrative:

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Leading up to the American Revolution, it was obvious most of the people in the colonies
were unhappy with their situation. The Declaration of Independence was written to express
their unhappiness and their demands to become their own nation. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
first draft of declaration with ideas based off of philosophical thinkers John Locke and
Montesquieu, who wrote of ideas of democracy and freedom. The colonies were also inspired
for this need of independence when Thomas Paine wrote his famous pamphlet titled Common
Sense. George Washington was a military leader who rose above the odds of fighting the
strongest military in the world at the time. He truly believed in a free nation which motivated
him to rise up and lead, and obviously the people followed. While not being the most tactical
leader and not having enough resources, his passion was able to push his soldiers through the
toughest of times in the war. Especially through the events that occurred at Valley Forge, where
over 2,500 soldiers died due to disease, starvation, and malnutrition all caused by the harsh
winter. Washington was also able to lead his troops across the frozen Delaware River to execute
a sneak attack in the winter of 1776. The final hours of the Revolution were fought at Yorktown
where the British soldiers were lead by General Cornwallis. The British were cornered by a
French naval blockade. The French and the Colonies had built a strong alliance over the years

with the help of Benjamin Franklin. At the end of the war the Treaty of Paris was put into
place, granting the Colonies independence and land as far west as the Mississippi River.


Economic 1B

Standards:

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STANDARD 6: Analyze the nature of territorial and population growth, and its impact in
the early decades of the new nation.
a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, on
slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. (p. 137)
b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the
territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark. (p. 208-209)
c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a
national identity. (p. 214-219)

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Narrative:
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Following the Revolution, the people of the colonies began to expand westward. In doing so they
ran into many problems facing Native Americans. These events saw the creation of the
Northwest Ordinance. This ordinance created new states in the Ohio River Valley, the first
being Ohio. The ordinance also prohibited slavery in these new states and also required there be
some form of public education. During Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, he purchased 870,000
miles land west of the Mississippi River, nearly doubling the size of the United States. This
purchase is now known as the Louisiana Purchase. Explorers Lewis and Clark were sent to
explore the new land and report back on what was out there before people began to expand out
there. Although the Revolution was over, issues with Great Britain continued. The British were
attempting to restrict U.S. trade with other countries and capturing U.S. ships and sailors. This
saw the start of the War of 1812. The war also involved Canada and Native Americans, who
sided with Great Britain for various reasons. The U.S. ultimately won the war and due to the fact
that it was the growing nation’s second win against one of the world’s greatest powers, it created
a great sense of American pride and nationalism throughout the nation.


Political 2A
Standards:

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SSUSH 8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions
and westward expansion.
a. Explain the how slavery became a significant issue in American politics: include the slave
rebellion of Nat turner and the Rise of Abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick
Douglass, and the Grimke sisters)(p. 278-285)
b. Explain the Missouri compromise and the issue of slavery in the western states and
territories. (p. 242-246, 233-238)
c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the
role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. (p. 255-259)
d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. (p. 305-315)
e. Explain how the compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population
growth. (324-329)

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Narrative:
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Slavery was a growing problem throughout the U.S., southern farmers depended on slaves to
make a living while northerners really had no need for slaves at all. With the growing migration
of freed slaves to the north, these former slaves began to speak out against slavery. William
Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters were some of the most
significant and important abolitionists of the time. Without them the slaves would not really have
found distinct voice. There were also very violent movements towards abolitionism, such as the
rebellion of Nat Turner, where a group slaves led by Nat Turner murdered around 65 people as
an outcry for freedom. The Missouri Compromise was created to resolve an issue that arose
when Missouri became a state and was requesting slavery be allowed. The compromise created
line that separated free and slave states. Congress was split on the decision, and the differences
between the northern and southern states began to shine through at this period of time. These
differences between the north and south also saw states, such as South Carolina, threaten to
remove itself from the nation. This is known as the Nullification Crisis. While all this was going
on, the U.S. was also fighting a war with Mexico. The U.S. won this war but faced the issue of
slavery in the newly gained territories from Mexico. The Wilmot Proviso was introduced to
clearly remove any form of slavery in these new territories.

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Economic 2A
Standards:

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STANDARD 6: Analyze the nature of territorial and population growth, and its impact in
the early decades of the new nation.

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a. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development
of the nation’s infrastructure. (p. 228-230)
b. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine. (p. 246)

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Narrative:
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New York City was not always one of the most important U.S. cities. In fact it was not until the
construction of the Erie Canal that New York City began to blow up. The Erie Canal was
created to have a water route running from New York and the the Atlantic Ocean to the Great
Lakes. With the creation of the canal, supplies and products were transported much faster and
were more cost effective, cutting transportation costs by almost 95%. With all these goods
coming into New York city, it quickly became one of the biggest trading ports in not only the
U.S. but also the world. The Erie Canal also laid down the basic infrastructure for
transportation in the U.S. This also saw a massive population growth in New York. With all this
growth and prosperity going on, president James Monroe began to expand upon the U.S.’s
foreign policies with the introduction the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine stated that
European countries were not allowed to interfere with the development of the new states, and if
they did it would be seen as an act of aggression. This was a bold statement made by the U.S.
setting up the groundwork for years to come.

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Social 2A
Standards:

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STANDARD 7: Explain the process of economic growth, it’s regional and national impact
in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.

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a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the
cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets. (p. 231-232,236)
b. Describe the westward growth of the United States, including the emerging concept of
Manifest Destiny. (p. 300-301)
c. Describe reform movements, especially temperance, abolitionism, and public school. (p.
277, 278-280, 275)
d. Explain women’s efforts to gain the suffrage, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the
Seneca Falls convention. (p. 286, 289, 290)
e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding of the suffrage, the rise of popular political
culture, and the development of American nationalism. (p. 246-257)

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Narrative:
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The Industrial Revolution was a time of great progression in the U.S. Eli Whitney’s creation of
the cotton gin and interchangeable parts really showed people how things were changing. The
cotton gin boosted the economy by being able to farm cotton more efficiently than ever before,
and the interchangeable parts created one of the first standard products using molds that were
easily replicated. People also began to journey westward during this period of time, people were
settling on the western coast following the Oregon Trail. It was a brutal journey but this
migration of people also lead to the creation of railroads to transport goods from the western and
eastern coasts later on. Also with this western movement, the idea of Manifest Destiny
developed. The people believed it was their religious mission to expand and spread their culture
and religion and “save” the Natives living in western America at the time. This expansion of the
nation also lead to the beginning of various movements from the people. such as the temperance
movement, which was an effort to stop the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Another very
crucial movement in American history was the abolitionist movement, which was an effort to
end slavery in the America’s. This was a a very important movement to not only the African
American people, but also Native Americans who had been enslaved. Women in this time also
saw the beginning of a very important movement, their quest for suffrage. Elizabeth Cady
Stanton was of the earliest women’s rights activists. She and other women’s rights activists met
in a church in Seneca Falls to create a declaration for women’s rights, this event is known as the
Seneca Falls Convention. Jacksonian Democracy was a political movement in the U.S. based
around the democracy of the common people, represented by president Andrew Jackson. This
movement also saw a bigger split in the political parties of the time. 


Political 2B

Standards:

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STANDARD 9: Identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course,
and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act (334-336), the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott
case )341, and John Brown’s Raid (344-345).
b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural
address and the Gettysburg speech seen in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision
to suspend habeas corpus. (384-385)
c. Describe the role of Ulysses Grant (364), Robert E. Lee(361), “Stonewall Jackson,” William
T. Sherman(386), and Jefferson Davis (376).
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter ( 353), Antietam (368), Vicksburg (380-381),
Gettysburg (382-384), and the Battle for Atlanta (386-387)
e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. (368-369, 372)
f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and South
through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output. (360-361)

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Narrative:
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Slavery was a growing issue during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Many acts were put into
place the change slavery, such as the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This act allowed the people of the
territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they wanted to prohibit slavery or not
within their territory. While this was a nonviolent way to solve the countries slavery problems,
there were also violent actions being taken. Such as John Brown’s raid, which was a revolt of
slaves led by white abolitionist John Brown and him and the slaves took over the military
arsenal of Harper’s Ferry. The Dred Scott Case was a major turning point for slaves. It was a
decision made by the US Supreme Court that slaves were not considered US citizens, and had no
say in anything. These continuous acts on slavery continued to split the nation. President
Lincoln tried his hardest to keep the country together, especially in his Second Inaugural
Address which promised a great future for the country following the Civil War. Although, during
the Civil War, Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” freed all slaves, causing even more
problems in the South. The differences in the North and South were not only in their views on
slavery but also their development. The South remained very based around farming while the
North turned to industry. The industrial North had a severe advantage over the South overall
when it came to technology. The North had a great system of railways which which happened to
run through Atlanta, Georgia. This made the Battle of Atlanta very significant because Atlanta
was one of the only major trading points that the South had.


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Standards:
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Economic 2B

STANDARD 9: Identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course,
and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act (334-336), the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott
case )341, and John Brown’s Raid (344-345).
b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural
address and the Gettysburg speech seen in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision
to suspend habeas corpus. (384-385)
c. Describe the role of Ulysses Grant (364), Robert E. Lee(361), “Stonewall Jackson,” William
T. Sherman(386), and Jefferson Davis (376).
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter ( 353), Antietam (368), Vicksburg (380-381),
Gettysburg (382-384), and the Battle for Atlanta (386-387)
e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. (368-369, 372)
f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and South
through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output. (360-361)

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Narrative:
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The differences between the North and South around the time of the Civil war not only had to do
with slavery but their economic situations as well. The northern states had no need for slavery
because they were more industry centered than the south. The southern states however relied on
slavery farms and plantations to make more money. The industry in the North made railroads the
most popular for of transporting goods throughout the states, having multiple railways
connecting states. This also created denser populations around railroad stations, while southern
population was more spread out. Northern companies were able to put out a vast variety of goods
and make their money that way. The south however was able to form a strong bond with Britain
due to their crop production, primarily cotton. This bond also led to British support of the South
during the Civil War.


Social 2B
Standards:

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STANDARD 10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction
a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.
(402-409)
b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide
advanced education such as Morehouse College, and the Freedmen’s Bureau
c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. (391, 407, 409)
d. Explain Black Codes (405) the Ku Klux Klan (416-418), and other forms of resistance to
racial equality during Reconstruction. (422)
e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction. (407-408)
f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent Compromise of 1877
marked the end of Reconstruction. (424)

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Narrative:
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Following the death of Abraham Lincoln, the United States entered a time of Reconstruction.
There were two main ways the reconstruction was looked at, the Radical Republican
Reconstruction and the Presidential Reconstruction. The Radical Republicans believed that the
southern states that tried to leave the Union, should be severely punished, along with any major
Confederate leaders. The Radical Republicans also believed whites and blacks should be
completely equal. Presidential Reconstruction was led by President Johnson, who was from the
south. He returned all property, except slaves, to those who pledged loyal to the Union if they
were formerly Confederate. Andrew Johnson also was not a supporter of equal rights for African
Americans. Johnson’s Reconstruction ideas eventually led to harsh laws known as Black Codes,
making life for freed African-Americans very difficult. This kind of racism seen in the country
also led to the formation of the Ku Klux Klan. Although not everything in the Reconstruction Era
was a result of racism. The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments created a greater
feeling of equality. The thirteenth amendment officially abolished slavery, the fourteenth
amendment declared that all people born in the US are American citizens regardless of race, and
the fifteenth amendment prohibited the denying of a citizen the right to vote based on race, color,
or creed. Land was also distributed to former slaves mainly through sharecropping, where a
landowner would give out land for others to use in exchange for share of their crops. Ultimately,
the Reconstruction Era ended when the Compromise of 1877 was put into place. This
compromise settled the election of 1876 and removed federal troops from the South.


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Political 3A

STANDARD 13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the
Progressive Era.

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13. Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, the recall, and
9554-555) referendum direct election of senators; reform of labor law; and efforts to improve
living conditions for the poor in the cities.

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Narrative:
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The ending of the 19th century and early 20th century became known as the Progressive Era.
During this era there were many different reform movements in the United States. One of the big
political reforms was the addition of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution. This
amendment allowed for two Senators from each state to be elected by the people. These senators
would represent the states and what the states wanted in the country. 


Economic 3A
Standards:

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STANDARD 11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after
Reconstruction,
1. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization
of big business. (440-441)
3. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and
monopolies. (444-446)
4. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison, including the electric light bulb, motion pictures,
and the phonograph, and their impact on American life. (438-439)

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Narrative:
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During the Progressive Era there was a rise in big business. Since the country had never seen
booming business like this before, there were’t really any strict regulations on the businesses.
Business tycoons such as John Rockefeller created a monopoly on his product, Standard Oil, by
eliminating all other competition. Other businesses followed this monopoly example and the
American economy soon became very corrupt. The growing railroad system also boosted the
sales of steel in the US. As the railroads advanced they required a stronger track, so they turned
to steel. Andrew Carnegie was a major player in the distribution of this steel and made a fortune
off of the railways. Thomas Edison changed the nation with his introduction of the electric
lightbulb. This brought easily accessible light into the homes of Americans all across the nation.


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Standards:
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Social 3A

STANDARD 12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
5. Describe Ellis Island (466-470), the change in immigrants’ origins to southern and eastern
Europe (464-465), and the impact of this change on urban America (472-474)
6. Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers. (454)
7. Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans (497-500)
with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee. (500-503)
8. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of industrial unrest.
STANDARD 13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the
Progressive Era.
9. Explain Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry.
(551-556)
10. Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in the reform
movements (552, 557-562)
11. Describe the rise Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP. (520-522,
528, 565-567)
12. Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker. (551)
14. Describe the conservation and the development of national parks and forests; include the role
of Theodore Roosevelt
STANDARD 14: Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the
twentieth century.
14. Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the
west coast. (523-524)

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Narrative:
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With the growing industry and economy the United States saw a growth in immigrants coming
from Europe. This large immigration led to the opening of Ellis Island, which was a station on
the East coast where immigrants went to be checked before being permitted into the United
States. With Ellis Island being located in New York, most the immigrants ending up living in
New York. This created a very dense population in the city and also change the culture forever.
Jane Addams opened her Hull House in 1889, it was a place where immigrants could go to
learn to read and write in English and have the same opportunities as everyone else. Often these
immigrants would also be hired for cheap labor in factories, often working dangerous jobs. More
often than not these dangerous jobs could result in injury and sometimes even death. After
various strikes against these conditions in the workplace, foundations like the American
Federation of Labor were formed to speak for the people’s rights and safety. Upton Sinclair
also gave the nation a revelation in his book The Jungle. His book exposed many industries but
mainly the meatpacking and food industry, and their lack of sanitary conditions surrounding the
food. Many Americans read this book, including Theodore Roosevelt, and there was an outcry

for a change in the food industry. The food industry was not the only industry being exposed. Ida
Tarbell was a muckraker who worked to expose industry leaders like John Rockefeller. All this
unrest in the industry led to one of the most important strikes in all US history, the Pullman
Strike. This strike ultimately shut down all major railroads and aimed to show the problems in
the industry at the time. American were not the only one fighting these social battles at the time.
The Native Americans were being pushed further and further west and soon almost pushed out of
the country with the battle of Wounded Knee. There was also a large amount of Chinese
immigrants who faced much discrimination at this time, to the point of the Chinese Exclusion
Act which banned all immigration from China.


Political 3B
Standards:

!

STANDARD 14: Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the
twentieth century.
A. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over
American expansionism. (592-598, 599-601, 598)
B. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal. (604-609)

!

STANDARD 15: Analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.
A. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference
to unrestricted Submarine Warfare. (624-625, 626)
B. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great
Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. (634, 632)
C. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations. (641-645)
D. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth
Amendment, establishing woman suffrage. (578, 561-562)

!
Narrative:
!

At the end of the 19th century, the U.S found itself involved in the Spanish-American war and a
war in the Philippines. Both wars were an effort to expand the States. Following the SpanishAmerican war the U.S. became heavily involved in Latin America and the Philippines. Moving
into World War I, the U.S. wanted to remain neutral to protect itself. Unfortunately, neutrality
was almost impossible with increasing aggression from Germany, such as their use of
submarine warfare to sink U.S. ships, especially with the sinking of the Lusitania which killed
1,191 of the 1,962 passengers including U.S. citizens. This ultimately led the people of the U.S.
to want to involve themselves in the war to fight back. Following World War I, President
Woodrow Wilson devised a plan to keep peace in the world, known as the Fourteen Points.
One of the points in the plan was the League of Nations, whose purpose was to bring the
countries together to settle disputes in a peaceful way. The League ultimately failed due to the
fact that the U.S. never actually joined it. 


Economic 3B
Standards:

!

STANDARD 14: Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the
twentieth century.
A. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over
American expansionism. (592-598, 599-601, 598)
B. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal. (604-609)

!
!
Narrative:
!

Once the U.S. was able to enter Latin America and the Philippines, a new world of economic
opportunities opened up. President Roosevelt started the construction of the Panama Canal,
which expanded the capabilities of the U.S. Navy and trade. In the Philippines, once the U.S.
established themselves it became a port for the U.S. Navy and led to future trade with Asian
countries.


Social 3B
Standards:

!

STANDARD 15: Analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.
A. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference
to unrestricted Submarine Warfare. (624-625, 626)
B. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great
Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. (634, 632)
C. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations. (641-645)
D. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth
Amendment, establishing woman suffrage. (578, 561-562)

!

STANDARD 16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI.
A. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and
immigrant rejection. (649-650)

!
Narrative:
!

Leading up to World War I, the U.S. saw a large movement of African Americans from the south
to the urban north seeking better opportunities. This movement is now known as the Great
Migration. Women also were finally able to gain the right to vote with the introduction of the
Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Women also had a major influence in the Eighteenth
Amendment, which prohibited alcoholic beverages in the United States. By popular demand of
the people though, the amendment was repealed when the Twenty-First Amendment was
introduced. Following World War I there was a growing fear of communism within the country.
With Communist leaders rising up around the world, the U.S. felt threatened and feared for not
only their security but their way of life. The Espionage Act was introduced to due fear of spies
that would threaten the U.S. overall. All these fears would lead to the Red Scare later on.


Political 4A
Standards:

!

SSUSHS17: ANALYZE THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT
DEPRESSION.
A. Describe the causes including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock market
speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. (702-706)
B. Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl. (714-715)
C. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in
developments such as Hoovervilles.

!

SSUSHS18: DESCRIBE FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT’S NEW DEAL AS A RESPONSE TO
THE DEPRESSION AND COMPARE THE WAYS GOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS
AIDED THOSE IN NEED.
D. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort
to control the environment. (736)
E. Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. (744)
F. Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal. (741, 738)
G. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and women’s activism. (748-749)
H. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and international leadership; include
the role of Huey Long, the “court packing bill,” and the Neutrality Act. (746, 739, 779)

!
Narrative:
!

Entering the Great Depression, many Americans blamed the economic problems on president
Herbert Hoover, giving the name Hoovervilles to small towns made up of shacks inhabited by
the poor. When president Franklin Roosevelt came into office he made plan to save the country
and called it the New Deal. The New Deal put many new programs in in place such as the
Tennessee Valley Act and created jobs for the people. It also provided financial aid for those in
need. The New Deal made Roosevelt very popular, leading to his very long presidency.
Although, many believed Roosevelt had gained too much power through his popularity when he
attempted to pack the Supreme Court with more justices who would vote in his favor. People,
like Huey Long, spoke out against Roosevelt’s actions believing he was almost becoming a
dictator of sorts. Roosevelt also created a second New Deal which introduced Social Security,
providing financial aid for the elderly.


Economic 4A
Standards:

!

SSUSHS17: ANALYZE THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT
DEPRESSION.
A. Describe the causes including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock market
speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. (702-706)
B. Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl. (714-715)
C. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in
developments such as Hoovervilles.

!
Narrative:
!

Leading up to the Great Depression, the earliest systems of credit were introduced the 1920’s.
The main problem was that no one was really keeping track of the credit, people were never
paying what they owed. Companies were over-producing and not making any profit, which led to
companies having to file for bankruptcy. Stock market speculation led to the crash of the stock
market, people were investing in companies that were going bankrupt without realizing it. As this
continued and companies went bankrupt, the people who invested in the stock market went broke
because all their money was now invested in a company that didn't exist anymore. 


Social 4A
Standards:

!

!

STANDARD 16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI.
A, Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. (660-663)
B. Describe the impact of radio and the movies.(680-681)
C. Describe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the origins of
jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan Alley. (690-663)
SSUSHS17: ANALYZE THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT
DEPRESSION.
A. Describe the causes including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock market
speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. (702-706)
B. Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl. (714-715)
C. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in
developments such as Hoovervilles.
SSUSHS18: DESCRIBE FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT’S NEW DEAL AS A RESPONSE TO
THE DEPRESSION AND COMPARE THE WAYS GOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS
AIDED THOSE IN NEED.
D. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort
to control the environment. (736)
E. Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. (744)
F. Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal. (741, 738)
G. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and women’s activism. (748-749)
H. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and international leadership; include
the role of Huey Long, the “court packing bill,” and the Neutrality Act. (746, 739, 779)

!
Narrative:
!

The 1920’s were a time of social change in the United States. Following the war people wanted
to live an easy going lifestyle. With the introduction of the radio and movies people were able to
relax and get away from their everyday lives. The music also changed, jazz music became
extremely popular and this period of time known as the Harlem Renaissance gave the world
great musicians like Louis Armstrong, Langston Hughes, and Irving Berlin and changed
music forever. Henry Ford also innovated the automobile industry with his assembly line method
and made the mass production of cars possible. However, the 1920’s still were times of racism
and poverty. Franklin Roosevelt’s wife, Eleanor, was a major Civil Rights activist and women’s
rights activist and her connection to the president changed both of those social issues forever,
paving the way for future. The Dust Bowl was major drought occurring in the Great Plains
region, causing many farmers to leave their farms and move to the cities with almost nothing. 


!
Standards:
!

Political 4B

USHS19: IDENTIFY THE ORIGINS, MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE
DOMESTIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II, ESPECIALLY THE GROWTH OF THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
a. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed March on Washington D.C., and President
Roosevelt’s Response. (810)
b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese-Americans,
German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. (789, 813)
c. Explain major events: include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the
fall of Berlin. (785, 807, 819, 823)
d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of
women in war industries. (792, 814, 809)
e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing
the Atomic Bomb
f. Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the
difficulties the U.S. faved in delivering weapons and medical supplies to troops

!
Narrative:
!

During World War II, the U.S. wanted to remain neutral. Although, the continued to provide
support and supplies to the Allied nations through the lend-lease program. Once the Axis
powers found out about this support, they U.S. was officially considered an enemy. On
December 7th, 1941, Japanese pilots boomed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. This is considered the
official moment where the U.S. enters the war. During wartime the U.S. had a much harder time
delivering supplies into the Pacific Theater than the European Theater. In the Pacific Theater the
U.S. held very little land in an area made of mostly islands, which made the trips very risky. This
is why the Battle of Midway was so important because it provided a midpoint for the U.S. to
refuel. Whereas in the European front, the U.S. was allied with Britain and France and could
easily distribute supplies. Once the war in Europe was finished, the U.S. still had to face the
Japanese. The Japanese would not surrender and the U.S. had very few options left. For the past
few years the U.S. had been working on development of the Atom Bomb in their Los Alamos
testing facility. The bomb was first dropped on Hiroshima and completely devastated the
Japanese, but the still refused to surrender. A second bomb was then dropped on Nagasaki which
then caused the Japanese to surrender.


!

Economic 4B

Standards:
USHS19: IDENTIFY THE ORIGINS, MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE
DOMESTIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II, ESPECIALLY THE GROWTH OF THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
a. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed March on Washington D.C., and President
Roosevelt’s Response. (810)
b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese-Americans,
German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. (789, 813)
c. Explain major events: include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the
fall of Berlin. (785, 807, 819, 823)
d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of
women in war industries. (792, 814, 809)
e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing
the Atomic Bomb
f. Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the
difficulties the U.S. faved in delivering weapons and medical supplies to troops

!

SSUSH21: The student will explain the impact of technological development and economic
growth on the United States, 1945-1975.
4. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I
and President Eisenhower’s actions. (865-895)

!
Narrative:
!

The U.S.’s entry into World War II saw the final days of the Great Depression. The war saw a
growing demand for war supplies which included food, weapons, etc.. This demand put all the
people who weren’t off fighting the war to work, including women. This created an economic
boom the U.S. had not seen in years. Wartime also meant rationing so the soldiers could receive
the necessary supplies and food rather than the people of America. Once the Russians had
launched their satellite Sputnik into space, the U.S. also became interested in space exploration
and with the funds made from this wartime economy, they were able to advance.


Social 4B
Standard:
USHS19: IDENTIFY THE ORIGINS, MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE
DOMESTIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II, ESPECIALLY THE GROWTH OF THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
a. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed March on Washington D.C., and President
Roosevelt’s Response. (810)
b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese-Americans,
German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. (789, 813)
c. Explain major events: include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the
fall of Berlin. (785, 807, 819, 823)
d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of
women in war industries. (792, 814, 809)
e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing
the Atomic Bomb
f. Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the
difficulties the U.S. faved in delivering weapons and medical supplies to troops
SSUSH20: The student will analyze domestic and international impact of the Cold War on
the United States
1. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman
Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. (850, 848)
2. Explain the impact of the new communist Regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War,
and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. (854, 855-857,
873-875)
3. Explain the role of geography on the U.S. containment policy the Korean War.

!
Narrative:
!

During and following World War II, there was a great fear of communism in the United States.
Italian-Americans, Japanese-Americans, and German-Americans were interned in fear they
might rise up in support of their home country. Senator Joseph McCarthy became a very popular
figure in the Red Scare with his belief that anyone who seemed different, could very well be a
communist and a spy. His beliefs became known as McCarthyism. Racism and equal rights
were still a problem that the U.S. faced at home. A.Philip Randolph was a Civil Rights leader
who proposed a March on Washington D.C. to promote the desegregation of the U.S. military
and the work force. In fear of a race riot breaking out, Franklin Roosevelt complied. Following
World War II, the U.S. provided aid to war-torn Europe through the Marshall Plan, providing
food and supplies. The U.S. made it their mission to contain communism in the light of a
communist uprising in China, and Korea, which ultimately led to the U.S. involvement in the
Korean War.


Political 5A
Standards:

!

SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War
on the United States
a. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. (956-958)
b. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive and growing opposition to the war. (984-991,
995-996)
c. Explain the role of geography on the U.S. containment policy, the Korean War, the Bay of
Pigs, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Vietnam War.

!

SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments
between 1945 and 1970.
a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion if individual rights as seen in the Miranda
decision. (972-973)
b. Explain Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society, including the establishment of Medicare.
(969-971)
c. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968, including the assassinations of Martin
Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National
Convention. (996-999)

!
Narrative:
!

Entering the 1960s the U.S. was still on a mission to contain communism, especially when a
communist revolution was happening very close to home. The Cuban Revolution was led by
Fidel Castro who had formed a strong alliance with the USSR, the U.S.’s biggest enemy. Castro
allowed that the USSR place missiles on the island of Cuba, posing a strong threat to the United
States. Once President John F. Kennedy heard about these missiles he was pressured by the CIA
into sending a special force down to invade Cuba and take out the missiles. Both these events are
now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Bay of Pigs invasion. While the U.S. was
dealing with Cuba, there was another communist uprising in Vietnam, resulting in the split of the
country into North and South. The U.S. eventually began to send troops into Northern Vietnam
resulting in the Vietnam War. At home in the U.S. the country was constantly hit with hard
times in this era with the assassinations of John and Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther
King Jr., with all three of these men being strong political and social leaders, the country was in
shock.


Economic 5A
Standards:

!

SSUSH21 The student will explain the impact of technological development and economic
growth on the United States
a. Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway
Act
b. Analyze the impact television has had on American life; include the development of the
personal computer and the expanded use of air conditioning.
c. Describe the impact television has had on American culture, include the presidential debates
(Kennedy/Nixon, 1960) (897, 900, 953)
d. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I
and President Eisenhower’s actions. (865, 895)

!
Narrative:
!

With the widespread introduction of the television in the United States, the economy became a
very consumer based economy. With television, companies were easily able to advertise their
product because they knew everyone would be watching TV. All these consumer goods led to a
booming economy which led to people who were living in major cities want to settle and move
out of the city into suburbia. This led to the creation of national highways and suburban areas all
over the U.S.


Social 5A
Standards:

!

!

SSUSH21 The student will explain the impact of technological development and economic
growth on the United States
a. Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway
Act
b. Analyze the impact television has had on American life; include the development of the
personal computer and the expanded use of air conditioning.
c. Describe the impact television has had on American culture, include the presidential debates
(Kennedy/Nixon, 1960) (897, 900, 953)
d. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I
and President Eisenhower’s actions. (865, 895)

!

SSUSH22 The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights movement, 1945-1970.
a. Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the U.S. military and the
federal government.
b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball
c. Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision
d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter From a Birmingham Jail and his I
Have a Dream speech
e. Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights
Act of 1965.

!

SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and
organizations in the late 1960s
a. Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern
women’s movement. (1023)
b. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement. (992-994, 998-999, 1002-1003)

!
Narrative:
!

During the 1960s the United States invested a lot of time and money into the Space programs
due to advancements in Russia’s space programs. This was due to the fear in the people that
Russia was advancing years ahead of the United States. The United States was still facing major
Civil Rights issues but the 1960s was one of the most important eras for the issue. Baseball
player Jackie Robinson was the first African-American to be put into the white baseball league
which led to integration of all popular sports. The Brown v. board of Education was a very
important Supreme Court Case which resulted in integration of the public school system.


Along with a large anti-Vietnam war movement, there was one of the biggest Civil Rights
movements the world has ever seen. Led by Martin Luther King Jr., in 1963 there was a March
on Washington D.C., this is one of the biggest rallies in history. Here Martin Luther King Jr. gave
his famous “I Have a Dream” speech where he tells all of his dream for a world without racism.
His speech is regarded by many as the leading cause of the passing of the Civil Rights Act of
1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The 1960s also saw an expansion of television, with a
majority of the Presidential Debates of 1960 being televised. Many speculate that John F.
Kennedy won the election due to his presence on camera versus Richard Nixon’s appearance. 


Political 5B
Standards:

!

SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
1. Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation die to the
Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald
Ford. (1009, 1010, 1049-1052, 1055-1057)
2. Explain the impact of the Supreme Court decisions based on ideas about civil liberties and
civil rights, including such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on
affirmative action. (1026, 1083, 1062)
3. Explain the Carter administrations’ efforts in the Middle East including the Camp David
Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian Hostage Crisis.
(1065-1067)
4. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency, including
Reagonomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. (1081-1083,
1087-1091)
5. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton, including the North
American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. (1111-1112, 1115,
1113)
6. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the Electoral
College. (1119-1120)
7. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on
the United States the war on terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in
Afghanistan and Iraq. (1122-1125)

!
!
Narrative:
!

The presidential election of 1968 resulted in Richard Nixon as president. Richard Nixon built
stronger relations after years of China having closed doors. When Richard Nixon resigned from
presidency following the Watergate scandal, Gerald Ford was his replacement. Ford focused on
regaining the people’s trust of the government following the Watergate scandal, rather than
focusing on foreign affairs. Although, he did put the Helsinki Accord which helped put western
countries and eastern communist countries at peace. During the presidency of Jimmy Carter, the
world saw attempts to keep peace in the Middle East who started to become a more significant
problem regarding war and terrorism. Carter helped put in place the Camp David Accords which
led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. 


Economic 5B
Standards:

!

SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
1. Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation die to the
Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald
Ford. (1009, 1010, 1049-1052, 1055-1057)
2. Explain the impact of the Supreme Court decisions based on ideas about civil liberties and
civil rights, including such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on
affirmative action. (1026, 1083, 1062)
3. Explain the Carter administrations’ efforts in the Middle East including the Camp David
Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian Hostage Crisis.
(1065-1067)
4. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency, including
Reaganomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. (1081-1083,
1087-1091)
5. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton, including the North
American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. (1111-1112, 1115,
1113)
6. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the Electoral
College. (1119-1120)
7. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on
the United States the war on terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in
Afghanistan and Iraq. (1122-1125)

!
Narrative:
!

From 1968 into the 1970s, the U.S. saw some of the hardest economic times since the Great
Depression. Entering the 1980’s, President Ronald Reagan had a plan to solve the nation’s
economic situation. Reagan’s plan was soon called by many “Reaganomics”, his plan was to cut
taxes by 30% which would in exchange give the rich more money and cause them to spend more
of their saved money. This did not achieve the exact results Reagan was hoping for and ended up
having more severe costs in the future. President Bill Clinton’s economic plans however had a
much more positive result. With Clinton’s introduction of NAFTA, he was able to create over 1.4
million jobs in the country and lower the inflation rates to the lowest since the 1960s.


Social 5B
Standards:

!

SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
1. Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation die to the
Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald
Ford. (1009, 1010, 1049-1052, 1055-1057)
2. Explain the impact of the Supreme Court decisions based on ideas about civil liberties and
civil rights, including such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on
affirmative action. (1026, 1083, 1062)
3. Explain the Carter administrations’ efforts in the Middle East including the Camp David
Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian Hostage Crisis.
(1065-1067)
4. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency, including
Reagonomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. (1081-1083,
1087-1091)
5. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton, including the North
American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. (1111-1112, 1115,
1113)
6. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the Electoral
College. (1119-1120)
7. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on
the United States the war on terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in
Afghanistan and Iraq. (1122-1125)

!
Narrative:
!

The people of the United States had a strong distrust in the government following the Watergate
scandal during Nixon’s presidency. Watergate occurred when it was revealed that Nixon had wire
tapped the White House and was using the information he’d gained to his advantage. The public
was disgusted and Nixon resigned from presidency before he could be impeached. The era from
the 1960’s to current day saw an expansion in personal freedoms, such as the Roe v. Wade
decision on abortion which has decided that abortion is legal but the argument still stands today
due to moral reasons. In December 1991 the Soviet Union was disbanded. It was disbanded into
15 countries. The fall is seen as an iconic win for the Western countries after fighting the battle
versus communism for decades, especially with the destruction of the Berlin Wall. The
presidential election of 2000 was a fifty-fifty split in the United States. It came down to the state
of Florida’s decision and was even taken to the Supreme Court until it was ultimately decided
that George Bush won. During George Bush’s presidency the world watched the World Trade
Center fall in New York City. On September 11, 2001, two planes hit the World Trade Center
causing both towers to collapse. It was a terrorist attack launched on the U.S. from terrorist
group Al Qaeda. This attack led to the U.S. to send troops into Iraq and Afghanistan to fight the
war on terrorism, which is still an ongoing issue today.