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Name _

Class _

Date _

Solubility and Rate of Solution

Process Objectives

• To observe the changes that occur as quantities of solid are dissolved in a given amount of water.

• To interpret why the methods discussed in this experiment increase rate of solution.

• To infer the relationship between heat of solution, temperature, and solubility.

Learning Objectives

• To learn three methods that increase the rate of solution of a solid.

• To study the differences between the dissolution of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and sodium hydroxide.

Introduction

The three factors that hasten the solution process of a solid in water will be studied in this experiment. You will observe the effect of temperature changes on the quantity of solid that can be dissolved in a given amount of water. You will also observe that some solids dissolve in water with the absorption of heat and that others dissolve with the evolution of heat. This indicates that the heat of solution plays a role in the effect of temperature changes on solubility. Solutes with positive heats of solution become more soluble as the temperature of their solution is raised. The effect of temperature on saturated solutions of solutes having negative heats of solution is the reverse.

For example, a positive heat of solution is the basis of the commercial coldpack, used to reduce the swelling in athletic injuries. A cold-pack consists of a thin plastic bag of ammonium nitrate crystals within a thick plastic bag containing water. When the thin plastic bag is broken, the ammonium nitrate crystals dissolve in the water. This is a very endothermic reaction. The bag of solution becomes very cold.

Review Chapter 14, Section 14.2 for additional information on solubility and heats of solution.

Safety

~ Take the necessary precautions before beginning this exper~ iment. Wear safety goggles, apron, and gloves. Read all safety

O r& cautions in your procedures and discuss them with your teacher. It is important to use good safety techniques while conducting experiments. See pages 8 through 11.

Experiment 18

Apparatus balance, centigram

3 Pyrex test tubes, 25 x 100 mm 3 sto\l\lers, No.2

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spatula

Erlenmeyer flask, 250 mL plastic teaspoon \.neffi\()me\e'{

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Experiment 18

107

108 Experiment 18

Materials

sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate

sodium hydroxide (pellets)

After completing each of the procedures, record your observations in the spaces provided.

Procedures

1. Put approximately 3 mL of water in each of two test tubes.

2. Add one half of a teaspoon of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate to one of the test tubes. Stopper the test tube and shake vigorously. Note whether heat is absorbed or evolved when the solute dissolves.

Observations: _

3. Using a spatula, transfer 4 or 5 pellets of sodium hydroxide to the second test tube.

~CAUTION

~~

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Sodium hydroxide is a powerful caustic hydroxide. Be certain to wear safety goggles, apron, and gloves. Do not handle the pellets or permit any of the solution to touch your skin. If any should spill on you, immediately flush the area with water and then notify your teacher.

Stopper the test tube and GENTLY shake until the pellets have dissolved. Note whether heat is absorbed or evolved when the solute dissolves.

Observations: _

After Procedure 3, immediately dispose of the sodium hydroxide solution in the test tube under the direction and supervision of your teacher. The sodium hydroxide solution may be flushed down the sink

while diluting it with plenty of water.

4. Weigh out four 1.0-g portions of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate on weighing papers. Put approximately 100 mL of water in an Erlenmeyer flask.

For Steps 5-8, determine the time needed to completely dissolve 1.0-g portions of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate under the conditions specified.

5. Place 1.0 g of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in the flask. Do not stir.

CAUTION

Time: _

6. Place 1.0 g in the same flask and swirl continuously.

Time: _

7. Crush 1.0 g of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate with a mortar and pestle.

See page lIon how to use a mortar and pestle safely. Return the crushed crystals to the weighing paper, and then transfer to the flask. Swirl continuously.

Time: ___

Solubility and Rate of Solution

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Name ___

Class __

Date _

8. Heat the flask and solution to approximately 50°C. Add the last 1.0 g of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and swirl continuously.

Time: _

9. Place a heaping teaspoonful of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in a test tube with approximately 3 mL of water. Stopper and shake well. Do all the crystals dissolve?

Observations: _

10. If all the crystals did dissolve, add another teaspoon of crystals. Is the solution saturated?

Observations: _

11. Remove the stopper from the test tube and heat the solution in the test tube very gently. See page 10 for the correct technique of safely heating a solution in a test tube. When the liquid is near the boiling point, remove from the flame and observe the solution. What can you conclude about the solubility of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate when the temperature is increased?

Observations: _

12. Dispose of the liquids used in the experiment as your instructor directs.

Clean all apparatus at the end of this experiment. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.

Questions

1. Explain why pulverizing a solid solute increases the rate of solution.

Strategy for Inferring

A change in one variable (temperature) affects another (solubility). Examine the effect of increasing the temperature. What relationship exists between temperature and solubility?

Strategy for Interpreting

Often many different experiments must be examined to interpret results. Carefully examine all of the results to find three ways to increase the rate of solution.

3. Why does stirring increase the rate at which most solids dissolve?

3. Why does increasing the temperature, other conditions being kept constant, increase the rate of solution of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate?

Solubility and Rate of Solution

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Experiment 18

109

110

Experiment 18

Solubility and Rate of Solution

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4. The heat of solution of lithium carbonate is - 3.06 kJ/mole solute in 200 moles of H20. What effect would you expect increased temperature to have on the concentration of Li2C03 in its saturated solution? Explain.

General Conclusions

1. Describe the factors that determine the rate of solution of a solid solute.

2. How does the heat of solution affect the solubility of a solute?

3. From what you have learned in this experiment, design a "hot-pack:'

Name __

Class _

Date _

Reacting Ionic Species in Aqueous Solution

Process Objectives

• To formulate net ionic equations for the precipitation reactions from the data collected.

• To organize the variables of the experiment so that you will look at only one factor at a time.

learning Objectives

• To recognize a precipitation reaction.

• To learn which pairs of ions form precipitates.

Introduction

When ionic solids dissolve in water, they dissociate into positive cations and negative anions. If two solutions containing dissolved ionic solids are mixed together, new combinations of cations and anions are possible. Sometimes the new combination of ions is not soluble in water, and a precipitate (solid) forms. For example, silver nitrate in solution breaks up into Ag+ and N03 - ions, and KCI in solution breaks up into K + and CI - ions. If the two solutions are mixed, the positive Ag + ions combine with the negative CI - ions to form an insoluble precipitate of AgCI . The overall reaction is

(1) Ag+ (aq) + NOi (aq) + K+ (aq) + CI - (aq)-+

AgCI (s) + K + (aq) + NOi (aq)

Since the K + and NO; ions did not form an insoluble compound, they are called spectator ions. The net ionic equation for the reaction is written with the spectator ions omitted:

(2) Ag+ (aq) + CI - (aq)-+ Agel (s)

Soluble barium compounds are very poisonous and often used in the manufacture of rat poisons. As little as .5 gram of barium chloride is a lethal dosage for a 2 Kg (4 Ib) rat. Despite its toxicity, a precipitate of barium sulfate is often made into a slurry and given by doctors to humans in order to obtain an X-ray photograph of the intestinal tract. Barium sulfate is opaque to X rays and because of its low solubility (1 gram dissolved in 400,000 grams of water), it is not poisonous.

In this experiment you will mix six different ionic solutions, two at a time, and observe which combinations form precipitates. You will also determine which pairs of ions form the precipitates and write the appropriate net ionic equations for the reactions. Review Chapter 15, Section 15.1, for additional information.

Safety

~ lake the necessary precautions before beginning this experi-

O~ ment. Wear safety goggles, apron, and gloves. It is important A to use good safety techniques while conducting experiments. ~ See pages 8 through 11.

Micro Experiment

19

Apparatus plastic sheet

eye droppers or thin stem pipettes

Reacting Ionic Species in Aqueous Solution

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Experiment 19

111