finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

Plaxis Vietnam Seminar
No 1 2 3 4 Title The Plaxis Approach‐ Geotechnics, Deep  Excavation, Foundations and  etc Soil Models and Structural Elements Geometry, Model Space, Mesh and Initial Stresses Notes on usage of Plaxis Codes on the modelling of  Excavations and Tunnels Time

F I N I T E E L E M E N T C O D E F O R S O I L A N D R O C K A N A LY S E S

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finite element code for soil and rock analyses

PLAXIS SEMINAR KUCHING 2008 Malaysia

Computational Geomechanics in Routine Geotechnical Analysis  C t ti l G h i  i  R ti  G t h i l A l i  

THE PLAXIS APPROACH
VISUALISE ANALYSE OPTIMISE > T H E   W A Y   F O R W A R D

Contributed

William W.L. CHEANG
Regional Technical Manager PlaxisAsia (Plaxis BV)

Ir. Erwin BEERNINK Ir. Dennis WATERMAN Dr. Erick SEPTANIKA Dr. Ronald BRINKGREVE Dr. Siew Wei LEE Dr. Andy PICKLES Prof. Pieter .A.VERMEER PROF. Yasser EL. MOSSALLAMY

L A XI S P R O F E S S I O N A L v e r s i o n 8 . 5 - P L A XF L O W v e r s i o n 1 . 5 - D Y N A M I C S m o d u l e - 3 - D F O U N D A T I O N v e r s i o n 2 . 0 – 3 - D T U N N E L v e r s i o n 2 . 0 – 3 - D G E O T H E R M I E v e r s i o n 1 .

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS G O C C SS 3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 

INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS 4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 5. CONCLUSIONS

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4

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

TUNNELLLING EXCAVATION FOUNDATIONS LAND RECLAMATIONS SLOPE (EMBANKMENT) STABILITY  AND   REINFORCEMENT

1.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 1 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

TUNNELLING
N E W A U S T R I A N T U N N E L L I NG

SHIELD TUNNELLING

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6

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15‐JUNE‐2007

The design of sequential excavations depends on the quality of the ground The smaller the excavated area the smaller the settlements.

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7

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8

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

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Case study: Heinenoord tunnel near Rotterdam

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15‐JUNE‐2007

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EXCAVATIONS

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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FOUNDATIONS

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17

PILED RAFTS FOUNDATIONS

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18

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

LAND RECLAMATION

Deformed mesh at completion of staged reclamation (exaggerated scale)

Sandfill
W.T.

PVD
Vietnam 2008

Soft CLAY Sandy SILT

19

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS G O C C SS 3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 

INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS 4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 5. CONCLUSIONS

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20

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finite element code for soil and rock analyses

2.GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS 2 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS

2.GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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GEOMETRY SPACE
1. 2. 3.

2‐D Plane Strain Space Axi‐symmetric space 3‐D Space

30 m 8m

45 m 45 m

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24

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

AXI-SYMMETRY AND NON AXI-SYMMETRY

AX I - S YM M E T RY

N O T AX I - S YM M E T RY

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25

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS G O C C SS 3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 

INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS 4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 5. CONCLUSIONS

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26

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

Plaxis Finite Element Codes

3.SOIL‐STRUCTURE INTERACTION 3 SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION

3.FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS WITH PLAXIS

“ R E A L I T Y O R V I RT U A L D R E A M ? ”

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28

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

F I N I T E E L E M E N T C O D E F O R S O I L A N D R O C K A N A LY S E S

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29

PLAXIS FINITE ELEMENT CODES
Overview of current products:
CURRENT SUITE OF PROGRAMS Plaxis Version 8.6 Plaxis PlaxFlow Version 1.5 Plaxis 3D Tunnel Version 2.2 Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2.1 + ADD‐ONS MODULES Dynamics (VI Package)

P L A X I S  V 8

PLAXFLOW 

3D TUNNEL

3D FOUNDATION

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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PLAXIS PROGRAMS AND ANALYSIS TYPE
Analysis Type
2D Analysis  Stress ‐Deformation 1.Stress –Deformation 2.Dynamic Problems 1.Stress‐Deformation 1 Stress‐Deformation 2.Transient Flow  Problems 3D Analysis Tunnels* Excavation Slope Reinforced Wall Foundations* Piled Foundations Piled Raft Foundations l d f d Excavations

Product (Code)
Plaxis Professional Version 8.6 Combine Plaxis Professional Version 8.6 +  Dynamics module Combine Plaxis Professional Version 8 6 +  Version 8.6 +  PlaxFlow Plaxis 3D Tunnel Version 2.4

Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2.1

Vietnam 2008

31

PLAXIS DEVELOPMENT TIME-LINE
3D Found v1.6 3D Found v2.0 20 007 2D  Version 9  9 20 008 32 3D Found v1 1 20 004

Dynamics

3D Tunnel

Version 6

Version 4

Version 2

Version 3

Version 1

Version 8

Version 5

Version 7

20 000

19 998

PlaxFlow

19 990

19 989

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH

19 991

20 002 20 003

19 995

20 001

19 993

20 005

19 987

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PROGRAMS (CODES): 2D AND 3D

PLAXIS 2D

PLAXIS 3D

Vietnam 2008

33

PLAXIS PROFESSIONAL v8.6

Vietnam 2008

34

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS V8

Excavations

Vietnam 2008 35

PLAXIS V8

Soil reinforcement

Vietnam 2008 36

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS V8

Tunnels

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PLAXIS PROFESSIONAL VERSION 8.5

MOVIE 1 

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38

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS PLAXFLOW v1.5

Vietnam 2008

39

PLAXFLOW

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40

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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PLAXFLOW + PLAXIS 8

Deformations 

Ground waterheads

MOVIE  1

RAIN WATER INFILTRATION ON PARTIALLY SATURATED SLOPE
Vietnam 2008

MOVIE 2

41

DYNAMICS MODULE

Vietnam 2008

42

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS DYNAMICS MODULE
For vibrations and earthquake simulation
1. 2. 3.

Single‐source vibrations Earthquake analysis Absorbing boundaries

S TRON G MOTION  IN PUT FROM S MC

MOVIE

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43

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL v2.2

Vietnam 2008

44

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL

Vietnam 2008

45

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS
MODELLING OF SHIELD TUNNELLING PROCESS

Vietnam 2008

46

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS
SIMULATION OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE INTERACTION: EFFECT OF TUNNELLING ON STRUCTURE

MOVIE

Vietnam 2008

47

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS
TWIN TUNNELS

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48

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION v2.1

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49

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PILES

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50

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PILED FOUNDATIONS

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51

STRUCTURE ON SLOPE

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52

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PIERS

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53

COMPLEX SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODEL

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54

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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MULTI-SUCTION BUCKETS (OFFSHORE)

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55

TANK ON PILED RAFT FOUNDATION

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56

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

COMPLEX SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS

MOVIE

E X C AVAT I O N S

MOVIE

COFFERDAM

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57

DEVELOPMENTS

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58

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS – 3D FOUNDATION
Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2
Embedded piles Ground anchors Phi‐c reduction Simulation of soil tests Small‐strain stiffness (HS‐small) User‐defined soil models Grouping of elements New Output program N  O t t 
5 14 6 11 102 10 1 7 2 10 3 9 8 3 12 13 4

101

15

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59

Vietnam 2008

60

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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QUAY WALLS

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61

ANCHORING OF QUAY WALLS

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62

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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MICROPILES

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63

1.

Constitutive Soil Models Linear Elastic 2. Linear Elastic Perfectly Plastic  :  • Mohr‐Coulomb 3. Isotropic Hardening Models:  • Hardening Soil Model ( Failure Criterion, MC, Lade & Matsuoka‐ Nakai) • Double Hardening • Cam‐Clay Class of models (Soft‐soil  & Soft soil creep)
1.

Some other elements that may be important: S th l t th t b i t t • Anisotropy • Small‐strain stiffness effects • Cyclic effects 64

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS G O C C SS 3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 

INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS 4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 5. CONCLUSIONS

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65

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

2‐D MODELLING OF EXCAVATIONS 3‐D MODELLING OF EXCAVATIONS 3‐D PILED RAFT FOUNDATIONS

4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 4  REAL CASE HISTORIES

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

OVAL COFFERDAM NICOLL HIGHWAY INVESTIGATION EFFECT OF  TENSION PILES  EFFECT OF PASSIVE PILES

APPLIED 1: EXCAVATION APPLIED 1  EXCAVATION

Oval Cofferdam Structure Details
Plan View 32m Cross Section 32m

24m

27m

Vietnam 2008

68

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

Oval Cofferdam Details
• Excavation for a pumping station • Ground conditions: Fill, Clay, Alluvium, CDG, Rock • Oval cofferdam size 24 m × 32 m (plan view) • 27 m deep excavation in 6 stages • DWall thickness 1.2 m • Ring beams size 0.8 m × 1.8 m • O i i l d i used 2D modelling Original design d d lli • Struts size 305 × 406 × 287 (necessary?) • 3D modelling explores early struts removal
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69

Designer’s Original Analysis in 2D

• Model plane strain excavation • No consideration of hoop force in ring DWalls and ring beams
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70

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation

Mesh size 200×170×40m

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71

Retaining System for Oval Cofferdam
Spring Volume element Deformation (150x)

Pile with Shell

Vietnam 2008

72

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Stress in Ring Beams & Force in Struts
Mean stress in ring beams
(kPa) Layer 1st str t strut 2nd strut 3rd strut 4th strut 5th strut 6th strut

Strut Forces
2D (kN) 2064 4200 4552 7856 6784 5848 3D (kN) 1083 (52%) 1577 (38%) 1584 (35%) 1503 (19%) 2285 (34%) 2271 (39%)

Vietnam 2008

73

Comparison of 2D & 3D Deformations
Parameter Max. ground settlement Max. wall deflection 2D 31 mm 64 mm 3D 10 mm 25 mm

• Bottom-up construction on-going • Field measurements close to 3D predictions

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74

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Check for One Strut Failure
• BS8002:1994, Cl. 4.5.2.2.1 states The design should also accommodate the possible failure of an individual strut tie rod or anchor. • CIRIA C580, Cl. 5.6.3, Accidental Load Case considers … loss of a prop (partial support) to the wall, … • Ensure failure of one strut would not lead to collapse • Removal of one strut in 2D analysis 1. removes a whole row of struts into-the-plane into the plane 2. does not consider redistribution of soil stresses and strut forces in 3D space • Carry out 3D analysis using 3D Tunnel/Foundation
75

Vietnam 2008

Check for One Strut Failure
Plaxis 3D Tunnel
Increase in adjacent strut forces due to one strut removal

One strut removed

30m

18% 47% 18% 5% 16% 17% 6%

One strut removed • Strut vertical spacing 3m, horizontal spacing 4m

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76

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Check for One Strut Failure
Increase in wall horizontal deflection contours Wall bending moment contours

Strut removed (10mm increase)

45m

1400 kNm/m increase

32m
77

Vietnam 2008

Modelling of a Gap in Wall

Wall panel

Gap G

Wall panel

Gap in wall • Gap in wall for utility crossing • Modelled by PLAXIS 3D Tunnel

Vietnam 2008

78

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Modelling of a Gap in Wall
Wall deflection contours Wall

Wall

Grouted slab
Gap below final exc.
Panel 0.8m thk

160mm deflection

Gap infilled by grout

Panel 1.0m thk

Panel 0.8m thk

• Panel filling gap as excavating downward

Vietnam 2008

79

Idealisation of Individual Piles as Walls
Singapore
+103

DWall
+96

1.0mØ pile (6.5m c/c)
+81

24m

8.5m

1.8mØ pile (13m c/c) DWall • 22m deep top down exc. in soft clay • 1.0 and 1.8m Ø pile installed within cofferdam

12.5m

+50 +45

Vietnam 2008

80

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40

finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Modelling of Individual Piles
PLAXIS 3D Foundation
Slab

DWall +50m

DWall 1.8mØ Models half geometry

1.0mØ pile (+50m) 1.8mØ pile (+45m)

Vietnam 2008

81

Comparison of Wall Deflection
2D
105 100 95 90 85 80 mRL 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055

3D
105 100 95 90 85 80 mRL 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055

2D predicts smaller DWall deflections, as soil is not allowed to flow between piles

Wall horizontal disp. (m)

Wall horizontal disp. (m)

Diaphragm wall deflection

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82

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Comparison of Tension Force in Piles
1.0m Ø pile at 6.5m c/c
100 95 90
85 100 95

1.8m Ø pile at 13m c/c
90 85 Level (mRL)

3D gives 3000 kN 2D gives 10000 kN

Level (mRL)

80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 0 -5000 5000

80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45

3D gives 1400 kN 2D gives 20000 kN
0 -5000 5000 10000 15000 20000

10000

15000

20000

Compression/tension force in pile (kN)

Compression/tension force in pile (kN)

• Tension force (+ve) in piles due to ground heave in cofferdam

Vietnam 2008

83

Notes on Individual Piles as Walls
• Widely spaced individual piles within cofferdam modelled as continuous walls in 2D analysis would predict: 1. 1 Smaller deflection of retaining wall. Continuous wall does not allow wall flow of soil between piles, i.e. wall too rigid. 2. Larger tension force in the continuous wall. Larger surface area of wall for mobilisation of shaft resistance. • Consequences might be: 1. under-design of retaining wall 2. unnecessary sleeving/coating of individual piles in cofferdam • Discrepancy between 2D and 3D prediction increases with the increase of individual piles spacing into-the-plane.

Vietnam 2008

84

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42

finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Effect of Excavation on Piles
Macau

Vietnam 2008

85

Effect of Excavation on Piles

Piles for supporting high-rise “Dido” pile external dia. 0.6 m, internal dia. 0.3 m Pile spacing 3 - 8 m, length ~ 45 m Ground conditions: fill, soft clay, stiff soil Excavation 3 - 4 m for construction of pile caps 3D analysis to investigate

• • • • •

1. effect of excavation on pile deflection 2. contribution of piles to FOS of excavation slope

Vietnam 2008

86

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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3D Analysis
Individual piles

65m

8m • Individual piles modelled by “plate” element

Vietnam 2008

87

Deformation of Excavation
Piles resist deformation

20x

• Localised deformation around piles

Vietnam 2008

88

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44

finite element for soil and rock analyses

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Deformation of Piles
200 180 160 Pile head deflection (mm) C B A

Soft soil

140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Stiff soil

A

B

C

• Measured pile deflection: order of 100 mm

0 Exc to +2.5 Exc to +1.3 Exc to +0.8 Back exc Back exc to +2.5 to +4.5

Vietnam 2008

89

Phi-c Reduction to Determine FOS
Remember to input moment capacity of piles Mp!

Plastic hinge

Vietnam 2008

90

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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FOS for Different Excavation Depths
2.40 2.20 2.00
FOS

piles

1.80 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.00 Exc to +2.5 Exc to +1.3 Exc to +0.8 Back exc to +2.5 Back exc to +4.5

no piles

Vietnam 2008

91

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1.EFFECT OF BARRET PILES ON ADJACENT INFRASTRUCTURE 2.PILED FOUNDATION ANALYSIS 3. CALIBRATION TEST: NUMERICAL AND CENTRIFUGE

APPLIED 2:FOUNDATIONS APPLIED 2 FOUNDATIONS

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46

finite element for soil and rock analyses

15‐JUNE‐2007

Foundation System for a High-rise
Singapore
(12m) Tunnel

• High-rise above an existing tunnel • Barrettes straddle tunnel • Barrettes 1.5m thick, 100 m deep

High-rise footprint

• Tunnel settlement criteria 15 mm • Ground conditions: 35 m soft clay underlain by stiff soil • 2D & 3D analyses to optimise barrette geometries

Vietnam 2008

93

Geometry of Existing Tunnel

Bored pile • Supported by three row of bored piles 1.2 - 1.5m Ø @ 4 - 8 m c/c • Bored piles ~60 m long •T Tunnel width 12 m, h i ht 6 m, l idth height floor/wall thickness 1 m • Tunnel 5 m below ground surface

Vietnam 2008

94

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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2D Analysis
High-rise loading tunnel

Barrette

Vietnam 2008

95

Limitations of 2D Analysis
• • Line load applied on barrettes is uniform into-the-plane In real situation

1. line load is 1 li l d i applied within th b ildi area li d ithi the building 2. barrette section further away from building boundary helps shed load through skin friction • Existing bored piles supporting the tunnel are modelled as “wall” into-the-plane • Changes of axial force in existing piles may not be reliably predicted • Cannot give settlement profile of the tunnel into-the-plane (for structural calculation of tunnel deflection/distortion)
96

Vietnam 2008

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH

48

finite element for soil and rock analyses

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3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation - half problem modelled 60m Pile-soil area Line load on barrette Symmetry plane Tunnel 152m

160m
97

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Structural Items in 3D Analysis
Volume element: barrettes, transfer beams & piles “Floor” element: tunnel roof and floor slab “Wall” element: tunnel walls Interface element: on barrettes, transfer beams, wall & piles

Tunnel

Line load on barrette

Piles

Transfer beam

Barrette (100 m) Building load (equivalent raft foundation)
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3D Analysis Results
Settlement of tunnel Settlement Deformation 500x roof

floor

Settlement of tunnel

walls
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3D Analysis Results
Increase of Axial Force in Tunnel Piles
95 90 85 80 Elevation (+mRL) 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 Increase of axial force in pile (kN)
Settlement (m)

Longitudinal Settlement Profile of Tunnel
Distance in longitudinal direction of tunnel (m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 West side East side 60

West pile Middle pile East pile

Soft soil Stiff soil

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Summary of Barrette Foundation Analysis
• 3D analyses predict smaller tunnel settlement than 2D, reduction by 3 - 5 times • 3D analyses model better 1. stress bulb of building load 2. load shedding through skin friction in barrettes 3. increase of axial force in tunnel piles 4. longitudinal settlement profile of tunnel

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1.SETTLEMENT OF STRUCTURE DUE TO CONSOLIDATING GROUND & THE  EFFECT OF NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION 2.EFFECT OF EMBANKMENT ON SERVICE PIPE

APPLIED 3:DEFORMATION  APPLIED 3 DEFORMATION  ANALYSIS

Settlement at a Depot Site
Taiwan

Plan view area 280m×130m • Two-storey depot supported by 0.5m Ø driven piles in alternating layers of clay and sand, with pile toes founded in sand sand • Consolidation settlement occurring due to placement of 2-3m surface fill onto near surface clay layer • Concern for negative skin friction induced on pile groups

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SETTLEMENT AT A DEPOT SITE
Point load
1.25m 2.5m +21.5 mRL +19.5 mRL

FILL

Model ¼ pile group Upper CLAY
+10 mRL

37m

SAND

PLAXIS 3D Foundation
+0 mRL

16m

Lower CLAY
-10 mRL

0.5m dia. pile

Lower SAND
-15 mRL

15m

15m

Toe +5.5 mRL

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Settlement at a Depot Site
Excess pwp contours • Modelling sequences

1. Initial equilibrium 2. 2-3 m Fill placement (epwp)
Clay

3. Install pile cap and piles 4. Apply building load 600 kN to ¼ of pile cap (epwp) 5. Consolidation (dissipation of epwp)

Clay

Dissipation of epwp

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Settlement at a Depot Site
Consolidation settlement
130mm 100mm

Pile toe

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SETTLEMENT AT A DEPOT SITE

Time (Day) 0 0.000
F-29 F 29 F-30 F 30 F-31 F 31 F-32 F 32

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

-0.020 -0.040 Settlement (m) -0.060 -0.080 -0.100 -0.120 -0.140 -0.160

Hand calc.

PLAXIS (kclay=1×10-8 m/s)

6/5/04

25/4/06

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Settlement at a Depot Site
Axial force down the corner pile (kN) 0 22 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

NSF: Negative skin friction
20 18 m metre Reduced Level 16

Bldg. load NSF

14 12 10 8 6 4

Bldg. load + consolidation

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8. Lateral Movement of Buried Service Pipe
Service pipe Embankment 15m Cone Cone

Australia

Service pipe

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Lateral Movement of Buried Service Pipe
• 10 m high embankments and 18 m high cone to be built adjacent to an existing service pipe • S i pipe 0 4 m Ø and b i d 1 m d Service i 0.4 d buried deep • Loading from embankments and cone may deform the pipe laterally • Ground conditions: fill, soft clay, stiff clay, residual soil • 3D analysis to predict the deformation magnitude and profile of the pipe

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3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation Embankment load

Alignment of buried pipe

35m

Cone load

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3D Analysis Results
Deformation at Depth 1 m Below Ground Surface (50x) Deformed Pipe

Pipe modelled by “beam” element

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3D Analysis Results
Lateral movement of pipe (m) -0.030 -0.025 -0.020 -0.015 -0.010 -0.005 0.000 0.005

• A simple 3D loading scenario modelled by 3DF • Model the soil-structure interaction effect i t ti ff t

0 20 40 Longitudinal distance (m) _ 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Emb.

• Give pipe deflection, shear force & bending moment in 3D

Cone

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finite element for soil and rock analyses

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SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS G O C C SS 3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 

INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS 4. REAL CASE HISTORIES 5. CONCLUSIONS

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General Notes for FE Analysis
• Soil input parameters and modelling techniques continually refined as more field data is available • A series of sensitivity analyses are necessary to cover possible field scenarios • Use of numerical modelling in practice requires: 1. A good knowledge of soil mechanics and finite element/difference principles 2. An understanding of the programme/model limitations 3. Careful checking of numerical results by competent engineers
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References
Breth, H. and Chambosse, G. (1975). Settlement behaviour of buildings above subway tunnels in Frankfurt clay. Proc. Conf.  Settlement of Structures, Cambridge, April 1974, London: Pentech Press, 329 ‐ 336. Boscardin, M. D. and Cording, E. J. (1989). Building response to excavation‐induced settlement, ASCE, J. Geotech. Engrg., 115(2),  22 ‐28.    CIRIA (2003). Embedded retaining walls ‐ guidance for economic design. Construction Industry Research and Information  Association, Report C580.  Davies, R. V. and Henkel, D. J. (1980). Geotechnical problems associated with the construction of Charter Station, Hong Kong. Proc. of the Conf. on Mass Transportation in Asia, Hong Kong, paper J3, 31 p. Dickin, E. A. and Nazir, R. (1999). Moment‐carrying capacity of short pile foundations in cohesionless soil. J. Geotech. & Geoenv.  Engrg. ASCE, 125(1), 1‐10.    Franzius, J. N., Potts, D. M. and Burland, J. B. (2006). The response of surface structures to tunnel construction. Geotechnical Engineering, Proc. of ICE, 159(1), 3‐17. Morton, K., Leonard, M. S. M. and Carter, R. W. (1980). Building settlements and ground movements associated with  construction of two stations of the modified initial system of the Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong. Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on  Ground Movements and Structures, Cardiff, UK, 708‐802; 946‐947, Discussion (published under the title Ground Movement  and Structures, Geddes, J. D., eds., Pentech, London, 1981).  Morton, K., Cater, R. W. and Linney, L. (1980). Observed settlements of buildings adjacent to stations constructed for the  modified initial system of the Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong. Proc. of 6th Southeast Asian Conf. on Soil Engineering,  Taipei, 415‐429. Prasad, Y. V. S. N. and Narasimha Rao, S. (1994). Experimental studies on foundations of compliant structures – I. under static  loading. Ocean Engineering, 21(1), 1‐13. PLAXIS (2002). Users forum – beam to pile properties. PLAXIS Bulletin, June, 2002, p.22,  http://www.plaxis.com/upload/bulletins/12%20PLAXIS%20Bulletin.pdf. 

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Thank you

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