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9 pH, 2015

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9 pH, 2015

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e n+<] eTqq\ b+~+~. y<T>T|P\T qe\ kjTT< bs \+H{
|]d T \q q|<+ bs $seTDq+s |]De\q deTse ++>
{sTT.
eTdT> J$ bs+_+, ueC\+H =qk>TTHq
#|q <Xs~ sejTD, eTVus\q.. y<\q, |wT\q,
uVD\q nqTe~+#&+ #eT+~ $+>H n|++~. $XXjT dTqT
++ #&+ y<\, eT+ fq jTq $Xd+. <eD qyTT#T>,
eT + L&<+ {sT. n~ deC HXq+ #d+ |e<s y T q < jTq
ueq. de+ ndeq\T by\, |+ < b&\ qT m~]+#\,
$<c\qT s #>=fy sT n+]+by\ ++ .. eTqTw\T ] d+
sT \ sT.. n+<TdyT s#q \T #dq <Xs~ e+{ysT eTq
deC m+ neds+ . ||+ NsD eqe d++<\qT < +d+ #dT q
rsT| y<H.. d| d$Tw> >=+seTq ndVqeT <Xs~
+&$. > u$ ws \T $ T+#ue V#]+#ysT. &T =qT+Tq
$<e\ Cq+ n&T>+TTq< u<| & y sT. q#T q de+ d+,
< e T+ d+ |]|+ q eTVqT&T <Xs~ jTqy e y\T.

` k
10 pH, 2015
28

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

\T>T |\ >
n&= |]|Ps eqe&T. +&T eTqdT $TT\qT |\T]+#
eTeTeT]. d#y T q V<jT + s\+> sTqe\T |d] +# nqTs>
ds|&T. >T+& e]C +|=, >=+T y<\qT < +q =
b\ yT\T \sTT. n& & <Xs~ s+>#s.
\+>D JqJeq+, C+ b\q| |\T ]|q Ms bs+,
u keT eed | sT>TuT |{ + q s T \ ||T q # q +, eT{ eTqTw\
qT+ sb+~q eTVHjT\ $se+ e+{ nHH n+X\qT qe\\T>
eT*q \T>T |\ > & <Xs~ s+>#s.
V <su< d+kqeTH HsD+ >+<| yTT+{ >eT+ >&sT.
es+> >eTeT~. n&= |+& T++, y] + &T\ e<
<<| <T y\ T+u\T $< HsT HsTT. n|& T++ |< $<H
y+{#sT\T. >=| |+&T&T. jTq dreTD y+eT. \T>T
|+#y\ #~$q $<TweTD. y] =* d+q+ <Xs~ we #s.
eT*d+q+ <Xs~ s+>#s. sT y eTT>TsZ T &|\ \ T.
y] e+X+ |s+ q & eT>| & . nsTT <+|T \
<s T eT>|\ \ T |{sT . <s & T& *< + &T\ $Xd+.
n << |<y & T&, n& u> #~$+ |uT q~]>
j sT#j \ T+ |<\ +. s +&y&T yTT+& d H H\T>s \T
HsT = bsV+ #dT + \| + #k& y] n+#H.
nsTT, #T H\= ke H|< +, s+X C+ s]
|]b\q, y{# d#sV+ u keT |&q , |\TTTq |\
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

29

||T q bs{\T k<sT *< |X++> +&e<T . #<T e| <d


<s < T . bsV |]$T+ e<T . |* +> <Xs~ k<s* <s T
\+>D $y#H<eT+ |+> bZHsT. nsD, nC yk\T
nqTu$ +#sT. C\ T \ T u] +#sT. |< <Xs~ <eT$> n<s\T
]|+#&T. sT<MD\T |*+#&T. q <Xs~ qe s#s TT> sT<&T.
<Xs~ s+>#s s+q qe\\ #] s\T |\q d
y\& k sTT. q+ uw >T+&\T <* d yT< qT |<T qT u&sTT. M] qe\\T
s usrjT uw, +>+ nlqTe~+|&HsTT. \s< e qe\
#\q+> sb+~+~. u keT eed |r\T> *q \s <e :
<Xs~ s+>#s s+q >=|qe\ \s< e . \+>D e+&* uw
y\Te&q =* qe\ ~. 1938 |Ps+ H{ \+>D >MTD J$
+q qe\ 1969 |#T ]++|&+~. 1971 +< |<X kV
n&MT nysT b+~+~. V+B, +^wt uw nqTy<yT + ~. XyD
<syV+> |kseTe&+ bT #\q+>q sb+~<T +~. nH
$X$<\j bs >+<+ > db sdT #jT &q qe\| m+| , |V#Y.&
|]X<q\T ]>sTT. C+ s+ \+>D |. |
>&` `_. >& \+ >eT+ >&e T]. < +< < yTT\ejT<T.
>& >e <=s ses& }s+ <=s <j <s \ MT< *+<.
|& H*. =& |&*. n&T <=s`|uT e. n< Xdq+, n&T eTs
XdH +><T . qT s+XD n \TdT. <+ + >s +.
<=s <TssZ\ e+b& >eT sD + seT#+<se, e|f CeTTBH,
eT{ wj
T , s T HsjT , M] s#\T, \+u& \ | bdT nMTqT
n| sTT |jT +, \ sT>TuT |* +> yTqT nMTqT * #+|&+ ,
\+u&|H Hss|D, C\ T yTT<q neqTw \ n+ ke
eed. <=s +jT\T <=+*+#&q sD+> #* |]>D
#+|< e<\ ses& <TsV +s+, sD + J>&T MsT&T us |*
sD neT d++<+ , |* +> M]> V e+{ mH <sTD\
+< _+<Te\T> q \s <e q> dsb m# |q qe\ ~.

` & md dHsjTD
n\us nuT <jT s#s TT\ d+|T + b< &T
30

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

<Xs~ dq
\+>D >T+& #|
&T
> ju @ \T>T $d+> sdTq y] <Xs~
s+>#s sT . 1960 b++ s#H J$+ bs+_+, s+sjT+>
s#q \T #dT H sT. yTT<{ \s< e e+{ |> o\ qe\\T s+q
s+>#s sejTD us u>e<T\qT e#q+ s+#&y T y<\
e#HqTy< L& |PqT= T&j sT. sT y |wT \ qT
L& nqTe~+#sT. keq+> k+|<jT+ qT+ eT+ y|
eT[qysT |ksT . < $sT<+ > eT+ qT+ k+|<jT+
y| q eT[ s+>#s n+<] Xs|]#sT.
s#s TT s#q \qT $Xw + #\+f, n T++, |]ds\T,
Jeq $<q+ eTT+<T> n<jTq+ #j\ .V#Y.sY n+{sT.
D++ #d, jTq u\+ n d+|<jT yesD+ q&+~.
+& s<sD
T++ |< J$ >&b *e+~. d+|<jT $<qT
nu d+q s+>#s yTT<{ sde+, sT y <T uy\ |
]T \jsT. sE HC + es+> | #dT q +< eTVdu
se bZ+, }ssT ] sT\qT duT\T> #]+#sT.
eT+ s+>#s e]dT kV+ #sTy+~. ||+# sjT
Cq+ n\e&+~. ], #] H|<+ deC |]o*+# >TD+
n\e&+~. >s >+<\jT+, u\d+|T + @sT#XsT. \+ jTq
$|+> |d \T #~ysT. H{ sjT |]d T \T, |sq + s+>#sqT
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

31

ssTTq eTdT j<T >, e]dT Cq+ *q s#s TT> s|


~<T H+<T <V<|& sTT.
C+ es bs+ kjTT<b s+> e]q s s+>#s
L& Tb |{ bs+ bZH #XsTT H{ <eT |]d T \T.
bdT #s s <eT+ qT+ jT e#sT. s sjT ,
] |]d T \ sD+> jTq b <seTjsT. k++> #<T e,
|y
T> |\ T sd <>+ d+b~+#THsT. <+ J$+ =+
ds + @s&+~.

<Xs~ kV+
<Xs~ sdq =$T~ qe\ \s< e yTT<{~ . 1938 |Ps|
\+>D |C J$ < edTe > rdT qe\ sXsT. +<T
=+<sT e\ J$\T , H{ deC |_+yTq d+|Ps >MTD
J$ < edTe > d]+#sT. >e s &, sD
+, s T , eT{, #*,
eT+>*, e\e~>\T db+>\ e+{ysT. y] H{ >eTeed rsTqT\T
|<] dH neqTwyT q <&T\T, n~sT\ <|&, <TssZ\T, y{, u>]
+{ TuT, &u|\ <Tss J$\qT e]+#sT. qe\ n+ u>H
e+~ +<T < HjT&T +< qT+ eq ks+>bD qq+
uy& |DkH\ | bsTTq ses& yTq\T&> e *yjT &+
de{> e+~. s#sTT de d+ #dq |jT+> =+eT+~
$eT]+H, s \+ ~ &{ +> sb+~+~. \+>D
TqT <] +#&, +< e |PqTe&+ | =+eT+~ | D
\T
y*T#sT.

ejT\sT
qe\ 1969 H{ eq V <su< q>s deTd dT+ ~.
$\Te\T |&bsTT, ybs d+d |]q q>s+ <\ \T,
32

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

<TsdH\T, <|&, L{ > |<\ T +, yd> \eTq


nejT\ J$\qT e]dT + ~. u deTdbT q>s+ ]> yk\T,
d+|T $<V se\T, n~sT\T, <sT\T, +{s yk\T, eT
n_e~ d+ &y] be\T> y&Te&+, q>s+ |<y], < \
J$\ eT< &qT \T| ejT\sT qe\ sXsT. q>s
|< V nk+|T sb\ m H\e> esj B
#&=#T. M{bT eTV+[ y\T, uH\T, s+>+, eTT\ <,
ds+> $Xc\T, s $+ ` q>s k+d yesD
qe\ # > |_+_++~.

y<T>T|P\T
\s<e qe\ 1938 |Ps| \+>D |C J$+
+#&, y<T>T|P\T 1938 qT+ 1948 es , n+f V <su<
d+kq+| bdt #s ]> < \+>D |C J$+, bs{ |\T
d<y T q rsT +#&+~. qe\ C+ d+kH C^sY y~>
s+|&+~. qe\ bs+u+ H C^s |T|P ss \T, < b\H $<q+
$es+> #bsT s#s TT. CssY m& |+ \T #dT + f, dsT
H |uT eqT nsTTqT m n~s+ #sTT+#s qe\ e]dT + ~. ds,Y
sesY, nMTH, kVQsT\T H{ de+ |\qT m |&+ #s +<T
#&=#T. qe\ |s| + &> e++, \+>D n~ sT|H rsT,
X~H\ dsY <+bT jT\ Jeq$<q+ >T]+ L&
e]+#sT. bs qe\> |sTb+~q y<T>T|P\T qe\ +< eTVdu,
eTdT b\ b >T]+ b e&+ Xs+.

q|<+
1948 bdt #s s qT+, nd+| s*bsTTq jTTe
eTs kjTT<b s{ d<y T q 1968 es eT< ++~. q|<+
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

33

e+ # $X\yT+ ~. 1948 s \+>D | eqesT,


e]q >eT dsb\T, k++ sT y L& es &T>T\ J$\T,
<=s\ <|&, \TwyTq sj\T, m\ |qVdH\T, \+>D
kjTT<b s+ bZq MsT\T dVjT\T> es&+ , dVjT
+ = s + $s$ +#& qe\ +#sT. s+>#s $T> qe\>
+<Tq u deTd |< q+>H |dT + ~.

sqTq~ @~ +?
\+>D qJ$, bs{ qe\ +q s+>#s qT
@$T dTHs, +# de+ m e+T+< sqTq~ @~+
qe\ +#sT. deTdeC |b~+# keTy<+ us< X + ed
sjT, ], k+|T esT\T m e+{j s#sTT qe\
+#sT.

be
k++ eq eTT|jT s L&, ds +T\T
|d] +# >e\T, n_e~ C& n+< >e\T, eT< jTT>\ H{ u keT
eed VyTq b\q, y{#] \jT+> e]q >e\ <Td,
|\ y\ T, neqTwyT q n+sH be qe\ r]+#sT.

eqe
&T|s+>H +& eT #+<dy<T\T eqeqT eT+
eTTdT>T m +~ksT , n+{y] d + bD+ MT< eq|&T
eT\qT |q|{ eqe m |\TTT+< qe\ +#sT
s#s TT. n+eT $jT+ eqe< nq d +<T s|+#sT.
34

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

Xs\+
qe\ >eT+, dHq d+|<jT <+ > Jeq+ kdTq
>e\ |r. d+|<jT Jeq+ n+sq+, eqe d++<\T,
]d e Td\T, \ TuT m e+{j #T H{ >eT dsb
deT>+> +#sT. nsTT de+ @ d e+< #TH m
e+& L& #| deC qT$| *ksT .

neT+ >eTjT
>eTk|q yTT<\T < eT$d+, b]X$TsD,
bXrsD
, de+ q esT\T, |&b Tq eqe $\Te\qT
>{qT neT+>eTjT qe\ r]++~. < s#q\T, qe\\T,
J$#] sdq s sdq qe\ ~. dV +>H |Ps| s#q \ |u e+
qe\ |dT+~. qe\ |<q <X+ y< >eT k|q. n+<T
qT>H jT<+> y<\T, |wT \ T, s >+<\ K q\T B
|ksTT.
<Xs~ s+>#s qesT> |s=+~q|{ < >, $>,
nqTy< > |s=+<sT. y<\T nqTy<+ #XsT. nH < >+<\T
s+#sT. jTq sdq 21 <\ *| q\H>T o]q <\ |d+
y\Te]+#sT. B de+ y$ < bs* +q <\ THsTT.
de b& y| + yT + ~.
nqTy<> jTq #dq de $XwyTq~. C s+>#s
kV |kq+ nqTy<\H bs+ueTsTT+~. VQuc b+&+,
n< jTqo\TsT e&+ e\ y] nqTy<\T L& d+ s#q \T> udsTT.
u+> sT e e+ > s|s Y uy H u{ #s sdq +> qe\qT <e
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

35

|] |sT nqTe~+#sT. C+ =\Te s nqTy< > | #dq


MTs sTk s+q s qe\ ey CH n<qT s+>#s \T>T
nqTe~+#sT. qe\ 1857 eTT+<T \ qyT\ $d J$ e+
r]++~.
uqT |eTTK s s#s TT. <\ nDy >TssTTq
d\ \T, \Vq\T, y{ #T e]+ eq +]H +#syT.
<s bs \ eTqdT\ MT< #s> eTT< yXsT. yT sdq < + 24
<\qT <s+ |] s+>#s nqTe~+#sT. n> s+>#s #dq
nqTy< $\ nqTy<+ |d~ #+~+~. +< |<X kV
n&MT ysT m+| #dq sy \T>T <\ qT \T>T nbH |]
s nqTy<+ #XsT. $<+ > y] nqTy< |u nqqyT+ ~.
n> $> |CdeTd\ | d+~+ y\~ s|+ X +
sXsT. q{ |<\T qs+> o]q y\Te&sTT. n> 2002
y\Te]+q eqd $ 163 $T $\THsTT.

|\\ d+...
u\kV+ L& n+~+#sT s+>#s. u\ kV+ y]
=*s#q $yq+<T >T]+. jTq d+| J$#] 1960 y\Te&+~.
eTVT d+| J$#] qT L& 1963 sXsT. eTV$ [<dT
s+q eT&T H\T ` X+\, e$`n$TT&T (1962),
$eTT&T`}s (1963) |\\ d+ sXsT. eT&|& > \se#sT\T
ueT\T yXsT. l y+fX s \\T (1976) sXsT. d+<sqTks+>
d+d X*, y{ $es* e&+ $Xw+ .
36

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

d+|<jT kV+
leT<ejTDeTT, leT<>eeTT, d#]+, usd|+,
leTVus+ , sTby s#q * dT\u e#qX* n+~+#sT. >+<\
#HeTeTT o]q sdq yK $eTsH <w d+]+#T+~.

y<kV+
s+>#s qH{ qT+ y<\| |+#Tq nqTs, s
=qk+q n< jTq+, =+<sT y<y U\ eu c\T jTqqT y<s # q
|$T+# #XsTT. qT \T>T H\T>T y<\qT e#qs|+
n+~+#sT. s |wT \ T L& \T>T e#q+ n+~+#&+
$Xw+ . #HeT+ o]q dTBsy T q yK\T sXsT.

< Jeqjq+
q>&sT |{, u>q>s+ |qydTbsTTq J$
||* ++~ <Xs~ Jeqjq+. +<T s+>#s J$yT <T, @&T
<Xu\ \T>TC JeqD |dT + ~. jJeq+ s+>#s
nqTuy \T, nqTu T\ ns s |+. <Xe T+ ] #dq rsj
\T,
y{ $Xw D
+<T |dT + ~. n+X d++~+q |Ps|s*,
]wy T q de#s+ <\ T, |< \ #| &+ $Xw+ .
<Xs~ s+>#s yk\T, |Hk\T, +s\T *| ns
eT+<, XX d |sT y\Te&sTT. n> |yT#+< J$+`kV+
nH eTs |d + sXsjTq. U|jT qT L& sV+#sT. de+
nHj\, keqT\ c\ #d d+~d <V <dT s \T |]
sdq K\ |uT |<\ sdqy. ds >+~+ eHsTT. K\T
H{ deTq k+|T JeH n<+ |& sTT.
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

37

e #b\+f s+>#s kV J$+ $dyT+~.


qJ$* qe\\T> eT*#sT. < >+<* dsyTq e#q+
s+#sT. \+>D #+~q yde J$ qe\, < n+~+#sT.
Jeqjq+ <s qT #dq, nqTu$ +q, nqTue |]~ eq J$
<]+|CX sT. < >+<\ ks q<q | yT q X* d+#sT.
q q y\ |Pd>T qT #| jTq s#H | s D
e+~. qTH <Xs~ s+>#s s#q \ | bs e s+Z @s&+~. <<|
nsy d+es\ bT $ks+ > s#q \T #d bs \ # q |]~ $d +
e& &&sT . $_q |jT ju |d \ |> y\Te]+q
<Xs~ s+>#s kVw \T>T bs\ dH n_sT
qTeT&+|Cd+~.

` .|.nX esY

38

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

$\D ns j
q+
<T <Xu\ |> =qkq ~e+> <Xs~ s+>#s
ns j
q+ mHH yT\ TsHsTT. jTq d+d+< }s uw
# |+&T\T. >=| e#q s#sTT. H&T C+ b\q es+>
]q bs+ j o\+> bZq j<T &T. qT q$Tq $\Te\
| d&\ |T<\ q e. <T \T>T kV+ y$ < u]
s#q \T #dq |ueTsT\ e <Xs~ s+>#s | yT q #T
| +& +T+~. s+>#s \<s + #+<&+ H{ C+ d+kq
\| |d< s#s TT\ s+ <<|> qTeTsT> q T .
eTV$ <Xs~ (we #sT\T) $ s#q yTsTq> Ks+>
m~qT>H jTq k<sT&T s+>#s qe dq q ksTT
n+<THsT. s+>#s qe\\T ses$T sT <Xu\ \+>D deC
n+ yd$ +#sTT. =* \+>D qe s#s TT e{
sYk$T ~X q d] qT s+>#s djT+> #| HsT.
sY k$T 1930e <X+ H{ \+>D deC d |\
eTw qe\qT s+#sT. nq+s+ s+_+q >+>T qe\ jTq
eTsD+ ns+s+ >H eTTd+~. nT sT y mes H{ \+>DqT
qe\ +#+<T jT+#< T . C <w |T= s+>#s
\s <e qe\qT s+#sT. ~ H&T d+#\q+! \+>D
u> y&T q s e*, kjTyTq |\T&T* L& qe\
m+ #> |j+#THsT s+>#s. \+>D |\T&T\
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

39

kV+ |<> |#s+ < 1970e <X_ s+u+ <= |< kVd+.
# q +| nsTD sD \T + <$ +# n|{ \+>D >MTD de+
u keTT\T, >e~sT\ |q + m{ +&< \s <e ++~.
\T>T qe $k >T]+ $Xw + # eT+ \s <e |keq
| +& edT+~. s+>#s u> wyTq qe\ y<T>T |P\T
d+> jTH +s y\& + #sT. |\TesT kVr $eTs\T
y<T>T |P\T s+>#s k~+q \ | qT |X+ d+#sT. m&
mTe+{ nqedsyTq b\T d+uwD\T +& #> qe\qT
r]~<sT s+>#s. 1940\ H{ \+>D |]d T \T y<T>T|P\T qe\
q&sTT. s+>#s qe\ $ksy T ~ . q|<+ ~ s +&T u>\T>
+~. 1950e <X_ s+u+ qT+& b d+es\ bT \+>D >MTD,
|D deC #T#dTq sjT, ke |]De* q|<+
$w]++~. s+>#s qT+& y\Te&q Xs \ +. ejT \sT
L& $wy T q qe\. \+>D b+| keq |C+ y&T q
|\T&T* q qe\\+{q |j+#sT. <Xs~ s+>#s.
$<+ > jTq \+>D b+ ese q s#s TT\ d] eT]>
essT.
s+>#s e#q+ neT+ e+{~! y| V< + > #~$dH
eTs ~X #q* s+#>*> sdq jTq e#q+ +T+~.
s#q n+{ rjTyTq ds|sT #T= eTq* |\]dT+ ~. +<T
\TyT <VsD Jeqjq+. s+>#s < ~. e+<\ |\
=qkq JeqjH keq bs\T d+ w|&T #<e>\sT.
y| > \| C| \T, eTs y| ese q yd$ \ yT$+|
kbT+~ ~. =ksT @$ sT&T ]dq VeT deTVeTT\T
n+ >+ eT+y| bs & rdT= bsT s+>#s. H{
nqTs>\T, n|{ d#y T q eqe d++<\T eTq* ~*ksTT. |<V s
bjT+H s+>#s q J$+ d+|T]+q |]dT\T jTq
|de jTdTH bs |{e T s+uy T q T #TsTT. \T>T kV+
e T ksTT < Jeqjq+ {.
40

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

s+>#s q Jeq d+<deTjT+ s+q y{ y<\


yUq+ {. H&T jdT&T, kjTDT&T e+{ y<+T\T #dq |
<T jTT>+ s+>#s #d #|+#sT. y< d++<y T q n+X
q b+& + q+<Te\H s+>#s nqTy<\T |d~ b+<sTT.
jTTes+ d + nqTy< d+|{* u <+> |~\|sT #T+~.
y sejTD m+ >=|> s+>#s nqTe~+#sT.
s#q L& s+>#s e#q s#H |u <s D+ |&T +~.
1950\ qT+& \+>D |]dT\+{ s+>#s +>
>eTd e#sT. C+ es bs+ bZq|{ nq+s \+
@H& sj \ | d #|+#< T . sjT s+>+ eq nqV
esT +<T sDeT Jeqjq+ #T+~. nuT<jT,
usrjT dHq s +{ n_e+q $\D
e s+>#s.
deTq deC, qT #|q |]d T * |]|Ps \<w
ns <+ #dq s+>#s nH s\bT \T>T s#s TT\ >=| <s +>
\TksT.

- >TeTq>] u\lydeT]

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

41

eTq \| eTVeTw
ns y#d <Xs~ s+>#s J$+ _q ys T <\ \jT+.
s , <D <T y +& n+X\T jTq {> *d |s+ #ksTT.
jTqqT #d, C+ qyT e s +> kq bsT Tb |{ bs&s,
jTq qT~{| |+# sTHe\T #d jTH= e]dT n mes
nqTsT. , jTq $|e X |r. jTq J$yT <eT+. @B #dH
<eT+> #ksT . s+>#s e]C m+> |$Tks, d+|<j n+>
w| & sT.
\T>T kV yTq +{ qe\\T n+~+q s+>#s,
n< # sejTD, us, u>e, y<\T, |wT\T \T>T C
n+~+#sT. _q+ @ + nH usrjT << \TyT <s q+>
*q <Xs~ s+>#s k+ deTs j<T &>, ns V> |\
V<j |s+ ydT HsT.
eTdT j<T &T #+&sCX sse # +<> > |X+ d+#&q
<Xs~ s+>#s 1928 >dT 24q es+> q>&sT +#sT.
$ ||+ #+ \|wT q <Xs~ we #s M] n>E&T. s+>#s
dHq d+|<jT T+ yesD+ |]>sT. sT \ & |& yT\
|&b + nq+ #+<d+ . eT& T +f d+d <$& e{&*.
\T>T e{& L&<T . d s | \T>T +&<T . +{, jT{
\T>T| n+ q#|, s<sD H, <Xs~ k<sT \T <] \T>T
uw| mq eTeTs+. s+>#s e#q s#q qT #|{ , \, d+|<jT
kV dw nsk < yTq ksTT #sT HsT.
42

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

|e |>H |]eT[dT+~ nH HqT& s+>#s J$+


eTsTT+~. kj $X$<\jT+ eq e+<es <eT+, C+
s+ s b+\ b+ ~. n|&T s+>#s bsX \ bsq deTjT+
e+<es+ #~$ b<jTT\ # <\T H&T. ss>
+&> C+ qyT $~+q jTbs+ #T{| <T\T >+B {|
|T +{eT d $<sT\ # dyT #sTT+ $jT+ k~+#sT. ,
bsX \ qT+ VwsD >Tsj &T. <+ jTq #<T e ss>
bsTT+~. \+ n+<]> s+>#sqT L& yeT| ueC\+
]++~. >e ]|\qT +<e TVdu #]+#sT.
|\\ bs\T #bsT. ejqT\ s bsX \\T q&bsT.
V osqY T m~]+ >eT+ | #sT. \+H e]dT kV
$|+> #~ysT. \+>D s +> bs+ kjTT< s| rdT
< eTe&+, s+>#s L& n+&sY >+& y[b jsT. Tb |\&+
D rdTH sT. 1948 d|+ sY 16q bdt j H s O<eT+ qT+
jT e#sT. k++ s |\qT |&+ q <=s, K<s T , >+B
{| <]+ sjT HjT\T> nesyTsT. s+>#s y] eT<
eT&bjsT. djT+w #<Te 1951 b< jT e
|y +#sT. s 1957 d+ <u< eTTd| s=swH #ssT.
s+>#s sYk$T +<Te. |> <] bs H|<+,
kV_w +~. <+ <] eT< eT+ +<+ @s&+~. sYk$T
e~* y[q <e mes \ T <T . e] s+>#s q<q |<
\+>D |\ JeD D d+ qe s#q |PqTHsT. |D[
d<+ #dT H sT. qe s#q d++~+ |d \T n< jTq+ #XsT.
yTT<{ qe\ \s <e (1969)y\Te]+#sT. \+>D >T]+ \+>D
e+&*+ sdq qe\ e&+ $Xw <sD b+~+~. yTT<{ qe\
+< kV n&MT VQeT b+<sT s+>#s.
\s< e 1974 #\q+> e+~. \s< e 1938
|Ps| \+>D |\ JeH d, \+>D kjTT< bs+ 1942<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

43

48 y<T>T|P\T (1971) e]dT + ~. s+>#s sV+q bs


DyT y<T>T|P\T qe\ e+. qe\qT #~ y, s+>#sqT
+<> > n_e]+#sT #+&sCX sse. k++ s s +&T <Xu\
dTBs q|<+ (1976) +#sT. q>s deTd\ e+
ej\sT (1971) sXsT. <X+ keTy< k|q sT>TT+<q X\qT,
Xj \qT sqTq~ @~ + (1971)qe\ +#sT.eqe (1980)
qe\ eT\T y\dbjT s+>T\T, eqe s+s+ * +& |T q nH
d+<X+ ksT .
uVDT, <[T eT< dV *+, eqe+
<e n <>sZ Xs \ + (1980) qe\ s|+#sT. k++ s
L& k+| y\T>T\T |d] +# >e\T m <|& >Tsj j,
<|& |\ $c< J$ \T, {#s e T qT+ # q + b+~ >eTdT\ T
s> & $jT+ k~+#&+ be qe\ dT+ ~. 1977 sdq qe\
2000 |d + > e+~. M{ s s+>#s <w d+|<jT kV+|
|&+ ~.
us+ , y<\T, |wT \ T nqTe~+q s eT qe s#q
|$T+#sT. ||+ NsD , b]XMTsD |u e+ eTsD+ y| |jT dTq
|\qT neT+ y| |jT +|C d neT+ >eTjT(2004) qe\qT sXsT.
+<T usrjT , < >=|<q+, +>j
T T \T < < +d+ #dq
$<q+, us d+|<j s+#Ty*q neds+ ~s $wj\T
+#sT.
s+>#s yTT+ 9 qe\\T sXsT. M{ \s< e , y<T>T|P\T,
q|<+ qe\\T |j& qe\\T e&+ qe\ eTT+ | eTs qe\
bs+u+ neT+~. $wjT y<q k<sD uwH y&H, b\T y]y]
k+|T H|< { e{& uw ys sT> +T+~.
+&&+e\ qe\ # dV+> k>TT+~. d+|Tq\T,
d+uwD\T V<j VT +{sTT.s+>#s nq>H qe s#H >Ts=dT + ~.
qe\\ +f eTT+<, eTT| eT& ejTdTH jTq oeT<ejTDeTT
44

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

(1962) s+#sT. \eT+ y sejTD+ #T#dT q ny\T


+& n#+> y byTq sejD \T>Ty] e#q+
n+~+#sT.
s+>#s n+ qejTdTH sejTD n< jTq+ #dq rsTqT,
sdq $<H $XH< d HsjTD, #s ~ys y+e< e+{
<+ &T\T =j&sT.sejTD+ n& & sdq s+>#s $eTsH
n_bj\T #<T esT\qT +|#k sTT. n|]$TyT q CH n+~ksTT.
sejTD+ s oeT<>e+(1969)sXsT. s#q ydT
nqTd]+H, bq |<\ sT bs \ #|+#sT. d#]+(1978)|s
eTsk] sejTD sXsT. 1994 V]e+X dV eTVuse TT s+#sT.
sejTD, us, u>e\T sdq s usrjT d+|<jT kV+
VeTe<TqyTq H\T>T y<\ qT m+ X$T+ \T>T e#q+
n+~+#sT.
s+>#s |\ y<+ nH H<+ y< <e bs+_+,
$jTe++> |P]#X sT. y<$wsDe+ d , <[ jTTe&
y< |T \T n+~+#sT. y<\ s eTTKyTq |~ |wT \ T, TT><
X+UjTq uVDeTT, TT>< sj
T uVDeTT, y<+ JeqH<+ |]#jT +,
y<+ JeqH<+ TT>< |]#jT +, eqd sTb y, qT <]+q <X+
j d \ $Xc\ j Jeq+ s+#sT.
jTq sdqe <+Z <. nsTT, s+>#s < #| e~jT <T .
kV+ qq |]Cq+, ||+ # Cq+ < d++~+ |Ps|s\T,
eT+ #&T \T #]+#sT. $<H oeT<ejTDeTT bs+_+#sT.
s L& $<H ne\+_+# sT. nsTT s s#q q
n_bj\ #HeTeTTnH |sT |{sT . jTq yK neT bjTyTq
#q\T *dT+ ~. bqT = yT$+ #|T+ ~. usrjT q T
m ns+ #dT y $e]dT+ ~. bNq kVeT+ |{ |sD\T e
, eqeC q ~X> rdT=bjT neT+ n+<T +<
s|dT + ~.
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

45

s+>#s J$, nqTy<\ $&BjT +<+ +~. jTq


qq+H y] +& sV+q <Xs~ |d+ <$& >+<\T
nqTe~+#sT. s \+ jT q kVr J$+ nqTy<+H bs+u+
nsTT+~. 1940 eq sT e s d >T]+ |U usrjT
+> s#s TT uy u{ #s sdq qe\ 'He who rides A Tiger' qT <e
|]|sT \T>T nqTe~+#sT. B e{ sYk$T <X<s
>+<e T+&* s| q |#T ]+#sT.
s+>#s =*H |\\d+ 1960-63 eT< $yq+<T&T,
eTVT&T, [<dT nH eT&T H\T s+#sT.1974 oy+fX s\\T
s+#&T. 1962 usY | #H <&#d q |&T, \T>T y\Te&q $\qT
sDu] |s d+\q+ #XsT.s+>#s s#q | +> |s=qe\dq eTs=
s#q Jeqjq+. n~ s+>#s J$ <. Jeqjq+ s+>#s q
J$+bT, @&T <Xu\ \T>TC J$ +#sT.Jeq~ |yV+
k> jTq s#q n+ eTVT +T+~.

- $. jT| wt
zjT dsY k\sY

46

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

J$ H]+~ eTdT <eT+


qqT e\T> |u$+ #dq <+f <e\T me>
|u $+ #XsTT. HqT <eTJ$. eTTK+> eTdT <eT+ J$
H]+~. eTw #d+ ~. de+ Tq~. T de+ q~ n
#|+~. { de+ d+ @<H #j * n H]+~. $<+ > HH e>
|u $eTsTT+~ de |]De\ n+Tq <Xs~ s+>#s eTHuy\
|s+ |s ~...

HC + es bssE\ >T]+...?
e nqjT n<wy T $T+f sCsT, >=&e\T, >+<s> \T
]>eTT+<T jTq C\ T y[bsTTH&T. C\ T y[bsTT |<\T sX&T.
n~ keqeTsTTq | <T. m+<T+f @ s+ eH& n& C\ T
Ls=
z CeTT |X#e,
qs&T qT u*q sE e q&,
r>\qT <+| n ~+|He,
H \+>D { sH \ MD
C\ T +& CeTTqT z CeTT |X#e nq>\ <s +,
kVd+ me]+&*? nsTT Tb e b* |&sTT.
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

47

H +<T J$+ m+ >=|~ ndT+ ~, <e&T <T. n+&sY >+& J$+


y |&T, e neTq~ @$Ts eTeT~* by n. n|&T HqHqT
ne qTe e <T>T] eyT *$ . { eT+~ \+>D qqT |\TdTq ~.
$wjT + #TTHqT. nqjT C u <+. HqT bjT~ eTTes+Z .
HqT eT[ ]>=kq nqT. @ |< qsTTH =&T $T>T\T&T
n #| y[bj. * m+ @&T+T+~ b|+! <s T =&T\T y[bjsT.
|d| \ \ T eTT>TsZ &|\ \ T. y bwD u< ... eT e nqjT |
Hq #XqT.
n~ 47 &d+sY. us< X k++ e#d+~. s e#qT.
m+<T=#es n+~ neT. ne #&\|++~ nHqT. &sTTH
## <... n&sTTH ## <. #d #<eT n HqH. b|+ yT @&+~.
s |H +&T >+\ ds sY nH yT<sY e#&T s+>#sT\T ku V
n+... | +#Te+ H \TdT. +& b neT d+>,
|\\ d+>. V n+ e#qT. e neT bs{\T #d+~. |]De\T
\TdT. s+>& eT m|&=de s nq~. ne, u> e +T&T # >=|y&T.
J$s# q m{+{< *jT<T eTq nH.
{ bT+f nsT>T MT< ;& | &T LsTH&T. y& |sT
|Pk\ HsjTD. y&T >Tq&T. s+>#] mT uTHe nH&T y&T.
nu ; # nH&T yT<sY. bs$ T sE. >& dsHsjTD
nH y&T |*Vs rdT=dTH &T, +{ e y <eT.
ns s+>q m|&=qy? M&e&T nH&T yT<sY #d.
M&e&T u, yT<sY V u. ; # n y& rdTH&T.
neTs & nH sy&T +{ |&T +<eT edTH &T. y& #d
; u nH&T.
48

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

J$+ m e+T+<+f n& o+ n d|]+f+&+{ |t bdt


Tb |T qqT #+|{ LsTH&T. yH \. bs$ T. M+ <]
#X nu s >Tf yT ~eU V s nH& yT<sT.
n y u, >+ L j... n+f
yT<sT ku eTk V jT ku nH&T.
o+ q # s $]> < qqT ={&T . s $]
y # qqT e~d bj&T. HH&e<T. M+<] rdTbsTT
d& bssTT n M (ds sY y& |sT) |+|+#&T.
n&$T{, d& C> <T . n+<sT eTqy. yT&. ns
@+s qTy+<T=qe n n&>& + yTT<\T|{sT . u s ku, ku
CH #Y>j
n+{& ds sY (yT<sT)
eTeT* rdTbsTT ]sT\ s+ yXsT. @$T{ *jT
H<+ sE. | |T+< me] <>Zsq n n&>. q<q&T
neTs &. rd+&T. m+<Tq&T. ]sT\ T >\ u& nH. @< | #j *
><. y y+H e<T HjTH |\\ T >\ y+. qTe n+ | #de .
<D+ |&+. e<T e<T nHsT. @eTsTT~, b bqyT (bDyT) <
n+{HqT. n~ XseT|dT + ~.

s J$+...
H |[ HqT dyT #sTT+#e TT+< nsTT+~. 39 |sTTq|&T
eT\ @& . H |H +& . u\ $yV<+ {sT. yTeTT e+
ueH+. >sd J$yT T |d T . n< eT dTK<T:K j>: nHsT
yT c Hq, H c yT b\T|+#TH+.
MT]+ VsTT> m e+{sT n mes n&>sT eT\, yT
f #| +~ HqT #| +~ jTq $+{sT. jTq #| +~ HqT $+{qT
n. H k<sD+> b\T, >b\T se+... sT#T\T >T#T\T H *jTe.
$& e+&|{+ ~ HqT +{. 48 s jT{ ed HC + qyT es&T
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

49

| , $T*qyM es< T . { eTq+ sj be<T n e nqjT,


HqT <& XjT+ #dT H+. e nqjT n<wy T $T+f jTq|{
yT{ wH bdsTT H&T. H @MT <T . n|&T |e T rdT=, >T&B |+
+< L#= #~$ +< yT{ wH | #. d | bdj yTT.
nB >=| $wjT yT. s s +&T <>qsTT. { s yq Hds .Y
+{ {#s T . n+<s s yq Hds Y <>+ rdT, <]<+ H
nqTu$+#sT + bT+~ nHsT. Hy >&TjT{ y\ +~.
{#s s TT >&TjT{ e{ <T sE. n+<T |y
T>
_.@. #qT. n~ 56. 57 eTT| sswH {HsY y\
| q e+~. & (V <su< ) e#qT. d\s TT bjqT. d+ <u<
+^w,t V <u< s. 1957 qT+ & HqT.

nqTy<\ >T]+...
nqTy<\+f ey CH n< qe\ nqTy<+ #XqT. MTs
sTk s+q >=| qe\ ~. @ s #sY ~ #TssY < , bdt yT
+u du k, k. n+f # *esTTq #sT&T >T+& mT
bsTTH&T, | H |&T Hs+<s @+ u+ . yTT<T y<e \T n. s
$ # nqTy<\T #XqT. <+us Y eTd< K& sBY sTe VssY
ysH, ~ eV |sH b|< . eTsY us Y yT qeJ H d n+{&T .
s s <y\jT+ {+ H&T u , yX+ . eTqdT n< b&e~.
J$++ u & T <T .
uH q bMD+ $+ # >=|~. >=| eqe+
*q eTw. uH $+, <\ T mH nqTy<+ #XqT. s
b&Ty{ y\T sdT+ ~. + >=|<q+ $& @$T+f y{ s
<\T n+{ M<T. n$ \T>T <. \T>T J$+ #TT+<$&.
V <su< $&. k~]+> #TT+~.
50

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

MT qe\\ >T]+...
H uj
T yT$T+f e# s\ y CeTT # >=|y&T n+{syq.
m+<T+f. kj Vd {&T , V sT _*+> {&T nH <X + .
eTT+< T \ s < e sj T + y T T< \ T |{ q T. \ s < e #
| u y e TsTTq qe\. = < < @sT # d + ~. n~
$jTe+eTsTT+~ { d]bsTT+~. b e y+ eT{bd
y.
q|<+ # $X\eTsTTq $d eTsTTq qe\. yTT+ deC
yT k|> #|q qe\. y| bdT jH nsTTbsTT yTeTT
|+#dq ueTT\q+{ <=s\T CjT&+ yTT<\eT+~ qe\. m
<eqsTT. <e\ |s m+ yd+ ]+~, sj\T m+
uw |&T THsTT nH $wj \qT # $es+> #| qe\. \+>D
<T, yTT+ us< X #+~q qe\ n~...#] + #| &yT H
qe\ <X + . d #| &+ ]+~, ]+~ #| &+ | yK #jT +
<T.

s#q \ >T]+...
e nqjT, HqT <s + $+ sX+. The more feudal is the
society, The more respect to the poetry n+{&T s. HqT y\ e#q
s#s TTqjqT. m+<T+f qe\ | eTsB J$ ]|C+ { #jT <T
{. yT$T<s + nqTq<$T+f HjTq qTe e#q+ sjTT<T, HqT bjT{
sjTT<T n. e nqjT e#q+ sX&T. HqT |< + sjT.
1962 HqT sejTD+ sXqT. H { $XH<+ >sT, \
d HsjTD >sT, Bb\ |# jTXd >] e+{ |<\ deT+ $wsD
]+~. $XH< dHsjTD >sT dHq+ #X&T. jTqL, HL
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

51

sejTD+ <<+ & e+~. jTq seTT&T <e&T n+{&T. HqT


seTT&T eTw n+{qT. e <] |Hk\T ]bsTTHsTT. <
n+eTT. e qse[q eT qsT&y jTT>\sTTq qqT edy&e
C|\. eTT qT <e& T> #&<T. H<T >T+&H <
eqy>T>. <XsB sTD|j~. ~ H |<+. n|&T $XH<
d HsjTD` <Xs~ s+>#s HqT <q @u$ +#qT, seTT
sT D {\H y sejTD+ sX& $Xd+# y] Hq & .
y e\H seTT&T y&T nH y&T <Xs~ s+>#sT\T. nsTTH
<Xs~ s+>#sT\T e sejTD+ n< jTq+ #jT &+ neds+ nH&T.

| u $+ #dq s#s TT\T


qqT e\ T> |u $+ #dq <+f <e\T me> |u $+
#XsTT. HqT <eTJ$. eTTK+> eTdT <eT+ J$ H]+~.
eTw #d+ ~. de+ Tq~. T de+ q~ n #|+~.
{ de+ d+ @<H #j* n H]+~. $<+> HHe>
|u $eTsTT+~ de |]De\. #dTq <w +. qqT |u $+
#dq s#s TT yTT< >. n<< j<+ > sejTD+ #<y *
e+~. y sejTD+ #<e >H H se TsTT+<$T+f y, >
# d++<e TTq<. nqT J$+ m+ q>+> s X+> +< #|&T.
HqT sXqT ` y seTT& <e+ |+#+& +&{ m+
|jT + #j n+ |jT + #X& n. |+ b k<sD e
m @&& nqT n> @&&T. nC |e]+#&T. y, >
k] ne+q|&T de+ nse TsTTq y&, eTw nse TsTTqy&,
J$+ nseTsTTqy& n+<s fHy n n++~. +> HqT
y |$T+H, u D nsTTH, > e<T\TqT. > MT< +|PyyT +{
52

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

y nqT+{qT. H d++~+q+es y *dq+> eTqd +


>T]+ +e] <T.

MT s#q |jTeTsTTq |d+


y<T>T|P\T dTesT H < +{~. HqT Jeqjq+
s<eT nqT<T . < sdTH+ >=|y&q y[ nqTe+
<T . { qes|+ sXqT. +f$T+f MTsT @ qe\
nsTTH b\T #|+#>\sT. y<T>T|P\T #|+#sT.
|sY | H k>TT+~. <eT+ m& nV+kjTT+> yTT<\eT+<,
m& V+k+> esTT+< #b&T s+>#s >sT. += #<T
nH&T sCX sse >sT. +< > nH&T. n& (qe\) e
nHqT` d<++ H se + >=|~. HqT jTT<+ |T bqT.
q$T H y+s! n+f |\ nq~, H & us . f $Xd+. # d
H{> #k n+T+~. $Xd+ +f se + >=|~ n #bqT. e
>+BJ #d #|+#sT. 1942 & sY & nH&T jTq. n~ jTq
d<++ <T, se +. You paste a paper on your breast that you are
a satyagrahi. If you are die people may recognise that you are a
satyagrahi.

#e nH e sL&<T jTq H{ qT+. @$T{ n+f n|{


neds+ n~. n& se + @$T{? us< X k++ sy*. HqT
|yd+ #kqT nH~ eTTK+ <T <! J$+ nH~ m +T+<
me] *jT<T <! J$+ +f $eTsTTq~, $we TsTTq~, eT s~
eTs={ <T . eT] B >T]+ +# +& ys y<e $wj \ y+|&& +
m+<T? n< < y<+ #TTq~. #+{ =fd m T+!
bd #q T |T H ksTT e#X+ <! n+<Td+ eTq* >T]+, eTq
T+u >T]+, eTq deC >T]+ @<sTTH u>T #<eT+f
eed u>T #jT jT<T.
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

53

jT+ jTT>eTT e# jTeTT& s{H,


e+< @ T |~ @ jTs!
$XqT\ yD $qTs s+>.
V =s bsT nd+;\
|\ =s bsT y&e&T \q
$XqT\ yD $qTs s+>

(M{ 1961 <Xs~ sXsT)


(XyD \...)

54

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

J$ #~$, HsT = sj*


qesT&T>, VQ $wjT yU> MTsT sb+<& <] rdq
|]dT$T{ ?
<e! s#s TT\T> #sT\T >, sX \T > Hes sT .
bsyT H]+~. n+ mes Hs sT . bsyT J$+ nse TjT #d+ ~.
HqT J$ q>+> #XqT. neT qe\ L& |u $+ #d+ ~. <e\|*
y+fX sse HjT + q>eT ]q |\ Ms bs{\ |u e+
e+~. sbMT<T +&j T&, $TqeTk nesY +&j L&
|u e+ #bsTT. n|{ neT qe\| w<+ . m& | <=]
sE=sT #=|q #~yj *. B|+ y\T>T #~yy+. n{ s
e +{ <=+>\T |& mT bjsT! HqT bs+ |P]> Hy
nj qT. sE\T n+{ $ . H 16 -17 @ +{sTT.
H &Ty # eT+~ bs+ bZ bD\T b>=T HsT. n+<T
sD+ H{ |]d T |C y\Te |u ee n+f.... C+ s+X +
300 @ qT+ e+~. nsTT eTdT b HjTq <eT+ e+~.
{ n+{ <* e+~. \+>D eq |]d T ;VsY, jTT.|.,
m+.|. e+{ # eHsTT. nsTTH sT>TuT s<+ <T? eT<
HH< du y[q|&T \ mes qq&>sT. \+>D eTdT
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

55

b e+&yT n+<T sDeT #bqT. |yT#+< qe\\T #<e +& \+>D


|]d T eTq ksTT. n+<T jTq s#q \T \+>D b++
u> b#Ts+ b+<sTT. n< k b++ Xs Y kV+ #<T esT.
eT bs =kqT. n|{ yTeTT bD\T e<\T& d<|&
<eT+ <+. e nq <Xs~ nsdT #dq HC+ bdT\T
<jT + |P rdT & +sT. |\ qT+& >V + ee TeT+<,
+> e#< < *jT<T > n nqTHsT. qqT d& rdTHsT.
Ud+ n bkH qT+& eq bdT n~] qqT u> ={&T.
#+|j\qTH&T. y&T nT b>H n| nH bdT qqT seTH&T.
HqT eq+<T d+w+ |\ Vs+ b{ ~ H b nH&T.
={q |&T @& HqT |eT #*+ @&qT. n> e eP sCs
y+ ]> jTTe&T qqT mT |V >& <{+#&T. n
| +#THqT. $es\ H < Jeqjq+ sXqT.
y<T>T|P\T, ej \sT, q|<+ , \s< e e+{ qe\ \+>D
q J$ n+ # > +#& m+{ C>\ T rdTHsT ?
HyyT+{, &ywH n+. HqT dHq T++ |{qT.
d+d+ HsT HqT. eTdT b #s n$ #~$ | #XqqTHqT.
n eTsbjqT. jT e# sejTD, us\T #~yqT.
ss C w H n+H |sY | > m& e+&<T . y X* H+ w+ .
> neT |u e+ e+~. e{ sTk$T |u e+ |<> e+<qTqT.
n J$+ =+ d] +~. nqT+ @MT rdT<T . |\ eTw,
\s <e < \+ f. HqT |\ eTw eTTdq <>Zs qT+
qe\ mT e+&=#T. n #d ys y] qe\ e+T+<qTHqT.
HqT \+>D e{& uw s#q #jT &+ >=| kVd+. #eT+~
qqT uw sjTe< >=&e |{sT . eTq uwqT #T\q #j \
sdTHy nHsT. n~ e\+ qque+ |*yT. n sd+<T
56

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

m+eT+~ HqT es+#H *jT<T. +< #| qT s +&T qe\\~


< \+. 1930 C+ +>dtqT w~+#sT. sjT sb\qT
L&. rdTHqT.
MTsT \+>D y&T uw sdH, s#s TT esq \T eq|&T eeT\T
uw sXsT. ej\sT q q y\T m+ VsTT> #~$ksTT.
uw $wjT+ | C>\T rdTHsT ?
\s <e #~$ &.$.qsds E yTyTes+ sjT+ nHsT.
HqT qe\ sdH, y<+ sdH H ns+ y\H + sXqT.
\+, HqT #~$q bNq y\ |u e+ e#T. H \ <w+ <T .
HqT @< j<+ > s#s TTqT <T . y\ njqT. C HqT
$H e+&*+~. e{ sTk$T bj&T. \+>D >T]+ HqT
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#~yqT. V T & m He nH |d + # X<> #~yqT. $<+ >
w #dq e yT. H X* d'd<+ > n+<+ e+T+~. dsT&T
eq|&T L& u ydT +{eT+f m? [<dT dV |u sk&T .
us$ n sjT&T . d'd<+ > X* n+<+ +&*.
<|& b<+ eV+# b\qT L& MTsT kqTu +qT
=ksT ndT+ ~. <VsD \s <e <=s... Be\ <|&< sT\|
se\dq >V + s<T < ?
HqT J$ @ + D+ qT+& #&<T. eTw eTw>
d+<]+#qT. q|<+ eT+>eT >=| &s.Y d+<s + \T CsTT+~.
sdq+<T #eT+~ qqT $eT]+#sT. n+ >=| e n
m+<T +#e |+#sT. m+ >=|qeTTH eTw <? eTqTw\T
| \T #ksT . eTdT H ds .. H X+, H|s< n+{&T y,.
<|& esZ\ b\qT dV +>H +#H > y MT< HqT kqTu
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

57

#|< T . < q+ #|ksT . \seTjT <=s #dq + <sq + mes


#jT <T . nsTTH jTq n${ y&q |&T q+ nj nHsT. n~ eqe
\Vq. HqT b\qT dV +> +#Hy > bs{ #&> =< T .
\+>D bs{ #> |_+_+q MTsT s bdT #sqT
y<T>T|P\T deT]+#sT. dq+ e# L& n#s\T ]>sTT
< ?
y<T>T|P\T $T\ |y dT+ &+ eTT>TdT+ ~. n+ HqT bdT
#s qT deT]+#< T . q|<+ #~$, B #~$ n n|+#<T . <
s|T T >+<j
T y~. nsTTH Tb |T H&T. V osT qT \<T .
+y| q dH \T L& |y dTH sTT. n{ <X eTT+#qT. nsTT
n& u $T >T+&+> e+~. <e\T m& qT+ jT\T<sj n&
#sT HsTT. n HqT sdq yKqT e+ =+eT+~ $TT\T $eT]+#sT.
1971 - 72 H{ |]d HqT n sXqT. XeV |]d T MT e.
eTdT <eT+ N*bsTT +~. m&+ jT\T<sy n&
e#eT|++~. n+> bdt #s \qT HqT deT]+#< T . #s us
b\esZ\ sD
d+ rdTq< > |\ d+ <T. V <su< $q
ds y\ d+<s + HqT $wjT yT s +&T yk\T sXqT.
# <Xu\ +<f MTsT sejTD+ e>s \T sXsT. |{ y<\ >T]+
sdTH sT. eTdT <e m+ d+|T ue+ *| MTsT d+|<jTy~
L&H ?
HqT d+|<jT y~q nqTqT. nsTT n<MT Hs+ <T. HqT
d+|<j yUkqT. nqTd]+#qT. HqT d+|<j e~*|< T .
e~*|{? <X+ eTdT |uT + ed HqT eT e<T\Te&
d<+ >H e+{qT.
58

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

djTsY s#s TT> MT nqTue + qT+ kV ke |j q+ >T]+


#bs ?
kV eq< ke |jq+. (V+ s kV+
$XXjT-e+) +{ s#H\T eTq @H{ qT+# eHsTT.
@ s+ >HH deC yT\T #d< kV+. +^w *s#sY nH
|< n+ $d yT q ns+ <T . y +|PsY *s#s,Y dH *s#sY
n+ e+{sT. usrjT d<++ |s+ eTq+ y{ kV+
nq+. n> + kV+, d kV+ n+ e+&e. y{
+ |d\T nH=#T. qe\ ey<+ e. s#sTT n\+ sjT
\s< e #~$, < ]q ePsT #d+<T y[ e#&. \+>DH
<T, jT L& # eT+~ H |d \T #~$ H sdT+ {sT. H Jeq
jq+ ne sXqT. y<+ @+ <H y , n eHjTH y, mes
y{ #<e <T . y{ \+ <T , eT+ <T , edT< T++ nHsT.
yde +> @eTT+<H |X {. ke+> >+ n$ sV+q b,
H&T #+<d X \ T y{ |j +#T+Tq rsT L& eTq+ |]>Dq
rdTy* < ?
d|jq|sT\T @+ #bsH< { eTq+ |d+~d m?
sejTD+, us+ n<Ty T q y\T. us+ H + <e\T, eTqTw\T
*d de+ d+ | #jT &+ |dT + ~. eTq+ y{ #<e +&H @e+|,
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sejTD+ sd seTT& n+$ Tq MTsT H&T seTqu $T |]
sT>TTq + > @eT+{sT ?
seTTD y sjT+> y&T zT b+<TTHsT. y
q+> mbC #jT b jeTT. us <s + MT< _.C.|. y eq+
es me] <T . de+ H<\ yq bT+~. #~y z| me]
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

59

<T . ke |]DeT+ q& > |< n+\T +&e wM TqH k]


#b&T. ]wt uw V+< n+f <=+> n ns+ . V+<TkH nH e
m& <T . nsTTH H{ eTq+ < qT+ jT|& < T . usY nq+&
yC|sTT L& +&j n+ e+{sT. sjT |jH\ Xw
H<\T u> |=ksTT. ju @ k++ s >+ \
eT \T <X+ |\& n< sD+. eTdT\ T \+> b e&+,
nH , s sD\T + H es+> <eT+ #jT &+ H m+
d+w+ *++~.
nsTT |{ \T>T >=| qe\ s<q n_bjT+| MT |d+<q ?
HqT @ e+ |qT. du =eT] yDT>b\se n>
nH&T. HqT C+ #dT K+&d e{&qT. qe\ n+f C
|r. qe\ ke kV |r. eT+ qe\ s<q &+ C e
#jT &yT . eTq &u @ y T e\| e+{ eTV qe\ e+~. n+<T
e k>H . nH y qe\\T #<e <T . e\| >T]+ eTq+
>s +> e+&=#T. s$Xd, yds & d<$, ;H<$ +{ s#s TT\T
sdq$ eHsTT <. ny |sY | n <T. eTq <<+ qT+ ke+>
m+ eT+eH~ eTTK+. \ #d s$Xd d+|Ps qe\ @B sjT<T .
eT] T+se ?
H <X + jTq ]dT <T. <\ T =+#+ yTsT>T. jTq qe\
#<T eqT #| + {sT. n<H \+ MT< X< #|+~<T. = d<+\T
uT Cq ydT e&+ e\ n$ ]+#e . |+ sese nd\T \yT
<T . ll rdT+& \+>D bs{ n+<s d+~+#sT. jTq
| . n+{ > C+ d+kq+q | #XsT. jTH+ $|e y!
nsTT jTq q& e+~. n~ # >=|~.
60

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

$+, qe\ y{| <sD qT m ns+ #dT y\+{sT ?


sj
T <>sZ |X de<q+ \_dT + ~. de+ |P & +
m+ me> e+f $ n+ me >se+ e+T+~ n+{&jTq.
eTq+ n& qT+ jT|&<T. +< C d n~. @yTH $
>sY #jT & <T . <T deC qe\ b< + eV+#*. e#q
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JeqH<+ s#q \, bs \ qT+ |eTTK s#s TT\ es m+<s n_q+<q\T
*jT#dTHsT. nysT\T e#sTT. s<q~ eTTK+ <T. bD\T
bjTqTq|& <eT+ <qy+ . nysT\ d+ sjT<T .
H{ jTTe s#s TT\ MT d#q\T ?
J$, deC #<e+&. HsT+&. sjT+&. #<e+&,
HsT +& sjTT<T. nsTT H{ jTTe s#s TT\ qT+ @+ s<q &+
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ksTT s e yT. nsTTH $eTs\T eq eT+ #|+#*.
n\+ sjT, \Te eT\jT , _.mdt.seTT\T e+{ ysT eT+ s#q \T
#dT H sT. qe\ s<+ f... bs+ qT+ eq y sj*. @yTH
kw*+ TT+~. n<= |ejT ] d<++. Jeq $<q+.
k$jT{ $qyT e+&=#T. 75 @ s m+<T bsTT+< u<| &
+
<T. sd y T q nyT] <& T 75 @ \&+ >=|qT
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TbT dV+. d<+\ eT+ #&\T #sD\ MT< <s|& e.
ns esT sd+< |syT kw*+ s<T . qT kw*+
e+T+~. < #e<T .
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s$
(2001, <sD+d+)
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

61

yXy T qqT q&|+ +~


\+>D JeH n$T+> |$T+q e. HC + |uT e <w
|+q e. HC + \+H{ q J$, s +> bs{ ns <+
#d \T>T qe ||+# = d]V<TqT @ssqy&T <Xs~
s+>#sT\T. eTdT> O+&yT q we T+ y<\qT, O|wT \ qT
\T>T y]+~+q s j <Xs~ . |\ dyT H kV+ n d>s +>
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y] #q+ m>d|& ><e] Osk+~. y] \] <e,
y<T>T|P\T, Cq|<+ \+>D Jeq $w]d y] Jeqjq+
ksd >|s+ k]dT+~. b\| |+> y] ]|q
|]#jT + qT+ = u>\T.
q|{+ MTs bs+ #XsT. MT HjTq>]{, MT #T
eq de+ { MT neT>sT |&q y<q #XsT. J$eT+f
s+s bs+ n q$T k>T e#sT. X MT m&+ e+<qT
+THsT ?
eTdT b H , X +~. e sE # \+>
eq b n~. +>dt b n&, n& #<T sT eT<TsT> e+&~. m+<T+f
e sE +> |#dq y eTdT\ T.
62

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

$TeT* b y| q&|+ +~ mesT?


n #| qT. mes rd sT n #| qT. eTdT
b ]+#{ sD+ HC + qyT. HC +qT m~]+#\q~ nd\T
ud.t e nqjT C\ T LsT sjT+f |< <eTyT #X&T.
s csTT n\y> { #d e+{sT. eTTK+> n+f MT
# w+ <?
dt UY d &u qV UH, Odt U d KsY>w +<+ <
nH&T . @ b\eTsTT <THy +& |<, b\+ yTT
jT+& nH&T. s >T]+ |\]+ # sE\sTT+~. sE
MTsT eT y{q{ >TsT #dT H sT. sE eTTcsTTs\T+&$. >+\T,
>+\T V LsTH~. ks Vd n# V+<d Ves nH&T
. Hs s+J$, >j
Z T , jT , sT< M+ <s m+ w+ > s
uw k+<s $+{ |&T e+&ysT.
C+qT es+#sT , s uwqT es+#< T ?
C+qT es+#+ , s uw+ #d+ ~. n~ |\+<]~
n \TdTHqT. bs{ |#{ bD>+&yT . u> e +T&T H{
@< ssTT+#& jT|&X &T , bs{ m|& be\dqy&.
\+>D #], bs{ qe\> sj\|++~ <!
H \+>D |&q c* n+<] *jTCb\q |q e+&~.
n+<T \s <e <T ys\ |P] #XqT. H s#q H uw|&
|\ uw. + bs+ yTyT$T #Xy me] \TdT. MT d+|T q
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

63

#TqT. bdt dw H + jT < |]> , |]> dVT& +{


#sT HqT. |+&TyH \ deTjT+. m @+ #j \ +{ #s . m
| +#Ty\q~ bH #XsT. +& { |+|<eTHsT. eT+< nHsT.
n|&T yTT<{ $TT&T jTq us & |+|+#sT. n$ ksY >\+f.
n$|&T m& eHsTT. #e\T {+ #T, Cw+ #| H e Hd+
y H s+_+#&T, HqT @eTsTTbjH qq +<q. qqT #dq|&T
m+q+<|& &T ( d+|T q #TTq|&T <Xs~ > ] <).
eTq \k<q @$T{ \TdT+f n d]>ZH sT>TsTT. sE
e \ + e+~.
MT =* qe\ \s <e +<|<X kV n&MT nysT e+~
<!
neqT. n|&T & uy& >b\s&> sT n< \T. H{ du
HqHqT ~ H nysT <T. \+>D=q nysT. bs+ \+>D
|\~, uw \+>D |\~, b\ \+>D |. HqT #d+ ~
LsT eyT . e\ uy& >b\s& <>]Z + n+<s #| T
={sT.
uy&+f MT u> w+ <!
yTeTT KeT+ y+ . KeT+ es+> +f uy& <>sZ . de
#{ bjT~, n+ (qe). HC + \T>T MT< s+<+ e+&~. \T>T
n& d#> , VsTT> ms $V+>+ e+&~.
>sH MT # w+ <!
>s H J$ H]+~. bseT+f J$yT <! ds
ne>VqqT +~ eTdT b. n+<T HH|  & jyT m eTdt
64

<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

|d t nH #TqT. jTq eTdT nsTT <e& >T& m+<T b&T


nH n|y<T HMT< |{sT . nsTT y{, y{ d++<e TT+T+< y
m #b*. eTdT\ T <e& qeTs mesT #bsT. esT eT+ eTT
eT+<T nH& e{& sT. 'religion is heart of hearts' nH&jTq.
# >=|yq T #~y n<w+ H*+~. |{ bs> m+e+
esT >T]+ \TdT. <dt | |d + H <>sZ T +~. n~ #~yqT.
n~ ns+ e+ # w+ . jTs|t n <X\ y> =& +>+ &T
Ls= sX&T. England is a real Democratic country. +f |d +
e+&~ <T. + e+&~ <T. _{wT y&T eTq+ LsT&T> k&T
, he is so democratic.
e{ sTk$T MT <>Zs <!
# <>sZ y &T. # <>sZ y &T n+f +> eTC H]
bsT beT #| qy&T sYk$T. +{ sYk$T yTT< sdT+f
HqT sjTbjTy&. HqT |sT d+ sdqy& <T. e >\
<\T. |sT sy\, &T sy\ yM +#<T. #sdt &H
'TALE OF TWO CITIES' qe\ nd\T |P
&*+ n+f @$T{, n+<T+
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#d+ ~ > neT. sE |d $ T& w<+ . s #~yy&.
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n&+#. eTdT b s\jT+ n& e+&~. $ eTT+<T q|&T
L& uy& }] bjT~.
MTL, MT nqjT <Xs~ we#s e+& ]wH m e+&~!
<]$ f #q\T. jTq~ $+. H~ e#q+. bsTT{
<s + sdy+ . eq >=&e~. k] dq |* |yT#+< |{ HE
<Xs~ s+>#s d +*

65

d+<s + > deyX+ ]+~. Hq, >C\ eTs &, }sT


|eTTKT&T (|sT >TsT se+ <T ) e{&eTT. s&= MTsT bjT+
>T]+ #b* nH&T. n~ HqT sd+~ <T n #b* e+~. s
||s L& n> sXsT. n|&q>] nHqT, qTe bsTT{ ssTT,
HqT bC skqT n. nq<eTT\T> L& yTyTsE b{&T<T.
e nqjT >=| kw*dT. dM T< y{ MT< qeT+ y&T. HL qeT+
<T . jTqL qeT+ <T . HqT yX| s T &. yX+ b @+ #ksT
MTsT? @+ k~ksT? yX+ b 18 @ bjT+ Tb |T
n+&sY >+& m b>\T>TqT! e #&+ d+ HqT y[q |&T,
H e TT+<T * |&X sT. z n @& |&b y*. <L& neX+
<T . y<T>T|P\T qe\ BH dyX+ > eT*#qT.
Jeqjq+ sjT+ yq sD+?
d+b< \T m_ |k<>sT qqT qTe < sjTb n~
<X <VyT n eT+<*d e+&y&T. KeT+ ]q du B
Vs+>+> |k$+#sjTq. de JeH, #\H ||* +#~ qe\.
n+{ |~ qe\* \T>T+ m+| #d <T <Xs~ s+>#sy
nH&jTq. { <q T sjTeT m& #| H <Xs~ $q+ <T ,
du MT }] sT>T+~, jTq{ skq |eD+ #sTT+#+& n
n&>&jTq. nsTT HqT e+ HqT s#s TT. n~ d# eqy&.
H~ sj\ d n~ skqT nHqT. |k<>sT |T&+ e
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69

nysT\T
1.

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+< |<X kV n&MT nysT

2.

>TsC& nysT, $XK|+ - 1997

3.

>se &.*{, rjT $X$<\jT+ - 1998

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ns y#d nysT - jTTe yV - 1999

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nq|Ps >+&|+&s+ nysT, $jTy& - 2001

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d<s nysT, $jTy& - 2001

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b{ lseTT\T $X$<\jT+ dw nysT - 2001

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nqeTjT < +<s nysT - 2004

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10. +< |<X sJy |u nysT - 2009


11. nC-$u-+<+ b+&wH - |ueT]
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70

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