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finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Plaxis Vietnam Seminar

No Title Time

1 The Plaxis Approach‐ Geotechnics, Deep 


Excavation, Foundations and  etc
2 Soil Models and Structural Elements

3 Geometry, Model Space, Mesh and Initial Stresses

4 Notes on usage of Plaxis Codes on the modelling of 


Excavations and Tunnels

F I N I T E E L E M E N T C O D E F O R S O I L A N D R O C K A N A LY S E S

Vietnam 2008 2

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 1
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

PLAXIS SEMINAR
KUCHING 2008
Malaysia

C
Computational Geomechanics in Routine Geotechnical Analysis 
t ti l G h i  i  R ti  G t h i l A l i  

THE PLAXIS APPROACH


VISUALISE ANALYSE OPTIMISE > T H E   W A Y   F O R W A R D

Contributed

William W.L. CHEANG Ir. Erwin BEERNINK


Ir. Dennis WATERMAN
Dr. Erick SEPTANIKA
Regional Technical Manager Dr. Ronald BRINKGREVE
PlaxisAsia (Plaxis BV) Dr. Siew Wei LEE
Dr. Andy PICKLES
Prof. Pieter .A.VERMEER
PROF. Yasser EL. MOSSALLAMY

L A XI S P R O F E S S I O N A L v e r s i o n 8 . 5 - P L A XF L O W v e r s i o n 1 . 5 - D Y N A M I C S m o d u l e - 3 - D F O U N D A T I O N v e r s i o n 2 . 0 – 3 - D T U N N E L v e r s i o n 2 . 0 – 3 - D G E O T H E R M I E v e r s i o n 1 .

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
G O C C SS
3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 
INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES
5. CONCLUSIONS

Vietnam 2008 4

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 2
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1. TUNNELLLING
2. EXCAVATION
3. FOUNDATIONS
4. LAND RECLAMATIONS
5. SLOPE (EMBANKMENT) STABILITY  AND  
REINFORCEMENT
1.GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
1 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

TUNNELLING

N E W A U S T R I A N T U N N E L L I NG

SHIELD TUNNELLING

Vietnam 2008 6

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 3
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

The design of sequential excavations depends on


the quality of the ground

The smaller the


excavated area the
smaller the settlements.

Vietnam 2008 7

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 4
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Vietnam 2008 9

Case study: Heinenoord tunnel near Rotterdam

Vietnam 2008 10

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 5
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Vietnam 2008 11

Vietnam 2008 12

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 6
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

EXCAVATIONS

Vietnam 2008 13

Vietnam 2008 14

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 7
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Vietnam 2008 15

Vietnam 2008 16

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 8
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

FOUNDATIONS

Vietnam 2008 17

PILED RAFTS FOUNDATIONS

Vietnam 2008 18

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 9
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

LAND RECLAMATION

Deformed mesh at completion of staged


reclamation (exaggerated scale)
Sandfill
W.T.
PVD Soft CLAY
Sandy SILT
Vietnam 2008 19

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
G O C C SS
3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 
INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES
5. CONCLUSIONS

Vietnam 2008 20

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 10
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

2.GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
2 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS

2.GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS

Vietnam 2008 22

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 11
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Vietnam 2008 23

GEOMETRY SPACE
1. 2‐D Plane Strain Space
2. Axi‐symmetric space
3. 3‐D Space

45 m
30 m
45 m
8m

Vietnam 2008 24

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 12
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

AXI-SYMMETRY AND NON AXI-SYMMETRY

AX I - S YM M E T RY N O T AX I - S YM M E T RY

Vietnam 2008 25

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
G O C C SS
3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 
INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES
5. CONCLUSIONS

Vietnam 2008 26

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 13
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

Plaxis Finite Element Codes

3.SOIL‐STRUCTURE INTERACTION
3 SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION

3.FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS WITH PLAXIS

“ R E A L I T Y O R V I RT U A L D R E A M ? ”

Vietnam 2008 28

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 14
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

F I N I T E E L E M E N T C O D E F O R S O I L A N D R O C K A N A LY S E S

Vietnam 2008 29

PLAXIS FINITE ELEMENT CODES


Overview of current products:
CURRENT SUITE OF PROGRAMS + ADD‐ONS MODULES
Plaxis Version 8.6 Dynamics
Plaxis PlaxFlow Version 1.5 (VI Package)
Plaxis 3D Tunnel Version 2.2
Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2.1

P L A X I S  V 8 PLAXFLOW  3D TUNNEL 3D FOUNDATION

Vietnam 2008 30

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 15
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS PROGRAMS AND ANALYSIS TYPE


Analysis Type Product (Code)
2D Analysis  Stress ‐Deformation Plaxis Professional Version 8.6
1.Stress –Deformation Combine Plaxis Professional Version 8.6 + 
2.Dynamic Problems Dynamics module
11.Stress‐Deformation
Stress‐Deformation Combine Plaxis Professional Version 8.6 + 
Version 8 6 + 
2.Transient Flow  PlaxFlow
Problems
3D Analysis Tunnels* Plaxis 3D Tunnel Version 2.4
Excavation
Slope
Reinforced Wall
Foundations* Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2.1
Piled Foundations
Piled Raft Foundations
l d f d
Excavations

Vietnam 2008 31

PLAXIS DEVELOPMENT TIME-LINE


3D Found v2.0
3D Found v1.6

2D  Version 9
 9
3D Found v11
Dynamics
3D Tunnel
Version 6

Version 8
Version 4
Version 2

Version 5
Version 3

Version 7
Version 1

PlaxFlow

008
004
000
998

005
990
989

002
987

995

001
993

003
991

007
19

20

20
20
20
20

20
20
19

19

19

20
19
19
19

Vietnam 2008 32

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 16
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PROGRAMS (CODES): 2D AND 3D

PLAXIS 2D PLAXIS 3D

Vietnam 2008 33

PLAXIS PROFESSIONAL v8.6

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 17
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS V8

Excavations

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35

PLAXIS V8

Soil reinforcement

Vietnam 2008
36

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 18
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS V8

Tunnels

Vietnam 2008
37

PLAXIS PROFESSIONAL VERSION 8.5

MOVIE

Vietnam 2008 38

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 19
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS PLAXFLOW v1.5

Vietnam 2008 39

PLAXFLOW

Vietnam 2008 40

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 20
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXFLOW + PLAXIS 8

Deformations  Ground waterheads

MOVIE 
1

MOVIE
2
RAIN WATER INFILTRATION ON PARTIALLY SATURATED SLOPE

Vietnam 2008 41

DYNAMICS MODULE

Vietnam 2008 42

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 21
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS DYNAMICS MODULE

For vibrations and earthquake simulation
1. Single‐source vibrations
2. Earthquake analysis
3. Absorbing boundaries

S TRON G MOTION  IN PUT FROM S MC

MOVIE

Vietnam 2008 43

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL v2.2

Vietnam 2008 44

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 22
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL

Vietnam 2008 45

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS


MODELLING OF SHIELD TUNNELLING PROCESS

Vietnam 2008 46

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 23
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS


SIMULATION OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE INTERACTION: EFFECT OF TUNNELLING ON STRUCTURE

MOVIE

Vietnam 2008 47

PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL APPLICATIONS


TWIN TUNNELS

Vietnam 2008 48

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 24
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION v2.1

Vietnam 2008 49

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PILES

Vietnam 2008 50

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 25
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PILED FOUNDATIONS

Vietnam 2008 51

STRUCTURE ON SLOPE

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 26
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION: PIERS

Vietnam 2008 53

COMPLEX SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODEL

Vietnam 2008 54

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 27
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

MULTI-SUCTION BUCKETS (OFFSHORE)

Vietnam 2008 55

TANK ON PILED RAFT FOUNDATION

Vietnam 2008 56

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 28
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

COMPLEX SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS

MOVIE E X C AVAT I O N S

MOVIE COFFERDAM

Vietnam 2008 57

DEVELOPMENTS

Vietnam 2008 58

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 29
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS – 3D FOUNDATION


Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2

ƒ Embedded piles
ƒ Ground anchors
ƒ Phi‐c reduction
ƒ Simulation of soil tests
ƒ Small‐strain stiffness (HS‐small)
4
ƒ User‐defined soil models 13
5 15
101
ƒ Grouping of elements 14

ƒ New Output program
N  O t t  11 102 10
6

1
7 12
2 10 9
3
8

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Vietnam 2008 60

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 30
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

QUAY WALLS

Vietnam 2008 61

ANCHORING OF QUAY WALLS

Vietnam 2008 62

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 31
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

MICROPILES

Vietnam 2008 63

1. Constitutive Soil Models
1. Linear Elastic
2. Linear Elastic Perfectly Plastic  : 
• Mohr‐Coulomb
3. Isotropic Hardening Models: 
• Hardening Soil Model ( Failure Criterion, MC, Lade & Matsuoka‐
Nakai)
• Double Hardening
• Cam‐Clay Class of models (Soft‐soil  & Soft soil creep)

SSome other elements that may be important:
th l t th t b i t t
• Anisotropy
• Small‐strain stiffness effects
• Cyclic effects

Vietnam 2008 64

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 32
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
G O C C SS
3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 
INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES
5. CONCLUSIONS

Vietnam 2008 65

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

2‐D MODELLING OF EXCAVATIONS
3‐D MODELLING OF EXCAVATIONS
3‐D PILED RAFT FOUNDATIONS

4  REAL CASE HISTORIES
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 33
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

OVAL COFFERDAM
NICOLL HIGHWAY INVESTIGATION
EFFECT OF  TENSION PILES 
EFFECT OF PASSIVE PILES

APPLIED 1: EXCAVATION
APPLIED 1  EXCAVATION

Oval Cofferdam Structure Details


Plan View Cross Section
32m
32m

24m

27m

Vietnam 2008 68

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 34
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Oval Cofferdam Details


• Excavation for a pumping station
• Ground conditions: Fill, Clay, Alluvium, CDG, Rock
• Oval cofferdam size 24 m × 32 m (plan view)
• 27 m deep excavation in 6 stages
• DWall thickness 1.2 m
• Ring beams size 0.8 m × 1.8 m
• Original
Oi i ld design
i used
d 2D modelling
d lli
• Struts size 305 × 406 × 287 (necessary?)
• 3D modelling explores early struts removal

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69

Designer’s Original Analysis in 2D

• Model plane strain excavation


• No consideration of hoop force in ring
DWalls and ring beams
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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 35
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation

Mesh size 200×170×40m

Vietnam 2008
71

Retaining System for Oval Cofferdam


Volume Deformation
Spring element (150x)

Pile with Shell

Vietnam 2008 72

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 36
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Stress in Ring Beams & Force in Struts


Mean stress in ring beams Strut Forces
(kPa)
Layer 2D (kN) 3D (kN)

1st strut
str t 2064 1083
(52%)
2nd strut 4200 1577
(38%)
3rd strut 4552 1584
(35%)
4th strut 7856 1503
(19%)
5th strut 6784 2285
(34%)
6th strut 5848 2271
(39%)

Vietnam 2008 73

Comparison of 2D & 3D Deformations

Parameter 2D 3D

Max. ground settlement 31 mm 10 mm

Max. wall deflection 64 mm 25 mm

• Bottom-up construction on-going


• Field measurements close to 3D predictions

Vietnam 2008
74

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 37
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Check for One Strut Failure


• BS8002:1994, Cl. 4.5.2.2.1 states
The design should also accommodate the possible failure of an
individual strut tie rod or anchor.
• CIRIA C580, Cl. 5.6.3, Accidental Load Case considers
… loss of a prop (partial support) to the wall, …
• Ensure failure of one strut would not lead to collapse
• Removal of one strut in 2D analysis
1. removes a whole row of struts into-the-plane
into the plane
2. does not consider redistribution of soil stresses and strut forces in
3D space
• Carry out 3D analysis using 3D Tunnel/Foundation

Vietnam 2008
75

Check for One Strut Failure


Plaxis 3D Tunnel
Increase in adjacent strut forces due
to one strut removal

30m
One strut
removed

18% 47% 18%


5% 16% 17% 6%
One strut removed
• Strut vertical spacing 3m, horizontal spacing 4m

Vietnam 2008 76

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 38
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Check for One Strut Failure


Increase in wall horizontal Wall bending moment contours
deflection contours

Strut removed
(10mm increase)
45m

1400 kNm/m increase

32m

Vietnam 2008 77

Modelling of a Gap in Wall

Wall
Wall G
Gap panel
panel

Gap in wall

• Gap in wall for utility crossing


• Modelled by PLAXIS 3D Tunnel

Vietnam 2008 78

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 39
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Modelling of a Gap in Wall


Wall deflection contours

Wall Wall

Grouted
slab 160mm deflection
Gap below final exc.
Panel 0.8m thk Panel 1.0m thk Panel 0.8m thk
Gap infilled by grout
• Panel filling gap as excavating
downward

Vietnam 2008 79

Idealisation of Individual Piles as Walls


Singapore
+103
DWall
+96

1.0mØ pile (6.5m c/c)


+81
24m

8.5m

1.8mØ pile (13m c/c) 12.5m

DWall

• 22m deep top down exc. in soft clay +50


+45
• 1.0 and 1.8m Ø pile installed within
cofferdam

Vietnam 2008 80

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 40
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Modelling of Individual Piles


PLAXIS 3D Foundation

Slab

DWall
+50m

DWall 1.0mØ pile (+50m)


1.8mØ pile (+45m)
1.8mØ

Models half geometry

Vietnam 2008
81

Comparison of Wall Deflection


2D 3D
105 105

100 100

95 95
90 90

85 85

80 80
mRL
mRL

75 75
70 70
2D predicts smaller
65 65
DWall deflections, as
60 60
soil is not allowed to
55 55
flow between piles
50 50
45 45
0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

0.025

0.030

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.050

0.055

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

0.025

0.030

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.050

0.055

Wall horizontal disp. (m)


Wall horizontal disp. (m)

Diaphragm wall deflection

Vietnam 2008 82

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 41
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Comparison of Tension Force in Piles


1.0m Ø pile at 6.5m c/c 1.8m Ø pile at 13m c/c
100 100
95 95
90 3D gives 90
85 3000 kN 85
2D gives

Level (mRL)
Level (mRL)

80 80
75 10000 kN 75 3D gives
70 70 1400 kN
65 65
60 60 2D gives
55 55 20000 kN
50 50
45 45
-5000

5000

10000

15000

20000

-5000

5000

10000

15000

20000
Compression/tension force in pile (kN) Compression/tension force in pile (kN)

• Tension force (+ve) in piles due to ground heave in cofferdam

Vietnam 2008 83

Notes on Individual Piles as Walls

• Widely spaced individual piles within cofferdam modelled as


continuous walls in 2D analysis would predict:
1 Smaller deflection of retaining wall.
1. wall Continuous wall does not allow
flow of soil between piles, i.e. wall too rigid.
2. Larger tension force in the continuous wall. Larger surface area of
wall for mobilisation of shaft resistance.
• Consequences might be:
1. under-design of retaining wall
2. unnecessary sleeving/coating of individual piles in cofferdam
• Discrepancy between 2D and 3D prediction increases with the
increase of individual piles spacing into-the-plane.

Vietnam 2008 84

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 42
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Effect of Excavation on Piles


Macau

Vietnam 2008
85

Effect of Excavation on Piles

• Piles for supporting high-rise


• “Dido” pile external dia. 0.6 m, internal dia. 0.3 m
• Pile spacing 3 - 8 m, length ~ 45 m
• Ground conditions: fill, soft clay, stiff soil
• Excavation 3 - 4 m for construction of pile caps
• 3D analysis to investigate
1. effect of excavation on pile deflection
2. contribution of piles to FOS of excavation slope

Vietnam 2008
86

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 43
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis
Individual piles

65m

8m
• Individual piles modelled by
“plate” element

Vietnam 2008 87

Deformation of Excavation

Piles resist deformation

20x • Localised deformation around piles

Vietnam 2008 88

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 44
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Deformation of Piles

200
C
180
B
160 A

Pile head deflection (mm)


140
Soft soil
120

100
Stiff soil
A 80
B 60
C
40

20
• Measured pile deflection: order 0
of 100 mm Exc to Exc to Exc to Back exc Back exc
+2.5 +1.3 +0.8 to +2.5 to +4.5

Vietnam 2008 89

Phi-c Reduction to Determine FOS


Remember to input moment capacity of piles Mp!

Plastic hinge

Vietnam 2008
90

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 45
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

FOS for Different Excavation Depths

2.40

2.20

2.00 piles

1.80
FOS

1.60

1.40
no piles
1.20

1.00
Exc to Exc to Exc to Back exc Back exc
+2.5 +1.3 +0.8 to +2.5 to +4.5

Vietnam 2008
91

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1.EFFECT OF BARRET PILES ON ADJACENT INFRASTRUCTURE
2.PILED FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
3. CALIBRATION TEST: NUMERICAL AND CENTRIFUGE

APPLIED 2 FOUNDATIONS
APPLIED 2:FOUNDATIONS

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 46
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Foundation System for a High-rise


Singapore
• High-rise above an existing
(12m) tunnel
Tunnel • Barrettes straddle tunnel
• Barrettes 1.5m thick, 100
m deep
• Tunnel settlement criteria
High-rise footprint 15 mm
• Ground conditions: 35 m
soft clay underlain by stiff
soil
• 2D & 3D analyses to
optimise barrette geometries

Vietnam 2008
93

Geometry of Existing Tunnel

Bored pile

• Supported by three row of bored piles


1.2 - 1.5m Ø @ 4 - 8 m c/c
• Bored piles ~60 m long
• Tunnel
T l width
idth 12 m, h
height
i ht 6 m,
floor/wall thickness 1 m
• Tunnel 5 m below ground surface

Vietnam 2008 94

PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 47
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

2D Analysis

High-rise loading tunnel

Barrette

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Limitations of 2D Analysis
• Line load applied on barrettes is uniform into-the-plane
• In real situation
1 line
1. li lload
d iis applied
li d within
ithi th
the b
building
ildi area
2. barrette section further away from building boundary helps
shed load through skin friction
• Existing bored piles supporting the tunnel are modelled as
“wall” into-the-plane
• Changes of axial force in existing piles may not be reliably
predicted
• Cannot give settlement profile of the tunnel into-the-plane (for
structural calculation of tunnel deflection/distortion)

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 48
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation - half problem modelled
Pile-soil area
60m Line load on
barrette

Symmetry
plane

Tunnel
152m

160m

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Structural Items in 3D Analysis


Volume element: barrettes, Tunnel Line load on
transfer beams & piles barrette
“Floor” element: tunnel roof and
floor slab
“Wall” element: tunnel walls
Piles Transfer beam
Interface element: on barrettes,
transfer beams, wall & piles

Barrette
(100 m)

Building load
(equivalent raft foundation)

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 49
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis Results
Settlement of tunnel
Settlement Deformation
500x roof

floor

Settlement of tunnel

walls

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3D Analysis Results
Increase of Axial Force in Longitudinal Settlement Profile of
Tunnel Piles Tunnel
95 Distance in longitudinal direction of tunnel (m)
West pile 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
90
Middle pile
85 East pile West side
80 East side
Elevation (+mRL)

75
70
Settlement (m)

65
60 Soft soil
55
50
Stiff soil
45
40
35
Increase of axial force in pile (kN)

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 50
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Summary of Barrette Foundation Analysis

• 3D analyses predict smaller tunnel settlement than 2D,


reduction by 3 - 5 times
• 3D analyses model better
1. stress bulb of building load
2. load shedding through skin friction in barrettes
3. increase of axial force in tunnel piles
4. longitudinal settlement profile of tunnel

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finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 53
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

finite element code for soil and rock analyses

1.SETTLEMENT OF STRUCTURE DUE TO CONSOLIDATING GROUND & THE 
EFFECT OF NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION
2.EFFECT OF EMBANKMENT ON SERVICE PIPE

APPLIED 3:DEFORMATION 
APPLIED 3 DEFORMATION 
ANALYSIS

Settlement at a Depot Site
Taiwan

Plan view area 280m×130m

• Two-storey depot supported by 0.5m Ø driven piles in alternating layers of clay


and sand,
sand with pile toes founded in sand
• Consolidation settlement occurring due to placement of 2-3m surface fill onto
near surface clay layer
• Concern for negative skin friction induced on pile groups

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 54
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

SETTLEMENT AT A DEPOT SITE


Point load
1.25m
2.5m
+21.5 mRL
FILL
+19.5 mRL
Model ¼ pile group
Upper CLAY

+10 mRL

SAND
37m
PLAXIS 3D Foundation
+0 mRL 16m

Lower CLAY

-10 mRL 0.5m dia. pile


Lower SAND
-15 mRL

15m 15m
Toe +5.5 mRL
10
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Settlement at a Depot Site

Excess pwp contours


• Modelling sequences
1. Initial equilibrium
2. 2-3 m Fill placement (epwp)
Clay
3. Install pile cap and piles
4. Apply building load 600 kN to ¼ of
pile cap (epwp)
5. Consolidation (dissipation of epwp)
Clay

Dissipation of epwp

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 55
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Settlement at a Depot Site

Consolidation settlement

130mm

100mm

Pile toe

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SETTLEMENT AT A DEPOT SITE

Time (Day)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0.000
F 29
F-29 F 30
F-30 F 31
F-31 F 32
F-32
-0.020
Hand calc.
-0.040
Settlement (m)

-0.060

-0.080
PLAXIS (kclay=1×10-8 m/s)
-0.100

-0.120

-0.140
6/5/04 25/4/06
-0.160

11
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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 56
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Settlement at a Depot Site

Axial force down the corner pile (kN)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
22
NSF: Negative skin friction
20

18 Bldg. load
metre Reduced Level

16
NSF
14

12

10
m

8
Bldg. load +
6
consolidation
4

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8. Lateral Movement of Buried Service Pipe

Service pipe Australia


Embankment

15m Service pipe

Cone

Cone

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 57
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

Lateral Movement of Buried Service Pipe


• 10 m high embankments and 18 m high cone to be
built adjacent to an existing service pipe
• Service
S i pipei 0
0.4
4 m Ø and
d buried
b i d1md
deep
• Loading from embankments and cone may deform the
pipe laterally
• Ground conditions: fill, soft clay, stiff clay, residual soil
• 3D analysis to predict the deformation magnitude and
profile of the pipe

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3D Analysis
Plaxis 3D Foundation

Embankment load

Alignment of buried pipe


35m

Cone load

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 58
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

3D Analysis Results
Deformation at Depth 1 m Below Ground Surface (50x)

Deformed Pipe

Pipe modelled by “beam” element

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3D Analysis Results
Lateral movement of pipe (m)
• A simple 3D loading scenario
-0.030

-0.025

-0.020

-0.015

-0.010

-0.005

0.000

0.005

modelled by 3DF
0 • Model the soil-structure
20 i t
interaction
ti effect
ff t
40
Emb. • Give pipe deflection, shear
force & bending moment in 3D
Longitudinal distance (m)_

60

80

100
Cone
120

140

160

180

200

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 59
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

SEMINAR
1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
2. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS
G O C C SS
3. MODELLING OF SOIL‐STRUCTURE 
INTERACTION PROBLEMS WITH PLAXIS
4. REAL CASE HISTORIES
5. CONCLUSIONS

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General Notes for FE Analysis
• Soil input parameters and modelling techniques continually
refined as more field data is available
• A series of sensitivity analyses are necessary to cover
possible field scenarios
• Use of numerical modelling in practice requires:
1. A good knowledge of soil mechanics and finite
element/difference principles
2. An understanding of the programme/model limitations
3. Careful checking of numerical results by competent
engineers

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 60
finite element for soil and rock analyses 15‐JUNE‐2007

References
Breth, H. and Chambosse, G. (1975). Settlement behaviour of buildings above subway tunnels in Frankfurt clay. Proc. Conf. 
Settlement of Structures, Cambridge, April 1974, London: Pentech Press, 329 ‐ 336.
Boscardin, M. D. and Cording, E. J. (1989). Building response to excavation‐induced settlement, ASCE, J. Geotech. Engrg., 115(2), 
22 ‐28.   
CIRIA (2003). Embedded retaining walls ‐ guidance for economic design. Construction Industry Research and Information 
Association, Report C580. 
Davies, R. V. and Henkel, D. J. (1980). Geotechnical problems associated with the construction of Charter Station, Hong Kong.
Proc. of the Conf. on Mass Transportation in Asia, Hong Kong, paper J3, 31 p.
Dickin, E. A. and Nazir, R. (1999). Moment‐carrying capacity of short pile foundations in cohesionless soil. J. Geotech. & Geoenv. 
Engrg. ASCE, 125(1), 1‐10.   
Franzius, J. N., Potts, D. M. and Burland, J. B. (2006). The response of surface structures to tunnel construction. Geotechnical
Engineering, Proc. of ICE, 159(1), 3‐17.
Morton, K., Leonard, M. S. M. and Carter, R. W. (1980). Building settlements and ground movements associated with 
construction of two stations of the modified initial system of the Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong. Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on 
Ground Movements and Structures, Cardiff, UK, 708‐802; 946‐947, Discussion (published under the title Ground Movement 
and Structures, Geddes, J. D., eds., Pentech, London, 1981). 
Morton, K., Cater, R. W. and Linney, L. (1980). Observed settlements of buildings adjacent to stations constructed for the 
modified initial system of the Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong. Proc. of 6th Southeast Asian Conf. on Soil Engineering, 
Taipei, 415‐429.
Prasad, Y. V. S. N. and Narasimha Rao, S. (1994). Experimental studies on foundations of compliant structures – I. under static 
loading. Ocean Engineering, 21(1), 1‐13.
PLAXIS (2002). Users forum – beam to pile properties. PLAXIS Bulletin, June, 2002, p.22, 
http://www.plaxis.com/upload/bulletins/12%20PLAXIS%20Bulletin.pdf. 

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Thank you

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PLAXIS SEMINAR‐HO CHI MINH 61