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Running Head: BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: CONCEPT MAP

Bacterial Meningitis: Concept Map


Malissa Harris
Humber College

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: CONCEPT MAP

Clinical
Manifestation
Fever, chills,
Diagnostic
headache,
Psychosocial Support
-MRI and CT Scan to
-Emotional support is important
vomitting, nuchal
detect
a
shift
in
brains
for both patient and family due
rigidity,
content prior to Lumbar
to the random onset.
drowsiness,
puncture
(measures
fluid
-Family will need reassurance
stupor, coma,
pressures-usually
that the disease has a natural
delerium, memoty
elevated with meninigitis)
onset and that they did the
impairment,
right thing seeking medical
-Culture and sensitivity is
positive Brudzinski
help
tested to find the type of
sign,
- Be there to listen and to talk
infective organism
hallucinations,
to family and child to minimize
-increased WBCs
blame and guilt
aggresive
-Glucose levels decrease,
-Keep parent informed of all
behaviour,
glucose
taken
30
minutes
and nay changes relating to the
alteration in
before lumbar puncture
child's condition.
sensorium,
-Blood culture is
seizures
(initial
necessary for all kids
sign), irritability,
Nursing Process
suspected of meningitis
agitation Young
-Neurological assessment, Pain
(may be positive when
children and
assessment, Vital Signs, Respiratory
CSF is negative)
neonates:
poor
assessment are all priority
Treatment
feeding,
jaundice,
-Maintain fluid and electrolytes
-Bacterial
meningitis
may
cyanosis,
-Assess pain and implement
be a medical
emergency
respiratory
appropriate pain relief
-Initiation
of antimicrobial
irregularities
-Prevent injuries from seizures
therapy
-Monitor daily body weight
-maintenance of hydration,
- Administer Antibiotic as soon as
ventilation and systemic
they are ordered
shock
-Have child placed on respiratory
-treat any complications
isolation for at least 24 hours post
with ICP
antimicrobial therapy
MEDICATIONS:
-Keep room quiet; those with
Acetaminophen with
meningitis may be sensitive to noise
codiene for pain,
and light
Dexamethasone (onlu
-Have child side lying, it is best for
children over 6 weeks, and
nuchal rigidity
given with antibiotics),
-Maintain IV
Antibiotic (Penicillins,
- Providing teaching for
Cephalosporins,
administering medications through
aminoglycosides or
the IV, some patients may have to
Glycopeptides) vary
go home with an intermittent
depending on type of
infusion device.
infective organism causing
-Provide teachings on Meningitis
meningitis, Antimicrobial is
Vaccines, which are avaliable for
changed depending on
Risk Factors
Pathophysiology
kids 1-Etiology
4 yearsand
of age.
organsim as well. Dilantin
-Can be caused by a variety of
-Acute inflammation of the meninges in CSF
may be used to treat
different bacterias. H influenzae
-The most common route of onset is through
seizures in some cases.
type B, S pneumoniae and
vascular dissemination from an infection
NEisseria are responsible for
elsewhere in the body that spreads.
meningitis in 95% of children older
-Organisms
can enter through a wound and
than 9 months. Neonates are often
directly implant itself (ie. Through a skull
infected by B Streptococci, E Coli,
fracture)
Listeria monocyogenes.
-Organisms can also be spread through droplet
-Infection is passed by droplet
transmission to different hosts.
transmission from nasophayngeal
secretions.
-Once the bacteria is implanted it spreads to
-Most common in children <1 year,
the CSF, then spreads through the
then declines and increases again
subarachnoid space.
at ages 15-19 years old and
-The brain becomes edematous and the entire
declines again.
surface of the brain is covered by a layer of
-Occurs predominently in
purulent that varies depending on type of
Adolscence and school aged
infection
children
-As the infection spreads, it can reach the
-H influenzae primarily occurs in
ventricles filling them with thick purulent,
Autumn or early winter, and
Pneumococcal and meningococcal
fibrin or adhesions that end up occluding
occur at anytime, but mainly in
narrow passages and block CSF flow.

Bacteria
l
Meningi
tis

later winter and early spring.

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: CONCEPT MAP

REFRENCES
Bacterial Meningitis Nursing Management and Interventions - Nurseslabs. (2012, February 29).
Retrieved October 12, 2015.
Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis Treatment & Management. (n.d.). Retrieved October 12, 2015.
Perry, Shannon, Marilyn Hockenberry, Deitra Lowdermilk, David Wilson,
Cheryl Sams. Maternal Child Nursing Care in Canada. Mosby Canada,
2013. VitalBook file.