Interphase Mass Transfer

I ter

ase

ass ra sfer

the transfer of solute A from one fluid phase by convection and then through a second fluid phase by convection 
the two phases are in direct contact with each other  the interfacial area is not well defined  mass transfer is caused by a concentration gradient in each phase  equilibrium exist at the interface

Equilibrium Relations
Gas-liquid equilibrium data (A.3-19-25) Henry¶s law

p A ! Hx A

yA !

'

xA

where H = Henry¶s law constant (atm/mole frac) H¶ = Henry¶s law constant (mole frac gas/mole frac liquid) = H/P

Concentration Profile
Li uids-phase solution of A in li uid L Gas-phase mixture of A in gas G yAG yAi xAi xAL NA

Distance from the interface

Concentration Profile
At the interface: ‡ No resistance to mass transfer is present ‡ y i is at equilibrium with x
i

y Ai ! f ( x Ai )

Film ass- ransfer Coefficients an Interface Concentrations
Equimolar counterdiffusion
For A diffusingfrom gas to liquid and B from liquid to gas:

NA
earranging:

k ( y AG  y Ai )
kx  ky ( y AG  y Ai ) ( x AL  x Ai )

' y

k ( x Ai  x AL )
Driving forces

' x

Film Mass-Transfer Coefficients and Interface Concentrations
yAG

Slope = -kx¶/ky¶ Equilibrium line

yAi

xAL

xAi

Film ass- ransfer Coefficients an Interface Concentrations
Diffusion of A through stagnant or non-diffusing B
For A diffusing through a stagnant gas phase then through a stagnant liquid phase:

NA

k y ( y AG  y Ai )
ky ky (1  y ) iM kx

k x ( x Ai  x AL )
kx (1  x A ) iM

Film Mass-Transfer Coefficients and Interface Concentrations
yAG

k /(1 xA )iM Slope =  k /(1 yA )iM

' x ' y

yAi

Equilibrium line

xAL

xAi

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
A

! K ( y AG  y ) ! K ( x  x AL )

' y

* A

' x

* A

where Ky¶ = mass transfer coefficient based on the overall gas-phase driving force Kx¶ = mass transfer coefficient based on the overall liquid-phase driving force y*A = mole fraction of a in equilibrium with xAL x*A = mole fraction of a in equilibrium with yAG

Overall

ass- ransfer Coefficients

Equimolar counterdiffusion and/or diffusion in dilute solutions

NA
1 ' Ky

k ( y AG  y Ai )
1 m  ' ' k y kx
'

' y

k ( x Ai  x AL )
where

' x

( y Ai  y ) m ! ( x Ai  x AL )
'

* A

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Slope = -kx¶/ky¶
yAG
Slope=m¶¶

Equilibrium line

yAi
Slope=m¶

y*A xAL xAi x*A

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Also:

1
' x

1 1  ' '' ' kx kx

where

( yAi  yAi ) m ! * ( xA  xAi )
''

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Special cases:
Gas-phase controlling
m¶ is very small

Liquid -phase controlling
m¶¶ is very large

1
' y

1 $ ' ky
* A

1
' x

1 $ ' kx
* A

yAG  y $ yAG  yAi

xAi $ x

Overall

ass- ransfer Coefficients
'

Unimolar diffusion
'
A

!

(  K

A i

)

(

AG 

Ai

)!

( 

A i

)

(

Ai 

AL

)

NA !

' y

(1  y A )*M

K x' * * ( y AG  y A ) ! ( x A  x AL ) (1  x A )*M

Overall

ass- ransfer Coefficients

Unimolar diffusion

1 Ky

1 m  k y kx

'

1 1 m ! '  ' ' K y /(1  y A )*M k y /(1  y A )iM k x /(1  x A )iM
Ky

'

Overall

ass- ransfer Coefficients

Unimolar diffusion

1 1 1 !  K x mk y k x
1 ' / 1 )
Kx

!

''

'

1 / 1

1  ' / 1  )i )i

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
where

(1  y A ) *

(1  y )  (1  y AG ) ! * (1  y A ) ln (1  y AG )

* A

(1  x A ) *M

(1  x AL )  (1  x ) (1  x AL ) ln * (1  x A )

* A

Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
k /(1 xA )iM Slope =  k /(1 yA )iM
yAG
Slope=m¶¶ ' x ' y

Equilibrium line

yAi
Slope=m¶

y*A xAL xAi x*A

Sample Pro lem
The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in a wetted-wall tower with the liquid flowing as a film downward along the wall. At a certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration yAG = 0.380 mol fraction and the bulk liquid concentration is xAL=0.100. The tower is operating at 298K and 1.1013 x 105Pa and the equilibrium data are as follows: xA yA xA yA 0 0 0.20 0.131 0.05 0.022 0.25 0.187 0.10 0.052 0.30 0.265 0.15 0.087 0.35 0.385 The solute A diffuses through stagnant B in the gas phase and then through a nondiffusing liquid. Using correlations for the dilute solutions in wetted-wall towers, the film masstransfer coefficient for A in the gas phase is predicted as ky=1.465 x 10-3 kgmol A/s m2mol frac and for the liquid phase as kx=1.967 x 10-3kg mol A/s m2 mol frac. Calculate the interface concentrations yAi and xAi and flux NA. Calculate the overall mass transfer coefficient K¶y, the flux, and the percent resistance in the gas and liquid films. Do this for the case of A diffusing through stagnant B.

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