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Refrigeration is a process in which the temperature of a space

or it contents is reduced to below that of their surroundings.

Refrigeration of cargo spaces and storerooms employs a system
of components to remove heat from the space being cooled. This
heat is transferred to another body at a lower temperature. The
cooling of air for air conditioning entails a similar process.
The transfer of heat takes place in a simple system: firstly, in the
evaporator where the lower temperature of the refrigerant cools
the body of the space being cooled; and secondly, in the
condenser where the refrigerant is cooled by air or water. The
usual system employed for marine refrigeration plants is the
vapour compression cycle, for which the basic diagram is shown
in Figure 9.1.

The pressure of the refrigerant gas is increased in the

compressor and it thereby becomes hot. This hot, high-pressure
gas is passed through into a condenser. Depending on the
particular application, the refrigerant gas will be cooled either by
air or water, and because it is still at a high pressure it will
condense. The liquid refrigerant is then distributed through a pipe
network until it reaches a control valve alongside an evaporator

where the cooling is required. This regulating valve meters the

flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, which is at a lower
pressure. Air from the cooled space or air conditioning system is
passed over the evaporator and boils off the liquid refrigerant, at
the same time cooling the air. The design of the system and
evaporator should be such that all the liquid refrigerant is boiled
off and the gas slightly superheated before it returns to the
compressor at a low pressure to be recompressed.Thus it will be
seen that heat that is transferred from the air to the evaporator is
then pumped round the system until it reaches the condenser
where it is transferred or rejected to the ambient air or water.
It should be noted that where an air-cooled condenser is
employed in very small plants, such as provision storerooms,
adequate ventilation is required to help remove the heat being
rejected by the condenser. Also, in the case of water-cooled
condensers, fresh water or sea water may be employed. Fresh
water is usual when a central fresh-water/sea-water heat
exchanger is employed for all engine room requirements. Where
this is the case, because of the higher cooling-water temperature
to the condenser, delivery temperatures from condensers will be
higher than that on a sea water cooling system.
States that a refrigeration cycle operates on reversed
heat engine cycle
A reversed heat engine cycle is visualized as an engine
operating in the reverse way, i.e., receiving heat from a low
temperature region, discharging heat to a high temperature
region, and receiving a net inflow of work (Fig. 14.2).

Under such conditions the cycle is called a heat pump cycle or a

refrigeration cycle
For a Heat Pump:

For Refrigerator

Describes the working fluids for this cycle as refrigerants

The working fluid in a refrigeration cycle is called a refrigerant. In
the reversed Carnot cycle (Fig. 14.3). The refrigerant is first
compressed reversibly and adiabatically in process l2 where the
work input per kg of refrigerant is Wc. Then it is condensed
reversibly in process 23 where the heat rejection is Q1. The
refrigerant then expands reversibly and adiabatically in process 3
4 where the work output is W, and finally it absorbs heat Q2
reversibly by evaporation from the surroundings in process 4l.

Describe the four main components of the plant as:

The evaporator in which the low pressure refrigerant enters as a
cold liquid and evaporated to a low pressure vapor. An evaporator
is used to turn any liquid material into gas. In this process, heat is
absorbed. The evaporator transfers heat from the refrigerated
space into a heat pump through a liquid refrigerant, which boils in
the evaporator at a low-pressure. In achieving heat transfer, the
liquid refrigerant should be lower than the goods being cooled.
After the transfer, liquid refrigerant is drawn by the compressor
from the evaporator through a suction line. Liquid refrigerant will
be in vapor form upon leaving the evaporator coil.
The compressor in which the low pressure cold vapor is
compressed into a high-pressure superheated .The compressors
use is to pull the low-temperature and low-pressure vapor from
the evaporator, through a suction line. Once the vapor is drawn, it
will be compressed. This will cause the vapors temperature to
rise. Its main function is to transform a low-temperature vapors in
to a high-temperature vapor, to increase pressure. Vapor is
released from the compressor into a discharge line.

The condenser, in which the hot-high pressure vapor is cooled

and condensed of a cool liquid. Condensation changes gas to a
liquid form. Its main purpose is to liquefy the refrigerant gas
sucked by the compressor from the evaporator. As condensation
begins, the heat will flow from the condenser into the air, only if
the condensation temperature is higher than that of the
atmosphere. The high-pressure vapor in the condenser will be
cooled to become a liquid refrigerant again, this time with a little
heat. The liquid refrigerant will then flow from the condenser to a
liquid line.
The expansion valve where the cool high-pressure liquid is
throttled and expanded to a low pressure cold .Commonly placed
before the evaporator and at the end of the liquid line, the
expansion valve is reached by the liquid refrigerant after it has
been condensed. Reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, its
temperature will decrease to a level below its atmosphere. This
liquid will then be pumped into the evaporator.
States that the energy required to evaporate the lowpressure liquid refrigerant to a low pressure vapor at
constant low temperature is transferred from the
refrigerated chamber either directly or through a
secondary coolant such as brine
States that because working fluids are used in both the
liquid and vapor phases during the cycle, energy levels
and other properties for the working fluid must be
obtained from tablets of thermodynamic properties
States that the transfer of energy from the refrigerated
chamber is that which produces and maintains its low