You are on page 1of 150

Indian

Grammar Dictionary
For N-dialect

A Study of
A Key Into The Language
Of America
By Roger Williams, 1643

™™™™

Moondancer  Strong Woman
Aquidneck Indian Council
Newport, Rhode Island

™
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
O’Brien, Francis Joseph, Jr. (Moondancer)
Jennings, Julianne (Strong Woman)
Indian Grammar Dictionary For N-dialect: A Study of A Key Into The Language Of America By Roger Williams,
1643 (First Edition).
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Algonquian Indian Languages (Narragansett)—Grammar. 2. Algonquian Indian Languages
(Narragansett)—Grammar
I. The Massachusett Language Revival Project, Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 00-105242

Aquidneck Indian Council
A PUBLIC FOUNDATION PRESERVING THE PAST

Massachusett Language Revival Program
12 Curry Avenue
Newport, RI 02840-1412
e-mail: Moondancer_Nuwc@hotmail.com

2nd Printing (Corrected), 2002

Copyright © 2000 by Moondancer and Strong Woman, Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc., 12 Curry Avenue,
Newport, RI 02840-1412, USA. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc. Violators
will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
Printed in the United States of America

TABLE OF
CONTENTS
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE,

i

PART I: DICTIONARY OF VERBS
Stems & Roots Listed By Verb Type, 1
Stems & Roots Alphabetical By Narragansett, 20
Stems & Roots Alphabetical By English, 37

PART II: DICTIONARY OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVES &C
Stems & Roots for Nouns, Adjectives &c, Alphabetical by English, 57
Stems & Roots for Nouns, Adjectives &c, Alphabetical by Narragansett, 86

GRAMMAR TABLE of Verb Forms by Type, 114
APPENDIX






accommodating /t/
reduced vowels
glottal stops
passive-voice verbs
verb participles
obviation
conjugation of verb for stem “waut” (to understand, believe, know)

E R R A T A
Indian Grammar Dictionary for N-Dialect
© 2000, Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc.

PAGE
4, 28, 43
7, 34, 55 (wake)
13, 35, 37
19, 56 (add entry, p.
20)
51 (add entry, p. 17)
6, 29, 53
7, 31, 39 (petite)
53

NOW READS
182, 132
19, 97, 116, 173
whauwhautowwow
anawhown

182-3
19
whauwhautowwaw
anawhowe

see “row canoe”
Subject, “he is my subject”
7, 142, 35, 7

chemosh, chemeck, U, 108
Revenge, “I will revenge it”
7, 142, 35
Add:
Ntacquetunck ewo, “Subject, He is my
subject”, 141
Add:
Nochisqauaw
Add: nsanapaushaumen, Flixe, “I have
the bloody flixe” (dysentery?), 198
127, 198
Man, a married
29, 150
Add:
machage, mateag, machaug, not,
nothing, 13, 42, 56, 132, 163, 169, &c.
Thunderbolts are shot (out of
alphabetical order)
Add: -maw-, 201
Add: -unam-, 136
Add: -eg, -ege, -ge, -g, -ug, The thing
that is, 12, 36, 42, 96 &c
29, 150
palle (a past tense marker?), 146
nittauke
Add: 44
Add: 18, 146
Add: weet-, 136
150

57, 92
(mammausa)
65, 98
68, 104 (powwaw)
71 (sanomp), 105
73 (orphans)
73, 92

CHANGE/ADD

127
man, a
29

79
81, 95
86 (-anam-, ….)
89

-moua-,…

93 (orphan)
100
106 (-t-)
108 (-uo, …)
109 (-waw, -quaw)
109 (weekan-, …)
81 (twins)

29
nittake

29 

Make these changes in the text...
—The Authors—

PREFACE
Cowaúnkamunumun wame netompaûog !
Friends, we greet and salute you!
Indian Grammar Dictionary for N-dialect is a reference work to assist in the
interpretation and understanding of the Roger Williams classic, A Key into the Language
of America, written in the year 1643 as a phrase book for English colonists in the “New
World”. One possible use of the present book is to create language lessons for this
complicated "extinct language" (not spoken since the end of the 19th century).
The present book serves both as an index to A Key and a compact summary of
grammatical information on the Narragansett dialect of the Algonquian language of
southeastern New England (called collectively the “N-dialect”). The dictionary has five
major components. First, we present a brief summary of the sounds of the language in a
Pronunciation Guide1. This small table will assist the reader with the often ambiguous
and inconsistent orthography (spellings) in A Key. No attempt is made to "teach
pronunciation" since the art of reconstructed speech is largely intuitive.
The next section, Part I—Dictionary of Verbs, gives a fairly complete listing of
the approximately 320 verb roots and stems found in A Key. Our selection is based
partially on the little-known academic work by Hagenau.2 When the roots and stems are
used in conjunction with the Grammar Table (back of the book), the reader will be able to
understand the structure of many of the approximately 820 conjugated verbs given in A
Key. Moreover, the reader may be able to reconstruct certain words not given by Roger
Williams.
The verb listings are presented in three different orderings: (a) by verb type3, (b)
alphabetical by Narragansett and (c) alphabetical by English. Each listing provides the
page numbers in A Key (the 1936 edition). Thus the reader has great facility in locating
individual roots/stems and finding them used by Roger Williams in A Key.
Part II—Dictionary of Nouns, is a listing of roots, stems, words & phrases for
nouns, adjectives, and grammatical elements. Some verbs are given, since in the
Algonquian dialects, the interesting phenomenon exists whereby some “adjectives” also
function as “verbs”. The listing is given first alphabetically by English and then in the
reverse order, alphabetically by Narragansett. The reader will see a handful of words
selected from the closely related dialect called Natick.4 The authors have constructed and
reconstructed a number of words for this dictionary. The information in Part II
incorporates a number of roots and stems found in Aubin’s dissertation, already
mentioned.
1

The authors are indebted to the following two sources for information on “phonology” (pronunciation):
• George A. Aubin (1972). A Historical Phonology of Narragansett in Roger Williams’ A Key into the
Language of America. Providence, RI: Brown University (Ph.D. Dissertation).
• Ives Goddard (1981). “Massachusett Phonology: A Preliminary Look.” In Papers of the Twelfth
Algonquian Conference, ed. W. Cowan, 57-105. Ottawa: Carlton University.
2
Walter P. Hagenau (1962). A Morphological Study of Narragansett Indian Verbs in Roger Williams’ A
Key into the Language of America. Providence, RI: Brown University (M.A. Thesis).
3
Verb type is based on Hagenau’s classification.
4
James H. Trumbull (1903). Natick Dictionary, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

The fourth section of Indian Grammar Dictionary is a Grammar Table which
summarizes “inflectional morphemes” for the five major verb types (prefix-root/stemsuffix components of verbs). The Grammar Table is modeled on Hagenau’s summary of
the major Verb Types. Additional forms are included from the Natick dialect, found in
John Eliot’s 1666 grammar book, The Indian Grammar Begun, Cambridge, MA:
Marmaduke Johnson. Some use was made also of the "grammatical sketch" by Ives
Goddard & Kathleen Bragdon in Native Writings in Massachusett, American
Philosophical Society Memoir 185, Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society,
1988.
An Appendix is included to explain special grammatical/phonological features:
the "accommodating t," reduced vowels, glottal stops, obviation, verb participles, passive
voice and a complete conjugation of “understand”. The examples selected to
demonstrate the use of these features provides additional insight into the formation of
words in Narragansett.
Indian Grammar Dictionary for N-dialect has been used in tribal language
instruction. In our tutorials5 we use our own arrangement and partial re-translation of
Roger Williams’ A Key into the Language of America (copyright ©2000, Aquidneck
Indian Council, Inc.). This book contains about one-half of the original Narragansett
dialect in A Key with extensive annotations. Future efforts are being directed at the
completion of this re-translation6.


We hope our modest efforts in Healing the Broken Circle will assist local tribal
members to regain some of their lost and sleeping tongues.


The authors are grateful to The John Carter Brown Library and Rockefeller
Library, Brown University, for assistance in obtaining the works of Eliot, Hagenau, and
Aubin. In addition we thank Widener Library, Harvard University, for obtaining a
photocopy of Josiah Cotton (1703, 1830), “Vocabulary of the Massachusetts (Natick)
Indian Language,” Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, Serial 3, Vol. II.
Darrell Waldron and his Board of Directors, Rhode Island Indian Council, were
very encouraging from the beginning. We thank them for their strong support. We also
thank the federally-recognized Narragansett Indian Tribal Nation, and other Indian
groups for their encouragement and support in this historic project.


Together we can walk Mishquamáyagat (The Red Road). Our ancestors are
watching us. We honor them.
Moondancer  Strong Woman <>
Rhode Island Indian Council & Aquidneck Indian Council

5

Classes are held at the Rhode Island Indian Council in Providence, Rhode Island.
Since the first printing, the Council has completed this work under the title, Introduction to the
Narragansett Language…. © 2001. This unique historical linguistics work contains nearly 1,000 footnotes.
6

A Key into the Language of America , 1643
[facsimiles of Title Page & pages 7, 10; Courtesy, University of Pennsylvania]

EENÀNTOWASH

™
SPEAK INDIAN

A Pronunciation Guide for
Narragansett Language

SPELLING

SOUND

(Roger Williams)

(approximate)
Some are uncertain

a


uh in sofa, cut
ou in bought

ah


ah in father
ou in bought

an, aum, aun

nasal sound

au


ou in bought
au in caught

aw



ou in bought
aw in raw
ah in father

b


b in big
p in pig

c, cc


k in cow, account
kw in queen

ca, co, cu

k in call, cold, cut

cau


cow
caw

ce, ci


s-sound in cede, civil, acid
z- or sh-sound as in sacrifice, ocean

ch

ch in chair

ck

〈 k in cow
〈 ch in child
〈 kw in queen

ckq [before w]


d, dd

〈 d in din, muddy
〈 t in tin, putty

ddt, dt



STRESS MARKS

´

`

k in cow
kw in queen

d in din
t in tin
tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t)

ˆ
i

SPELLING

SOUND

(Roger Williams)

(approximate)
Some are uncertain

e



e in he or e in bed
uh in sofa, cut
silent [perhaps no sound at end of
some words]

ê

e in he

ea



e in he
ea in yeah
ah in father

ee

ee in beet

ei


e in he
uh in sofa, cut

emes [word ending]

ee-mees

ese [word ending]

ees

eu

eu in feud

g [before w]



k in cow
kw in queen
guttural sound like German ach

g, gg, gk [word middle after a vowel]



k in cow
kw in queen
guttural sound like German ach

g, gk [word ending]

〈 k in cow
〈 kw in queen
〈 guttural sound like German ach

i



uh in sofa, cut
e in he
i in hit

ie

e in he

ih

uh in sofa, cut

îi


ee [?]
ee-uh [?]

k, kk



k in cow
kw in queen
guttural sound like German ach

k [before consonant]

kuh in cut

STRESS MARKS

´

`

ˆ
ii

SPELLING

SOUND

(Roger Williams)

(approximate)
Some are uncertain

m, mm

m in mud, hammer

n [before consonant]

nuh in nut

nn [ beginning of word as in nnin]

ne-ne in enema [two n sounds]

n, nn [middle, end of word]

n in tan, tanning

o



uh in sofa, cut
ah in father
oo in food

o [after w]


ah in father
ou in bought

oo, ô

oo in food

oa [after w]



ah in father
ou in bought
oa in soap

oh


uh in sofa, cut
oh in go [?]

om, on

nasal sound

p, pp


b in big, bigger
p in pig, happy

q [word beginning & before vowel]

kw in queen

q [before w]



k in cow
kw in queen
guttural sound like German ach

s [word beginning & after consonant]

s in sip, racks

s, ss [after vowel ]

s in sip [one s sound]

sc

sk in skill

sh [before vowel & word ending]

sh in she, push

sh [before consonant]

s in sip

shk

sk in skill

shq

sk in skill

sk

sk in skill

skc


sk in skill
guttural sound like German ach

STRESS MARKS

´

`

ˆ
iii

SPELLING

SOUND

(Roger Williams)

(approximate)
Some are uncertain

sp

sp in spell

sq


skw in squid
guttural sound like German ach

t

〈 d in din
〈 t in tin
〈 tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t)

tt

〈 t in tin, putty
〈 d in din, muddy
〈 tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t)

tch

tch in itch

te [word beginning ]

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t))

tea, ttea [after a vowel]

tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t)

teau, teu, tteu [word middle or end]

tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex
sound between ch & t)

u



uh in sofa, cut
ah (short version).
some think that at the beginning of
some words, a u was a “whistling
sound” (see w)

w, ww

w in won (one w heard) [perhaps a
“whistling sound” in some words
beginning with w]

y

y in yes

z

s in sip

STRESS MARKS

´

`

ˆ
iv

PART I
DICTIONARY OF VERBS
——
Roots and Stems For Verbs
Listed by Verb Type, and
Alphabetical by Narragansett & English

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

LISTED BY
VERB TYPE1
TYPE I
musquant
pockun
tammaunt
missin
niaut
wawhush
pake
pepenash!2
pee
tuppaunt
aket
mish
pannawaut
quamph
sekine
wuttat
potauntash!
potawash!
mauataun
wannan
weeteant
wecont
1

Angry
Blind
Busy, take care of,
heed
Captive , take
Carry on one's back
Carry on one's back
Cast away, divorce
Choice , take!
Come, be present
Consider
Count money
Dead , name the
Disbelieve
Dish out, serve
Dislike, unwilling
Drink
Fire, blow!
Fire, make!
Fire, tend
Forget
Glad, be glad
Glad, happy, have a
mind to

I
I
I

182, 124
197
35, 169

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

188
41, 38
41, 38
150, 44, 183, 108
42
34, 63, 6, 44, 74
189, 190
164
202
56
15
166, 187
12, 14
34
34
19
8
59, 136
59, 71

Verb Type corresponds to those used in Grammar Table and other types. For example, for the Type I stem
waut (to understand, believe, know) , we can say <1> nowaûtam (“I understand") <2> Cowaûtam? (“Do
you understand ?”); <3> waûtam (“s/he understands”); <4> waûtatch! (“let him, her understand”!), etc.
Some verbs may be repeated or listed in Part II, Dictionary of Nouns, Adjectives, etc. For example, some
“adjectives” are also “verbs”, such as colors. The accent/stress marks must be found in A Key.
2
Words with exclamation marks are complete words in imperative mood and the complete Williams
translation (without accent/stress marks). Thus for these words, the stem/root must be derived from rules of
grammar.
1

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nickquenum
nowant or nowaunt
wachaun
cussawontap
anoce wenawash!
paupautuckquash!
niautamwock
cuttun
nickat
wekine
mechimuash!
cattite
cattaunt
shookekineas!
kekine
wauwhautowash!
qussut
aquie mishommoke
chesam,chesammat
peeyaunt
ocquash!
tannot
meshannant, meyaont
nnowautum or nnowauntum
awanagusantowosh!
eenantowash!
mishauntowash!
nanantowash!
kinnequass!
aumaun
taubat, taup, taub
teant
tunnant
waut
askwhitteass!
paumpmaunt

ENGLISH
Go, "I am returning
home to my family"3
Grieve
Have, keep
Headache
Hire him!
Hold water!
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Launch
Leave, depart
Like
Load it!
Long for, desire, want
Long for, desire, want
Look at this!
Look at, behold
Meeting , call!
Move residence
Name, “Do not name
the dead”
Pain, sore
Pray
Put on!
Revenge, get revenge
Scorn, indignation
Sorry, “I am sorry”
Speak English!
Speak Indian!
Speak out!
Speak plain!
Steer (canoe)!
Take away
Thank
Think
Think
Understand,
believe,
know
Watch!
Well, be well, fare well

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I

31

I
I
I
I
I
I

144, 201
159, 40
194
69
109
38, 41

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

108
44
159
185
15, 172
15
39, 164
39, 169, 37, 38, 39, 164
142
36, 46
202

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

194, 195
20, 130
119
141
183
144, 201
8
8
142
142
109
39, 144, 150
2, 7, 134, 14, 35,70,
120
58
58, 86, 131
8, 56, 36, 9

I
I

185
2, 3

3

English translations enclosed in quotes are the complete verb (without accent/stress marks). The
root/stem has not been derived. Occasionally, the stem/root has been abstracted from the complete verb
given, but should be taken as conjectural.
2

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
waunt, wauont

ENGLISH
Wise

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I

190, 141

II

70, 187

II
II

182, 183, 123, 138
142

II
II
II

160
156
179

II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

202
160
163
109
155, 156
186, 166
165
33, 58, 83
8, 6, 9, 63, 77, 34, 7,
142, 35, 59, 168, 72

II
II
II
II

77
6, 35, 34, 33
172, 176
77

II

8, 72

II
II

61
187

II

187

II
II
II
II
II

185
14
12
13
96

TYPE II
wetzau, wechau, wet
musquaunam
machissu
muckucki
puckhummin
nchickossimunnash
posakunnamun
manoham
nonanum
chowwopha
assawompat
chenawaus
saumpeekunnem
qusquatchim
peyau

tinneapeeyaum
naunt
aumpauchau
ntackowwepeyaun

mishoonhom
quenowau
nowechussettimmin
nowepinnachick
pummenummin teaquash
mattaacucquass!
saunqui
cotchik
manisimmin
4

3

Compare with "musquant," p. 182

Accompany, go with,
be with
Angry4
Bad, "he is naught
(bad)"
Bare, without wool
Bore through
Burn, “I will burn my
rushes”
Bury
Buy
Cannot, "I cannot"
Cast overboard
Change money
Churlish, crass, bold
Cloth , tear off too little
Cold , feel
Come (from a place
other than where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
Come for no business
Come for, fetch
Come from hunting
Come in vain, “I have
lost my labor (come in
vain)”
Come, go by boat
(canoe)
Complain
Confederates, “we are
confederates”
Confederates,
companions in war
Contribute to the wars
Cook, dress!
Cool, “it is cool”
Cut
Cut, mow

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

pauochau
kitonckque

Dance
Dead, be dead, perish

II
II

mashackquneaum
mishkom
pauquan
nip5, nup
touagonnausinnum
paushinu
machinam
nokanish!
koshkowwaum
nikkoshkowwaumen

Dearth, distress
Deer , find
Destroy, slaughter
Die
Distress, misery
Divide
Do not like
Down , take it!
Drown
Drowned, “We shall be
drowned”
Dwell together
Eat (in general)
Eat, after he has eaten
Enumerate
Fall, let something
Feed, graze
Fierce
Fierce
Fight
Flee
Foolish
Friend, be friends
Friends, “we are
friends”
Go (from a place where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
Go back
Go by, pass, cross over
Go down, come down
Go to feast
Go uphill
Go, “Let us be going!”

II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

178
201, 200, 138, 130,
135, 201
15
173
138, 188
138, 201, 144
74
176, 42
159
108
108
108

II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

32
194, 10, 13
13-14
115
75
105
182
182, 132
183
186
40, 41
187, 166, 190
187

II

9, 70, 73, 202

II
II
II
II
II
II

77
72
97, 116, 173
129
75
70

Go, “they go”
Go, be going from a
place without reference
to where or why

II
II

135
9, 70, 73, 202

poquiitie
metesi
mauchepwut
muchikineanau
panishkokom
natup
chachepis
nishque?
juhet
semu
asso?6, assotu, assoko
wetompat
nowetompatimmin
mauche & memmauche

pittucke
pumme
punnowwau
kekinneawau
taquatchowau
mammaucetuck! or
anakiteunck!
auog
ana?e & anaki & annetei

5
6

Also the root for noun "water".
The ? denotes a "stop" (perhaps glottal stop) that Williams represents with a /t/ or /k/.
4

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
tackhum
sanapaushaum
pockquanam
pompitam
anaskhom
wauapunish!
cattup
auchau
nanompan
upponckquittauwh
wechuset, wepinnat
nqunnuckquus
ahan
auqunnish
nauk
anaquau
cowauwaunemun
cuttiantacompawmen
tatuppauntwa
miawe
nowwunnem
quawupshaw
kunnoonamautuckquash
aunake
aque
aukeeteau
wunnaugonhommin
akes
nummacheke
machetu
soken7
neesquttonckqus
wuttautnish!
mauminikish!
caudnish!
pawtuckquammin
mequaunam
7

5

"Rain" is based on this root

ENGLISH
Grind
Have bloody flix
Have unknown disease
Hear
Hoe
Hoist up! Lift up!
Hungry
Hunting, fowling
Idle or base
Imprison
Join together
Lame, "I am lame"
Laugh, merry
Let go
Light in weight
Look
Lost, “You are lost in
the woods, wandering”
Lying, "you are a lying
fellow"
Measure, weigh
Meet, a court
Oversee, order,
command
Overset (in canoe)
Owe, “I will owe you”
Paint
Peace, capitulate, a
subject
Plant corn
Play, dice game
Play, score
Poor, “I am a poor
man”
Poor, he is poor
Pour out, rain
Prate, cackle (like hen)
Pull to you!
Pull up! Row lustily!
Tie it hard!
Put off!
Reach
Remember

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

15
198
197
5
98, 99
108, 195
10, 12
88, 172
143
143
187
196
178
39
44, 74
44
132

II

142

II
II
II

165, 164
142
128

II
II
II
II

109
169
192
189, 141, 129

II
II
II
II

98
145-46
178, 179
169

II
II
II
II
II

36
12
45
108
108, 110

II
II
II

119
40
190, 7, 41

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
tauntap
aquei
pittakunnam
wenawwetu
pasuckquish!
chechequnnuwau
noonapummin autashehettit

quaunquaque, quaque
agehucka
natinneha
tatagganish!
peskhom
tiaquonqussu
kupha, cup
ap
kussackquetuck!
kowe, koue, cowe
quo
cussassaqus
quitchemaunta
neepoue
ntannotam
pesuppau
mocquesui
menakissam
qunnauqussu
quitcheta
taubotne aunanamean
naneeshaumo
tussinam
enomphommin
pockhom
peskhommin
nuppamen
wussaumpatammin

ENGLISH
Rest
Rest, “He rested”
Return, handle cloth,
turn, repent
Rich, he is rich
Rise!
Rob, steal
Room, “there is not
enough room for so
many people”
Run
Sailing , have wind for
Search
Shake this!
Shoot (as thunderbolt,
gun)
Short, he is
Shut, closed, deaf
Sit, be at home, here
Sit, let us sit down!
Sleep, lodge
Sleep, lodge, dream (w/
compound verbs)
Slow, “You are slow”
Smell
Stand
Subject, "He is my
subject"
Sweat
Swell, "he is swelled"
Take store
Tall, "he is tall"
Taste
Thank, "I thank you for
your love"
There are two of us
(and other numbers)
Think
Thread, string
Thresh
Thunder, to
To be dying
To look about, view

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
II
II

74
134
75, 165, 139

II
II
II
II

36
73
76
35

II
II
II
II
II

71, 73
87
37
42
84, 184

II
II
II
II
II
II

53
36, 196, 113
34, 41, 74, 59
74
17, 18, 134, 170, 195,
9, 20, 130
17, 19, 18

II
II
II
II

77
101, 14
6
141

II
II
II
II
II
II

197
196
115
53
12
7

II

8

II
II
II
II
II
II

194
157
100
84
189
73

6

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

mouashaw
aumpani
wussaumpatamonck
munnadtom
toceke
toke
awass
kesu, hesu
chowhesu
aumaunemun
sowwushkaw
& sowanishkau
monaskunnemun
sasaumitauwh
anacaus, anakaus
wussuckwh, suckwh

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Traps , set
Untie
View, a view
Vomit
Wade (in water)
Wake
Warm
Warm, it is warm
Warm, "it is warm"
Wean, to
Weary, tired

II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

172
42
73
196
73
19, 97, 116, 173
7, 33
12
12
150
17, 74

Weed, to
Whip
Work, labor
Write, paint

II
II
II
II

100
143
134, 98
121, 192, 61

III
III
III
III
III

189, 193
195
8
163, 6, 34, 40, 194
7, 142, 35, 7

III

44, 3, 70, 201, 4, 77

III
III
III
III

33
43
33
33

III
III

97
71

III
III
III
III
III
III
III

71
110
9
70, 72
114
76
198

TYPE III
wunnishaunta! wunishaunto!
tuspan
nishesh & nishish
noonshem
petite
esh
pawcomwush, paacomwush
tetupsh
aseneshesh!
maumashinnaunamauta!
mouwinne, mowinne (see "meet")
ntoyamaushem

konkenupsh
caupaush
kautanaush
negonsh
nattuckqunuw
mauanish
matux puckquatchick auwaw

7

Agree, let us agree!
Ail, be ailing
Alone
Cannot, "I cannot"
Come in to enclosed
structure
Come, came, went, go,
gone
Cut wood
Fall down
Fetch small sticks!
Fire, let us make a
good fire!
Gather
Go apace (at a certain
speed), "I go this
speed"
Go apace (same speed)
Go ashore
Go away, depart
Go before
Go fishing
Go slowly or gently
Go to stool, “He cannot
go to stool”

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nanowwete
aukewush
pummish
pannau
notate

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Go to visit
Go, come by land
Go, travel
Lie, speak untruth
Live alone, keep house
alone
Live, be well
Mad, "I will be mad
with him"
Money, coin
News, tell
Pursue, let us pursue!
Put, lay in place

III
III
III
III
III

195
9, 72, 8
71, 77, 200
55, 162
46

III
III

3, 144
187

III
III
III
III

Recover ("with life
again")
pauchippow
Run for safety
sepagehommauta !
Sail, let us sail!
tunnau, teau, teaw, tunnaw
Say, speak
mauchen
Sick
kukkokash!
Speak!
nippaskanauntum
Starved, "I am almost
starved"
nickqussittaunum
Sweat, perspire, hot “I
sweat (perspire)”
pawtawtees!
Throw here, hither!
8
wanaumw: ,
wunnaumw:, Truth , speak the
aumun:, anaumw:, naumw:
nnanowweteem
Visit, “I am going to
visit”
queint
War , make upon

III

156
54, 132
186
203, 19, 33, 91, 116,
199
194, 199

III
III
III
III
III
III

186
108
57, 61, 7, 134
9, 169, 193, 194
57
12

III

83

III
III

42
55, 56, 57, 59, 169

III

195

III

188

IV

168, 134, 12, 195, 38,
108, 38, 13
194

konkeete
nweche kokkewem
natouwompite
aunchemok
onamatta cowauta !
ponam
keete

TYPE IV
paut, pawt

Bring

yo

Bed, keeps in bed ("he IV
keeps his bed")
Break
IV
Carry this!
IV
Deep (water, etc.)
IV

wuttunsin

pokeshat
mauchatous!
wuttauqussin

40, 150
38
73

8

The symbol ":" is used for root/stem endings to indicate a "reduced vowel" (usually an a, e or i) before
the suffix beginning with a consonant.
8

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

mooshkishattous!
chippachausin

Disclose!
Divides, "the way
divides"
waumatous!
Drink!
wek
Dwell, inhabit, live
numwautous!
Fill the dish!
namite
Find
loas
Grieve
naumpacouin
Hang around neck
(necklace)
augwhattous!
Hang it!
nishin
Lies, is situated
ti
Live, dwell
keesit
Make, complete, create
(see "fire")
wunnite
Mend
naumpat
Pay
nteatchin, yo nteatchin
Shake for cold ("I
shake for cold")
chassaqunsin (correct spelling is Sick, "how long hath
“tassaqunsin”)
he been sick"?
cutsshitteous!
Wash this!

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

IV
IV

46
69

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

12
4, 3, 20, 31, 136, 180
13
37
201
157

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

46
69
4
57, 130, 131, 13, 110,
192, 132, 133, 134
41
168, 169
195

IV

195

IV

42

V
V
V
V

143
13, 11, 12, 14, 10, 194
16
44, 164, 166

V
V
V
V

144, 189, 143
172
57
142-3, 179, 174, 136

TYPE V
wewhepapun
meych, meitch, meech, mech
waump
mauk, maug
nish
pumm
cuttoan
kumoot, cummoot, kummoot

Bind, tie up
Eat
Enough, have
Give, offer, present,
sell
Kill
Shoot (as an arrow)
Speak, "you speak"
Steal, rob

TYPE A (REGULAR UNTYPED)
Imperative Mode
quttaunsh!
naponsh!
ponewhush!
wequanantash!
9

Feel it!
Lay down!
Lay own your burden!
Light a fire!

A
A
A
A

161
42
78
33

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
mattapsh!
nawwuttunsh!
cheskhosh!

ENGLISH
Sit down!
Throw hither!
Wipe off!

VERB
TYPE
A
A
A

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
6, 7
42, 43
192

TYPE B (REGULAR UNTYPED)
Objective Indicative Mode, I-you (sg.)
cowequetummous
attau, atau
kuttattauamish auke
cuttattauamish
kunnauntatauamish
kunniish
kuttiemaunsh
cummattanish
cummaugakemish
cummauchanish
kuttannoonsh
kunnanaumpasummish
kummuchickonckquatous
cuppaimish
cuckquenamish
cuppompaish
cummachetannakunnamous

Beg, "I pray or intreat
you", "I beseech you"
Buy, sell
Buy land, "I would buy
land of you"
Buy this, "I will buy
this of you"
Buy, "I come to buy
this
Carry, "I will carry
you"
Cook/dress, "I dress
(cook) for you"
Follow, "I will follow
you"
Give land, "I will give
you land"
Guide, "I will conduct
(guide) you
Hire, "I will hire you"
Mercy , mercy
Pay, "I will pay you
well"
Pay, I will pay you”
Pray favor, "I pray your
favor"
Stay, "I will stay for
you"
Tear, "I have torn it off
for you"

B

41, 180

B
B

159-160, 165
165

B

159

B

160

B

73

B

12

B

71

B

166

B

69

B
B
B

69
189
69

B
B

161
2

B

70

B

165

10

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

TYPE C (REGULAR UNTYPED)
Objective Indicative or Objective Imperative Mode
natotem
moho
kush
tassam
assame
waunkam, waunckam
man:ne
kukkit
tannum
tam
nauntatau
wammaun, wamm
kemine
pauquanam
taunckquitt
sawhok
nun
kakatom
tatakom
nickummaunam

Ask, inquire
Eat (cannibalize)
Fear
Give nourishment
Give, "give me to eat"
Greet, salute
Hate
Hear, listen
Help
Hinder, bother
Kill , come to
Love
Murder
Open
Pay
Put out
See
Show, tell
Strike
Vanquish

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

68, 131
16
186, 135
15, 14
12
2, 189
187
55, 135
39, 108
35, 36
188
8, 148, 189, 186
76, 143
38
69
41
7
69, 132, 136
113, 183
189

TYPE D (REGULAR UNTYPED)
Objective Indicative Mode, you (sg.)—me
cuttassokakomme
coanombuqusse
kuttassokakomme
cowewenaki

11

Deceive, "You deceive
me"
Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Wronged, "You have
wronged me"

D

162

D

162

D

162

D

202

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

TYPE E (REGULAR UNTYPED)
Varying modes with “au” root/stem (Type II or III)
naumakiauog
pauchewannauog
mauog
wesauashaui
mamaskishaui
eatch keen anawayean or
enatch keen anawayean
taubot wetayean
taubotne anawayean
quaquawtatatteaug

Go to hell, "They go to
hell or the deep"
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Lament, "They lament"
Plague, "He has the
plague"
Pox, "he has the pox"
Say, "let all be as you
say" ("Your will shall
be law")
Thank, "I thank you for
your company"
Thank, "I thank you"
Train, "They train"

E

136

E

41

E
E

136
196

E
E

196
141, 190

E

70

E
E

7
184

TYPE M
Mixed Mode (More than one type)
nadsitta
kemehette
tauntau
wesass
mecaunte
aum
nickatash
sawhe
nockuskau
kekaumw
penowantau
kekuttokau
kepun
awau?
wussenet

Ask, inquire, search
Creep
Climb
Fear
Fight
Fish
Forsake
Go forth
Meet
Scorner, mocker
Speak another language
Speak with
Tie, Make fast
Use
Woo

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

142
172
97
186
183
114
74
41
73, 74
186
9, 55
35, 57, 189
186, 110
44
146

12

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

TYPE U
Unclassifiable Mode
togwhan
whauwhautowwow anawat

Adrift, at sea
Alarm, “there is an
alarm”

U
U

108
184

aquie wussaumowash!

Ask too much! “Do not
ask too much!”
Ask too much, "You
ask too much"
Associate, “he is my
associate”
Believe
Believe,
obey,
"I
believe you"
Bent, crooked
Black, “he is in black,
mourning”
Born, “How many
years since you were
born?”
Burns,
“My
body
burns”
Buy, "I come to buy"
Buy, I have bought”
Buy, sell
Call!
I came
Cannot tell, "I don't
know
Care, "Have a care"
Cease, “I will cease,
stop” (see “do not do,”
Part II
Cheer, “Be of good
cheer”
Cold (weather)
Cold, "I am cold"
Come in, “the sea
comes in too fast”
Come, "I came that
way"
Come, "they come"

U

162

U

162, 164

U

187

U
U

56
59

U
U

42
201

U

66

U

195

U
U
U
U
U
U

159, 160
160
159-60, 165
35
3
9, 57, 131

U
U

40
179

U

202

U
U
U

18, 75, 82, 83
44
109

U

3, 4

U

4

cosaumawem
nechuse ewo
cuppannawa
coannaumatous
wauki
sequttoi
tashecautummo cuttappemus

wame kussopita nuhock
nummouanaquish
nummautanaquash
tattauam, attau, atau
wecum!
nowaum
tatta
peewauqun
ntaquie

kutchimoke
tak, taq, tahk, tauk
nuckqusquatch
wussaum pechepausha
yo nowaum
umwock
13

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

awanick paudhuck

Come, “who comes
there?”

U

110

cowaum
anawat, anow, anawayean
cutehanshishaumo

Come, "you come"
Command, say, speak
Company, “How many
are in your company?”
Confusion, panic,
hubbub
Cook, roast
Courage, “You
(plural)--"Be of good
courage”
Cover me! (w/blanket)
Crooked (see “bent”)
Crooked, winding
Cry, “he cries”
Cure “he is acting his
cure”
Curing, “the priest is
curing him”
Cut off head
Damaged, in need of
repair, “gapt”
Dead, “he is gone
(dead) forever”
Dead, “he is nearly
dead”
Deaf, “I am deaf”
Debts, “I come to
collect debts”
Do not ask too much!
Do so, “Why do you do
so?”
Do, fare, "How do you
do?"
Done ill, "I have done
ill"
Dry
Dry, "To dry this or
that"
Dying, “he cannot live
long”

U
U
U

3
7, 139, 141, 90
8

U

184

U
U

11, 114
109

U
U
U
U
U

195
46
46
43
199

U

198

U
U

50
165

U

201

U

201

U
U

196
168

U
U

162
143

U

2

U

144

U
U

83
42

U

200

wopwawnonckquat
aup
maumaneeteantass

puttuckhumma!
penayi
pemisquai
mauo
yo wutteantawwaw
powwaw nippetea
timequassin
waskishaas
michemeshawi
chachewunnea
ncupsa
nnadgecom
aquie wussaumowosh!
tawhitch yo enean
as kuttaaquompsin
nummachieme
paq
pawsunnummin
pausawut kitonckquewa

14

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
wunnaumwauonck
anuckquaque
naus!
wame kussopita nohock
nnanotissu
natatupe note (or) chickot

muchickautau
ptowei
tuttepacunnish
nowannechick
& nowannesin
aumanskitteaug
pepemoi
taquat
yo naumwauteg
machage nkockie
commesim
nanoue
wuttammasin, petassina
squutame
wuttush!
commeinsh
nowemacaunash
hom, om, oom, um, waum

yo aunta, yo cuttaunan
nittome (see "hom...")
tunock kuttoyeaim
Kuttome (see "hom...")
wunnetu nitta
neene cuthomwock
wunnetu
as cowequassin
as cowequassunnummis
kukkeechequaubenitch
noteaugo

15

ENGLISH
Faithfulness,
truthfulness
Far
Fetch!
Fever, fire
Fever, “I have a fever”
Fever, “My body
burns”; “I am all on
fire”
Fine, nice, pretty
Fly, “it is fled”
Fold, fold it up!
Forget,
"I
have
forgotten"
Fortify, they
Fowl, “he is gone to
(hunt) fowl”
Frozen, iced
Full, thus full
Get, "I get nothing”
Give, "give it to me"
Give me (this or that)
“Give me tobacco”
“Give me your pipe”
Give me!
Give, "I give to you"
Give, "I'll give these
things"
Come, go from a place
other
than
where
speaker is
Go, "go that way"
Go, "I go"
Go, "whither go you"
Go, "you go"
Good, "My heart is
good, pure"
Go, "now they go off"
Good, pure, proper
Greeting, "good
morrow (day)"
Hang, "You shall be
hanged"
Have, “I have
‘money' " (wampum)

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

57

U
U
U
U
U

72
35
195
195
195

U
U
U
U

162
91
161
5, 75

U
U

166
88

U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U

75
39
163
38, 162, 163, 44, 161
164
15
15
43
44, 162
129, 169

U

3-4, 8, 70, 100

U
U
U
U
U

69
4, 70, 110
70
4, 70
51, 53, 189

U
U
U

53
2

U

144

U

169

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nitasha
wusseheposh!
aununema
yo aphettit
taunt
kusopita, kussopita
ntiyu, ntio
nippansinnea
mat mesh nowahea

nneesnneanna
wau, wawwau, waww
nowahea
nipponamauoog
namacowke
cupshitteauag
nowetipo
nowawwon
yimmi
awetawatuock

wussenetuock
cummauntussakou
cuppissittone
nowannakese
yo wuttutan
netashin, newutchashinea
cosaumakese
nipposkiss
ussaw

ENGLISH
Have, "I have"
Heave out the water!
Help me!
Here, “when they are
here”
High, "sun so high"
Hot, it's hot (see
"burn")
Hunt, “I hunt”
Innocent,
"I
am
innocent"
Innocent, “I was
innocent (knew
nothing)”
Kill, “ I have killed
two (deer, etc.)”
Know
Know, "I knew"
Lame, “I am lame”
Lay nets, “I lay nets for
them (fish, animals)”
Lend, lend me
Lie, “they lie in wait
(ambush)”
Like, “I like this”
Lose way, "I lose my
way"
Make this for me
Marry, “they make a
match, live together in
same wetu”
Marry, “They marry”
Missed, “You have
missed him”
Mistaken, "you are
mistaken"
Mistold,
"I
have
mistold"
Moon, the moon so
high
More, there is no more
Much, “You have told
too much”
Naked, "I am naked"
Name

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U
U
U
U

15, 40
110
39
59

U
U

63
13, 195

U
U

175
144

U

38

U

172

U
U
U
U

57, 38, 144, 70
38, 57
196
91

U
U

38
186

U
U

15
70

U
U

61
146

U
U

146
77

U

132

U

164, 168, 162

U

63

U
U

33
164

U
U

118, 119
5-6
16

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
wesuonck
wesuonckgonnakaunes
taantussaweitch
matnowesuonck
ntussawese
tahena
tahossowetam
cowawwunnaunchim
keeskwh
maunauog
& wussaumemaunauog
anit
waupaupunish!
wunnia naynayoumewot
nummokokunitch
keesauname!
nawont
nawonash
negautowash!
nnegauchemish
ntatuppe wunnepog
awaun necawni aum piasha
wetapwauwwas
tawho
see “destroy”
wunna kukkussaquam
nkataquam
machemoqut
puck
wutttamauog
wunnashpishan
antow, antau, auntow
natotema

17

ENGLISH
Name, a
Name, call
Name, "do you ask my
name"
Name, "I have no
name"
Name, "my name is"
Name, "what is his
name"
Name, "what the name
of it"
News, " he tells false
news "
Pay
People, there are too
many
Putrefied, it is
Raise up!, Lift up!
(head, etc.,)
Rides, “He rides on
horseback”
Rob, "I am robbed"
Save me!
Saw, he saw
See, "I did not see these
things"
Send for him!
Send, “He sends to me”
Shake, "I shake as a
leaf"
Shot, “who fired the
first shot”
Sit and talk
Slain
Slaughter
Sleep much, "You
sleep much"
Sleep, "I am sleepy"
Smell, “it smells ill”
Smoke
Smoke tobacco
Snatch away
Speak
Speak on, continue

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U
U
U

5
133
5

U

5

U
U

5
6

U

6

U

54

U
U

168
60

U
U

175, 101
195

U

72

U
U
U
U

183
186
134
142, 201

U
U
U

42, 43
43
195

U

183

U
U

57
188

U

20

U
U
U
U
U
U
U

17
175
32
45
43
8-9, 55, 141-42
131

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
enapwauwaw, eississumo
kuttaskwhe,
kuttasha
nqenouhick wuttin
saumpi
minak, minik
cumminakese
yo autant
aquechmock
mat mesh nummammenash
mat nowewuttammo
cunnoonakese
& cosaumakese
ntunnan
kuttunnan
nowannakese
netashin, newutchasinea
noonapuock
cawk
petasinna,
wuttammasin
tanocki, tanocksha
anaqushento
mucco
noonamautuckquawhe
nowauwon
cuppittous
yo iish wuttanho
nickquehick
matwauonck
apissuma!
minioquesu
cumminiocquese
wenawetuonckon

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

Speak, "He speaks U
Indian"
Stay, "stay for me"
U
Stay, wait, “ I stay for
the wind”
Straight
Strong
Strong,
"you
are
strong"
Sun, the sun so high
Swim, “they swim”
Take, "I did not take
them"
Take, “I take none
(tobacco)”
Tell too much, "You
have told too much"
Tell, "I tell"
Tell, "you tell"
Tell, I have mistold”
There is no more
They don't have enough
room for everyone
Thirsty
Tobacco, "Give me
tobacco"
Torn, it is torn
Trade, “let us trade”
True, "It is true you
say"
Trust me
Truth, "I shall know the
truth"
Understand, hear, "I
understand you"
“Use
this
staff
(Walking stick)”
Want, "I want it"
War, battle
Warm this for me!
Weak, "he is weak"
Weak, “you are weak”
Wealth

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
57
40

U

86

U
U
U

42
52
52

U
U
U

34
91
143, 163

U

44

U

164, 167

U
U
U
U
U

41
46, 41
164
33
60

U
U

10
15

U
U
U

161
159
6

U
U

167
57, 38, 144

U

56, 54

U

74

U
U
U
U
U
U

42, 159
183
42
53
53
53

18

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nsouwwussanneme
tuckiiuash
taupowaw
wuttunnantu
yo anawhonw
wesquaubenan

19

ENGLISH
Weary, “I am weary
from speaking”
Where are they?
Wise speaker
Worth it, it is
Wounded, “I am
wounded”
Wrap up (deceased) in
mats

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

55

U
U
U
U

36
52
163
188

U

150

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

LISTED ALPHABETICAL
BY NARRAGANSETT

achie
agehucka
ahan
akes
aket
an
ana?e & anaki & annetei

anacaus, anakaus
anaquau
anaqushento
anaskhom
anawat, anow, anawayean
anit
anoce wenawash!
antow, antau, auntow
ap
ap
aquie wussaumowosh!
assame
assawompat
asso?9, assotu, assoko
tattauam, attau, atau
au
auchau
augwhattous!
9

see Part II
Sailing , have wind for
Laugh, merry
Play, score
Count money
Going
beyond,
exceeding
Go, be going from a
place without reference
to where or why
Work, labor
Look
Trade, “let us trade”
Hoe
Command, say, speak
Putrefied, it is
Hire him!
Speak
Sitting, staying
Sit, be at home, here
Do not ask too much!
Give, "give me to eat"
Change money
Foolish
Buy, sell
Going to
Hunting, fowling
Hang it!

II
II
II
I

87
178
178, 179
164
general root

II

9, 70, 73

II
II
U
II
U
U
I
U

134, 98
44
159
98, 99
7, 139, 141, 90
175, 101
69
8-9, 55, 141-42
general root
34, 41, 74, 59
162
12
155, 156
40, 41
159-60, 165
general root
88, 172
46

II
U
C
II
II
U
II
IV

The ? denotes a "stop" (perhaps glottal stop) that Williams represents with a /t/ or /k/.

20

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
aukeeteau
aukewush
aum
aumanskitteaug
aumaun
aumaunemun
aumpani
aumpauchau
aunake
aunchemok
aununema
auog
aup
auqunnish
awanagusantowosh!
awanick paudhuck

ENGLISH

Plant corn
Go, come by land
Fish
Fortify, they
Take away
Wean, to
Untie
Come from hunting
Paint
News, tell
Help me!
Go, “they go”
Cook, roast
Let go
Speak English!
Come, “who comes
there?”
awass
Warm
awau?
Use
awaun necawni aum piasha
Shot, “who fired the
first shot”
awetawatuock
Marry, “they make a
match, live together in
same wetu”
cattaunt
Long for, desire, want
cattite
Long for, desire, want
cattup
Hungry
caudnish!
Put off!
caupaush
Go ashore
cawk
Thirsty
chachepis
Fierce
chachewunnea
Dead, “he is nearly
dead”
chassaqunsin (correct spelling is Sick, "how long hath
“tassaqunsin”)
he been sick"?
chechequnnuwau
Rob, steal
chenawaus
Churlish, crass, bold
chesam,chesammat
Pain, sore
cheskhosh!
Wipe off!
chippachausin
Divides, "the way
divides"
chowhesu
Warm, "it is warm"
chowwopha
Cast overboard

21

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
III
M
U
I
II
II
II
II
III
U
II
U
II
I
U

98
9, 72, 8
114
166
39, 144, 150
150
42
172, 176
192
54, 132
39
135
11, 114
39
8
110

II
M
U

7, 33
44
183

U

146

I
I
II
II
III
U
II
U

15
15, 172
10, 12
119
110
10
182
201

IV

195

II
II
I
A
IV

76
186, 166
194, 195
192
69

II
II

12
109

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
coannaumatous
coanombuqusse
commeinsh
commesim
cosaumakese
cosaumawem
cotchik
cowaum
cowauwaunemun
cowawwunnaunchim
cowequetummous
cowewenaki
cuckquenamish
cummachetannakunnamous
cummattanish
cummauchanish
cummaugakemish
cummauntussakou
cumminakese
cumminiocquese
cunnoonakese
& cosaumakese
cuppaimish
cuppannawa
cuppissittone
cuppittous
cuppompaish

ENGLISH
Believe,
obey,
"I
believe you"
Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Give, "I give to you"
Give, "give it to me"
Much, “You have told
too much”
Ask too much, "You
ask too much"
Cut
Come, "you come"
Lost, “You are lost in
the woods, wandering”
News, " he tells false
news "
Beg, "I pray or intreat
you", "I beseech you"
Wronged, "You have
wronged me"
Pray favor, "I pray your
favor"
Tear, "I have torn it off
for you"
Follow, "I will follow
you"
Guide, "I will conduct
(guide) you
Give land, "I will give
you land"
Missed, “You have
missed him”
Strong,
"you
are
strong"
Weak, “you are weak”
Tell too much, "You
have told too much"
Pay, “I will pay you”
Believe
Mistaken, "you are
mistaken"
Understand, hear, "I
understand you"
Stay, "I will stay for
you"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

59

D

162

U
U
U

44, 162
38, 162, 163, 44, 161
164

U

162, 164

II
U
II

13
3
132

U

54

B

41, 180

D

202

B

2

B

165

B

71

B

69

B

166

U

77

U

52

U
U

53
164, 167

B
U
U

161
56
132

U

56, 54

B

70

22

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
cupshitteauag
cussassaqus
cussawontap
cutehanshishaumo
cutsshitteous!
cuttassokakomme
cuttattauamish
cuttiantacompawmen
cuttoan
cuttun
eatch keen anawayean or
enatch keen anawayean
eenantowash!
enapwauwaw, eississumo
enomphommin
esh
hom, om, oom, um, waum

it (word ending)
juhet
kakatom
kautanaush
keesauname!
keesit
keeskwh
keete
kekaumw
kekine
kekinneawau
kekuttokau
kemehette
kemine
kepun
kesu, hesu
23

ENGLISH
Lie, “they lie in wait
(ambush)”
Slow, “You are slow”
Headache
Company, “How many
are in your company?”
Wash this!
Deceive, "You deceive
me"
Buy this, "I will buy
this of you"
Lying, "you are a lying
fellow"
Speak, "you speak"
Launch
Say, "let all be as you
say" ("Your will shall
be law")
Speak Indian!
Speak, "He speaks
Indian"
Thread, string
Come, came, went, go,
gone
Come, go from a place
other
than
where
speaker is
see Part II
Fight
Show, tell
Go away, depart
Save me!
Make, complete, create
(see "fire")
Pay
Recover ("with life
again")
Scorner, mocker
Look at, behold
Go to feast
Speak with
Creep
Murder
Tie, Make fast
Warm, it is warm

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

186

II
I
U

77
194
8

IV
D

42
162

B

159

II

142

V
I
E

57
108
141, 190

I
U

8
57

II
III

157
44, 3, 70, 201, 4, 77

U

3-4, 8, 70, 100

II
C
III
U
IV
U
III

183
69, 132, 136
9
186
57, 130, 131, 13, 110,
192, 132, 133, 134
168
194, 199

M
I
II
M
M
C
M
II

186
39, 169, 37, 38, 39, 164
129
35, 57, 189
172
76, 143
186, 110
12

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

kinnequass!
kitonckque

Steer (canoe)!
Dead, be dead, perish

I
II

konkeete
konkenupsh
koshkowwaum
kowe, koue, cowe

Live, be well
Go apace (same speed)
Drown
Sleep, lodge

III
III
II
II

kukkit
kukkeechequaubenitch

Hear, listen
Hang, "You shall be
hanged"
Speak!
Pay, "I will pay you
well"
Steal, rob
Mercy , mercy
Buy, "I come to buy
this
Carry, "I will carry
you"
Owe, “I will owe you”
Shut, closed, deaf
Fear
Hot, it's hot (see
"burn")
Sit, let us sit down!
Cheer, “Be of good
cheer”
Hire, "I will hire you"
Stay, "stay for me"

C
U

109
201, 200, 138, 130,
135, 201
3, 144
71
108
17, 18, 134, 170, 195,
9, 20, 130
55, 135
144

III
B

57
69

V
B
B

142-3, 179, 174, 136
189
160

B

73

II
II
C
U

169
36, 196, 113
186, 135
13, 195

II
U

74
202

B
U

69
40

D

162

B

165

B

12

U
U
IV

4, 70
46, 41
201

U
U
II

163
175
36

kukkokash!
kummuchickonckquatous
kumoot, cummoot, kummoot
kunnanaumpasummish
kunnauntatauamish
kunniish
kunnoonamautuckquash
kupha, cup
kush
kusopita, kussopita
kussackquetuck!
kutchimoke
kuttannoonsh
kuttaskwhe,
kuttasha
kuttassokakomme
kuttattauamish auke
kuttiemaunsh
kuttome (see "hom...")
kuttunnan
loas
ma (word beginning)
machage
machage nkockie
machemoqut
machetu

Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Buy land, "I would buy
land of you"
Cook/dress, "I dress
(cook) for you"
Go, "you go"
Tell, "you tell"
Grieve
see Part II
see Part II
Get, "I get nothing”
Smell, "It smells ill”
Poor, he is poor

24

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
machinam
machissu
mamaskishaui
mammauchetuck! or
anakiteunck!
man:ne
manisimmin
manoham
mashackquneaum
mat, matta
mat mesh nowahea

mat mesh nummammenash
matnowesuonck
mat nowewuttammo
mattaacucquass!
mattapsh!
matux puckquatchick auwaw
matwauonck
maua, mau, maut
mauanish
mauataun
mauchatous!
mauche & memmauche

mauchen
mauchepwut
mauk, maug
maumaneeteantass

maumashinnaunamauta!
mauminikish!
maunauog
& wussaumemaunauog
25

ENGLISH
Do not like
Bad, "He is naught
(bad)"
Pox, "He has the pox"
Go, “Let us be going!”
Hate
Cut, mow
Buy
Dearth, distress
see Part II
Innocent, “I was
innocent (knew
nothing)”
Take, "I did not take
them"
Name, "I have no
name"
Take, “I take none
(tobacco)”
Cook,dress!
Sit down!
Go to stool, “He cannot
go to stool”
War, battle
see Part II
Go slowly or gently
Fire, tend
Carry this!
Go (from a place where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
Sick
Eat, after he has eaten
Give, offer, present,
sell
Courage, “You
(plural)--be of good
courage”
Fire, let us make a
good fire!
Pull up! Row lustily!
Tie it hard!
People, there are too
many

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
II

159
142

E
II

196
70

C
II
II
II

187
96
160
15

U

38

U

143, 163

U

5

U

44

II
A
III

14
6, 7
198

U

183

III
I
IV
II

76
19
38
9, 70, 73, 202

III
II
V

9, 169, 193, 194
13-14
44, 164, 166

U

109

III

33

II

108, 110

U

60

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
mauo
mauog
mecaunte
mechimuash!
menakissam
mequaunam
meshannant, meyaont
mesh (word beginning)
metesi
meych, meitch, meech, mech
miawe
michemeshawi
minak, minik
minioquesu
mish
mishauntowash!
mishkom
mishoonhom
missin
mocquesui
moho
monaskunnemun
mooshkishattous!
mouashaw
mouwinne, mowinne (see "meet")
mucco
muchickautau
muchikineanau
muckucki
munnadtom
musquant
musquaunam
nad
nadsitta
namacowke
namite
nanantowash!
naneeshaumo
nanompan
10

ENGLISH
Cry, “he cries”
Lament, "They lament"
Fight
Load it!
Take store
Remember
Scorn, indignation
see Part II
Eat (in general)
Eat
Meet, a court
Dead, “he is gone
(dead) forever”
Strong
Weak, "he is weak"
Dead , name the
Speak out!
Deer , find
Come, go by boat
(canoe)
Captive , take
Swell, "he is swelled"
Eat (cannibalize)
Weed, to
Disclose!
Traps , set
Gather
True, "It is true you
say"
Fine, nice, pretty
Enumerate
Bare, without wool
Vomit
Angry
Angry10
Bring, bearing
Ask, inquire, search
Lend, lend me
Find
Speak plain!
There are two of us
(and other numbers)
Idle or base

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U
E
M
I
II
II
I

43
136
183
185
115
190, 7, 41
183

II
V
II
U

194, 10, 13
13, 11, 12, 14, 10, 194
142
201

U
U
I
I
II
II

52
53
202
142
173
8, 72

I
II
C
II
IV
II
III
U

188
196
16
100
46
172
97
6

U
II
II
II
I
II
M
U
IV
I
II

162
115
160
196
182, 124
182, 183, 123, 138
general root
142
38
37
142
8

II

143

Compare with "musquant," p. 182
26

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nanoue
nanowwete
naponsh!
natatupe note (or) chickot

natinneha
natotem
natotema
natouwompite
nattuckqunuw
natup
naumakiauog
naumpacouin
naumpat
naunt
nauntatau
naus!
nawonash
nawont
nawwuttunsh!
nchickossimunnash
ncupsa
nechuse ewo
neepoue
neesquttonckqus
negautowash!
negonsh
netashin, newutchashinea
netashin, newutchasinea
niaut
niautamwock
nickat
nickatash
nickquehick
nickquenum
nickqussittaunum

27

ENGLISH
Give me (this or that)
Go to visit
Lay down!
Fever, “My body
burns”; “I am all on
fire”
Search
Ask, inquire
Speak on, continue
Money, coin
Go fishing
Feed, graze
Go to hell, "They go to
hell or the deep"
Hang around neck
(necklace)
Pay
Come for, fetch
Kill , come to
Fetch!
See, "I did not see these
things"
Saw, he saw
Throw hither!
Burn, “I will burn my
rushes”
Deaf, “I am deaf”
Associate, “he is my
associate”
Stand
Prate, cackle (like hen)
Send for him!
Go before
More, there is no more
There is no more
Carry on one's back
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Leave, depart
Forsake
Want, "I want it"
Go, "I am returning
home to my family"
Sweat, perspire, hot “I
sweat (perspire)”

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U
III
A
U

164
195
42
195

II
C
U
III
III
II
E

37
68, 131
131
156
114
105
136

IV

157

IV
II
C
U
U

168, 169
6, 35, 34, 33
188
35
142, 201

U
A
II

134
42, 43
179

U
U

196
187

II
II
U
III
U
U
I
I

6
45
42, 43
70, 72
33
33
41, 38
38, 41

I
M
U
I

44
74
42, 159
31

III

83

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nickummaunam
nikkoshkowwaumen
nip11, nup
nippansinnea
nippaskanauntum
nipponamauoog
nipposkiss
nish
nishesh & nishish
nishin
nishque?
nitasha
nittome (see "hom...")
nkataquam
nnadgecom
nnanowweteem
nnanotissu
nneesnneanna
nnegauchemish
nnowautum or nnowauntum
nockuskau
nokanish!
nonanum (see "noonshem")
noonamautuckquawhe
noonapummin autashehettit

noonapuock
noonshem (see "nonanum")
notate
noteaugo
noteshem
11

ENGLISH
Vanquish
Drowned, “We shall be
drowned”
Die
Innocent,
"I
am
innocent"
Starved, "I am almost
starved"
Lay nets, “I lay nets for
them (fish, animals) ”
Naked, "I am naked"
(see "robbed")
Kill
Alone
Lies, is situated
Fierce
Have, "I have"
Go, "I go"
Sleep, "I am sleepy"
Debts, “I come to
collect debts”
Visit, “I am going to
visit”
Fever, “I have a fever”
Kill, “ I have killed
two (deer, etc.)”
Send, “He sends to me”
Sorry, “I am sorry”
Meet
Down , take it!
Cannot, "I cannot"
Trust me
Room, “there is not
enough room for so
many people”
They don't have enough
room for everyone
Cannot, "I cannot"
Live alone, keep house
alone
Have, “I have
‘money' " (wampum)
see "esh"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

C
II

189
108

II
U

138, 201, 144
144

III

12

U

91

U

118, 119

V
III
IV
II
U
U
U
U

144, 189, 143
8
69
182, 132
15, 40
4, 70, 110
17
168

III

195

U
U

195
172

U
I
M
II
II
U
II

43
144, 201
73, 74
108
163
167
35

U

60

III
III

163, 6, 34, 40, 194
46

U

169

Also the root for noun "water".
28

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nowahea
nowannakese
nowannakese
nowannechick
& nowannesin
nowant or nowaunt
nowaum
nowauwon
nowawwon
nowechussettimmin
nowemacaunash
nowepinnachick
nowetipo
nowetompatimmin
nowwunnem
nqenouhick wuttin
nqunnuckquus
nsouwwussanneme
ntackowwepeyaun

ntannotam
ntaquie

nteatchin, yo nteatchin
ntiyu, ntio
ntoyamaushem

ntunnan
ntussawese
nuckqusquatch
29

ENGLISH
Know, "I knew"
Tell, I have mistold”
Mistold,
"I
have
mistold"
Forget,
"I
have
forgotten"
Grieve
I came
Truth, "I shall know the
truth"
Lose way, "I lose my
way"
Confederates, “we are
confederates”
Give, "I'll give these
things"
Confederates,
companions in war
Like, “I like this”
Friends, “we are
friends”
Oversee,
order,
command
Stay, wait, “ I stay for
the wind”
Lame, "I am lame"
Weary, “I am weary
from speaking”
Come in vain, “I have
lost my labor (come in
vain)”
Subject, "He is my
subject"
Cease, “I will cease,
stop” (see “do not do,”
Part II
Shake for cold ("I
shake for cold")
Hunt, “I hunt”
Go apace (at a certain
speed), "I go this
speed"
Tell, "I tell"
Name, "my name is"
Cold, "I am cold"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U
U
U

38, 57
164
164, 168, 162

U

5, 75

I
U
U

144, 201
3
57, 38, 144

U

70

II

187

U

129, 169

II

187

U
II

15
187

II

128

U

86

II
U

196
55

II

77

II

141

U

179

IV

195

U
III

175
71

U
U
U

41
5
44

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nummacheke

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

pauchippow
paumpmaunt
pauochau

Poor, “I am a poor
man”
Done ill, "I have done
ill"
Buy, I have bought”
Rob, "I am robbed"
Buy, "I come to buy"
Fill the dish!
See
To be dying
Mad, "I will be mad
with him"
Put on!
om
Pursue, let us pursue!
Going, coming from
Opening
Cast away, divorce
Fall, let something
see
Part
II
("A
modifier...")
Lie, speak untruth
Disbelieve
Dry
Rise!
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Run for safety
Well, be well, fare well
Dance

paupautuckquash!
pauquan
pauquanam
pak, pahk, pohq
pake
paushinu
paut, pawt

Hold water!
Destroy, slaughter
Open
Opening
Cast away, divorce
Divide
Bring

pawcomwush, paacomwush
pawsunnummin

Cut wood
III
Dry, "To dry this or U
that"
Throw here, hither!
III
Reach
II
Come, be present
I

nummachieme
nummautanaquash
nummokokunitch
nummouanaquish
numwautous!
nun
nuppamen
nweche kokkewem
ocquash!
see "hom"
onamatta cowauta !
oo, hom
pak, pahk, pohq
pake
panishkokom
panna
pannau
pannawaut
paq
pasuckquish!
pauchewannauog

pawtawtees!
pawtuckquammin
pee

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II

169

U

144

U
U
U
IV
C
II
III

160
183
159, 160
13
7
189
187

I

119

III

I
II

186
general root
general root
150, 44, 183, 108
75

III
I
U
II
E

55, 162
56
83
73
41

III
I
II

186
2, 3
178

I
II
C

109
138, 188
38
general root
150, 44, 183, 108
176, 42
168, 134, 12, 195, 38,
108, 38, 13
33
42

I
II
IV

42
40
34, 63, 6, 44, 74
30

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
peewauqun
peeyaunt
pemisquai
penayi
penowantau
pepemoi
pepenash!
peskhom
pesuppau
petasinna,
wuttammasin
petite
peyau

pitch (word beginning)
pittakunnam
pittucke
pockhom
pockquanam
pockun
pok
pokeshat
pompitam
ponam
ponewhush!
poquiitie
posakunnamun
potauntash!
potawash!
powwaw nippetea
ptowei
puck
puckhummin
pum
pumm
pumme
pummenummin teaquash
31

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Care, "Have a care"
Pray
Crooked, winding
Crooked (see “bent”)
Speak another language
Fowl, “he is gone to
(hunt) fowl”
Choice , take!
Shoot (as thunderbolt,
gun)
Sweat
"Give me tobacco"

U
I
U
U
M
U

40
20, 130
46
46
9, 55
88

I
II

42
84, 184

II
U

197
15

Come in to enclosed
structure
Come (from a place
other
than
where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
see Part II
Return, handle cloth,
turn, repent
Go back
Thresh
Have unknown disease
Blind
Break
Break
Hear
Put, lay in place

III

7, 142, 35, 7

II

8, 6, 9, 63, 77, 34, 7,
142, 35, 59, 168, 72

II

75, 165, 139

II
II
II
I

77
100
197
197
general root
40, 150
5
203, 19, 33, 91, 116,
199
78
32
202
34
34
198

Lay own your burden!
Dwell together
Bury
Fire, blow!
Fire, make!
Curing, “the priest is
curing him”
Fly, “it is fled”
Smoke
Bore through
Passing by, crossing
Shoot (as an arrow)
Go by, pass, cross over
Contribute to the wars

IV
II
III
A
II
II
I
I
U
U
U
II
V
II
II

91
32
156
general root
172
72
185

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
pummish
punnowwau
puttuckhumma!
quamph
quaquawtatatteaug
quaunquaque, quaque
quawupshaw
quenowau
queint
quitchemaunta
quitcheta
qunnauqussu
quo
qusquatchim
qussuck
qussut
quttaunsh!
sanapaushaum
sasaumitauwh
saumpeekunnem
saumpi
saunqui
sawhe
sawhok
see “destroy”
seip, seep, sepa
gsekine
semu
sepagehommauta !
sequttoi
shookekineas!
sog, sok
soken12
sowwushkaw
& sowanishkau
squutame
tackhum
tahena
12

ENGLISH
Go, travel
Go down, come down
Cover me! (w/blanket)
Dish out, serve
Train, "They train"
Run
Overset (in canoe)
Complain
War , make upon
Smell
Taste
Tall, "he is tall"
Sleep, lodge, dream (w/
compound verbs)
Cold , feel
Heavy (stone)
Move residence
Feel it!
Have bloody flix
Whip
Cloth , tear off too little
Straight
Cool, “it is cool”
Go forth
Put out
Slaughter
Stretching, extending in
tme or space
Dislike, unwilling
Flee
Sail, let us sail!
Black, “he is in black,
mourning”
Look at this!
Out-going (of water,
etc.)
Pour out, rain
Weary, tired

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

III
II
U
I
E
II
II
II
III
II
II
II
II

71, 77, 200
97, 116, 173
195
15
184
71, 73
109
61
188
101, 14
12
53
17, 19, 18

II
I
A
II
II
II
U
II
M
C

33, 58, 83
44, 73, 96, 157
36, 46
161
198
143
165
42
12
41
41

I
II
III
U

general root
75, 94-5, 108
166, 187
186
108
201

I

39, 164
general root

II
II

12
17, 74

“Give me your pipe”
U
Grind
II
Name, "what is his U
name"

15
15
6

"Rain" is based on this root
32

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
tahossowetam
tak, taq, tahk, tauk
tam
tammaunt
tannot
tannum
tanocki, tanocksha
taquat
taquatchowau
tashecautummo cuttappemus

tassam
tatagganish!
tatakom
tatta
tattauam, attau, atau
tatuppauntwa
taubacominash
taubat, taup, taub
taubot wetayean
taubotne anawayean
taubotne aunanamean
tauhauna
taunckquitt
taunt
tauntap
tauntau
taupowaw
tawhitch yo enean
tawho
teant
tetupsh
ti
tiaquonqussu
timequassin
tinnea, tinea, tin

33

ENGLISH
Name, "what the name
of it"
Cold (weather)
Hinder, bother
Busy, take care of,
heed
Revenge, get revenge
Help
Torn, it is torn
Frozen, iced
Go uphill
Born, “How many
years since you were
born?”
Give nourishment
Shake this!
Strike
Cannot tell, "I don't
know
Buy, sell
Measure, weigh
Big enough
Thank
Thank, "I thank you for
your company"
Thank, "I thank you"
Thank, "I thank you for
your love"
see Part II
Pay
High, "sun so high"
Rest
Climb
Wise speaker
Do so, “Why do you do
so?”
Slain
Think
Fall down
Live, dwell
Short, he is
Cut off head
Sounds
with
no
apparent meaning, used

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

6

U
C
I

18, 75, 82, 83
35, 36
35, 169

I
C
U
U
II
U

141
39, 108
161
75
75
66

C
II
C
U

15, 14
42
113, 183
9, 57, 131

U
II

E

159-60, 165
165, 164
120
2, 7, 134, 14, 35, 70,
120
70

E
II

7
7

C
U
II
M
U
U

69
63
74
97
52
143

U
I
III
IV
II
U

188
58
43
4
53
50
70, 77

I

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

in
verbs
as
"ornamentation"
or
perhaps as emphasis
tinneapeeyaum
Come for no business
toceke
Wade (in water)
togwhan
Adrift, at sea
toke
Wake
tou, taa, toc, tuc, tunnock, tunna
see "tou...", Part II,
Narragansett section
touagonnausinnum
Distress, misery
tuckiiuash
Where are they?
tunnant
Think
tunnau, teau, teaw, tunnaw
Say, speak
tunock kuttoyeaim
Go, "whither go you"
tuppaunt
Consider
tuspan
Ail, be ailing
tussinam
Think
tuttepacunnish
Fold, fold it up!
um
see "hom..."
umwock
Come, "they come"
upponckquittauwh
Imprison
ussaw
Name
wachaun
Have, keep
wame kussopita nuhock
Burns,
“My
body
burns”
wammaun, wamm
Love
wanaumw:13,
wunnaumw:, Truth , speak the
aumun:, anaumw:
wannan
Forget
wap, wab
Seeing
waskishaas
Damaged, in need of
repair, “gapt”
wau, wawwau, waww
Know
wauapunish!
Hoist up! Lift up!
wauki
Bent, crooked
waum
S
ee "hom..."
waumatous!
Drink!
waump
Enough, have
waunkam, waunckam
Greet, salute
waupaupunish!
Raise up!, Lift up!
(head, etc.,)

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
II
U
II

77
73
108
19, 97, 116, 173

II
U
I
III
U
I
III
II
U

74
36
58, 86, 131
57, 61, 7, 134
70
189, 190
195
194
161

U
II
U
I
U

4
143
5-6
159, 40
195

C
III

8, 148, 189, 186
55, 56, 57, 59, 169

I
U

8
general root
165

U
II
U

57, 38, 144, 70
108, 195
42

IV
V
C
U

12
16
2, 189
195

13

The symbol ":" is used for root/stem endings to indicate a "reduced vowel" (usually an a, e or i) before
the suffix beginning with a consonant.
.
34

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
waut
wauwhautowash!
wawhush
wawhush
wechuset, wepinnat
wecont
wecum!
weeteant
wek
wekine
wenawetuonckon
wenawwetu
wequanantash!
wesass
wesauashaui
wesquaubenan
wesuonck
wetapwauwwas
wetompat, wepinnat
wetzau, wechau, wet
wewhepapun
whauwhautowwow anawat

wopwawnonckquat
wunna
wunna kukkussaquam
wunnashpishan
wunnaugonhommin
wunnaumwauonck
wunnetu
wunnetu nitta
wunnia naynayoumewot
wunnishaunta! wunishaunto!
35

ENGLISH
Understand,
believe,
know
Meeting , call!
Carry on one's back
Carry on one's back
Join together
Glad, happy, have a
mind to
Call!
Glad, be glad
Dwell, inhabit, live
Like
Wealth
Rich, he is rich
Light a fire!
Fear
Plague, "He has the
plague"
Wrap up (deceased) in
mats
Name, a
Sit and talk
Friend, be friends,
confederates
Accompany, go with,
be with
Bind, tie up
Alarm, “there is an
alarm”
Confusion, panic,
hubbub
see Part II
Sleep much, "You
sleep much"
Snatch away
Play, dice game
Faithfulness,
truthfulness
Good, pure, proper
Good, "My heart is
good, pure"
Rides, “He rides on
horseback”
Agree, let us agree!

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I

8, 56, 36, 9

I
I
I
II
I

142
41, 38
41, 38
187
59, 71

U
I
IV
I
U
II
A
M
E

35
59, 136
4, 3, 20, 31, 136, 180
159
53
36
33
186
196

U

150

U
U
II

5
57
187, 166, 190

II

70, 187

V
U

143
184

U

184

U

20

U
II
U

43
145-46
57

U
U

53
51, 53, 189

U

72

III

189, 193

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
wunnite
wussaum pechepausha
wussaumpatammin
wussaumpatamonck
wusseheposh!
wussenet
wussenetuock
wussuckwh, suckwh
wuttammasin, petassina
wuttat
wuttauqussin
wuttautnish!
wutttamauog
wuttunnantu
wuttush!
yimmi
yo anawhonw
yo iish wuttanho
yo

wuttunsin

yo aphettit
yo aunta, yo cuttaunan
yo autant
yo naumwauteg
yo nowaum
yo wutteantawwaw
yo wuttutan

ENGLISH
Mend
Come in, “the sea
comes in too fast”
To look about, view
View, a view
Heave out the water!
Woo
Marry, “They marry”
Write, paint
“Give me tobacco”
Drink
Deep (water, etc.)
Pull to you!
Smoke tobacco
Worth it, it is
Give me!
Make this for me
Wounded, “I am
wounded”
“Use
this
staff
(Walking stick)”
Bed, keeps in bed ("he
keeps his bed")
Here, “when they are
here”
Go, "go that way"
Sun, the sun so high
Full, thus full
Come, "I came that
way"
Cure “he is acting his
cure”
Moon, the moon so
high

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

IV
U

41
109

II
II
U
M
U
II
U
I
IV
II
U
U
U
U
U

73
73
110
146
146
121, 192, 61
15
12, 14
73
108
45
163
43
61
188

U

74

IV

194

U

59

U
U
U
U

69
34
39
3, 4

U

199

U

63

36

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

LISTED ALPHABETICAL
BY ENGLISH

wetzau, wechau, wet
togwhan
wunnishaunta! wunishaunto!
tuspan
whauwhautowwow anawat
nishesh & nishish
see “lie, they lie in wait”
musquanam
musquant
aquie wussaumowash!
natotem
see “adrift”
muckucki
see “idle”
see “sit”
kutchimoke
see “accompany”
yo wuttunsin
cowequetummous

see “cut off head”
see “look at”

37

Accompany, go with,
be with
Adrift, at sea
Agree, let us agree!
Ail, be ailing
Alarm, “there is an
alarm”
Alone
Ambush
Angry
Angry
Ask too much! “Do not
ask too much!”
Ask, inquire
At sea
Bare, without wool
Base, idle
Be at home
Be of good cheer
(plural)
Be with, go together
Bed, keeps in bed ("he
keeps his bed")
Beg, "I pray or intreat
you", "I beseech you"
see “beseech”
Behead
Behold, look at

II

70, 187

U
III
III
U

108
189, 193
195
184

III

8

II
I
U

182-3, 123, 138
182, 124
162

C

68, 131

II

160

U

202

IV

194

B

41, 180

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
cuppannawa
coannaumatous
wauki
taubacominash
wewhepapun
sequttoi
pockun
puckhummin
tashecautummo cuttappemus

pokeshat
paut, pawt
nad
see "fire", Part II
nchickossimunnash
wame kussopita nuhock
posakunnamun
see “wrap up”
tammaunt
nummautanaquash
manoham
tattauam, attau, atau
kuttattauamish auke
cuttattauamish
kunnauntatauamish
nummouanaquish
tattauam, attau, atau
wecum!
see “meeting”
see "name, my name is"
see "come, come..."
tatta

ENGLISH
Believe
(see “understand”)
Believe, obey, "I
believe you"
Bent, crooked
(see “crooked”)
Big enough
Bind, tie up
Black, “he is in black,
mourning”
Blind
Bore through
Born, “How many
years since you were
born?”
Break
Bring
Bring, bearing
burn
Burn, “I will burn my
rushes”
Burns,
“My
body
burns”
Bury
Bury
Busy, take care of,
heed
Buy, I have bought”
Buy
Buy, sell
Buy land, "I would buy
land of you"
Buy this, "I will buy
this of you"
Buy, "I come to buy
this
Buy, "I come to buy"
Buy, sell
Call!
Call a meeting
Called, I am called
Came
Cannot tell, "I don't
know"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

56

U

59

U

42

V
U

120
143
201

I
II
U

197
156
66

IV
IV

40, 150
168, 134, 12, 195, 38,
108, 38, 13
general root

II

179

U

195

II

202

I

35, 169

U
II
U
B

160
160
159-60, 165
165

B

159

B

160

U
U
U

159, 160
159-60, 165
35

U

9, 57, 131

38

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nonanum
noonshem
missin
peewauqun
niaut
wawhush
mauchatous!
kunniish
pake
chowwopha
assawompat
ntaquie

kutchimoke
pepenash!
chenawaus
tauntau
saumpeekunnem
see “money”
see “shake for cold”
tak, taq, tahk, tauk
qusquatchim
peyau

see “go, come by land”
see “go down”
tinneapeeyaum
naunt
aumpauchau
petite
ntackowwepeyaun

wussaum pechepausha
yo nowaum
umwock

39

ENGLISH
Cannot, "I cannot"
Cannot, "I cannot"
Captive, take
Care, "Have a care"
Carry on one's back
Carry on one's back
Carry this!
Carry, "I will carry
you"
Cast away, divorce
Cast overboard
Change money
Cease, “I will cease,
stop” (see “do not do,”
Part II)
Cheer, “Be of good
cheer”
Choice , take!
Churlish, crass, bold
Climb
Cloth , tear off too little
Coin
Cold
Cold (weather)
Cold , feel
Come (from a place
other
than
where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
Come by land
Come down
Come for no business
Come for, fetch
Come from hunting
Come in to enclosed
structure
Come in vain, “I have
lost my labor (come in
vain)”
Come in, “the sea
comes in too fast”
Come, "I came that
way"
Come, "they come"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
III
I
U
I
I
IV
B

163
163, 6, 34, 40, 194
188
40
41, 38
41, 38
38
73

I
II
II
U

150, 44, 183, 108
109
155, 156
179

U

202

I
II
M
II

42
186, 166
97
165

U
II
II

18, 75, 82, 83
33, 58, 83
8, 6, 9, 63, 77, 34, 7,
142, 35, 59, 168, 72

II
II
II
III

77
6, 35, 34, 33
172, 176
7, 142, 35, 7

II

77

U

109

U

3, 4

U

4

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
awanick paudhuck
cowaum
pee
esh
hom, om, oom, um, waum

mishoonhom
anawat, anow, anawayean
see “associate”
see “Thank you for
company”
cutehanshishaumo
quenowau
nowechussettimmin
nowepinnachick
wopwawnonckquat
tuppaunt
see “speak on”
pummenummin teaquash
aup
mattaacucquass!
kuttiemaunsh
saunqui
aket
maumaneeteantass

puttuckhumma!
kemehette
penayi
pemisquai
see “go by, pass”
mauo
yo wutteantawwaw

ENGLISH
Come, “who comes
there?”
Come, "you come"
Come, be present
Come, came, went, go,
gone
Come, go from a place
other
than
where
speaker is
Come, go by boat
(canoe)
Command, say, speak
Companion, he is my
your Company
Company, “How many
are in your company?”
Complain
Confederates, “we are
confederates”
Confederates,
companions in war
Confusion, panic,
hubbub
Consider
Continue speaking
Contribute to the wars
Cook, roast
Cook,dress!
Cook/dress, "I dress
(cook) for you"
Cool, “it is cool”
Count money
Courage, “You
(plural)--be of good
courage”
Cover me! (w/blanket)
Creep
Crooked (see “bent”)
Crooked, winding
Cross over
Cry, “he cries”
Cure “he is acting his
cure”

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

110

U
I
III

3
34, 63, 6, 44, 74
44, 3, 70, 201, 4, 77

U

3-4, 8, 70, 100

II

8, 72

U

7, 139, 141, 90

U

8

II
II

61
187

II

187

U

184

I

189, 190

II
U
II
B

185
11, 114
14
12

II
I
U

12
164
109

U
M
U
U

195
172
46
46

U
U

43
199

40

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
powwaw nippetea
cotchik
Timequassin
pawcomwush, paacomwush
manisimmin
waskishaas
pauochau
mish
michemeshawi
chachewunnea
kitonckque
mashackquneaum
ncupsa
nnadgecom
cuttassokakomme
coanombuqusse
kuttassokakomme
wuttauqussin
mishkom
see “leave”
see “long for”
pauquan
nip14, nup
pannawaut
mooshkishattous!
quamph
sekine
touagonnausinnum
paushinu
chippachausin

14

Also the root for noun "water".

41

ENGLISH
Curing, “the priest is
curing him”
Cut
Cut off head
Cut wood
Cut, mow
Damaged, in need of
repair, “gapt”
Dance
Dead , name the
Dead, “he is gone
(dead) forever”
Dead, “he is nearly
dead”
Dead, be dead, perish
Dearth, distress
Deaf, “I am deaf”
Debts, “I come to
collect debts”
Deceive, "You deceive
me"
Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Deceived, "you have
deceived me"
Deep (water, etc.)
Deer , find
Depart
Desire
Destroy, slaughter
Die
(see “to be dying”)
Disbelieve (see “do not
believe”)
Disclose!
Dish out, serve
Dislike, unwilling
Distress, misery
(see “dearth”)
Divide
Divides, "the way
divides"

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

198

II
U
III
II
U

13
50
33
96
165

II
I
U

178
202
201

U

201

II
II
U
U

201, 200, 138, 130,
135, 201
15
196
168

D

162

D

162

D

162

IV
II

73
173

II
II

138, 188
138, 201, 144

I

56

IV
I
I
II

46
15
166, 187
74

II
IV

176, 42
69

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
see “cast away”
aquie wussaumowosh!
see “disbeleive”
machinam
tawhitch yo enean
nummachieme
nokanish!
see “sleep, lodge, dream”
see “cook, roast”
wuttat
waumatous!
koshkowwaum
nikkoshkowwaumen
paq
pawsunnummin
poquiitie
wek
pausawut kitonckquewa
meych, meitch, meech, mech
see “give me to eat”
moho
metesi
mauchepwut
waump
muchikineanau
see "stretching"
wunnaumwauonck
tetupsh
panishkokom
anuckquaque
kush
wesass
see “go to feast”
natup
quttaunsh!
naus!
aseneshesh!

ENGLISH
Divorce
Do not ask too much!
Do not believe
Do not like
Do so, “Why do you do
so?”
Done ill, "I have done
ill"
Down , take it!
Dream
Dress (prepare) food
Drink
Drink!
Drown
Drowned, “We shall be
drowned”
Dry
Dry, "To dry this or
that"
Dwell together
Dwell, inhabit, live
Dying, “he cannot live
long”
Eat
Eat
Eat (cannibalize)
Eat (in general)
Eat, after he has eaten
Enough, have
Enumerate
Extended in time or
space
Faithfulness,
truthfulness
Fall down
Fall, let something
Far
Fear
Fear
Feast
Feed, graze
Feel it!
Fetch!
Fetch small sticks!

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

U

162

II
U

159
143

U

144

II

108

I
IV
II
II

12, 14
12
108
108

U
U

83
42

II
IV
U

32
4, 3, 20, 31, 136, 180
200

V

13, 11, 12, 14, 10, 194

C
II
II
V
II

16
194, 10, 13
13-14
16
115

U

57

III
II
U
C
M

43
75
72
186, 135
186

II
A
U
III

105
161
35
33

42

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
wame kussopita nohock
nnanotissu
natatupe note (or)
natatupe chickot
chachepis
nishque?
juhet
mecaunte
numwautous!
namite
muchickautau
see “shot”
potauntash!
maumashinnaunamauta!
potawash!
mauataun
aum
semu
ptowei
tuttepacunnish
cummattanish
asso?15, assotu, assoko
wannan
nowannechick
& nowannesin
nickatash
aumanskitteaug
pepemoi
see “hunting, fowling”
wetompat, wepinnat
nowetompatimmin
taquat
yo naumwauteg
mouwinne, mowinne (see "meet")
see "fetch!"
machage nkockie

15

ENGLISH
Fever, fire
Fever, “I have a fever”
Fever, “My body
burns”; “I am all on
fire”
Fierce
Fierce
Fight
Fight
Fill the dish!
Find
Fine, nice, pretty
Fire a shot (arrow, etc.)
Fire, blow!
Fire, let us make a
good fire!
Fire, make!
Fire, tend
Fish
Flee
Fly, “it is fled”
Fold, fold it up!
Follow, "I will follow
you"
Foolish
Forget
Forget,
"I
have
forgotten"
Forsake
Fortify, they
Fowl, “he is gone to
(hunt) fowl”
Fowling
Friend, be friends,
confederates
Friends, “we are
friends”
Frozen, iced
Full, thus full
Gather
Get!
Get, "I get nothing”

VERB
TYPE
U
U
U

195
195
195

II
II
II
M
IV
IV
U

182
182, 132
183
183
13
37
163

I
III

34
33

I
I
M
II
U
U
B

34
19
114
186
91
161
71

II
I
U

40, 41
8
5, 75

M
U
U

74
166
88

II

187, 166, 190

II

187

U
U
III

75
39
97

U

163

The ? denotes a "stop" (perhaps glottal stop) that Williams represents with a /t/ or /k/.

43

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
mauk, maug
tassam
cummaugakemish
nanoue
wuttammasin, petassina
squutame
wuttush!
see “peace, capitulate”
commeinsh
commesim
assame
nowemacaunash
weeteant
wecont
see "come, came..."
mauche & memmauche

ntoyamaushem

konkenupsh
caupaush
kautanaush
pittucke
negonsh
pumme
punnowwau
nattuckqunuw
sawhe
mammauchetuck! or
anakiteunck!
neene cuthomwock
mauanish
kekinneawau
naumakiauog
matux puckquatchick auwaw
nanowwete

ENGLISH
Give, offer, present,
sell
Give nourishment
Give land, "I will give
you land"
Give me (this or that)
“Give me tobacco”
“Give me your pipe”
Give me!
Give up, surrender
Give, "I give to you"
Give, "give it to me"
Give, "give me to eat"
Give, "I'll give these
things"
Glad, be glad
Glad, happy, have a
mind to
Go
Go (from a place where
speaker is or assumes
to be)
Go apace (at a certain
speed), "I go this
speed"
Go apace (same speed)
Go ashore
Go away, depart
Go back
(see “return”)
Go before
Go by, pass, cross over
Go down, come down
Go fishing
Go forth
Go, “Let us be going!”
Go, "now they go off"
Go slowly or gently
Go to feast
Go to hell, "They go to
hell or the deep"
Go to stool, “He cannot
go to stool”
Go to visit

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

V

44, 164, 166

C
B

15, 14
166

U
U
U
U

164
15
15
43

U
U
C
U

44, 162
38, 162, 163, 44, 161
12
129, 169

I
I

59, 136
59, 71

II

9, 70, 73, 202

III

71

III
III
III
II

71
110
9
77

III
II
II
III
M
II

70, 72
72
97, 116, 173
114
41
70

U
III
II
E

76
129
136

III

198

III

195
44

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
taquatchowau
see “accompany”
nickquenum
yo aunta, yo cuttaunan
nittome (see "hom...")
auog
tunock kuttoyeaim
kuttome (see "hom...")
ana?e & anaki & annetei

aukewush
pummish
an
see "come, came..."
see “greeting”
wunnetu nitta
wunnetu
waunkam, waunckam
as cowequassin
as cowequassunnummis

nowant or nowaunt
loas
tackhum
cummauchanish
see “return...”
naumpacouin
augwhattous!
kukkeechequaubenitch
see “glad”
man:ne
sanapaushaum
pockquanam
noteaugo
nitasha
wachaun
45

ENGLISH
Go uphill
Go with, accompany
Go, "I am returning
home to my family"
Go, "go that way"
Go, "I go"
Go, “they go”
Go, "whither go you"
Go, "you go"
Go, be going from a
place without reference
to where or why
Go, come by land
Go, travel
Going
beyond,
exceeding
Gone
Good day, morning
Good, "My heart is
good, pure"
Good, pure, proper
Greet, salute
Greeting, "good
morrow (day)" (In
nothern dialects,
"Hello" is said "quay")
Grieve
Grieve
Grind
Guide, "I will conduct
(guide) you
Handle cloth
Hang around neck
(necklace)
Hang it!
Hang, "You shall be
hanged"
Happy
Hate
Have bloody flix
Have unknown disease
Have, “I have
‘money' " (wampum)
Have, "I have"
Have, keep

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II

75

I

31

U
U
II
U
U
II

69
4, 70, 110
135
70
4, 70
9, 70, 73

III
III

9, 72, 8
71, 77, 200
general root

U

51, 53, 189

U
C
U

53
2, 189
2

I
IV
II
B

144, 201
201
15
69

IV

157

IV
U

46
144

C
II
II
U

187
198
197
169

U
I

15, 40
159, 40

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
cussawontap
pompitam
kukkit
awaun mesh kuppittouwaw
wusseheposh!
qussuck
see “busy”
tannum
aununema
yo aphettit
see “moon” & “sun”
taunt
tam
anoce wenawash!
kuttannoonsh
see “strike”
anaskhom
wauapunish!
paupautuckquash!
kusopita, kussopita
cattup
ntiyu, ntio
see “come from hunting”
auchau
see “frozen”
nanompan
upponckquittauwh
see “dwell”
nippansinnea
mat mesh nowahea

see “ask”
wechuset, wepinnat
see “have, keep”
see "live alone"
nish

ENGLISH
Headache
Hear
(see “understand”)
Hear,
listen
(see
“understand”)
Hear, "Of whom did
you hear it"?
Heave out the water!
Heavy (stone)
Heed
Help
Help me!
Here, “when they are
here”
High (of moon, sun)
High, "sun so high"
Hinder, bother
Hire him!
Hire, "I will hire you"
Hit
Hoe
Hoist up! Lift up!
Hold water!
Hot, it's hot (see
"burn"; "sweat")
Hungry
Hunt, “I hunt”
Hunting
Hunting, fowling
Iced, frozen
Idle or base
Imprison
Inhabit
Innocent,
"I
am
innocent"
Innocent, “I was
innocent (knew
nothing)”
Inquire
Join together
Keep, have
Keep house alone, live
alone
Kill

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I
II

194
5

C

55, 135
54

U

110
44, 73, 96, 157

C
U
U

39, 108
39
59

U
C
I
B

63
35, 36
69
69

II
II
I
U

98, 99
108, 195
109
13, 195

II
U

10, 12
175

II

88, 172

II
II

143
143

U

144

U

38

II

187

V

144, 189, 143

46

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
nauntatau
nneesnneanna
wau, wawwau, waww
nowahea
see “work”
pauchewannauog
Niautamwock

mauog
see “buy land”
ahan
cuttun
naponsh!
nipponamauoog
ponewhush!
see “put, lay”
nickat
namacowke
auqunnish
cupshitteauag
pannau
nishin
wequanantash!
nauk
wekine
nowetipo
see “do not like”
see "hear (kukkit)"
notate
konkeete
ti
mechimuash!
see “sleep, lodge, dream”
cattite
cattaunt
anaquau
see “to look about”

47

ENGLISH
Kill , come to
Kill, “ I have killed
two (deer, etc.)”
Know
Know, "I knew"
Labor, work, job
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Laden,
"They
are
laden"
Lame, “I am lame”
Lament, "They lament"
Land, buy land
Laugh, merry
Launch
Lay down!
Lay nets, “I lay nets for
them (fish, animals) ”
Lay own your burden!
Lay, lay in place
Leave, depart (see
"forsake")
Lend, lend me
Let go
Lie, “they lie in wait
(ambush)”
Lie, speak untruth
Lies, is situated
Light a fire!
Light in weight
Like
Like, “I like this”
Like, do not like
Listen
Live alone, keep house
alone
Live, be well
Live, dwell
Load it!
Lodge, sleep
Long for, desire, want
Long for, desire, want
Look
Look about, view

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

C
U

188
172

U
U

57, 38, 144, 70
38, 57

E

41

I

38, 41

U
E

196
136

II
I
A
U

178
108
42
91

A

78

I

44

U
II
U

38
39
186

III
IV
A
II
I
U

55, 162
69
33
44, 74
159
15

III

46

III
IV
I

3, 144
4
185

I
I
II

15, 172
15
44

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
shookekineas!
kekine
nowawwon
cowauwaunemun
wammaun, wamm

cuttiantacompawmen
nweche kokkewem
keesit
see “tie”
yimmi
see “people”
awetawatuock

wussenetuock
tatuppauntwa
nockuskau
miawe
wauwhautowash!
wunnite
kunnanaumpasummish
see “laugh”
cummauntussakou
Cuppissittone
nowannakese
see “scorner”
natouwompite
Yo wuttutan
netashin, newutchashinea
see “black”
qussut
see “cut, mow”
cosaumakese

ENGLISH
Look at this!
Look at, behold
Lose way, "I lose my
way"
Lost, “You are lost in
the woods, wandering”
Love
(see “Thank you for
your love”)
Lying, "you are a lying
fellow"
Mad, "I will be mad
with him"
Make, complete, create
(see “Fire”)
Make fast, tie up
Make this for me
Many
Marry, “they make a
match, live together in
same wetu”
Marry, “They marry”
Measure, weigh
Meet
Meet, a court
Meeting , call!
Mend
Mercy , mercy
Merry, happy
Missed, “You have
missed him”
Mistaken, "you are
mistaken"
Mistold,
"I
have
mistold"
Mocker, scorner
Money, coin
Moon, the moon so
high
More, there is no more
Mourning
Move residence
Mow, cut
Much, “You have told
too much”

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I
I
U

39, 164
39, 169, 37, 38, 39, 164
70

II

132

C

8, 148, 189, 186

II

142

III

187

IV

57, 130, 131, 13, 110,
192, 132, 133, 134

U

61

U

146

U
II
M
II
I
IV
B

146
165, 164
73, 74
142
142
41
189

U

77

U

132

U

164, 168, 162

III
U

156
63

U

33

I

36, 46

U

164

48

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
kemine
nipposkiss
wesuonck
ussaw
wesuonckgonnakaunes
aquie mishommoke
taantussaweitch
matnowesuonck
ntussawese
tahena
tahossowetam
see “hang around neck”
cowawwunnaunchim
aunchemok, aunchem(?)
see “fine, nice, pretty”
see “more”
see “disbelieve”
see “Believe,obey I believe you”
pauquanam
see “oversee”
sog, sok
nowwunnem
quawupshaw
kunnoonamautuckquash
chesam,chesammat
aunake
see “confusion”
pum
naumpat
taunckquitt
keeskwh
kummuchickonckquatous
cuppaimish

49

ENGLISH
Murder
Naked, "I am naked"
(see "robbed")
Name, a
Name
Name, call
Name, “Do not name
the dead”
Name, "do you ask my
name"
Name, "I have no
name"
Name, "my name is"
Name, "what is his
name"
Name, "what the name
of it"
Necklace
News, " he tells false
news "
News, tell
Nice, fine, pretty
No more
not believe
Obey
Open
Order, oversee
Out-going (of water,
etc.)
Oversee,
order,
command
Overset (in canoe)
Owe, “I will owe you”
Pain, sore
Paint
(see “write”)
Panic, confusion
Passing by, crossing
Pay
Pay
Pay
Pay, "I will pay you
well"
Pay, “I will pay you”

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

C
U

76, 143
118, 119

U
U
U
I

5
5-6
133
202

U

5

U

5

U
U

5
6

U

6

U

54

III

54, 132

C

38
general root

II

128

II
II
I
II

109
169
194, 195
192

IV
C
U
B

general root
168, 169
69
168
69

B

161

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
aque
maunauog
& wussaumemaunauog
wesauashaui
aukeeteau
wunnaugonhommin
akes
nummacheke
machetu
soken16
mamaskishaui
neesquttonckqus
peeyaunt
cuckquenamish
see “fine, nice, pretty”
see “curing”
wuttautnish!
mauminikish!
see “good”
onamatta cowauta !
caudnish!
ocquash!
sawhok
ponam
anit
see “pour out”
waupaupunish!
pawtuckquammin
keete
mequaunam
see "take out"
see “return”
tauntap
aquei
see “I am returning home”
16

ENGLISH
Peace, capitulate, a
subject
People, there are too
many
Plague, "He has the
plague"
Plant corn
Play, dice game
Play, score
Poor, “I am a poor
man”
Poor, he is poor
Pour out, rain
Pox, "he has the pox"
Prate, cackle (like hen)
Pray
Pray favor, "I pray your
favor"
Pretty, nice
Priest, curing ill
Pull to you!
Pull up! Row lustily!
Tie it hard!
Pure
Pursue, let us pursue!
Put off!
Put on!
Put out
Put, lay in place

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II

189, 141, 129

U

60

E

196

II
II
II
II

98
145-46
178, 179
169

II
II
E
II
I
B

36
12
196
45
20, 130
2

II
II

108
108, 110

III
II
I
C
III

186
119
119
41
203, 19, 33, 91, 116,
199
175, 101

Putrefied, it is
U
Rain
Raise up!, Lift up!
U
(head, etc.,)
Reach
II
Recover ("with life III
again")
Remember
II
Remove, take out
Repent (of sin)
Rest
II
Rest, “He rested”
II
Return home

195
40
194, 199
190, 7, 41

74
134

"Rain" is based on this root
50

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
pittakunnam

ENGLISH

Return, handle cloth,
turn, repent
tannot
Revenge, get revenge
wenawwetu
Rich, he is rich
wunnia naynayoumewot
Rides, “He rides on
horseback”
pasuckquish!
Rise!
see “cook”
Roast, cook
nummokokunitch
Rob, "I am robbed"
(see “steal”)
chechequnnuwau
Rob, steal
(see “steal”)
noonapummin autashehettit
Room, “there is not
enough room for so
many people”
see “They don’t have enough Room, not enough
room”
see “row canoe”
Row canoe
quaunquaque, quaque
Run
pauchippow
Run for safety
see “run for safety”
Safety
sepagehommauta !
Sail, let us sail!
agehucka
Sailing , have wind for
keesauname!
Save me!
nawont
Saw, he saw
eatch keen anawayean or
Say, "let all be as you
enatch keen anawayean
say" ("Your will shall
be law")
tunnau, teau, teaw, tunnaw
Say, speak
(see
“command”,
“tell”)
see “play, score”
Score, play
meshannant, meyaont
Scorn, indignation
kekaumw
Scorner, mocker
natinneha
Search
(see “ask”)
nun
See
nawonash
See, "I did not see these
things"
see "give" (mauk,maug)
Sell, buy, present
negautowash!
Send for him!
nnegauchemish
Send, “He sends to me”
see “subject”
Servant, “he is my”
see “dish out”
Serve food, etc.

51

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II

75, 165, 139

I
II
U

141
36
72

II

73

U

183

II

76

II

35

II
III

71, 73
186

III
II
U
U
E

108
87
186
134
141, 190

III

57, 61, 7, 134

I
M
II

183
186
37

C
U

7
142, 201

U
U

42, 43
43

NARRAGANSETT
VERB

ENGLISH

nteatchin, yo nteatchin

Shake for cold ("I
shake for cold")
ntatuppe wunnepog
Shake, "I shake as a
leaf"
tatagganish!
Shake this!
pumm
Shoot (as an arrow)
peskhom
Shoot (as thunderbolt,
gun)
tiaquonqussu
Short, he is
awaun necawni aum piasha
Shot, “who fired the
first shot”
kakatom
Show, tell
kupha, cup
Shut, closed, deaf
mauchen
Sick (see “have bloody
flix,” “Have unknown
disease,” “plague” &
“ail”)
chassaqunsin (correct spelling is Sick, "how long hath
“tassaqunsin”)
he been sick"?
see “dance”
Sing
wetapwauwwas
Sit and talk
mattapsh!
Sit down!
ap
Sit, be at home, here
kussackquetuck!
Sit, let us sit down!
ap
Sitting, staying
see “lies”
Situated, lie
tawho
Slain
see “destroy”
Slaughter
wunna kukkussaquam
Sleep much, "You
sleep much"
nkataquam
Sleep, "I am sleepy"
kowe, koue, cowe
Sleep, lodge
quo
cussassaqus
quitchemaunta
machemoqut
puck
wutttamauog
wunnashpishan
see “pain”
nnowautum or nnowauntum
antow, antau, auntow
penowantau

Sleep, lodge, dream (w/
compound verbs)
Slow, “You are slow”
Smell
Smell, “it smells ill”
Smoke
Smoke tobacco
Snatch away
Sore
Sorry, “I am sorry”
Speak
Speak another language

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

IV

195

U

195

II
V
II

42
172
84, 184

II
U

53
183

C
II
III

69, 132, 136
36, 196, 113
9, 169, 193, 194

IV

195

U
A
II
II

57
6, 7
34, 41, 74, 59
74
general root

U

188

U

20

U
II
II

17
17, 18, 134, 170, 195,
9, 20, 130
17, 19, 18

II
II
U
U
U
U

77
101, 14
175
32
45
43

I
U
M

144, 201
8-9, 55, 141-42
9, 55
52

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
awanagusantowosh!
cuttawanagusantowam?
eenantowash!
nutteenantowam
cutteenantowam?
natotema
mishauntowash!
nanantowash!
see "truth"
kekuttokau
kukkokash!
enapwauwaw, eississumo
cuttoan
neepoue
nippaskanauntum
cuppompaish
kuttaskwhe, kuttasha
nqenouhick wuttin
see “bed”
kumoot, cummoot, kummoot
kinnequass!
saumpi
seip, seep, sepa
tatakom
see “thread”
minak, minik
cumminakese
ntannotam
Yo autant
nickqussittaunum
pesuppau
mocquesui
aquechmock
mat nowewuttammo

53

ENGLISH
Speak English!
Speak, "Do you speak
English"
Speak Indian!
Speak, "I speak Indian"
Speak, "Do you speak
Indian"?
Speak on, continue
Speak out!
Speak plain!
Speak the truth
Speak with
Speak!
Speak, "He speaks
Indian"
Speak, "you speak"
Stand
Starved, "I am almost
starved"
Stay, "I will stay for
you"
Stay, "stay for me"
Stay, wait, “ I stay for
the wind”
Stays in bed
Steal, rob
Steer (canoe)!
Straight
Stretching, extending in
tme or space
Strike
String, thread
Strong
Strong,
"you
are
strong"
Subject, "He is my
subject"
Sun, the sun so high
Sweat, perspire, hot “I
sweat (perspire)”
Sweat
Swell, "he is swelled"
Swim, “they swim”
Take none, “I take none
(tobacco)”

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I

8
reconstructed

I

8
reconstructed
reconstructed

U
I
I

131
142
142

M
III
U

35, 57, 189
57
57

V
II
III

57
6
12

B

70

U
U

40
86

V
I
U

C

142-3, 179, 174, 136
109
42
general root
75, 94-5, 108
113, 183

U
U

52
52

II

141

U
III

34
83

II
II
U
U

197
196
91
44

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
aumaun
see “busy”
see "dish out, serve"
menakissam
mat mesh nummammenash
see “sit and talk”
qunnauqussu
quitcheta
cummachetannakunnamous
see “much”
cunnoonakese
& cosaumakese
ntunnan
kuttunnan
see “cannot tell”
nowannakese
see “show”
taubat, taup, taub
taubot wetayean
taubotne aunanamean
taubotne anawayean
naneeshaumo
netashin, newutchasinea
noonapuock
teant
tunnant
tussinam
cawk
enomphommin
pockhom
pawtawtees!
nawwuttunsh!
peskhommin
kepun
see “weary”
nuppamen

ENGLISH
Take away
Take care of, heed,
busy
Take out food, remove
Take store
Take, "I did not take
them"
Talk
Tall, "he is tall"
Taste
Tear, "I have torn it off
for you"
Tell too much
Tell too much, "You
have told too much"
Tell, "I tell"
Tell, "you tell"
Tell, cannot tell
Tell, I have mistold”
Tell, say
Thank
Thank, "I thank you for
your company"
Thank, "I thank you for
your love"
Thank, "I thank you"
There are two of us
(and other numbers)
There is no more
They don't have enough
room for everyone
Think
Think
Think
Thirsty
Thread, string
Thresh
Throw here, hither!
Throw hither!
Thunder, to
Tie, Make fast
(see “pull up”)
Tired
To be dying

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

I

39, 144, 150

II
U

115
143, 163

II
II
B

53
12
165

U

164, 167

U
U

41
46, 41

U

164

I
E

2, 7, 134, 14, 35, 70,
120
70

II

7

E
II

7
8

U
U

33
60

I
I
II
U
II
II
III
A
II
M

58
58, 86, 131
194
10
157
100
42
42, 43
84
186, 110

II

189
54

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
wussaumpatammin
petasinna,
wuttammasin
tanocki, tanocksha
anaqushento
quaquawtatatteaug
mouashaw
see “go, travel”
mucco

ENGLISH

To look about, view
Tobacco, "Give me
tobacco"
Torn, it is torn
Trade, “let us trade”
Train, "They train"
Traps , set
Travel
True, "It is true you
say"
noonamautuckquawhe
Trust me
wanaumw:17;
wunnaumw:; Truth , speak the
aumun:; anaumw:; nauwm:
(see “faithfulness”)
nowauwon
Truth, "I shall know the
truth"
see “faithfulness”
Truthfulness
waut
Understand,
believe,
know
cuppittous
Understand, hear, "I
understand you"
aumpani
Untie
see “dislike”
Unwilling
awau?
Use
yo iish wuttanho
“Use this staff (walking
stick)”
nickummaunam
Vanquish
wussaumpatamonck
View, a view
(see “look about”)
nnanowweteem
Visit, “I am going to
visit”
munnadtom
Vomit
toceke
Wade (in water)
see “stay, wait”
Wait
toke
Wake
nickquehick
Want, "I want it"
(see “long for”)
queint
War , make upon
awass
Warm
apissuma!
Warm this for me!
kesu, hesu
Warm, it is warm
chowhesu
Warm, "it is warm"
17

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

II
U

73
15

U
U
E
II

161
159
184
172

U

6

U
III

167
55, 56, 57, 59, 169

U

57, 38, 144

I

8, 56, 36, 9

U

56, 54

II

42

M
U

44
74

C
II

189
73

III

195

II
II

196
73

II
U

19, 97, 116, 173
42, 159

III
II
U
II
II

188
7, 33
42
12
12

The symbol ":" is used for root/stem endings to indicate a "reduced vowel" (usually an a, e or i) before
the suffix beginning with a consonant.
.

55

NARRAGANSETT
VERB
cutsshitteous!
askwhitteass!
minioquesu
cumminiocquese
wenawetuonckon
aumaunemun
nsouwwussanneme
sowwushkaw
& sowanishkau
monaskunnemun
see “measure”
paumpmaunt
see "come, came..."
Tuckiiuash
sasaumitauwh
sere “sailing”
cheskhosh!
waunt, wauont
taupowaw
wussenet
anacaus, anakaus
wuttunnantu
yo anawhonw
wesquaubenan
wussuckwh, suckwh
cowewenaki

ENGLISH

VERB
TYPE

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Wash this!
Watch!
Weak, "he is weak"
Weak, “you are weak”
Wealth
Wean, to
Weary, “I am weary
from speaking”
Weary, tired

IV
I
U
U
U
II
U

42
185
53
53
53
150
55

II

17, 74

Weed, to
Weigh, measure
Well, be well, fare well
Went
Where are they?
Whip
Wind for sailing
Wipe off!
Wise
Wise speaker
Woo
Work, labor
Worth it, it is
Wounded, “I am
wounded”
Wrap up (deceased) in
mats
Write, paint
Wronged, "You have
wronged me"

II

100

I

2, 3

U
II

36
143

A
I
U
M
II
U
U

192
190, 141
52
146
134, 98
163
188

U

150

II
D

121, 192, 61
202

56

PART II
DICTIONARY OF NOUNS
——
Roots and Stems For Nouns, Adjectives, &c,
Listed Alphabetically by
English & Narragansett

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

ALPHABETICAL
BY ENGLISH1

see “upwards”
nneickomasu &
awwassese
-panna-2, -penowutche machaug
-sim-, -sum-, -saewepe
ogwhan
mammausa
wonck, wonkatack
see "front"
wame, waumet
yahen
see “left”
see “left”
paucotche

Above
A little further
A modifier in verbs which reverses
the meaning of the primary root
About nothing, out of nothing, last
of all
Action of heat, heating, burning
Accusation, demand; verb
modifier
Adrift, boat is
Adulterer, he, she is (see
"disease")
Again, more, once again, some
more
Ahead, in front
All, it is all
Almost, approximately
Alive, no one left alive
Alone, no one left
Already, it is ready

43
9, 55-6, 162
42, 132-3
42, 179
139, 189, 142-3, 179
108
146
9, 33, 201, 38

14, 34, 195, 133, 139, 134
62-3

42

1

Some meanings attached to roots/stems may not appear in the Roger Williams book, A Key. Also, some
roots/stems might be listed or duplicated in Part I of the book. For additional words and roots, see our
book, A Massachusett Language Book, Vol. 1, 1998, Aquidneck Indian Council. The page numbers
indicate where examples are given in Roger Williams' book. Stress/accent marks are not included.
2
The hyphen shows where in a word the root/stem is most likely to be found. The entry -panna- tells us
that "panna" will usually be found in the middle of a word as in Cuppannawâutous ("I do not believe you";
page 56, A Key). The root "-ashim" will usually be found at the end of a word, while "pee-" is seen at the
beginning of words.

57

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

nanick
see “forever”
kunnosnep
nukkone

Also, too, same
Always, eternal
Anchor
Ancient (see "first")

ka
-ashim, -shim, -washim
squashim
enewashim
see “who”
-pitcauquat
machippog
see “so far"
-wekweque, -weksee “just now”
neane
-ip, -up, -it

And
Animal
Animal, female
Animal, male
Anyone
Arm
Arrow
Arrow quiver (empty?)
As far as
As far as, so far (part of verbs)
As far as, so far, at the end
As soon as
As, like, so, such, in the manner of
At end of some verbs, means the
verb is past tense
At, in, of, to, place of, where, it is,
here, when it is
At, of (possession, trait)

-at, -et, -it, -ot, -ut, -ag, -og
-ek,-at, -ik, -ick, -ock,
-ocks
-i

-uo, -unno, -no, -o, -mo
(see "none of")

-ickqun, -uckqun, -ucqun

-uck, -ick, -it, -eg

-is, -mis, -as, -us
taquonck

Attached to nouns or verbs to
mean something is happening now
(sokenuni = “it is raining now”)
Attached to nouns, these endings
ask the question, “Is there ...?”,
"Have you?" or state "None of",
"There is none of"
Attached to Objective Indicative
verbs (He, she—me &
He, she—you(sg.). These endings
probably mean the object (“me” &
“you”) should be plural. Roger
Williams is perhaps mistaken in
his translation
Attached to some nouns to indicate
location, meaning “in, to, of, at,
there, from” (see "-euck",
Narragansett section, below)
Attached to verbs to indicate a
question, usually past tense verbs
Autumn, Fall, harvest

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
58
109
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
2, 190, 133-4
103, 105
105
105
65
184
184
44
44
Throughout A Key
15, 34, 65-6, 134, 70
11-13, 82-3, 200 &
Throughout A Key
Throughout A Key

4, 10, 94-5,13, 160-1, 28

68, 76, 123, 138, 174, 1889, 195

3-4, 31, 46, 166, 180 &
throughout A Key

6, 8, 66, 147-8
65-6

58

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

puckwheganash &
mucksuck
papoos
-pusquan
mattand, mattanit

Awl blades

156

Baby
Back
Bad, evil Spirit

machit
mach-, mache-, mauch-

Bad, evil, it is
Bad, not, poor, sour, stink

-mat-, -matta- (mattux is
plural form)

Bad, not, unpleasant (when in a
verb) or before a verb to mean
"not"

6, 28
51, 65
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
36
14-15, 26-7, 42-3, 56, 115,
132, 142, 163, 168-9, 175,
194-5, 142, 159, 193-4
3-5, 7-10, 12-13, 33-4, 38,
40-2, 44, 55-8, 60, 68, 74-5,
87, 132, 135-6, 142-4, 169,
192, 198, 201

see "knapsack"
onawangonnakaun
wuchipaquamen
muckucki
auqunnash
munnote
missuckeke
eatch, enatch
manusqusedash
tuppuhqumash

Bag
Bait
Barberry (red berry, prickly pear)
Bare, without wool (see "boy, ...")
Barns
Basket (& quantities)
Bass
Be as, say as is, your will
Beans (bush)
Beans (kidney)

mosquand
mosq, paukunawwaw
pennashimwock
see “grind”
see “good, pleasing, ...”
sumhup
tummock
noosup
tummockquashunck
newutche, wutche

Bear Spirit
Bear, a
Beasts
Beat
Beautiful
Beaver (female)
Beaver (in general)
Beaver (male)
Beaver-fur coat
Because, for, before (see "There,
of")
Belly, the
Bent, crooked, it is (see
“crooked”)
Berry, fruit, corn
Beside, near to
Between, midway
Big, how big?
Big, large, whole, much

wunnake
wauki
-min-, -mensee "near to"
nanashawtou anuckquaque
mish-, miss-, mash-, mass-

117
97
160
101
100-1
112
141, 190
11
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
Author's Construction
80, 175
102

103
103, 119, 161
103
119
138 & elsewhere
52
42
11, 15, 95-8, 100-1
63, 110
43
To the Reader, 15, 60, 68,
80, 83-4, 87, 106-7, 132,
142, 109, 112-113,175,

59

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
npeshawog &
pussuckseesuck
mowisequt
mow-, mochogan
see "red'
peshaui

ENGLISH

Birds, fowl
Black (see “dark color”)
Black soot
Black, soiled

attitaash
see “shallop”, “ship, boat”
wuhock
nuhock
-ock-, -hockmuhock

Blackbird (spotted)
Blood
Blue/violet flower. Ooni is “blue”
in Natick dialect
Blueberries, hurtleberries
Boat (European)
Body, his, her
Body, my
Body, shell
body, the

kuhock
wuskannaumatuck
ohtomp

Body, your
Bone
Bottom, on the
Bow, shooting

puppuckshackhege
-muck-tipsee "tree"
munnucks
see “round cake”
sickqumishcup, sequananmau-nunnogan
toyusk
papuckakiuash
-matchickauta
naim, namitch
awepu, awepesha
wuttanho
mohowaugsuck &
mauquauog
mishoonemese
-oon, mishoon
wompmissaund
mishittouwand

Box, a
Boy, son, child
Brain
Branch of tree
Brant, brantgoose
Bread
Break (for “succotash”)
Breame (fish)
Breast, milk (see “milk”)
Bridge
Brittle
Brother
Burn (see “fire”)
By and by, soon (see “soon”)
Calm, storm calms
Cane, staff
Cannibals (Mohawk Indians,
Iroquois)
Canoe, a little one
Canoe, boat, ship
Canoe, chestnut
Canoe, large

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
182, 188
88, 133
42, 191
201
42, 52, 103, 105, 191, 116,
119
89
97, 191
97
130
130
130
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
130
113, 175
39
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
42
3, 28, 190
49
90
11
113
150
94
156
28-9, 34
139, 195
35
109
74
16
107
8, 72, 106-108
108
107

60

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
paugautemissaund
kowawwaund
comishoon
peewauqun
netasuog
see "stop"
paugcotche
wompiminneech-, nechmuchquachuckquand
muckiis auhaqut
nquittekea
see “squirrel (1)”
siskisspauqui
-monak-, -maunekmattauqus
-pacwautcone
pauganaut
see “cool”
taucocks
see “-unck, -onck, onckon” ( Narragansett
section)

nesick & nashoqua
hub-hub-hub
kits
-waw, -quaw
wopwawnockquat
shwishcuttowwauog
qunnihticut, quinnibticut
chippapuock
mattacuckquaw

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Canoe, oak
Canoe, pine
Canoe, your canoe
Canounicus (Narragansett Sachim)
Care, have a care
Cattle (plural)
Cease from doing
Certainly, surely
Chestnut
Child
Child Spirit
Child's cape, mantle
Children “I have had one child
(etc.)”
Chipmunk
Christian Religious sermon
Clam, black
Clear, it is (see "Holds up")
Cloth & colors of
Clothing, hides, skins & types of
Cloud, a
Cluster
Coat-wearer
Coats (2 coats, 3 coats, etc.)
Cod (fish)
Cold
Cold weather
Collections of things (see
"Endings for groups of things")

107
108
108
57, 140, 203
40
102

Colors (see "red", "blue",
"green", "yellow", "black",
"white")
Comb, A
Come-come-come, gambling
expression
Comorant (bird)
Condition, state, status
Confusion, panic, hubbub
Constellation, Belt of Orion (“3
fires in a wetu")
Connecticut River, on the, of the
Constellation, Pleiades
Cook, a

191-192

149
95
148, 140
124
120
148

131-9
114
83
160
see pages 119-121
83
48
52, 59
119-120
111
83

43
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
91
29, 62-3, 131, 169, 198
184
80
To the Reader, 137
80
14

61

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
tahk-, tak-, taki-, taq-, taukkits
ewachim
sokenug
see "seed"
ewachimanit
waweekanash
see “straight”
see “rulers”
-tunck, -tunk
aucup
cowsnuck
sasemen
taunek
see “cove”
penayi & pemisquai
kaukont
see “ways”
paukunnum
sucki-taunwompan
quawquonikeesakat
kitompanisha
nquittaqunne
tiaquockaskeesakat
aumpatabaun
nquittaqunnegat
keesuck, keesak, keesucq
mauchauhom
see “do not name”
mockuttasuit
mauchauhomwock &
chepeck
mouanaqushanchick,
mouanaqushauog
nonamautuckquaheginash
tou wuttauqussin
yo ntauqussin
attuck & noonatch

ENGLISH
Cool, cold
Cormorant (bird)
Corn (see “berry”)
Corn, a pile of
Corn seed
Corn Spirit
Corn, sweet
Correct, just, right
Councilmen
Cousin
Cove or creek
Cows
Cranberry
Crane (bird)
Creek
Crooked, winding, it is (see
“bent”)
Crow, raven
Customs
Dark, it is
Dark color, people, etc.
Daughter
Dawn, it is bright day, it is full day
light
Day, a long day
Day, daybreak
Day, first (& others)
Day, it is a short
Day, it is broad day
Day, one day (& others)
Day, time, sky, heavens, weather
Dead man, the (see "man, old")
Dead, deceased persons crossed
over
Dead, person who wraps up the
dead in mats before burial
Dead, the

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
18, 75, 82-3
91
98
100
Author’s Construction
101

29
113
104
97
93
42, 46
89
64
160, 191
2, 28
62, 80, 124
63
63
132-4
63
62
65
39, 63, 67, 79, 82-83, 1313, 135
202

185
202

Dealers, peddlers, “chapmen”

112

Debts
Deep, how deep?
Deep, thus deep
Deer (1)

168
73
73
104, 175

62

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
kuttiomp
poquesu
causkahtuquand
aunan & qunneke
paucottauwat
wawwunes
moosquin
paucottauwaw
acoh
qunnequawese
caukashunck
wusseke
awemanittin
poskattuck
kitummayi mes nechaw
paugcotche nechauwaw
see “spirit, departed, ...”
chepeck
neechipog
see “painted stones ...”
quttukquaquaw,
panicompaw
-eiu, -uiu
mamaskishauonk

wunnaug
pok-, poqu-, poskaquie
ntaquie
aquie mishash,
aquie mishhommoke
tawhitch yo enean
nickummat
anum
squantaumuck
aukeeaseiu
waumsu

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Deer (2) (large male)
Deer (half of), it is
Deer skin (dry?)
Deer Spirit
Deer, a doe (aunan = "female")
Deer, buck
Deer, buck (young)
Deer, fawn
Deer, great buck
Deer, hide shirt
Deer, little doe
Deer, skin of
Deer, the hind part of
Deer, their migration
(running)time
Deer, whole one
Delivered, she has just
Delivered, surely she has had a
baby (Paugcotche = “surely”)
Departed, gone
Departed, separated, the
Dew
Dice
Dinner, after dinner

104, 175
175
176
Author’s Construction
104, 175
175
104, 175
104, 175
104
119
104
176
175
176

Direction (upwards, etc.)
Disease, “pox” (chicken pox,
small pox, syphilis?); see "plague"
& "adulterer"
Dish, bowl
Divide, break, half
(see “Spirit, departed”)
Do not do, stop doing (used before
verbs as a "prohibitive")

39, 79
196

Do not do, "I will stop"
Do not name the dead
Do so, “Why do you do so?”
Do, easy to do, weak
Dog
Door, at the door
Down, downwards, “towards
earth”
Downhill, it is

175
149
149

202
84
62

36-37, 179
40, 101, 150, 165, 32, 113,
115, 175
12, 40-1, 69, 74, 76, 129,
150, 179, 182, 186, 189,
202
179
202
143
41
104-5, 172
38
39
76

63

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Dressing for wound
Drum (European import)
Dry
Dry (weather)
Duck, a
Dwelling, residence
Eagle, osprey, fishhawk
Ear
Earth
Earth, black
Earth, red
East Spirit
Easy
Ebb
Ebb, low ebb, tide
Eel-pot
Eels

199
184
83
83
90

22-26, 147-8, 153-4
27
94, 180, 39, 141

matwauog
wautaconawaunagussuck
petacaus
chauquaquock
neesneechahettit
taubi-, taup-, taubsee "English"
wunnauquit
nauk-, nok- & wunnauq
see "bad, evil"
see “bad, evil spirit”
matche manitoo

Eight
Elder
Enclosed structure
End of, at end of
Endings for groups of things like
skin & fur types; also for “abstract
nouns” (wisdom, love,
faithfulness, etc.)
Enemy warriors
English, the (“coat-wearer”)
English, the (“strangers”)
English waistcoat
Englishmen (“sword-men”)
Enough food for 20 men
Enough, thankful
European
Evening, it is
Evening, night (see “night”)
Evil
Evil Spirit
Evil Spirit

see "water, river"
keesaqkeesuckwekineauquat

Extended
Eye
Face
Fair weather

maskit
popowuttahig
pauq-, paqnnappi
quequecum
see "wigwam"
wompissacuk
wuttow
see “land, earth”
metewis
mishquock
wompanand
see "do, easy to do, weak"
skat & mauchetam
mittaeskat
mihtuckquashep
neeshauog &
nquitteconnauog
shwo-, swoa-, shoasee “great, old, elder, ...”
-kamuck, -comuck
see “so far”
-unck, -onck, -onckon

88
50
192
192
124
110
110
116
113

119, 36, 73, 110, 130, 1967, 84

183
52, 59
59
120
38,59
14
7, 14, 35, 120, 57, 128, 134
63
63, 67, 83, 170

Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
194
49, 156, 192
82

64

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

naw-, naunauwot
nawwatick
tou nuckquaque yo wuche
hawunshech
wauwunnockoo
unhappo kosh
osh, nosh, kosh
cuttoso
kushqushnickommo
mequin

Far
Far away, a great way off
Far off at sea
Far, “How far from here?”
Farewell, good bye
Fat
Father, is your father at home?
Father, my father, your father
Father, "Have you a father?"
Fear (1)
Fear (2)
Feast, dance
Feather

see "fire in general ..."
aquequnnitteash

Fever
Fields worn out(from much
planting)
Fight
Figs
Finish, complete, cease action
Fire in general & fire spark
Fire in general, fever
Fire Spirit
Fire, candle, torch, a light
Fire, destructive, fever
Fire, domestic
Fire, the wetu is on fire (see
“burn”)
Fire, woods are on fire
Fireplace (1)
Fireplace (2)
Firewood
First, original, before, in front
First day
Fish (1)
Fish (2)
Fish, cod
Fishing line
Five (see pages 22-26 in A Key
for other numbers)
Flood, a
Flood, a great
Flood, half a flood
Flood, upon the flood

mecaut-, mecauntwaweecocks
mautasqutta, squuta
note
yotaanit
wequannat-, wekinan
chickot
yote
chickauta weta
weta wetedg
cuttow
quttow
see “tree, firewood”
necawni, negone, nnegone
see "day, first"
namas
-amak, -amag, -ammauqu
pauganaunt
aumanep
pannatamoccon
mishittommockon
nanashoweramaccon
taumacocks

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
3, 75
75
75
72
9
175
33-4
28, 2, 33, 34
28
186, 135
135-6, 186
126-9
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
94
183
15
54, 55, 77, 160, 98
32, 195
32, 195
125
33
32, 139, 195, 179
32
187
73
32, 2
32
12, 70, 72, 184
111, 133
113
112
115
22-26, 133, 147,153-4, 163
109
110
110
110

65

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

see “blue”
mechimucks
-seet-, -setsee “playing arbor”
see "there"
mscattuckmicheme
see "English, the
(strangers)"
waukaunosint
yoh, yow, yo, yau

Flower
Food, eat
Foot
Football
For, because
Forehead
Forever, always, never
Foreigner

see "bird"
mooshim
pequawus
mishquashim
netop machage
netop

Fowl
Fox, black (sacred animal)
Fox, gray
Fox, red
Friend, it is not so
Friend, my friend
[from “netu” + “-omp” = a person
born in my wetu, my kinsman]
Friend, not so
Friends, let us be
From here
Front, ahead, before
Frost, a
Frost, a great
Fruit
Fruitful (w/ children)
Fur
Further
Future tense marker, indicator

netop machage
wetompatitea
yo wutche
see "First"
topu
missittopu
see “berry” & “barberry”
muchickehea
see "hair, fur"
eneick & awwusse
see “pitch” (Narragansett
section)
sanaukamuck
see “offerings”
squasese
cosaume

goatesuck
see "manit-" (Narragansett
section)
Cummanitoo
manittoo wussuckwheke
tahsuog manittowock
woonand, wunnand

Fort
Four

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
13
195, 52

49
71, 136, 169, 201, 138

186
22-26, 65-7, 101, 153-5
147, 163, 172
Author’s Construction
103
103
132
2, 7, 9, 15, 35, 38, 131, 135,
132, 138
132
190
72
83
84
148
43

Garden or enclosed land
Gift
Girl
Give, you give too much (food,
etc.)
(see much, it is too much”)
Goats
God, spirit

94

You are a God
God's Book of Writing (Bible)
Gods, how many are there?
Good Spirit

126
136
131
Trumbull 1903 Natick

28
12

104

66

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
wunegin
wune-, wunne-, -unne-,
-unna-, -tunna-, -wunwunnetu
wauwunnegachick

ENGLISH

Good, it is
Good, pleasing, favorable

Good, true, pure, proper, truthful
Good, very good (see “fine, nice,
pretty”, Part I, Verbs)
see "offerings ..."
Goods, belongings
honck
Goose (Canadian)
wompatuck
Goose, snow
sachimauog
Governors, Kings, Sachims
see Grammar Table [end of Grammatical terms for verbs
book]
(Indicative, Imperative, etc.)
wenomen
Grape, raisin
askeet-, maskitGrass, herb, meadow
kautontowit, cautantouwit
Great Spirit
mishauneteash,
Great store, much of
maunetash
kunnagqunneuteg
Great, a greater size (of eel-pot)
kich-, kutch-, kuttGreat, old, elder, principal or main
mamockiuwash
Great (plural)
askaski
Green
tackGrind, beat (as corn)
see "land, earth"
Ground, land, earth
askwhitteaug
Guard, “There is a guard, sentry
set up”
askwhitteachick
Guard, the
wauchaunat
Guardian
mauchatea
Guide, a
peskcunck
Gun (“thunder stick”)
saupuck
Gun powder
osucontuck
Haddock-like fish
wesheck
Hair, fur
muppacuck
Hairlock, scalplock
poquesu
Half, half of
-natch-, -nich-, -nickHand
siuckat
Hard, hard to do
wautuckwues
Hare, conie, rabbit (small)
see “autumn”
Harvest
anouant
Harvest, at
wuttunnemitch-ewachim
Harvest, when the corn harvest is
in
yo taquonticup
Harvest last
nunnowwa
Harvest time

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
Dictionary
36
19, 36, 51, 53, 189, 161, 56,
87
6, 51, 53, 189
161

90
90
128

15
19, 96, 199
To the Reader, 90, 124, 130
60
116
27, 104, 107, 175
133
191
15, 37
185
185
150
69
84, 184
184
113
48, 161
48
113, 175
69, 40, 52
41
104
100
100
66
100

67

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
chickegin
kutchicheginash
see "head-dress"
mashackquineaug
wushowunan
naugom, naugum
unnaugh
yo apapan
ewo
-tup, -tap-, -tipsaunketippo & ashonaquo
maunetu
-tah-, -taaunckuck

see "Day, time..."
qussuck-, qussaqashappock
see “greeting”,
Part I, Verbs
see “grass”
see “these”
aumsuog &
munnawhatteaug
yo wuttuttan
yo autant
see "Water"
waucho
wuttush
anaskhig, anaskhom
pauqui, pauuquaquat
powwaw
hoqnaynayoumewot
sequnnock
see Part I, Verbs
kusitteuks
kussuttah
see "wigwam"
auquiegs

ENGLISH
Hatchet, warclub
Hatchets, your
Hat, headgear
Have no food, “we (they) have no
food”
Hawk
He, him, himself
He is there
He that was once here among us
He, him, her, she (see “he”)
Head
Head-dress
Healer (“conjurer”)
Heart (see "My heart is good";
"Our hearts...")
Heathcock or pinnated grouse or
prairie hen or partridge or
pheasant
Heavens, sky
Heavy, stone
Hemp
Hello, a greeting. In northern
dialects, quay is "hello"
Herb
Here
Herring
High, so (of moon, sun, etc.)
High, so high (of the sun, etc.)—
A way of telling time
High water, tide
Hill, mountain
Hither
Hoe
Holds up, it holds up (weather)
Holy man, Medicine Man
Hook
Horse
Horsefish
Hot
Hot weather
Hot, it is hot
House
Household things

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
164-5
165
15
93
132, 142, 166
34
202
2, 13, 134-6, 141-2, 144,
146, 189
48, 112, 194-5, 120
120
198
51, 96, 97, 189
89

44, 73, 96, 157
172

11
79
34

26
43
98-100
83
127
116
104
115
83
83
36

68

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
see “where”
see "long, how long?"
see “many, so many”
wasick
neen
wuskont
nummishcapatnanompanissichick
see at, in, ...”
see "front"
acouwe
see "people of, tribes"
Indiansuck
nninnuog
-sh-, -shaupetmoce or unuckquaquese
or mocena
see "when it is ..."
mowashuck
eiu or nniu
wusame, wussaum,
wussáume
see “I fear I shall”
see “live”
kittummayi, kittummayi
see “straight”
maish
auckuck, ockuck
paupaquonteg
see "governors ..."
sachim
nemauaninnuit
wiaseck, eiassunck,
mocotik, punnetunck,
chauqock
qunnamaug
-ake-, -aki-, -akee-,
-auke-, -auki-

ENGLISH
How
How long
How many
Husband, his husband
I, me
I fear I shall, it will, I will, it may
happen
I find him
Ice, frozen
Idle, lazy people
In
In front, ahead, leading
In vain, for no purpose
Indian tribes
Indian, of Indian, Indian tribes
Indians (English name)
Indians, human beings
Inferior quality, less than (some
words); also, involuntary action
Inside, in

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

28
2, 39, 73, 128, 141-2, 189
19, 41, 76, 108
173
84
136

77
To the Reader
166
To the Reader
64

Instantly, soon (see “soon”)

7, 35, 121, 143, 169, 100,
120
34-5

Involuntary or indefinite action
Iron metal
Is it so?
It is too much, it is exceedingly

42
5
14, 109

It will happen
joy
Just now, as soon as
Just, correct, right
Just, just now
Kettle
Key, a
Kings
Kingbird
Knapsack, satchel, carrying bag
Knife. The English were called
Chauquaquock (“sword-men”)
Lampries (fish)
Land, earth
The word auke means literally

6, 77
6
15
42
92
15
37

112
4, 8, 9, 39, 65, 72, 91, 92,
94, 98, 100, 105, 230, 131,

69

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

nittauke
nissawanwkamuck
wuskaukamuck
aquequnnitteash
see "big, large..."
wussaume tatsha
see “idle”
wunnepog
nonowwussu
yo nmunnatch
wanne howanne
mohcontqunnascat
pupannouwachick
ainshik
see "keete" (Part I, Verbs)
naukonwequai, wequacutshausha
see “as”
netop kihkita
see “small”
peewasu
wussaumepewasick
noonacominash
peewasick, peewasicks
weeteantamwock
ashaunt
see “-uck, -ick, ...”
audta, autah, autawhun
qunn-, qunqunnekamuck
wuttapuissuck
checheke mautsha
tashuckqunne
cowauwaunemun

ENGLISH
“mother earth”. Perhaps “Earth
Spirit” is auke-anit.
Land, my land
Land, my (of a garden or enclosed
land)
Land, ground, new and enclosed
(as a garden)
Lands, old; worn out planting
fields
Large, big
Late, it is too
Lazy
Leaf
Lean, it is
Left hand (to the left side)
Left, “There was no one left alive”
Leg
Length, great
Liars
Lies, the way or path
Life, with life, recovered
Light, in weight
Light, the light, it is light
Lightning
Like, as, so, such
Listen to me, my friend
Little
Little, it is
Little, it is too little
Little, it is too little (of clothing)
Little, small things (basket, fish,
etc.)
Live, they live in great joy
Lobster
Location words (endings)
Loincloth, "apron"
Long (see “how long" & "water,
river”)
Long house
Long house poles
Long lasting
Long, How long?
Lost, you are lost, wandering in
the woods

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
133, 134, 135, 139, 165,
192, 203
94
94
94
94

63
94, 195
175
69
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
52
161
136
69
44, 73
64, 132-3
84
135
107
101
120
101, 116
136
114
120, 161
12, 53, 112, 116, 161, 1367, 196
180
32
161
9
132

70

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
waumausu
-potouwawwhunnekesuog
-omp
nnin-, enesanomp
skeetomp
ntinnume
kutchinnu
homes
mattauntum
manit anawat
maunauog, mishaunawock
tashe- (sometimes
mispelled by Roger
Williams as "chas-")
wussamemaunauog
annauk, annaukan
see "grass”
nokehWeeyous
see “holy man”
pusuckquakohowauog
munnunnug
natouwompitea
kaukakineamuck,
pebenochichauquanick
mocussinass
see "cannibals"
moneash
nitteauguash
nquitpawsuck
nanepaushat
yo wompanammit
paushesui
pashpishea
nepauus, nippauus
yo ockquitteunk
munnannock
wequashim

ENGLISH
Loving, she, he is
Make, build (as a fire); see Part I,
Verbs
Mackerel (fish)
Man (tribesman) (1) or male
Man (tribesman) (2)
Man, a
Man, a
Man, he is my man
Man, middle aged
Man, old
Man, very old & "decrepit"
Manitoo commands
Many, a great many
Many, so many, how many, how
much
(see “how long”)
Many, there are too many (people,
etc.)
Mat
meadow
Meal, parched
Meat
Medicine Man
Meet to play football
Miantunnomu (Sachim's name)
Milk (see “breast”)
Minter (maker) of wampum
Mirror, “looking glass”
Moccasin, shoe
Mohawk Indians
Money (English word)
Money, my
Month, one (“One moon”)
Moon Spirit & moon
Moon that shines till dawn (“old
moon”)
Moon, half
Moon, it is up
Moon, month, sun
Moon, new
Moon, star in general (stars?)
Moonlight (“lightish”)

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
79
33
113
25, 27, 104, 133, 175, 184
To the Reader, 27, 133
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
27
141
27
27
27
139
60, 132
9, 23-6, 35, 66-7, 85, 131,
147-8, 153-5, 162-4, 188
60
19
11
13, 172
179
137, 140, 185 (?)
150
156
165
120
152
129, 163
66
125, 133
80
80
79
66
80
66
64

71

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
moos, moose
see “again”
auwusse
mishannock
nokace & witchwhaw
Cuttokaso
see “hill”
see “black”
quss-tonesee "big, large..."
tou nuckquaque
see "little, it is too little"
wussaume
wunna
kemineiachick
wunnetu nitta, wunnetu nta
-kasswes-, wesewetmattaasu
pausawut
kiske
maumichemanege
ashap-, ashopsee “forever”
wuskaumamuck
wuskapehana
wusk-, wask
awaun nakommit
nickommo
-tippoc-, -tuppacnokannawi
takitippocat
wekitíppocat
nowweta
kuttowma-, man-, mano- (see

ENGLISH
Moose
More, some more
More, it is more
Morning star
Mother, my
Mother, "Have you a mother?"
Mountain
Mourning
Move, relocate
Mouth
Much
Much, “how much (“money”,
etc.)?
Much, it much too little
Much, it is too much (cooked, etc.)
(see “give, you give too much”)
Much, very (for hunger, sleep,
etc.)
Murderers (see -kem-)
My heart is good (pure, true)
Nail, finger
Name (1)
Name (2)
Narragansett
Near by, it is, not far from here
Near to, almost, nearly
Near to, beside, next to
Needle, a
Net
Never
New ground (unplanted)
New traps (for hunting)
New, young, originally, first,
beginning
Nickommo, “Who makes a feast?”
Nickommo, a celebration or
mourning ceremony
Night (see “evening”)
Night, it is (see “evening”)
Night, it is a cold
Night, It is a warm night
No matter
Noise (trumpet)
None of, cannot, not

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
105, 120, 175
14
80
28
reconstructed

36, 46
10, 50
166

13-4, 60, 63, 101, 109, 162
12, 20
136
51, 189
52
5, 133
6
To the Reader
3, 75
200
77
164
112, 172
94
172
27, 94, 100, 146, 161, 172,
91, 59, 188
129
126-9
18, 63
62
18
18
43
184
10, 186, 156

72

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
"attached to nouns, these
endings...")
paweshaquaw, paushaquaw
yahen paushaquam
nawwauwquaw
nummattaquaw
wunnanameanit
-chaun
matta (see "bad, not,
unpleasant")
see “bad’
mattux (pequot)
noonat
asquam

ENGLISH

Noon
Noon, almost noon
Noon, afternoon
Noon, before
North Spirit
Nose
No, not, none
Not
Not (plural), no
Not enough
Not yet
Nouns, additional word lists

see "presently" & "just, just now
now"
nquit
Number “one” (other numbers on
pp. 22-26 in A Key)
noos-, noonsu
Nurse
nanouwetea,
Nurse, a , overseer of worship
naunouwheant
ceremony
see “at, of”
Of
nummaumachiuwash
Offerings, presents, goods,
belongings
ayatche & conkitchea
Often, as often as, as many times
as not
eataubana
Old traps (for hunting)
eatawus, eataubana
Old (see “great, old...”)
mattauntum
Old, very old & decrepit (of a
person)
wunnauchiOn the top of
pawsuck
One (see “number”)
naunt
Only, alone
nanisquegachick
Oppressors
tuppautea
Or (?)
towiuwock
Orphans
see "eagle"
Osprey
nkeke
Otter
nkequashunck
Otter-skin hide/coat
wuttáhouwash
Our hearts are true, pure
wunnéganash
puckquatchick
Outdoors, outside
mattaquat, cuppaquat
Overcast weather, it is

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

62
62
63
62
124
50, 103

135
14
35
A Massachusett Language
Book, Vol. 1

22, 64-6, 132-4, 147-8
150, 28
39

129
44
172
161, 172
27
39
25-6
132
136
133
29
103, 119, 162
119
Author’s Construction
41, 198
83

73

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
kokokehom, ohomous
opponenauwutkunck
nenotehunck
asauanash
papoos
paupock
see “mesh” & “-ip, -up,...”
peemayagat
aquene
aquie wopwauwock, aquie
wopwauwash
nquittompscat
-euck, -ock, -og, -uck,
-oog
pequttoog
meteauhock
wuskowhan
qunoswuttammagon
hopuonck
see “at, in place of”
wesauashauonck
wuttotanick
aukeeteaumitch
puttuckquapuonck
kittcickauick
see “constellation”
-og, -wock, -ock, -uck,
-aug
-ash

nips
machetu
tatackom
tackkunck, weskhunck
katou eneechaw
wachit-quashouwe
tahenauatu
see "holy man, ..."; "wise
men ..."

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Owl (kokokehom = “little owl”)
Oyster
Paddle, oar
Paddle, oar; my paddle, oar
Painted stones for gambling game
Papoose
Partridge
Past tense verbs
Path, a little (see “way”)
Peace, calm, truce, no war
Peace, hold the peace

89
114
108
109
179
38
89

Penny, one (& other “coins”)
People of, tribes

153
To the Reader, 16, 137, 188

Pequots, Tribe
Periwinkle, for white wampum
Pigeon, dove
Pike (fish)
Pipe, tobacco (calumet)
Pipe, tobacco (small, personal)
Place of
Plague, the (cf. "yellow")
Plantation, town, village
Planting time (see "seasons")
Playing arbor, football
Playing field
Pleiades
Plural for animate nouns; also seen
in conjugation of verbs (see
Grammar Table)
Plural for inanimate nouns; also
seen in conjugation of verbs (see
Grammar Table). see “-og,
-wock...”
Pond
Poor, a poor man
Porpoise
Pounding mortar
Pregnant, she is getting (??)
Presently, now
Price, what price
Priest

To the Reader, 188
115
91
116
45
45

68
182
129

196
166
98
179
180
To the Reader, 15, 27, 36

36 & throughout A Key

73
168-9
113
37
148
132
161

74

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
wunnekesu
see "land, my land"
nemauaninnuit
see "student"
suckauhock
poquauhock
miskisauwaw
see “-is, -mis (Narragansett
section, below)
see “hare”
ausup, mohewmohewonck
sokenun & anaquat
mishunnan
sautaash
see “raw”
sesek
see “crow”
ask-, asqsee "already"
wunnam
mishqui-, mishqua-, misq-,
msqùi-, misquimishquamayágat
wekinash

see “proper”
see “-panna-, -peno-”
peteaugon, peetaugon
yo mtunnock
see "instantly"
missuppaugatch
quequisquitch
-ompskmachipscat
anittash
puttuckqui
puttuckqunnege
see "wigwam, round
house"
atauskowaug

ENGLISH
Proper (respectful), she, he is
Property, my
Provisions for the way
Pupil, ward, student
Purple rim of quahog for wampum
Quahog, clam (purple rim used for
wampum beads)
Quarrelsome person
Question marker, indicator at end
of words
Rabbit
Raccoon
Raccoon-skin hide/coat
Rain
Rain, a great
Raisin
Rattle, a
Rattlesnake
Raven
Raw, natural, edible, gourd, rattle
Ready
Red paint
Red, blood & things red (salmon,
fox)
Red, the Red Road (Indian way)
Reed (wekininashquash may be
“sweetgrass”)
Relatives & relations & kinship
terms
Respect
Reverse meaning of word
Rib
Right hand (to the right side)
Right now, instantly
Rivers, when they are thawed
Robin, a (Pequot-Mohegan)
Rock, stone (see "heavy", "stone")
Rock, stone path
Rotten, when it is rotten
Round, it is
Round cake, loaf, bread
Round house
Rulers, nobles, Council Members

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
148
98
15
115
115
183

103, 119
119
83
83
97
105
14, 101
191-2
15, 51, 96, 103, 113, 133-4,
160, 162, 191-2, 198
Author’s Construction
96
A Massachusett Language
Book, Vol. 1

134
69
84
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
153, 157, 163
68
101
12
12

128, 141

75

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
sachim, saunks
chepasotam
sachimmacommuck
saunks
sachimaupan
sepakehig
een-, nan-, ensee "hairlock"
paumpagussit
wechekum, kitthan
-keeswush
seasons of the year

-kemscannemenwompiscannemeneash
see “spirit, departed”
wunnauanounck
ahauqushpapone
see “he”
taut
anawsuck
kitonuck
see “mocassin”
see “sea, ocean”
tiaquonqussu
shottash
uppeke
see "shallop"

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Sachem, chief, village leader, wife
of sachem
Sachem, the dead
Sachim's wetu, wigwam, house
Sachim's wife
Sachim, he that was once the
Sachem here
Sail, a
Same, ordinary, plain, male, of
tribal people
Scalplock
Sea Spirit
Sea, ocean (wechekum may be
“shore”, “sea coast”)
Season, “moon”, month
Seasons—the Indian year seems to
have had at least 6 seasons —
1. Aukeeteámitch (“when he
plants”) — seed time
2. Séquan (“when water runs
again” or “when water is
long?”) — early spring
3. Néepun — midsummer
4. Núnnowa (“the corn dries,
grows dry”)— harvest time
5. Taquònck (“beginning of
cold”) — fall of the leaf
6. Papòne — winter

2, 34, 85, 92, 128, 136-7,
140-1, 144, 176
202
141
141
202

Secretly
Seed (1), corn
Seed, white corn seed
Separate, departed
Shallop, boat
Sharp winter
She
Sheepshead fish
Shells (see “body”)
Ship, boat
Shoe
Shore
Short, he/she is
Shot for gun
Shoulder
Skiffe

76, 136, 172
98
98

108
To the Reader, 8, 142-3,
105, 133, 136, 57
125
106, 133
66-7
65

107
67
113
156
107

53
185
175

76

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

see “upwards” & “daytime,
heavens”
pee-es, -ese, -s

Sky, heavens

-emes
see "stinks, it"
weetimoquat
puckaskug
moaskug
sasaso
cone, sochepo
koonand
-wek-

Small, Very, very little
Smells bad, stinks
Smells sweet
Smoke from fire
Snake
Snake, black
Snipe (Abenaki)
Snow
Snow Spirit
So far as, as far as, so far (part of
verbs)
Sober & chaste, she, he is
Some

maansu
nawhutchee

Small
Small, little

paushe
see “who”
see “boy”
teano (see "by and by")
kaukcowwewonck,
michachunck
machippiquat
sow-, sowan-, sowwan-,
sowwanCautantouwit
sowwanand
swowannakit
manit-

Some, half (see “half”)
Somebody, some one
Son
Soon
Soon (see “instantly”)
Soul

-anit, -it, -at, -and
abbomocho (hobbomock,
chepi)
nisquanem

Spirit names, common endings for
Spirit of death, healing, night,
northeast wind, the dark &
underworld
Spirit of mercy

nashauanit

Spirit of the creator

chepakeesaqunnamun

Spirit, departed, ghost
Spiritual meeting, combining
worship & sport

Sour, it is
South
Great Spirit
South Spirit
Southwest, the, “south land”
Spirit

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

68, 40 (?), 107
10, 31, 32, 37, 40 (?), 82,
107
59
14
32
105
105
83
Author’s Construction
44
148
Trumbull 1903
Natick Dictionary
34

165, 74
165
130, 135
14
To the Reader, 86, 114,
124, 130, 135
To the Reader, 130, 135
124
135
54, 103, 122-4, 126, 131-2,
134-6. 138-9
124-5
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
85, 202
180

77

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

kunnam
sequanakéeswush
takekum
sequan
sasequacup
askutasquash
uppakumineash
anequs
mishanneke
mishannequashunck
wuttahno
annock, anockqus
namitch
see "tree, branch"
machemoquat
cauk-sun-

Spoon
Spring month
Spring of water
Spring season
Spring, last
Squash
Squash seeds
Squirrel (1), chipmunk
Squirrel (2)
Squirrel-fur coat
Staff, walking stick
Star (see "moon, star...")
Stay, you ("soon"?; "wait"?)
Stick, a
Stinks, it
Stocking (dry?)
Stone (see "rock", "heavy")

36
66
94
65
65
101
101
104
104, 175, 119
119
74
66, 79, 80, 133
11

ntaquie

Stop, "I will cease, stop"

179

naaka

Stop (doing something)

Mashittashin
saumpi
see "English, the"
maskituash
wuttahmin
siukissunulloquaso
kauposh
neepun
neepunnakeeswush
nippawus & nippauus
keesuckquand
pashpisha
chouoeatch
yahen waiyauw
see "certainly"
cuppimachaug
wequash
Pesuponck
weekan-, week-, wekin-,

Storm, a
Straight, right, correct, just
Strange, stranger
Straw, hay
Strawberry
Strong, stout
Student, he is my (Nipmuck?)
Sturgeon (fish)
Summer
Summer month
Sun (also, “moon”, “month”)
Sun Spirit
Sunrise, it is
Sunrise, just before the sun rises
Sunset, almost
Surely, certainly
Swamp, thick brush
Swan
Sweatlodge
Sweet, nice, "warm"

14
120
174, 109

109
42
19
96
189
29, 150
112
65-6
66
79, 133
125
62
67
63
72
90
197
14, 18, 15, 82, 101, 175, 2,

78

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
wekinn-, wec-, weqeippoquat
awusse weekan
see “reed”
hogsuck, pigsuck
wussuckqun
qunnauqussu
spuckqsee “enough”
taubataumwock
michokat
naugum
wuttake wuche
naneeshaumo
pausuck naunt manito
yo chippachausin
yo ainshick meyi
wuche-, wutchenagau wutch
yo
kopp-, cuppyo asipaugon
kamootokick
-wassateauguock
teaququash
see “where”
anima-, anamaquttuck
neimpauog
yowa
see “high, so high”
neimpauog peskhomwock
see "at, in ..."
wunnaugonhommin
petouwassinug
mat nowewuttammo
wuttammsin & petasinna
wuttamauog
see "Pipe"

ENGLISH

Sweet, it is
Sweeter, it is
Sweetgrass
Swine
Tail
Tall, he, she is (see "tree, tall...")
Taste
Thank, thankful
Thanksgiving, “They praise the
Creator”
Thaw
Themselves, him
Then, afterward, last of all
There are 2 of us & etc.
There is only one God (Christian
meaning)
There the way (path, trail) divides
There the way (path, trail) lies
There, of, from, for, because of
Therefore, and therefore
These, where, this, here, what,
thence, whence
Thick, dense, blocked, deaf
Thick, fat. Thus so
Thieves
Thin
Things (animate), wampum beads
Things (inanimate)
This
This night, this day
Throat
Thunder
Thus, now (?)
Time
Thunderbolts are shot
To
To play dice game in a tray, dish
Tobacco bag
Tobacco, “I don’t take any”
Tobacco, give me some
Tobacco, Indian
Tobacco pipe

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
59
15
14
104
175, 114
53
15
134
84
166
133-4
8
132
69
69
42, 72, 132-4, 138, 163,
166
134
4,6, 9, 34, 44, 46, 63, 69,
71-2, 80, 86, 91, 194, etc
160, 72, 196
175
136
160
161
185
63, 83
50
84
44
84
179
121
44
15, 44
45

79

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
anamakeesuck
wunnichsauop
weenat (should be weenan
?)
animanaukock
see “also”
see "it is too much"
noonacominash
-pitpummaumpiteunck
waskechesee “fire, candle, ...”
see "plantation"
Ape
apehana
anaqushauog,
anaqushanchick
paudowaumset
sunnuckhig
see "new traps"
see "old traps"
wunnaug
-auq-, -auqu-, -onqu-,
-ockqumihtuk, mihtuch, mihtuck
-mish, -muck, -misk, -uck
mehtuquand
pauchautqun
mishquatuck
wompimish
wudtuckun
wunnepog
paugautemisk
cowaw
wattap
sasaunkapamuck
see “people of”
pumpom

mat enano, mat eano

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Today (perhaps “anama-” = this)
Toe
Tomorrow
Tongue

63
52
9
50

Tonight (perhaps “anima-” = this)
Too
Too much, too dark, too late, etc.
Too little (of clothing)
Tooth
Toothache
Top, on top
Torch
Town, plantation, village
Trap for hunting
Traps for hunting
Traders

83

Trading post (Pequot-Mohegan)

Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
174

Trap (falling stones)
Traps, new
Traps, old
Tray
Tree, long, tall, deep
Tree
Tree (see "mihtuk ...")
Tree Spirit
Tree, branch
Tree, cedar
Tree, chestnut
Tree, firewood
Tree, leaf
Tree, oak
Tree, pine & sharp
Tree, root
Tree, sassafras
Tribes
Tribes, Indian
Tribute, offering (of a deer skin to
Sachim in whose water the animal
was slain)
True, it is not true

120
50
50
39, 25, 27, 133

172
172
159

36
53, 63, 73, 101, 161
13, 60, 94, 116
95-6
Author’s Construction
94
96
95
19, 33
94, 195
96
To The Reader, 96
94
96
To the Reader
176

57

80

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
neyhom
neyhommauashunck
tackquiwock
-tauhauna-sesnochisquaonchick
naumpishquehick
keesuckqui, keesucquiu
yo awautees
pitch
mesh

see “meat”
-moua-, -mau-, maua-,
-mouewepe
see Grammar Table
see Part I, Verbs
achie
wuttunnene
machemoqussu
otan
chickekihtuckquaw
nquittakeesiquockat,
nquittakeespummishen
see "staff"
wusswaquatomineug
see “money”
natouashockquittea
nickauick anawsin
see “purple rim”
machequoce
wompam
see “periwinkle”
see “lost”
keenomp & muckquomp
missinnege

ENGLISH
Turkey
Turkey-feather coat
Twins
Unable (in compound verbs)
Uncle
Unclean people
Underneath
Unparched meal
Upwards, “towards heavens”
Use this
Used before a verb to show future
tense
Used before a verb to show past
tense (related to “mahche” in
Natick dialect)
Venison
Verb modifier, “completes action”,
"ceases action"
verb modifier, word used as an
accusation or demand
Verbs, grammatical forms
Verbs, root and stems for
Very (used when “wunna”
inappropriate) (see “much, very”)
Victory
Vile stinking person, he, she is
Village, town, plantation
Violent
Virgin, marriageable
Walk, one day's
Walking stick
Walnut
Wampum beads
Wampum maker
Wampum, pincer to hold beads
and smooth them
Wampum, purple shell/bead
Wampum, string or belt of
Wampum, type of
Wampum, white
Wandering, lost
War captains
War chief

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
89, 119
119
29
37
28
136
39, 136
15
39, 79, 133
44
8, 57, 34, 70, 86, 142, 194
8-9, 34, 57, 70, 142-3, 38,
54, 73-4

17, 159-60, 176, 98, 39
139, 189, 142-3, 179

55, 194
188
43
3, 141, 166
164-5
29
64

95
165
157

157
115

184
188

81

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

matwauonck
mattwakkaonk

War, battle
War dancing

onuttug
negonshachick
mecautea
ayeuteaen

War, half-moon of
War leaders in battle
Warrior (enemy)
Warrior (your side)

matwauog
nip
-paug-, -pog-, -pag-

waunaquese
see “how far”
mattaasu
mayi, meyi
yo anuckquaquese
mittummayaucup
see "there the way..."
nukkone mayash

Warriors, enemy
Water (to drink)
Water at rest (pond, bay, etc.),
river, sea
Water in motion (river, etc.)
Water, across the water, other side
of
Water, have you no water?
Water, high water (tide)
Water, lake, sea, ocean
Water, ocean, sea
Water, pond
Water, river (usually, long one);
extended in space or time
Way, a little
Way, far
Way, little (“not far”)
Way, path
Way, so little a way
Way, the way you went before
Way, divides
Ways, the ancient ways, customs

neenouwin
aumaunemun
wekineauquat
tocketussinnammin3
wunnegin
checkesuwand
wunnauchicomock
wetuomanit
wetuomuck
matnowetuomeno
wekick
nekick

We (some of us)
Wean, to
Weather, fair
Weather, what do you think of
Welcome!
West Spirit
Wetu , firehole (chimney)
Wetu Spirit
Wetu, from the
Wetu, I have no wetu (I live alone)
Wetu, in his, her
Wetu, in my

-tuckakam-, acawmmannippeno
keesaqushin
-kom, -komm, -kum
see “sea”
see “pond”
seip-, sep-, sepa-

3

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
183
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
184
184
183
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
183
10, 12
12, 84, 111, 125
90, 109
3-4
10
110
106, 131, 133

75, 94-5, 108
72
3, 75
68-70
72
70
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
Author’s Construction
150
82
82
17
124
39
124
3
4
31
31

This is properly a verb.

82

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

kekick
potop
waskeke
see “where”
tou wuttinsin
teaqun, teaguun, teaqua
see “where”
-atch, -etch, -itch, -utch,
-otch, -ch

Wetu, in your
Whale
Whalebone
What
What manner of man?
What, thing, money
When
When it is, when it has, of,
indefinite or involuntary activity

chenock, chenock
naquombeg
see “tou, ta, ...”
tou nishin meyi
tiyush
tuckiu, tiyi
tou auteg

When, when as before

tou, taa, toc, tuc, tunna,
tunnock
cauompsk
womp, wompi
awaun ewo
awan-, awaun,awauo,
awanick (plural)
missesu
tawhich, tawhitch,
tawhitche
segoumittamus
weewnquittocaw
wetu
munnotaubana
neesquttow
abockquosinash
pettuckakaun
wetuomemese
pussough
see “pitch” (future tense)

Where (see “at, in, ...”)
Where lies the way?
Where, can (see “at, in, ...”)
Where, can (see “at, in, ...”)
Where, do you know where it is?
(see “at, in, ...”)
Where, whither, whence, what,
how (see “at, in, ...”)
Whetstone, grinding stone
White, wampum & things white,
bright, of the morning light
Who is that?
Who, one, someone, nobody
Whole, the (of fish, etc.)
Why
Widow, widower
Wife
Wife
Wife, I have one wife (two, three,
four--same page)
Wigwam
Wigwam fine embroidered mats
for
Wigwam, longer house w/ 2 fires
(and other number of fires)
Wigwam, mats for
Wigwam, round house
Wigwam, small [“moonlodge”]
Wildcat
Will

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
31
113
113
52
6, 3, 105, 163, 169
63, 65,69, 83-4, 86-7, 1434, 183, 119, 33, 188, 196,
35, 100
9, 168

69
35
34-5
39
3-7, 166
157
52, 88, 90, 95, 98, 108, 115,
155-6, 160, 191
35
4, 20, 33, 35, 38, 41, 54, 57,
72, 76, 110, 129-30, 131,
136, 183
113, 175
6, 43, 71, 76, 143, 182-3,
186
146
3, 6, 147
146
147
3-4, 31
32
32
32
31
31
103

83

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
wopatin (written "nopatin"-probably a mistake by R.
Williams)
wunnagehan or
wunnegin waupi
-din, -sin, -tin
cummattagehuckamen
nummattagehuckamen
touwuttin
sachimoachepewessin
nanummatin & sunnadin
chepewessin
chekesu
nanockquittin
nummattagehuckamen
cummattagehuckamen
paponetin
wunnagehatch
mattagehatch
cowunnagehuckamen
see “crooked”
papone, papon
papapocup
paponakéeswush
wauontam
taupowauog
wech-, echwet-

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Wind, the east

86

Wind, a fair

87

Wind, common endings for
Wind, it is against you
Wind, it is against me
Wind, south wind
Wind, strong northeast [word
“Sachim” gives meaning “strong”]
Wind, the north
Wind, the northeast
Wind, the northwest
Wind, the southeast
Wind, the wind is against me
Wind, the wind is against you
Wind, west
Wind, when the comes fair
Wind, when the wind is cross
Wind, you have a fair
Winding
Winter & fish-type
Winter last
Winter month
Wise man, councilor
Wise men, wise speakers, priests
With (1), along
With (2), accompany

85-7
87
87

muchquashim, moattoqus,
natoqus
moattoqus
ncummoottamockqun
notaqus
natoquashunck
squaw

Wolf
Wolf, black
Wolf, the wolf has robbed my trap
(deer, etc.)
Wolf-fur coat
Woman (see "wife", "mother")

wenise
squauanit
chepasquaw
squaus auhaqut
see “tree”
ockgutchaun
pahpahsa

Woman, old
Woman Spirit
Woman, the dead
Woman's mantle, cape
Wood
Woodchuck or groundhog
Woodpecker (Chippewa)

85
85
85
86
86
86
87
86
87
87
87
66-7, 86 116
66
66
141
128
35, 70, 187
57, 70, 166, 172, 187, 190,
146, 150
103, 119, 174
103
174
119
27-8, 15, 105, 120, 124,
134, 146, 202
27
124
202
120
103

84

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
etouwawayi
mat weshegganunno

anakausu
mittauke
cautummo
yaunedg
nquittecautummo
tashecautummo
wesaui
nux
as
keenouwin
keen
cowunnagehuckamen
see “new”
Wuskeene

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Wool on both sides
Wool, there is no wool (on
garment)
Words, additional vocabulary
listings
Worker, laborer
World, the (see "land", "earth")
Year
Year, last

160
161

Year, one (& others)
Years, how many
Yellow (see "plague")
Yes (in speech, also said as
"ahhe", "ahha")
Yet, still, before (used with verbs)
You (plural) & we (all of us)
You (singular)
You have a fair wind
Young
Youth, a

66
66
191, 196
5, 35

A Massachusett Language
Book, Vol. 1
98
131, 139
66
66

2, 10, 18, 34, 72, 110, 200
135, 169
2, 6-7, 14, 38, 141, 190
87
27

85

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

ALPHABETICAL
BY NARRAGANSETT4

abockquosinash
achie
acoh
acouwe
ahauqushpapone
ahtuquand
ainshik
akam-, acawm-ake-, -aki-, -akee-,
-auke-, -auki-

-and
-amak, -amag, -ammauqu
anakausu
-anam, -ant-, -aunt-

anamakeesuck
anaqushauog,
anaqushanchick
anaskhig, anaskhom
anawsuck
4

Wigwam, mats for
Very (used when “wunna”
inappropriate) (see “much, very”)
Deer, hide shirt
In vain, for no purpose (verb
modifier)
Sharp winter
Deer Spirit
Lies, the way or path
Water, across the water, other side
of
Land, earth
The word auke means literally
“mother earth”. Perhaps “Earth
Spirit” is auke-anit.
see “-anit”
Fish (2)
Worker, laborer
Indicating states of mind, feeling;
e.g.. musquantam = red + minded =
angry
Today (perhaps “anama-” = “this)
Traders

32
55, 194

Hoe
Shells (see “body”)

98-100
156

119
77
67
Author’s Construction
69
3-4
4, 8, 9, 39, 65, 72, 91, 92,
94, 98, 100, 105, 230, 131,
133, 134, 135, 139, 165,
192, 203
113
98
27, 123-4, 138, 182-3, etc.

63
159

See last section, “Alphabetical by English” for information on the entries in Part II.

86

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

anequs
animanaukock
-anit, -it, -at, -and
anittash
annauk, annaukan
annock, anockqus
anouant
anum
ape
apehana
aquequnnitteash
aquene
aquie, ntaquie

Squirrel (1), chipmunk
Tonight (perhaps “anima-” = this)
Spirit names, common endings for
Rotten, when it is rotten
Mat
Star
Harvest, at
Dog
Trap for hunting
Traps for hunting
Lands, old; worn out planting fields
Peace, calm, truce, no war
Do not do, stop doing (used before
verbs as a "prohibitive")

aquie mishash,
aquie mishhommoke
aquie wopwauwock,
aquie wopwauwash
as
asauanash
-ash

Do not name the dead

104
83
124-5
101
19
66, 79, 80, 133
100
104-105, 172
172
172
94
182
12, 40-1, 69, 74, 76, 129,
150, 179, 182, 186, 189,
202
202

Peace, hold the peace

129
2, 10, 18, 34, 72, 110, 200
179
36 & throughout A Key

atauskowaug
-atch, -etch, -itch, -utch,
-otch, -ch

Yet, still, before (used with verbs)
Painted stones for gambling game
Plural for inanimate nouns; also seen
in conjugation of verbs (see
Grammar Table); see “-og”
Net
Hemp
Lobster
Animal
Raw, natural, edible, gourd, rattle
Green
Grass, herb, meadow
Snake
Squash
Guard, the
Guard, “There is a guard, sentry set
up”
Not yet
At, in, of, to, place of, where, it is,
here, when it is
Rulers, nobles, Council Members
When it is, when it has, of, indefinite
or involuntary activity

attitaash
attuck & noonatch

Blueberries, hurtleberries
Deer (1)

ashap-, ashopashappock
ashaunt
-ashim, -shim, -washim
ask-, asqaskaski
askeet-, maskitaskug
askutasquash
askwhitteachick
askwhitteaug
asquam
-at, -et, -it, -ot, -ut, -ag, -og

112, 172
172
114
103, 105
14, 101
191
19, 96, 199
105
101
185
185
35
11-13, 82-3, 200 &
Throughout A Key
128, 141
63, 65,69, 83-4, 86-7, 1434, 183, 119, 33, 188, 196,
35, 100
97
104, 175

87

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
auckuck, ockuck
audta, autah, autawhun
aukeeaseiu
aumanep
aumpatabaun
aumsuog &
munnawhatteaug
aunan & qunneke
aunckuck
-auq-, -auqu-, -onqu-,
-ockquauquiegs
auqunnash
ausup, mohewautah
auwusse
awan-, awaun,awauo,
awanick (plural)
awaun ewo
awaun nakommit
awaunagussuck
awemanittin
awepu, awepesha
awusse weekan
ayatche & conkitchea

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Kettle
Loincloth, "apron"
Down, downwards, “towards earth”
Fishing line
Day, it is broad day
Herring

15
120, 161
39
115
62
11

Deer, a doe (aunan = "female")
Heathcock or pinnated grouse or
prairie hen or partridge or pheasant
Tree, long, tall, deep

104, 175
89

Household things
Barns
Raccoon
see "audta"
More, it is more
Who, one, someone, nobody

36
101
103, 119

ayeuteaen

Who is that?
Nickommo, “Who makes a feast?”
English, the (“strangers”)
Deer, their migration (running)time
Calm, storm calms
Sweeter, it is
Often, as often as, as many times as
not
Warrior (your side)

Canounicus
capatcaukcaukashunck
cauompsk
cauquat
causkCautantouwit
cautummo
-chaun
chaschauquaquock
checheke mautsha
checkesuwand
chekesu

Sachim's name
Ice, frozen
Stocking (dry?)
Deer, skin of
Whetstone, grinding stone
Arrow
Deer skin (dry?)
Great Spirit
Year
Nose
see "tashe-"
Englishmen (“sword-men”)
Long lasting
West Spirit
The northwest wind

53, 63, 73, 101, 161

14
4, 20, 33, 35, 38, 41, 54, 57,
72, 76, 110, 129-30, 131,
136, 183
35
129
59
176
109
14
44
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
57, 140, 203
84
120
176
157
184
176
To the Reader, 130, 135
66
50, 103
38,59
168
124
86

88

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
chenock, chenock
naquombeg
chepachepasotam
chepasquaw
chepeck
chepewessin
-chick, -ick
chickauta
chickauta weta
chickechickegin
chickot
chogan
chouoeatch
comishoon
cone, sochepo
cosaume
cowauwaunemun
cowaw
cowsnuck
cowunnagehuckamen
cowwewonck,
michachunck
cummanitoo
cummattagehuckamen
cuppimachaug
cutshausha
cuttokaso
cuttoso
cuttow
-din, -sin, -tin
-e, ese
eatawus, eataubana
eataubana
eatch, enatch
een-, nan-, eneippoquat
-eiu, -uiu
eiu or nniu

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

When, when as before

9, 168

Spirit, departed, ghost
Sachem, the dead
Woman, the dead
Departed, separated, the
Wind, the southeast
Plural for 3rd person plural verbs
("they")
Burn (see “fire”)
Fire, the wetu is on fire (see “burn”)
Violent
Hatchet, warclub
Fire, destructive, fever
Blackbird (spotted)
Sunrise, just before the sun rises
Canoe, your canoe
Snow
Give, you give too much (food, etc.)
Lost, you are lost, wandering in the
woods (used as a humorous saying)
Tree, pine & sharp
Cows
Wind, you have a fair
Soul

85, 202
202
202
202
85
53, 136 & elsewhere

You are a God
Wind, it is against you
Swamp, thick brush
Lightning
Have you a mother?
Have you a father?
Fireplace (1)
Wind, common endings for
At the end of some nouns, verbs,
may be a silent letter
Old (see “kich-”)
Old traps
Be as, say as is, your will
Same, ordinary, plain, male, of tribal
people (see “-omp”)
Sweet, it is
Direction (upwards, etc.)
Is it so?

126
87
72
84
reconstructed
28
32, 2
85-7
Throughout A Key

139, 195
187
164-5
164-5
32, 139, 195, 179
89
67
108
83
12
132
To The Reader, 96
104
87
130, 135

161, 172
172
141, 190
To the Reader, 8, 142-3,
105, 133, 136, 57
15
39, 79
5

89

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

-ek,-at, -ik, -ick, -ock,
-ocks
-emes
enewashim
eneick & awwusse
-es, -ese, -s

At, of (possession, trait)

Throughout A Key

Small, Very, very little
Animal, male
Further
Small, little

59
105
43
10, 31, 32, 37, 40 (?), 82,
120

-ese
-ese

see “-es”, "-ese"
verb form (ending)

-etch
etouwawayi
-euck, -ock, -og, -uck,
-oog
ewachim
ewachimanit
ewo

see "-atch"
Wool on both sides
People of, tribes

goatesuck
hawunshech
-hock
hogsuck, pigsuck
homes
honck
hopuonck
hoqhub-hub-hub

Goats
Farewell, good bye
see “-ock, -hock”
Swine

-ick
-ick, -chick
-ickqun, -uckqun, -ucqun

Indiansuck
-i

-ip, -up, -it

Corn
Corn Spirit
He, him, her, she

Man, old

Goose (Canadian)
Pipe, tobacco (small, personal)
Hook
Come-come-come, gambling
expression
see “-uck”
see "-chick"
Attached to Objective Indicative
verbs (He, she—me &
He, she—you(sg.). These endings
probably mean the object (“me” &
“you”) should be plural. Roger
Williams is perhaps mistaken in his
translation
Indians (English name)
Attached to nouns or verbs to mean
something is happening now
(sokenuni = “it is raining now”)
At end of some verbs, means the
verb is past tense

5, 52-3, 162, 164 (see pg.
52 footnote in Aquidneck
Indian Council translation)
160
To the Reader, 16, 137, 188
98
Author’s Construction
2, 13, 134-6, 141-2, 144,
146, 189
104
9
104
27
90
45
116
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary

68, 76, 123, 138, 174, 183,
188-9, 195

166

15, 34, 65-6, 134, 70

90

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Attached to verbs to indicate a
question, usually past tense verbs
verb modifier for motion
(movement) into an enclosure, like a
wetu. see “-at, -it, -ot, ...”
see "-atch"
And
Enclosed structure
Nail, finger
Pregnant, she is getting (??)
Soon
Mirror, “looking glass”

6, 8, 66, 147-8

89
112
To the Reader, 90, 124, 130
2, 6-7, 14, 38, 141, 190
184
135, 169
194
180

keesaqushin
keesuck, keesak, keesucq

Crow, raven
Sturgeon (fish)
Great Spirit
You (singular)
War captains
You (plural) & we (all of us)
Eye
Spiritual meeting, combining
worship & sport
Water, high water (tide)
Day, time, sky, heavens, weather

keesuckkeesuckquand
-keeswush
keesuckqui, keesucquiu
kekick
-kemkemineiachick
kich-, kutch-, kuttkihtuckquaw
kiske
kitompanisha
kitonuck
kits
kittcickauick
kittummayi (see "maish")
kitummayi mes nechaw
kokokehom, ohomous
-kom, -komm, -kum
koonand

Face
Sun Spirit
Season, “moon”, month
Upwards, “towards heavens”
Wetu, in your
Secretly
Murderers (see -kem-)
Great, old, elder, principal or main
Virgin, marriageable
Near to, beside, next to
Day, daybreak
Ship, boat
Cormorant (bird)
Playing field
Just now, as soon as
Delivered, she has just
Owl (kokokehom = “little owl”)
Water, lake, sea, ocean
Snow Spirit

-is, -mis, -as, -us
-it (see "-at, -it ...")

-itch
ka
-kamuck, -comuck
-kasskatou eneechaw
kaukkaukakineamuck,
pebenochichauquanick
kaukont
kauposh
kautontowit, cautantouwit
keen
keenomp & muckquomp
keenouwin
keesaqkeesaqunnamun

7, 35, 142

2, 190, 133-4
94, 180, 39, 141
52
148
165
165

110
39, 63, 67, 79, 82-3, 131-3,
135
49, 156
125
66-7
39, 79, 133
31
76, 136, 172
136
27, 104, 107, 175
29
77
63
107
91
180
6, 77
149
89
106, 131, 133
Author’s Construction

91

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
kopp-, cuppkowawwaund
kuhock
kunnagqunneuteg
kunnam
kunnosnep
kushkusitteuks
kussuttah
kutchinnu
kutchicheginash
kuttiomp
kuttowma-, man-, mano-, -na(see "-uo...")
maansu
mach-, mache- mauchmachemoqussu
machequoce
machetu
machippog
machipscat
machit
maish, kittummayi
mamaskishauonk

mammausa
mamockiuwash
mannippeno
manit anawat
manitmanittoo wussuckwheke
masaunock
manusqusedash
mashackquineaug
mashittashin
maskituash
maskit

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Thick, dense, blocked, deaf
Canoe, pine
Body, your
Great, a greater size (of eel-pot)
Spoon
Anchor
Fear (1)
Hot weather
Hot, it is hot
Man, middle aged
Hatchets, your
Deer (2) (large male)
Noise (trumpet)
None of, cannot, not

160, 72, 196
108
130
116
36
109
186
83
83
27
165
104, 175
184
10, 186, 156

Sober & chaste, she, he is
Bad, not, poor, sour, stink

148
14-15, 26-7, 42-3, 56, 115,
132, 142, 163, 168-9, 175,
194-5, 142, 159, 193-4
43
157
168-9
184
68
36
6
196

Vile stinking person, he, she is
Wampum, string or belt of
Poor, a poor man
Arrow quiver (empty?)
Rock, stone path
Bad, evil, it is
Just, just now
Disease, “pox” (chicken pox, small
pox, syphilis?) see "plague" &
"adulterer"
Adulterer, he, she is
Great (plural)
Water, have you no water?
(see “ma-’)
Manitoo commands
Spirit
God's Book of Writing (Bible)
Flax (rope material)
Beans (bush)
Have no food, “we (they) have no
food”
Storm, a
Straw, hay
Dressing for wound, (see “askeet”)

146
133
10
139
54, 103, 122-4, 126, 131-2,
134-6, 138-9
136
172
11
15
109
19
199

92

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

-mat-, -matta- (mattux is
plural form)

Bad, not, unpleasant (when in a
verb) or before a verb to mean "not"

-matmat enano, mat eano
mat weshegganunno
mat nowewuttammo
matche manitoo

Brother
True, it is not true
Wool, there is no wool (on garment)
Tobacco, “I don’t take any”
Evil Spirit

matnowetuomeno
mattauntum
mattaasu
mattacuckquaw
mattagehan
mattagehatch
mattand, mattanit

Wetu, I have no wetu (I live alone)
Old, very old & decrepit (of a
person)
Near by, it is, not far from here
Cook, a
Wind, a cross
When the wind is cross
Bad, evil Spirit

3-5, 7-10, 12-13, 33-4, 38,
40-2, 44, 55-8, 60, 68, 74-5,
87, 132, 135-6, 142-4, 169,
192, 198, 201
28-9, 34
57
161
44
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
4
27

mattaquat, cuppaquat
mattauqus
mattux (Pequot)
mattwakkaonk

Overcast weather, it is
Cloud, a
Not (plural), no
War dancing

matwauog
matwauonck
-mau-, -mauamauchauhom
mauchauhomwock &
chepeck
maumichemanege
maunauog, mishaunawock
maunetu
mauta-

Enemy warriors
War, battle
see "-moua-"
Dead man, the
Dead, the

mayi, meyi
mecaut-, mecauntmecautea
mechimucks
mehtuquand
mequin
mesh

Needle, a
Many, a great many
Healer (“conjurer”)
Finish, complete, cease action
(cf. “-moua-”)
Way, path
Fight
Warrior (enemy) (see "ayeuteaen")
Food, eat
Tree Spirit
Feather
Verb modifier, used before a verb to
show past tense (related to
“mahche” in Natick dialect);
see “pitch”

3, 75
14
87
87
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
83
83
135
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
183
183
202
202
164
60, 132
198
54, 55, 77, 160, 98
68-70
183
183
13
Author’s Construction
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
8-9, 34, 57, 70, 142-3, 38,
54, 73-4

93

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

meteauhock
metewis
Miantunnomu
micheme
michokat
mihtuckquashep
mihtuk, mihtuch, mihtuck
-min-, -menmish-, miss-, mash-,
mass-

Periwinkle, for white wampum
Earth, black
A Sachim
Forever, always, never
Thaw
Eel-pot
Tree
Berry, fruit, corn
Big, large, whole, much

-mish, -muck, -misk,
-uck
mishanneke
mishannequashunck
mishannock
mishauneteash,
maunetash
mishcup, sequananmaumishittashin
mishittommockon
mishoon
mishittouwand
mishoonemese
mishquashim
mishquamayágat
mishquatuck
mishqui-, mishqua-

Tree

115
192
137, 140, 185 (?)
71, 136, 169, 201, 138
84
116
13, 60, 94, 116
11, 15, 95-8, 100-1
To the Reader, 15, 60, 68,
80, 83-4, 87, 106-7, 132,
142, 109, 112-113,175,
182, 188
95-6

Squirrel (2)
Squirrel-fur coat
Morning star
Great store, much of

104, 175, 119
119
80
60

Breame (fish)
Wind, great, a storm
Flood, a great
see “-oon”
Canoe, large
Canoe, little
Fox, red
Red, the Red Road (Indian way)
Tree, cedar
Red, blood & things red (salmon,
fox)
Earth, red
Rain, a great
Quarrelsome person
Whole, the (of fish, etc.)
War chief
Frost, a great
Bass
Rivers, when they are thawed
Ebb, low ebb, tide
Wife
World, the (see "auke")
Way, the way you went before
see "-uo ..."
Snake, black
Black wolf

113
169
110

mishquock
mishunnan
miskisauwaw
missesu
missinnege
missittopu
missuckeke
missuppaugatch
mittaeskat
mittamus
mittauke
mittummayaucup
-mo
moaskug
moattoqus

107
108
103
Author’s Construction
96
15, 51, 96, 103, 113, 133-4,
160, 162, 191-2, 198
192
83
183
113, 175
188
84
112
84
110
3, 6, 147
131, 139
70
105
103

94

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
moce or unuckquaquese
or mocena
mockuttasuit
mocussinass
mohcontmohew- (see "ausup")
mohewonck
mohowaugsuck &
mauquauog
-monak-, -maunekmoneash
moos, moose
mooshim
moosquin
mosq, paukunawwaw
mosquand
-moua-, -mau-, maua-,
-mouemouanaqushanchick,
mouanaqushauog
mow-, mo-

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Instantly, soon

34-5

Dead, person who wraps up the dead
in mats before burial
Moccasin, shoe
Leg
Raccoon
Raccoon-skin hide/coat
Cannibals (Mohawk Indians,
Iroquois)
Cloth & colors of
Money (English word)
Moose
Fox, black (sacred animal)
Deer, fawn
Bear, a
Bear Spirit
Verb modifier, “completes action”,
"ceases action"
Dealers, peddlers, “chapmen”

185

Black, soiled

42, 52, 103, 105, 191, 116,
119
42
42, 191
49
148
124
103, 119, 174

mowashuck
mowimscattuckmuchickehea
muchquachuckquand
muchquashim, moattoqus,
natoqus
-muck
-muckmuckiis auhaqut
muckucki
muhock

Iron metal
Black
Forehead
Fruitful (w/ children)
Child Spirit
Wolf, black wolf
see “-mish, -muck, ...”
Boy, son, child
Child's cape, mantle
Bare, without wool (see "-muck-")
body, the

munnannock
munnotaubana
munnote
munnucks
munnunnug
muppacuck

Moon, star in general (stars?)
Wigwam fine embroidered mats for
Basket (& quantities)
Brant, brantgoose
Milk
Hairlock, scalplock

120
52
103, 199
119
16
160
152
105, 120, 175
Author’s Construction
104, 175
80, 175
Author's construction
17, 159-60, 176, 98, 39
112

3, 28, 190
120
160
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
66
32
100-1
90
150
48

95

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

naaka

Stop (doing something)

naim, namitch
namas
namitch
nanashawnanashoweramaccon
naneeshaumo
nanepaushat
Nanhigganêuck

By and by, soon
Fish (1)
Stay, you ('soon"?, "wait"?)
Between, midway
Flood, half a flood
There are 2 of us & etc.
Moon Spirit & moon
Narragansett People. Other
spellings include
〈 Nanihiggansicks
〈 Nanhiggonsicks
〈 Narriganset
〈 Narragánset
〈 Nahigonsicks
Also known as Nahicans by Whites
Also, too, same
Oppresv)S
\par }{\b \par }\trowd
\trgaph108\trleft108\trbrdrt\brdrs\brdrw10
\trbrdrl\brdrs\brdrw10
\trbrdrb\brdrs\brdrw10
\trbrdrr\brdrs\brdrw10
\trbrdrh\brdrs\brdrw10
\trbrdrv\brdrs\brdrw10
\clvertalt\clbrdrt\brdrs\brdrw10
\clbrdrl\brdrs\brdrw10
\clbrdrb\brdrs\brdrw10
\clbrdrr\brdrs\brdrw10 \cltxlrtb
\cellx4680\clvertalt\clbrdrt\brdrs\brdr
w10 \clbrdrl\brdrs\brdrw10
\clbrdrb\brdrs\brdrw10
\clbrdrr\brdrs\brdrw10 \cltxlrtb
\cellx9810\pard
\nowidctlpar\widctlpar\intbl\adjustrig
ht {\fs24 aque, \ldblquote make
pmself
Themselves, him
Evening, night
Light, in weight
Underneath
Bottom, on the

nanick
nanisquegachick

naugum
nauk-, nok- & wunnauq
naukonnaumnaumatuck

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

35
111, 133
10
63, 110
110
8
125, 133
To the Reader

58
132, 142, 166

166, 142
63, 67, 83, 170
44, 73
39, 136
39

96

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

naunt
nauwot
naw-, naunawwatick
nawwauwquaw
nawhutchee

Only, alone
Far away, a great way off
Far
Far off at sea
Noon, afternoon
Some

naynayoumewot
ncummoottamockqun
notaqus
neane
necawni, negone
neech-, nechneechipog
neen
neenouwin
neepun
neepunnakeeswush
neeshauog &
nquitteconnauog
neesneechahettit
neesquttow

Horse
Wolf, the wolf has robbed my trap
(deer, etc.)
As, like, so, such, in the manner of
First, original, before, in front
Child
Dew
I, me
We (some of us)
Summer
Summer month
Eels

negone, nnegon
negonshachick
neimpauog
neimpauog peskhomwock
nekick
nemauaninnuit
nemauaninnuit
nepauus, nippauus
nesick & nashoqua
netasuog
netop

netop kihkita
netop machage
newutche, wuche
(see "wuche")
neyhom
neyhommauashunck
-nich-

Enough food for 20 men
Wigwam, longer house w/ 2 fires
(and other number of fires)
In front, lead, ahead, before
something, someone
War leaders in battle
Thunder
Thunderbolts are shot
Wetu, in my
Knapsack, satchel, carrying bag
Provisions for the way
Moon, month, sun
Comb, A
Cattle (plural)
Friend, my friend
[from “netu” + “-omp” = a person
born in my wetu, my kinsman]
Listen to me, my friend
Friend, not so
Because, for, before (see "There,
of")
Turkey
Turkey-feather coat
see “-natch-”

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
132
75
3, 75
75
63
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
104
174
Throughout A Key
12, 70, 72, 184
148, 140
84
2, 39, 73, 128, 141-2, 189
Author’s Construction
65-6
66
113
14
32
184, 70, 72
184
84
84
31
15
15
66
43
102
2, 7, 9, 15, 35, 38, 131, 135,
132, 138
135
132
138 & elsewhere
89, 119
119

97

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
nickauick anawsin
nickommo
nickommo
nickummat
nip
nippawus & nippauus
nips
nisquanem
nittauke &
nissawanwkamuck
nitteauguash
nkeke
nkequashunck
nnappi
nneickomasu &
awwassese
nnin-, enenniu
nninnuog
-no
nochisquaonchick
nokace & witchwhaw
nokannawi
nokehnonamautuckquaheginash
nenotehunck
nonowwussu
noonacominash
noonat
noonatch
noos-, noonsu
noosup
note
nowweta
npeshawog &
pussekesesuck
nquit (see "pawsuck")
nquitpawsuck
nquittakeesiquockat,
nquittakeespummishen
nquittaqunne

ENGLISH
Wampum, pincer to hold beads and
smooth them
Nickommo, a celebration or
mourning ceremony
Feast, dance
Do, easy to do, weak
Water (to drink)
Sun (also, “moon”, “month”)
Pond
Spirit of mercy

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
157
126-8

Land, my land

126, 128-9
41
10, 12
79, 133
73
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
94

Money, my
Otter
Otter-skin hide/coat
Dry (weather)
A little further

129, 163
103, 119, 162
119
83
43

Man (tribesman) (2)
see “eui”
Indians, human beings
see “-uo...”
Unclean people
Mother, my
Night, it is
Meal, parched
Debts
Paddle, oar; my paddle, oar
Lean, it is
Little, it is too little (of clothing)
Not enough
see "attuck"
Nurse
Beaver (male)
Fire in general, fever
No matter
Bird, fowl

To the Reader, 27, 133

Number “one” (other numbers on
pp. 22-26 in A Key)
Month, one (“One moon”)
Walk, one day's

22, 64-6, 132-4, 147-8

Day, first (& others)

132-4

To the Reader
136
28
62
11
168
109
175
120
14
150, 28
103
32, 195
43
88, 133

66
64

98

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
65
66
148

ntinnume
nuhock
nukkone (see "negone")

Day, one day (& others)
Year, one (& others)
Children “I have had one child
(etc.)”
Wife, I have one wife (two, three,
four--same page)
Penny, one (& other “coins”)
"I will cease, stop (doing
something)"
Man, he is my man
Body, my
Ancient

nukkone mayash

Ways, the ancient ways, customs

Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary

nulloquaso

Student, he is my (Nipmuck?)

29, 150

nummattagehuckamen

The wind is against me

87

nummattaquaw

Noon, before

62

nummaumachiuwash

Offerings, presents, goods,
belongings

129

nummish-

I find him

173

nunnowwa

Harvest time

100

nux

Yes (in speech, also said as
"ahhe", "ahha")

5, 35

-o

see "-uo ..."

-ock-, -hock-

Body, shell

130

ockgutchaun

Woodchuck or groundhog

103

nquittaqunnegat
nquittecautummo
nquittekea
nquittocaw
nquittompscat
ntaquie

147
153
179
141
130
Trumbul 1903 Natick
Dictionary

99

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
To the Reader, 15, 27, 36

ogwhan

Plural for animate nouns; also seen
in conjugation of verbs (see
Grammar Table)
see “-ash”
Adrift, boat is

ohtomp

Bow, shooting

Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary

-omp

Man (tribesman) (1) or male
see “netop” & “een-”

25, 27, 104, 133, 175, 184

-ompsk-

Rock, stone

153, 157, 163

onawangonnakaun

Bait

117

-onck

see “-unck”

onuttug

War, half-moon of

184

-oon, mishoon

Canoe, boat, ship

8, 72, 106-8

opponenau-

Oyster

114

osh, nosh, kosh

Father, my father, your father

28, 2, 33-4

osucontuck

Haddock-like fish

113

-ot

see “-at, -it, -ot, -ut”

otan

Village, town, plantation

-otch

see "-atch"

-pac-

Violent

-og, -wock, -ock, -uck,
-aug

108

3, 141, 166

48

100

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

pahpahsa

Woodpecker (Chippewa)

-panna-, -peno-

A modifier in verbs which reverses
the meaning of the primary root

9, 55-6, 162

panna-

Five (see pages 22-26 in A Key for
other numbers)

22-26, 133, 147,153-4, 163

papapocup

Winter last

66

paponakéeswush

Winter month

66

papone, papon

Winter & fish-type

66-7, 86 116

paponetin

Wind, west

86

papoos

Baby

6, 28

papuckakiuash

Brittle

156

paq-

see “pauq-”

pashpisha

Sunrise, it is

62

pashpishea

Moon, it is up

79

pauchautqun

Tree, branch

94

paucotche

Already, it is ready

42

paucottauwat

Deer, buck

175

paucottauwaw

Deer, great buck

104

paudowaumset

Trading post (Pequot-Mohegan)

Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary

101

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

-paug-, -pog-, -pag-

Water at rest (pond, bay, etc.), river,
sea

12, 84, 111, 125

pauganaunt

Fish, cod

111

paugautemisk

Tree, oak

96

paugautemissaund

Canoe, oak

107

paugcotche

Certainly, surely

149

paugcotche nechauwaw

Delivered, surely she has had a
baby (Paugcotche = “surely”)

149

paukunnum

Dark (cf. “bear”)

64

paumpagussit

Sea Spirit

125

paupock

Partridge

89

paupaquonteg

Key, a

42

pauq-, paq-

Dry

83

pauqui, pauuquaquat

Holds up, it holds up (weather)

83

pausawut

Near to, almost, nearly

200

paushe

Some, half

34

paushesui

Moon, half

80

pausuck naunt manito

There is only one God (Christian
meaning)

132

Paweshaquaw,
paushaquaw

Noon

62

102

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

pawsuck

One

25-6

pee-

Small

68, 40 (?), 107

peemayagat

Path, a little (see “way”)

68

peewasick, peewasicks

Little, small things (basket, fish,
etc.)

101, 116

peewasu

Little, it is

107

peewauqun

Have a care, be concerned

40

penayi & pemisquai

Crooked, winding, it is (see “bent”)

42, 46

pennashimwock

Beasts

102

Peno-

see "panna-"

pequawus

Fox, gray

103

Pequttoog
peshaui

Pequots, a Tribe in Connecticut
Blue/violet flower. Ooni is “blue” in
Natick dialect
Gun (“thunder stick”)
Sweatlodge
Inside, in

To the Reader, 188
97, 191

peskunck
pesuponck
petpetacaus
peteaugon, peetaugon
petouwassinug
pettuckakaun
pishquehick
-pitpitch
pok-, poqu-, posk-

English waistcoat
Rib
Tobacco bag
Wigwam, round house
Unparched meal
Tooth
Used before a verb to show future
tense (see “mesh”)
Divide, break, half

popowuttahig

Drum (European import)

84, 184
197
7, 35, 121, 143, 169, 100,
120
120
134
121
31
15
50
8, 57, 34, 70, 86, 142, 1945
40, 101, 150, 165, 32, 113,
115, 175
184

103

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
poquauhock
poquesu
poquesu
poskattuck
potop
-potoupowwaw
puckpuckquatchick
puckwheganash &
mucksuck
pummaumpiteunck
pumpom

pupannouwachick
puppuckshackhege
pussough
pussuckseesuck
pusuckquakohowauog
puttuckquapuonck
puttuckqui
puttuckqunnege
quawquonikeesakat
quay
quequecum
quequisquitch
qunn-, qunqunnamaug
qunnascat
qunnauqussu
qunnekamuck
qunnequawese
Qunnihticut, Quinnibticut
qunosqushqussqussuck-, qussaqquttow
quttuck

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Quahog, clam (purple rim used for
wampum beads)
Half, half of (of fish, deer, etc.)
Deer (half of), it is
Deer, whole one
Whale
Make, build (as a fire); see Part I,
Verbs
Holy man, Medicine Man
Smoke from fire
Outdoors, outside
Awl blades

115

Toothache
Tribute, offering (of a deer skin to
Sachim in whose water the animal
was slain)
Liars
Box, a
Wildcat
Birds, fowl
Meet to play football
Playing arbor, football
Round, it is
Round cake, loaf, bread
Day, a long day
Hello (northern dialects)
Duck, a
Robin, a (Pequot-Mohegan)

50
176

Long (see “how long" & "water,
river”)
Lampries (fish)
Length, great
Tall, he, she is
Long house
Deer, little doe
Connecticut River, on the, of the
Pike (fish)
Fear (2)
Move , relocate
Heavy, stone
Fireplace (2)
Throat

113, 175
175
175
113
33
127
32
41, 198
156

136
42
103
88, 133
179
179
12
12
63
90
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
12, 53, 112, 116, 161, 1367, 196
112
161
53
180
104
To the Reader, 137
116
135-36, 186
36, 46
44, 73, 96, 157
32
50

104

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
quttukquaquaw,
panicompaw
sachim
sachim, saunks
sachimaupan
sachimmacommuck
sachimoachepewessin
sanaukamuck
sanomp

ENGLISH
Dinner, after dinner

62

Kingbird
Sachem, chief, village leader, wife
of sachem
Sachim, he that was once the
Sachem here
Sachim's wetu, wigwam, house
Wind, strong northeast [word
“Sachim” gives meaning “strong”]
Garden or enclosed land
Man, a

92
2, 34, 85, 92, 128, 136-7,
140-1, 144, 176
202

sasaso
sasaunkapamuck
sasemen
sasequacup
saumpi
saunketippo & ashonaquo
saunks
sauop
saupuck
sautaash
scannemenseasons of the year

Snipe (Abenaki)
Tree, sassafras
Cranberry
Spring, last
Straight, right, correct, just
Head-dress
Sachim's wife
Tomorrow
Gun powder
Raisin
Seed (1), corn
Seasons—the Indian year seems to
have had at least 6 seasons—
1. Aukeeteámitch (“when he
plants”) — seed time
2. Séquan (“when water runs
again” or “when water is
long?”) — early spring
3. Néepun — midsummer
4. Núnnowa (“the corn dries,
grows dry”) —harvest time
5. Taquònck (“beginning of
cold”) — fall of the leaf
6. Papòne — winter

-seet-, -setsegouseip-, sep-, sepa-

Foot
Widow, widower
Water, river (usually, long one);
extended in space or time
Sail, a
Spring season
Spring month

sepakehig
sequan
sequanakéeswush

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

141
85
94
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
96
97
65
42
120
141
9
184
97
98
65

195, 52
146
75, 94-5, 108
108
65
66

105

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
sequnnock
sequt
-sessesek
-sh-, -shau-shim
shottash
shwishcuttowwauog
shwo-, swoa-, shoasickqu-sim-, -sum-, -sae-sin
siskisssiuckat
siukissuskat & mauchetam
skeetomp
sochepo
sokenun & anaquat
sokenug
sow-, sowan-, sowwan-,
sowwansowwanand
spuckqsquantaumuck
squasese
squashim
squauanit
squaus auhaqut
squaw
squtta, squuta
suckauhock
suckisumhup
sunnuckhig
swowannakit

ENGLISH
Horsefish
Black soot
Uncle
Rattlesnake
Inferior quality, less than (some
words); also, involuntary action
see "-ashim"
Shot for gun
Constellation, Belt of Orion (“3 fires
in a wetu")
Eight
Break (for “succotash”)
Action of heat, heating, burning
see “-din”
Clam, black (see "quahog)
Hard, hard to do
Strong, stout
Ebb
Man, a
see “cone”
Rain
Corn, a pile of
South
South Spirit
Taste
Door, at the door
Girl
Animal, female
Woman Spirit
Woman's mantle, cape
Woman
Fire in general & fire spark
Purple rim of quahog for wampum
Dark color, people, etc.
Beaver (female)
Trap (falling stones)
Southwest, the, “south land”

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
115
201
28
105
64

185
80
22-26, 147-8, 153-4
11
42, 179
114
41
189
110
27
83
100
To the Reader, 86, 114,
124, 130, 135
124
15
38
28
105
124
120
27-8, 15, 105, 120, 124,
134, 146, 202
32, 195
115
160, 191
103
174
135

106

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
-t-

-tatacktackkunck, weskhunck
tackquiwock
-tah-, -tatahenauatu
tahk-, tak-, taki-, taq-,
tauktahsuog manittowock
takekum
takitippocat
tamoccon
-taptaquonck
tashe- (sometimes
mispelled by Roger
Williams as "chas-")
tashecautummo
tashuckqunne
tatackom
taubataumwock
taubi-, taup-, taub-tauhauna-tauntaucocks
taunek
taupowauog
taut
taumacocks
tawhich, tawhitch,
tawhitche
tawhitch yo enean
teano
-teaqun-, -teaguun-,
-teaqua-, -teaugteaququash
teauguock
tiaquockaskeesakat

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Inserted between personal prefix
with nouns and adjectives beginning
with a vowel. Also used with some
verb stems beginning or ending in a
vowel; e.g., nittake = n' + (t)auke =
"My land"
see "-tah-”
Grind, beat (as corn)
Pounding mortar
Twins
Heart
Price, what price
Cool, cold

3-7, 9, 44, 54, 59, 70, 74,
88, 94, 98, 114, 141, 150 ,
166, 172, 176, 178-9, 186

Gods, how many are there?
Spring of water
Night, it is a cold
Flood, a
see “-tup-”
Autumn, Fall, harvest
Many, so many, how many, how
much (see “how long”, English
section, above)
Years, how many
Long, How long?
Porpoise
Thanksgiving, “They praise the
Creator”
Enough, thankful
Unable (in compound verbs)
Daughter
Cold weather
Crane (bird)
Wise men, wise speakers, priests
Sheepshead fish
Flood, upon the flood
Why

131
94
18
109

15, 37
37
29
51, 96, 97, 189
161
18, 75, 82-3

65-6
9, 23-6, 35, 66-7, 85, 131,
147-8, 153-5, 162-4, 188
66
9
113
134

Do so, “Why do you do so?”
Soon
What, thing, money

7, 14, 35, 120, 57, 128, 134
37
2, 28
83
93
128
113
110
6, 43, 71, 76, 143, 182-3,
186, 57
143
165, 74
6, 3, 105, 162-3, 169, 129

Things (inanimate)
Things (animate), wampum beads
Day, it is a short

185
161
63

107

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
tiaquonqussu
-tin
-tinnea-, -tinea-, -tin-

-tippoc-, -tuppactiyush
tocketussinnammin5
-tonetopu
tou, taa, toc, tuc, tunna,
tunnock
tou anuckquaque
tou auteg
tou nishin meyi
tou nuckquaque
tou nuckquaque yo wuche
tou wuttauqussin
tou wuttinsin
tou, taa, toc, tuc, tunnock
touwuttin
touwuttin
towiuwock
toyusk
-tucktuckiu, tiyi
tummock
tummockquashunck
-tunck, -tunk
tunna
-tup, -tap-, -tip-tuppactuppautea
-uck, -ick, -it, -eg

-uck
-unck, -onck, -onckon

unhappo kosh
-unna
unnaugh
5

ENGLISH
Short, he/she is
see “-din”
Sounds with no apparent meaning,
used in verbs as "ornamentation" or
perhaps as emphasis
Night
Where, can
Weather, what do you think of
Mouth
Frost, a
Where, whither, whence, what, how
(see “at, in, ...”)
Big, how big?
Where, do you know where it is?
Where lies the way?
Much, “how much (“money”, etc.)?
Far, “How far from here?”
Deep, how deep?
What manner of man?
Where, whither, what, how
Wind, south
South wind
Orphans
Bridge
Water in motion (river, etc.)
Where, can
Beaver (in general)
Beaver-fur coat
Cousin
Where (see "tou, taa, ...")
Head
see “-tippoc”
Or (?)
Attached to some nouns to indicate
location, meaning “in, to, of, at,
there, from” (see "-euck")
see "-mish, muck..."
Collection of things (see "Endings
for groups of things...", English
section)
Is your father at home?
see "wune-..."
He is there

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
53
70, 77

18, 63
35
82
10, 50
83
3-7, 166 & elsewhere
43
39
69
166
72
73
52
3-7, 166
86
86
29
94
90, 109
34-5
103, 119, 161
119
29
48, 112, 194-195, 120
133
3-4, 31, 46, 166, 180 &
throughout A Key

33-4
34

This is properly a verb.

108

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
-uo, -unno, -no, -o, -mo
(see "ma-")

-up
uppakumineash
uppeke
-ut
-utch
wachit-quashouwe
wame, waumet
wanna, wunna
wanne howanne
-washim
wasick
waskwaskechewaskeke
-wassawattap
wauchaunat
waucho
waukaunosint
wauki
waumausu
waumsu
waunaquese
wauontam
wautaconwautcone
wautuckwues
wauwunnegachick
wauwunnockoo
wawwhunnekesuog
-waw, -quaw
waweecocks
waweekanash
wawwunes
wech-, echwechekum, kitthan
weekan-, week-, wekin-,
wekinn-, wec-, weq-

ENGLISH
Attached to nouns, these endings ask
the question, “Is there ...?”, "Have
you?" or state "None of", "There is
none of"
see “-ip”
Squash seeds
Shoulder
see "-at..."
see "-atch..."
Presently, now
All, it is all
see "wunna"
“There was no one left alive”
see "-ashim"
Husband, a
see "wusk-"
Top, on top
Whalebone
Thin
Tree, root
Guardian
Hill, mountain
Fort
Bent, crooked, it is (see “crooked”)
Loving, she, he is
Downhill, it is
Way, a little
Wise man, councilor
English, the (“coat-wearer”)
Coat-wearer
Hare, conie, rabbit (small)
Good, very good
Fat
Mackerel (fish)
Condition, state, status
Figs
Corn, sweet
Deer, buck (young)
With (1), along
Sea, ocean (wechekum may be
“shore”, “sea coast”))
Sweet, nice, "warm"

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
4, 10, 94-5,13, 160-1, 28

101
175

132
14, 34, 195, 133, 139, 134
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
28
39, 25, 27, 133
113
160
94
150
26
186
42
79
76
72
141
52, 59
52
104
161
175
113
29, 62-3, 131, 169, 198
15
101
104, 175
35, 70, 187
106, 133
14, 18, 15, 82, 101, 175, 2,
59

109

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
weenat (should be weenan
?)
weeteantamwock
weetimoquat
weewweeyous
-wekwekick
wekinan
wekinash
wekineauquat
wekitíppocat
wenise
wenomen
wepe
wequai, wequawequannat-, wekinan
wequash
wequashim
weque, -wekwes-, wesewesaui
wesauashauonck
wesheck
weskhunck
wetwetweta wetedg
wetompatitea
wetu
wetuomanit
wetuomemese
wetuomuck
wiaseck, eiassunck,
mocotik, punnetunck,
chauqock
-wock
womp, wompi
wompiscannemeneash
see “spirit, departed”

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

Tongue

50

Live, they live in great joy
Smells sweet
Wife
Meat
As far as, so far (part of verbs)
Wetu, in his, her
A lit fire
Reed (wekininashquash may be
“sweetgrass”)
Fair weather
Night, It is a warm night
Woman, old ("a little bent over")
Grape, raisin
verb modifier, word used as an
accusation or demand
Light, the light, it is light
Fire, candle, torch, a light
Swan
Moonlight (“lightish”)
As far as, so far, at the end
Name (1)
Yellow
Plague, the (cf. " wesaui ")
Hair, fur
see “tackkunck”
Name (2)
With (2), accompany

136
14
146
13, 172
44
31
33
96

Fire, woods are on fire
Friends, let us be
Wigwam
Wetu Spirit
Wigwam, small [“moonlodge”]
Wetu, from the
Knife. The English were called
Chauquaquock (“sword-men”);
words are from different dialects.
see “-og”
White, wampum & things white,
bright, of the morning light
Seed, white corn seed
Separate, departed

82
18
27
15
139, 189, 142-3, 179
64, 132-3
33
90
64
44
5, 133
191, 196
196
48, 161
6
57, 70, 166, 172, 187, 190,
146, 150
73
190
3-4, 31
124
31
3
37

52, 88, 90, 95, 98, 108, 115,
155-6, 160, 191
98

110

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE
wompan
wompanand
wompatuck
wompiminwompimish
wompissacuk
wompmissaund
wonck, wonkatack
woonand, wunnand
wopatin (perhaps mispelled
"nopatin" by R.Williams)
wopwawnockquat
wuche-, wutchewuchipaquamen
wudtuckun
wuhock
wune-, wunne-, -unne-,
-unna-, -tunna-, -wunwunegin
wunna, wanna (see
"achie")
wunnagehan or
wunnegin waupi
wunnagehatch
wunnake
wunnam
wunnanameanit
wunnauchiwunnauanounck
wunnauchicomock
wunnaug
wunnaugonhommin
wunnauquit
wunnegin
wunnekesu
wunnepog
wunnetu
wunnetu nitta,
wunnetu nta
wunnich-

ENGLISH
Dawn, it is bright day, it is full day
light
East Spirit
Goose, snow
Chestnut
Tree, chestnut
Eagle, osprey, fishhawk
Canoe, chestnut
Again, more, once again, some more
Good Spirit
The east wind

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)
62, 80, 124
124
90
95
95
88
108
9, 33, 201, 38
Trumbull 1903 Natick
Dictionary
86

Good, it is
Much, very (for hunger, sleep, etc.)

184
42, 72, 132-4, 138, 163,
166
97
19, 33
130
19, 36, 51, 53, 189, 161, 56,
87
36
12, 20

Wind, a fair

87

When the wind comes fair
Belly, the
Red paint
North Spirit
on the top of
Shallop, boat
Wetu , firehole (chimney)
Dish, bowl, tray
To play dice game in a tray, dish
Evening, it is
Welcome!
Proper (respectful), she, he is
Tree, leaf
Good, true, pure, proper, truthful
My heart is good (pure, true)

87
52
191-2
124
39
107
39
36-7, 179
179
63
17
148
94, 195
6, 51, 53, 189
51, 189

Toe

52

Confusion, panic, hubbub
There, of, from, for, because of
Barberry (red berry, prickly pear)
Tree, firewood
Body, his
Good, pleasing, favorable

111

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

wusame, wussaum,
wussáume

It is too much, it is exceedingly

14, 109

wushowunan
wusk-, wask

Hawk
New, young, originally, first,
beginning
Bone
Land, ground, new and enclosed (as
a garden)
A youth
New traps (for hunting)
New ground (unplanted)
I fear I shall, it will, I will, it may
happen
Pigeon, dove
Much, it is too much (cooked, etc.)
(see “give, you give too much”)
Late, it is too
Many, there are too many (people,
etc.)
Little, it is too little
A youth
Deer, the hind part of
Tail
Walnut
see "wuche"
About nothing, out of nothing, last
of all
Paddle, oar
Strawberry
Staff, walking stick, cane
Our hearts are true, pure

93
27, 94, 100, 146, 161, 172,
91, 59, 188
113, 175
94

Then, afterward, last of all
Tobacco, Indian
Pipe, tobacco (calumet)
Tobacco, give me some
Walking stick, Cane, staff
Long house poles
Plantation, town, village
Ear
Harvest, when the corn harvest is in
Victory
Hither

133-4
45
45
15, 44
74
32
166
50
100
188
43

wuskanwuskaukamuck
wuskeene
wuskapehana
wuskaumamuck
wuskont
wuskowhan
wussaume & wusame
wussaume tatsha
wussamemaunauog
wussaumepewasick
wuskeene
wusseke
wussuckqun
wusswaquatomineug
wutche
wutche machaug
wutkunck
wuttahmin
wuttahno
wuttáhouwash
wunnéganash
wuttake wuche
wuttamauog
wuttammagon
wuttammsin & petasinna
wuttanho
wuttapuissuck
wuttotanick
wuttow
wuttunnemitch-ewachim
wuttunnene
wuttush

27
172
94
34, 41, 76, 108
91
13-4, 60, 63, 101, 109, 162
63
60
101
27
175
175, 114
95
42, 132-3
108
96
74
Author’s Construction

112

NARRAGANSETT
NOUN, ADJECTIVE

ENGLISH

PAGES IN A KEY
(1936 EDITION)

yahen
yahen paushaquam
yahen waiyauw
yaunedg

Almost, approximately
Noon, almost noon
Sunset, almost
Year, last

62-3
62
63
66

yo

4, 6, 9, 34, 44, 46, 63, 69,
71-2, 80, 86, 91, 194, etc
69
202
175
34

yo wutche
yo wuttuttan
yoh, yow, yo, yau

These, where, this, here, what,
thence, whence
There the way (path, trail) lies
He that was once here among us
Thick, fat. Thus so
High, so high (of the sun, etc.)— A
way of telling time
Use this
There the way (path, trail) divides
Right hand (to the right side)
Left hand (to the left side)
Deep, thus deep
Moon, new
Harvest last
Moon that shines till dawn (“old
moon”)
From here
High, so (of moon, sun, etc.)
Four

yotaanit
yote
yowa

Fire Spirit
Fire, domestic
Thus, now (?)

yo ainshick meyi
yo apapan
yo asipaugon
yo autant
Yo awautees
yo chippachausin
yo mtunnock
yo nmunnatch
yo ntauqussin
yo ockquitteunk
yo taquonticup
yo wompanammit

44
69
69
69
73
80
66
80
72
79
22-26, 65-7, 101, 153-5
147, 163, 172
125
32
44

113

GRAMMAR
TABLE
py
yp
Summarizing
Five Types of Verbs In this Dialect
[see NOTES and Examples for explanation of use of table]

114

I. Grammar of Narragansett Verbs (Present Tense): Five Types
TYPE

I

INFINITIVE

II

III

***men (min, mun)

***em (un)

***iwin (in, iin, ouin, ouwin,
owin)

n'***iwin (in, iin, ouin, ouwin,
owin)
k***iwin (in, iin, ouin, ouwin,
owin)
(w')***iwin (in, iin, ouin,
ouwin, owin, es)
n'***awunan
k'***awunan
k'***awunan
(w')***awunan

INDICATIVE
I

n'***am (um)

n'***men (min, mun)

n'***em

You (sg.)

k'***am (um)

k'***men (min, mun, ø)

k'***em

He, she, it

(w')***am (um)

(w')***wi (i, o, eu, u, su, wa, ø)

We (excl.)
We (incl. )
You (pl.)
They

n'***amumun
k'***amumun
k'***amumwoo
(w')***amwock

n'***men (min, mun)
k'***men (min)
k'***amwoo
(w)'***wock (og, uog, uck, uock)

(w')***aui (a, au, aw, aun , ayi,
∅)
n'***amun
k'***amun
(w')***auock (aug, ouoog, auog)

Indefinite
IMPERATIVE
You (sg.)
Him, her, it
Us
You (pl.)
Them
Indefinite
SUBJUNCTIVE
I
You (sg.)

He, she, it
We
You (pl.)
They

IV

V

n'***
k'***
(w')***o (∅)
n'***umun
k'***umun
k'***umwoo
(w')***umwock
(uwock, wock)

***awun

***ash (as, ass, sh)
***atch
***amutta
***amoke
***amhettich
***amunach

***ish (sh, s)
***itch (tch)
***ituck (iteuck, tuck, etuck)
***ike (eke)
***hettitch

***esh (ash, es, ess, ø)
***atch
***auta (aunta, aunto)
***unk
***auhettitch (auhetti)

***amon
***aman
***ock
***amock
***amóck
***hettit

***ean (yean, un, n)
***ean (ayean, an)
***ont

***auean (ayean, ouean)
***auean (ayean, ouean)
***auean (ayean, ouean)

***hettit

***auhettit

***ous

***

***auock (auog)

***oke

***oan

***itch (utch, etch)

Indefinite

II. Grammar of Narragansett Verbs (Present Tense): Five Types & Regular Form
TYPE

I

OBJECTIVE
INDICATIVE
I-You (sg.)

k'***ous (aunsh)

I-Him, her
I-Them

n'***
n'***oock

You (sg.)-Me
You (sg.)-Them
He, she-Me

k'***i (e)
k'***ook
n'***uck (unck, eug,
qun)
k'***uck

He, she-You (sg.)
He, she-Us
They-You (sg.)

III

k'***ous (aunsh, aush, k'***ous
oush, ish, aunch,
itch)
n'***auock (auog)

IV

k'***ous

n'***uckwunonock

They-Them

***auhettuock

OBJECTIVE
IMPERATIVE
You (sg.)-Me
You (sg.)-Him,her
You (pl.)-Us
We-Us

***amiinnea
***inish
***auhettemina

V

k'***ous (aunsh,
ish, ∅)

n'***auock (ouoog)

k'***i (e)

k'***i (e)

n'***uck (unck,
uckqun)
k'***uck (uckqun)

n'***uck (uckqun)
k'***uck (qun)

k'***uck (ickqun)
k'***uckwock
(ickquock)

n'***uckwock

REGULAR

k'***ous (ish, oush,
aunsh)
n'***au
n'***auock

k'***uckwock

They-Us

OBJECTIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE
You (sg.)-Me

II

k'***i (e)
k'***auock
n'***uck
k'***uck
n'***uckqun (ickqun)
k'***uckwock

n'***uckwock
(uckquock)
***auhettuock

***iinnea
***inish
***(i)innean
***itea

k'***ean (iean)

***iinnea (iin)

***iinnea

***iinnea

***auhettitea

k'***ean

NOTES
(1) INFINITIVE Mode is the form "to___" (for example, "To plant corn").
(2) INDICATIVE Mode refers to simple statements or questions ("I am tired"; "When did you come?", etc.).
(3) IMPERATIVE Mode refers to commands or pleadings ("Sit !", " Come !").
(4) SUBJUNCTIVE refers to subordinate mode ("I thank you"; "Let us be going"; "Being that he has come"; "When it snows").
(5) OBJECTIVE INDICATIVE Mode refers to transitive verbs denoting a subject-object relation ("I love you"; "He asks me", etc.).
(6) OBJECTIVE IMPERATIVE Mode refers to subject-object commands or pleadings ("You show me the way!", etc.).
(7) OBJECTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE refers to "subordinate" mode involving a subject and object.
(8) REGULAR means this is the normal or most common Verb Type.
(9) sg. means "singular"; pl. means "plural"; excl. means "exclusive" ("we, but not you"); incl. means "inclusive" ("all of us"); *** indicates the stem or
root word; the symbol Ø is the "null symbol" meaning nothing goes there.
(10) Some forms are taken from the Natick dialect (listed in italic as in n'***amumun); the forms given in parentheses are alternative forms for a prefix
or suffix; for example, (um) in Type I or (min, mun) in Type II or (w') in all Types.
(11) A t is often inserted before a root/stem beginning with vowel, and after a root/stem ending in a vowel (e.g. npaketam is form n'***am, Type I, with
the root being pake). Some forms involve adding or deleting other letters before adding the prefix or suffix (e.g., taquatchowash is Imperative, Type
II with stem taquatchowau; the form is ***ish and the u has been dropped before adding suffix sh).








EXAMPLES—
Nowaûtam = "I understand" is a first person singular Indicative Type I verb. Table form is: n'***am. The stem or root word is waut (to
understand), indicated by ***.
Tokêtuck! = "Let us waken!" is an Imperative Type II verb (first person plural). Table form is: ***ituck (etuck). The stem word is tok
(to awaken), indicated by ***.
Tawhich mat mechóan? = "Why do you not eat"? is a second person singular Type V Subjunctive verb. Table form is: ***oan. The stem
is mech (to eat), indicated by ***.
Sóchepwutch = "When it snows" is a Type II Subjunctive (indefinite) verb. Table form is: ***itch (utch, etch). The stem is sóchep
(snow), indicated by ***.
Cowâutous = "I understand you" is Objective Indicative of the form I-You (sg.). Table form is: k'***ous. The stem or root word is
waut (to understand), indicated by ***. Note that the word is spelled with a c and the form is spelled with a k.
Kokotemíinnea méyi! ="Show me the way!" is an Objective Imperative verb of form You (sg.)-Me. Table form is: ***amiinnea. The
stem or root word is kokot (to show), indicated by ***.
Mequanamínnean!= "You (pl.) remember us!" is Type II Objective-Imperative of form You (pl.)-Us. Table form is: ***(i)innean. The stem or root
is mequanam (remember) indicated, by ***.
Narragansett Verb Forms selected from—
Hagenau, Walter P. (1962). A Morphological Study of Narragansett Indian Verbs in Roger Williams’ A Key into the Language of America.
Providence, RI: Brown University (M.A. Thesis), and the authors.
Natick Verb Forms selected from—
Goddard, Ives and Kathleen J. Bragdon (1988). Native Writings in Massachusett (Parts 1 & 2). American Philosophical Society Memoir 185.
Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society.

APPENDIX
This Appendix contains information on several special grammatical features of Narragansett
Indian verbs and other speech parts:






accommodating /t/
reduced vowels
glottal stops
passive-voice verbs
verb participles
obviation
conjugation of verb for stem “waut” (to understand, believe, know)

The examples selected to demonstrate the use of these features provide additional insight
into the formation of words in Narragansett. To understand the examples given in the
Appendix, the reader must consult the Grammar Table for the elements of verb types I
through V. Refer to Part I & Part II of the text for the words that exhibit these features in A
Key.

Figure 1
Rules for Accommodating /t/
in Narragansett Indian Verbs
SUMMARY






Verbs are selected from Walter P. Hagenau (1962) , A Morphological Study of Narragansett Indian Verbs…., Providence, RI: Brown
University (M.A. Thesis)
If a stem (***) begins in a vowel (v), add a /t/ before the stem (***)
If a stem (***) ends in a vowel (v), add a /t/ before the suffix (S)..
If a stem (***) ends in a consonant (c ) and a suffix begins with a consonant (c ), a reduced vowel (usually /a/, /e/, /i /) is usually added
between the stem (***) and the suffix (S). See Figure 3
The above rules apply also to nouns with a personal prefix (e.g., “my land” = nittauke = n' + (t)auke)
Some Type II verbs follow different rules (especially stems which end in /-au/) such as peyau. See Figure 2

Dictionary of Symbols and Abbreviations
Symbol or
Abbreviation

Meaning

P
S
***
v
c
(c)***(c), etc.
Indic.
Imper.
I, II, etc.

t
?
:
+
=

Prefix
Suffix
Stem
Vowel
Consonant
The stem (***) begins with a consonant (c) and ends with a consonant (c) (e.g., waut,
"to understand, believe, know ").
Indicative mode
Imperative mode
Type of verb (I, II, III, IV, V, A-E, M, U). The first number of a verb indicates its type (e.g.,
verb 201 is a Type II verb).
Apostrophe used after a prefix (e.g., n’) to represent a vowel sound (usually reduced vowel)
Letter added before or after stems according to rules specified in Table of Forms and
elsewhere (indicated as (t) or /t/)
glottal stop
reduced vowel
Plus sign used to show prefix, stem, suffix components of Narragansett words
Equal sign means “translates as” or “breaks down to”

General Relation : P + (v,c)***(v,c) + (v,c)S
A verb usually consists of Prefix + Stem + Suffix, symbolized as P + *** + S
A stem (***) begins and ends with either a vowel (v) or a consonant (c). A suffix (S) begins with either a vowel (v) or a consonant (c).

_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯ TABLE of FORMS ⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_
#

1
2
3
4

5

6

7

8

3

PREFIX

P
P
P
P

P

P

P

P

STEM
FORM

(v)***(v)
(v)***(c)
(c)***(v)
(c)***(c)

(v)***(v)

(v)***(c)

(c)***(v)

(c)***(c)

SUFFIX FORM
(w/ notes)

USUAL VERB FORM
with (t) and Reduced Vowels
(w/examples & notes)

(v)S

P + (t)*** (t) + S

most (except II indic.)

Verb 223

(v)S

P + (t)*** + S

most (except II indic.)

Verb 302, 306, 314, C-2 (?)

(v)S

P + *** (t) + S

most (except II indic.)

Verb 128, 201, 209, 238, 323 (?), M-13

(v)S

P + *** + S

most indic. & imper. in
I, III, IV

“normal case”, no (t)

(c)S

P + (t)*** (t) + S

Type II indic.

Verb 212, 218-219 (exceptions)
Most likely in Type II

(c)S

P + (t)*** (reduced vowel) + S

Type II indic.

Verb 229, M-8, M-12
Most likely in Type II

(c)S

P + *** (t) + S

Type II indic.

Verb 264, 268
Most likely in Type II

(c)S

P + *** (reduced vowel) + S

Type II indic.

No (t)

NOTE: See Figure 2 for exceptions for Type II verbs (Case # 1 & 3)

Examples given on next page

4

Examples of Accommodating /t/
for 8 Cases Listed in Table of Forms
Stem/Translation
1.

Verb # & Verb Form
P + (v)***(v) + (v)S

aque, “make peace, capitulate, a subject"

2.

223
kuttackquetous = k’ + (t)aque(t) + ous
ntacquetunck = n’ + (t)aque(t) + uck

P + (v)***(c) + (v)S
esh, “come, go”

302
noteshem = n’ + (t)esh + em
kuttinshem = k’ + (tin)esh + em
wut(e)shauock = w’ + (t)esh + auock

aukewush = auke + (w)esh, “go by land”

306
ntiaukewushem = n’ + (t)aukewush + em
kuttiakewusahaumis = k’ + (ti)aukewush + (aumis)

aunchemok, “tell news”

314
cuttaunchemokous = k’ + (t)aunchemok + ous
nutauncheo(m)cououg = n’ + (t)aunchemok + auock
C-2
kuttassammish = k’ + (t)assam + ish
cuttassmiin ?

tassam, assam, “give food, nourishment”

3.

P + (c)***(v) + (v)S
pake, “cast away, divorce”

kowe, kowwe, coue, “sleep, lodge”
5

128
npaketam = n’ + pake(t) + am
paketash = pake(t) + ash
paketenish = pake(t) + inish
201

kukkowetous = k’ + kowe(t) + ous
kukkoweti = k’ + kowe(t) + i
aukeeteau, “plant corn”
mau, “completes action”
paushinu, “divide”
maua, “completes action”
wanaum:, wunnaumun:, aumun:, anaumw:,
naumw:, “speak true”
nockuskau, “meet”

209
nummautaukeeteaumen = n’ + (mau)(t)aukeeteau +
men
238
paushinumauatittea = paushinu(maua)(t) + itea
323
co(w)anaumatous = k’ + wanaum:(t) + ous
M-13
kunnockquskauatimmin = k’ + nockuskau(at) + men

4.

P + (c)***(c) + (v)S
Normal case, no (t) inserted

5.

P + (v)***(v) + (c)S
auchau, “go hunting, fowling”
ana?e, “be going”
aumpauchau, “come from hunting”

6.

P + (v)***(c) + (c)S
akes, “play, score a game”
aum, “to fish”

awau?, “to use”

7.
6

212
ntauchaumen = n’ + (t)auchau + men
218
ntanneteimen = n’ + (t)ana?e + men
219
ntaumpauchaumen = n’ + (t)aumpauchau + men

P + (c)***(v) + (c)S

229
ntakesemin = n’ + (t)akes: + men
M-8
ntaumen = n’ + (t)aum + men
kuttaumen = k’ + (t)aum + men
M-12
ntowewaukaumen = n’ +(t)awau?(au) + men

semu, “to flee”
wetzau, wechau, wet, “accompany, go with”

8.

264
nosemittaunckquock = n’ + semu(t) + uckwock
268
cowechauatimmin = k’ + wetzau(at): + men
wechauatittea = wetzau(at) + itea

P + (c)***(c) + (c)S
No (t) inserted
NONVERBS

aquie, “cease, stop”
auke, “land”
otan, “village, town, plantation”

page 179, A Key (1936 ed.)
ntaquie = n’ + (t)aquie
page 94, A Key (1936 ed.)
nittauke = n’ + (t)auke
page 166, A Key (1936 ed.)
wuttotanick = w’ + (t)otan + ick

™Figure 2
Special Rules for ***(v) + (v)S TYPE II Verbs in Imperative & Subjunctive Modes
NOTE: Normally these verbs follow rules for accommodating /t/ for cases # 1 & 3 (Figure 1)
IMPERATIVE - you (sg.)
***ish (sh, s)
***wau + ish =
***wash
***au + ish =
***aush
***au + ish =
***ish
***a
+ ish =
***ash
***e
+ ish =
***ish
***i
+ ish =
7

IMPERATIVE - him/her
***itch (tch)
***au + itch =
***autch

IMPERATIVE - us
***ituck (iteuck, tuck, etuck)
***au + ituck =
***autuck
***e + ituck =
***etuck

***i + ituck =
***ituck

IMPERATIVE - you (pl)
***ike (eke)
***e + ike =
***eke
***au + ike =
***unk

***ish
SUBJUNCTIVE – I
SUBJUNCTIVE – you (sg.)
***ean (yean, un)
***ean (ayean, an)
***e + ean =
***e + ean =
***yean
***ean
***u + ean =
***au + ean =
***yean
***auyean
***au + ean =
***au + ean =
***aun
***ayean
EXAMPLE: IMPERATIVE—you (sg.)
peyau + ish =
peyaush
punnowwau + ish =
punnouwash
EXAMPLE: IMPERATIVE—you (pl.)
peyau + ike =
peyunk

8

SUBJUNCTIVE – they
***hettit
***au + hettit =
***ahettit

EXAMPLE: SUBJUNCTIVE—you (sg.)
peyau + ean =
peyauyean
peyau + ean =
peyayean

Figure 3
Reduced Vowels & Glottal Stops
Dictionary of Symbols and Abbreviations
(see Figure 1 for others)
Symbol or
Abbreviation
P Prefix
S Suffix
***
v
c
(v,c)***(c)

?
/t/, /k/
:

Meaning

Stem
Vowel

Consonant
The stem (***) ends with a consonant (c) (e.g., nip, "die").
“becomes” or “equals”
glottal stop
Letters used by Roger Williams to indicate a glottal stop
reduced vowel

General Relation : P + (v,c)***(v,c) + (v,c)S
A verb usually consists of Prefix + Stem + Suffix, symbolized as P + *** + S

Reduced Vowels
A reduced vowel is sometimes placed between a stem (***) ending in a
consonant (c) and a suffix (S) beginning in a consonant (c) by the following
rule (see Cases 6 & 8, Figure 1, Table of Forms):
(v,c)***( c) + ( c)S ⇒ (v,c)***(c ) + (reduced vowel) + (c)S

_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯ TABLE of FORMS ⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_
Stem/translation

***
nip, nup
“die”
akes
“play, score”
wechuset, wepinnat
“join together”
assawompat
“change money”
neesquttonckqus
“prate (like rooster)”
7

Verb
#

Verb
(reduced vowel underlined)

Form
***(c)(reduced vowel)(c)

217

kunnappamin

***p(a)m

229

ntakesemin

***s(e)m

231

***t(i)m

235

• nowechusettimin
• nowepinnatimin
kuttassawompatimmin

252

cunneesquttonckqussimmin

***s(i)m

*** t(i)m

naunt
“fetch”
pauquan
“destroy”
wetompat
“be friends”
tauntap
“rest”
wetzau, wechau, wet

253

kunnauntamen

***t(a)m

259

cuppauquaneimmin

***n(ei)m

265

***t(i)m

267

• nowetompatimmin
• cowetompatimmin
kuttauntapimmin

268

cowechautimmin

***(t)(i)m

323








***w(e)m
***w(a)w
***w(a)s
***w(a)y
***m(a)(t)

***p(i)m

“accompany, go with,
be with”
wanaumw:; wunnaumw:,
aumun:, anaumw:
“speak the truth”

man:ne
“hate”

C-14

nonaumwem
coanaumwem
wunnaumwaw
wunnaumwash
wunnaumwayean
coanamatous
nummanneug
maninnewauhettuck

™

8

***n(e)u
***n(i)n, ***n(e)w

Glottal Stops
The "glottal" sound is pronounced by stopping the air at the voicebox and then suddenly
releasing it. English slang "huh uh" contains a glottal stop before the 'uh'. Sample words in
English—“stop, milk”
In Narragansett, Roger Williams seems to have used the letters /t/ or /k/ for the glottal stop (?) ,
as shown in the following examples⎯
_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯ TABLE of FORMS ⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_⎯_/|\_

Verb Type &
Word Stem/translation

Example of glottal stop (underlined)

Type II
asso?
“foolish”
Type II
ana?e
“be going”
Mixed Type verb
awau?
“to use”


assotu
assokish

anakish

ntowwaukaummen

™

9

PASSIVE VOICE VERBS
Algonquian languages, like the English language, contain a number of grammatical
features which gives the language its great flexibility to express thoughts and feelings in a
variety of situations and circumstances, to talk of the past, present or future, speak in an active or
passive voice, and so on.
Take the following two sentences in English-1. Al chose Bill. (ACTIVE VOICE)
2. Bill was chosen by Al. (PASSIVE VOICE)
The first sentence is expressed in the ACTIVE VOICE—the subject Al chose Bill (object).
In the PASSIVE VOICE, we turn the subject and object around. The object (Bill) was
chosen by the subject (Al).
Another example:
1. Al handed the ball to Bill. (ACTIVE VOICE)
2. Bill was handed the ball by Al. (PASSIVE VOICE)
In A Key into the Language of America, there are about 820 conjugated verbs (based on
about 320 roots or stems). The verbs can be classified into Types: I, II, III, IV, V, A, B, C, D, E,
M, U. In turn the verbs can be expressed as certain Modes or Moods: Indicative, Imperative,
Subjunctive, Objective Indicative, Objective Imperative, Objective Subjunctive. The Grammar
Table summarizes the “formulas” of prefix-root/stem-suffix that make up the Types I through V.
(In a latter section we’ll see how to put sentences together using the Grammar Table). Many of
the verbs in A Key are assumed to be given in the ACTIVE VOICE.
In this section we indicate certain verbs that may be in the PASSIVE VOICE. The
following table lists these possible PASSIVE VERBS. The root or stem is underlined so that
you can piece together the others parts of the verb given. Recall sections of accommodating /t/
(e.g., verb 302 below), and other information given previously. Most of the passives seem to end
in some form of –n (-ne, -ana, -na, -ant, -in, -on).
The Roger Williams translations don’t always appear to be written in the passive voice.
The choice to call these verbs passive is made based on the prefix/suffix forms. A great deal of
uncertainty still exists in our understanding of this fascinating yet difficult and frustrating book
of 1643.

10

Table of PASSIVE VOICE VERBS in A Key
VERB
NUMBER

VERB in A Key

TRANSLATION, & Page Number in
A KEY

(stem underlined)

(first # gives Type)

129
201
216
302
315
321
322
331
C-4
C-16

Wauchaunana
Kukkouene ?
Kakitonckque ban
Tuckoteshana ?
Kautanaushant
Tetupsha
As pummissin
Kitummayi nickeekon
Awaun
kukkakotemogwunnes ?
Wepe kukkemineantin

Keep this for me, p. 40
Sleep you?, p. 18
They are dead and gone, p 201.
Whence came you ? , p. 3
He being gone, p. 9
He falls down, p. 43
He is not yet departed, p. 200
I am just now recovered, p. 199
Who told you ?, p. 136
You are the murderer, p. 143

Kukkouene ? is perhaps translated “Are you sleeping?” The verb You sleep is
Kukkouemen . In this manner, we know Kukkouene is not SUBJUNCTIVE (form, ***ean
= kouean) because of the prefix.

™

11

VERB PARTICIPLES
Many of the verbs classified as Unclassifiable (U in the text) may be examples of verb
participles. In Narragansett, verb participles have properties:


Transitive verb
Inanimate noun
Verb ends in –ash, -ish

Take the sentence with VERB PARTICIPLE from p.14 of A Key:
Mat mesh nummanenash
I did not take them
This is a U verb (can not be easily classified as a regular verb with predicable prefix,
suffix terms to express Indicative, Imperative, etc.) The verb nummanenash (I take them)
ends in –ash. The verb “formulas” in the Grammar Table (except for IMPERATIVE) do not
end in –ash. We know this sentence does not have Imperative mode.
TABLE of SOME VERB PARTICIPLES in A Key
VERB NUMBER

VERB in A Key & Translation & page #
(-ash underlined)

U-11
U-11
U-23
U-25
U-27

128 ?

Mat mesh nummanenash,
I did not take them, p. 143
Cummammenash
Will you have my money ?, p. 163
Aquie wussaumowash
Do not ask too much, p. 162
Nnegonchemish
He sends (something) to me, p. 43
Cuppausummunnash
Dry these things (not IMPERATIVE—
prefix k’ gives clue)
Npaketamunnash
I will cast him away, p. 44

™

12

OBVIATION

1

-oh, -ah, -uh endings on 3rd person nouns and verbs
An important grammatical feature—called OBVIATION—is seen in Algonquian sentences
when:


two nouns (or a pronoun and an animate noun)
in the 3rd person (he/him, she/her, or they/their, or a person’s name)
are used in the same sentence with a verb so that
the animate noun or pronoun which is the object of a verb, and the verb
take the obviative endings -ah, -oh, -uh

OBVIATION
PROPERTIES

Inanimate nouns do not take the obviative ending.
This is only the simplest form of obviation. Another type (“super obviation”) occurs
when three third-person nouns or pronouns are used in a sentence; e.g., “Basil struck Pierre’s
dog” (He-Basil, he-struck his-Pierre’s dog— with obviative endings on struck, Pierre & dog).
As an example of simple obviation, we present a reconstructed sentence (not taught or
given in A Key)—the obviative endings are italicized.
Mesh nishuh attuckah
“He killed a deer”
We use “mesh” to show past tense (“did kill”) as Roger Williams uses it. In “He killed a deer,"
we have a pronoun he as part of the verb, an animate noun deer and a verb killed (in 3rd person).
Obviation is on verb killed and animate noun deer (deer is the “second third-person in the
sentence.)
A simple phrase like, “the brother of him,” is usually said with the obviative endings -ah,
-oh, -uh:
• weematoh = the brother of him (oh is the obviative ending); linguists distinguish
obviative by translating “the brother of him”; we don’t say “his brother”
• ooshooah = their father (the father of them);
• ussowesuoh Blue Eagle = His name was Blue Eagle (the name of him was Blue Eagle)
Roger Williams’ elementary phrase book does not give examples of obviation—talking
about him or her doing something with things (animate nouns, like animals, birds, etc.). When
we see speech involving him, her but the things (nouns) are inanimate, we don’t have to use
OBVIATIVE case endings.
In the following sentences the OBVIATIVE case endings are in italic (oh)

Next page

1

Obviation is difficult to explain and understand. Standard treatments like Goddard & Bragdon (see PREFACE) aren’t trying to
talk to us poor Indians. An 1876 reference, which is very hard to get, is: James H. Trumbull, “The Algonkin Verb”.
Transactions of the American Philological Association, 1876, pages 146-171.

13

EXAMPLES OF OBVIATION
ALGONQUIAN with Translation

NOTE

(accents omitted)

I kill a snake.
Nish askug.
His brother kills a snake.
Weemat nishuh askugah.
He killed a snake.
Nishuh askugah.
Black Dog kills a snake.
Moowanum nishuh askugah.
Black Dog struck Peter’s dog.
Moowanum togkuh Peterah anum??.
Black Dog he-struck him-Peter’s dog

NOT OBVIATIVE CASE—not in third person
Obviation on verb kills and object snake (askug)
Obviation on verb kills and object snake (askug)
Obviation on verb kills and object snake (askug)
Obviation—one pronoun and 2 nouns in 3rd person
but we don’t know the grammar for our dialect (see
Trumbull article in footnote for use in other dialects)

Another example of obviation comes from Goddard and Bragdon, Native Writings in
Massachusett, p. 591:
…papaume wutche unmissoomissoh wuttahkuh …
concerning about his grandfather’s land (concerning/about his-grandfather his-land)
Notice the obviative endings (-oh, -uh) attached to “his grandfather” (unmissoomiss) and “his
land” (wuttahke). No verb is in this phrase.

SUMMARY
An important feature in Algonquian languages is called OBVIATION. In a simple sentence
involving animate nouns, pronouns, verbs, all in the 3rd person, obviation is used. Both the verb
and its object take obviative endings.
TYPICAL SENTENCE

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

noun or
pronoun

animate noun

Obviative
Endings
-ah, -oh, -uh

™
Future efforts at reconstructing the language (to some extent) will have to take into
account this crucial feature in making sentences.
14

CONJUGATION OF VERB
Type I
“ To Understand ”
The root or stem (***) is “waut ”— to understand, know, believe
TYPE I Verb, pages 8-9, 36, 56
(Italic forms are reconstructed or from Natick dialect with uncertain accents)
TYPE I
MODE

GRAMMATICAL
FORM

CONJUGATION

ENGLISH
TRANSLATION

INFINITIVE
INDICATIVE
I
You (sg.)
He, she, it
We (excl.)
We (incl. )
You (pl.)
They

n'***am (um)
k'***am (um)
(w')***am (um)
n'***amumun
k'***amumun
k'***amumwoo
(w')***amwock

nowaûtam
cowaûtam
waûtam
nowaûtamumun
cowaûtamumun
cowaûtamumwoo
waûtamwock

I understand
You (sg.) understand
He, she understands
We (excl.) understand
We (incl. ) understand
You (pl.) understand
They understand

IMPERATIVE
You (sg.)
Him, her, it
Us
You (pl.)
Them

***ash (as, ass, sh)
***atch
***amutta
***amoke
***amhettich

waûtash
waûtatch
waûtamutta
waûtamoke
waûtamhettich

You (sg.) understand!
Let him/her understand!
Let us understand!
You (pl.) understand!
Let them understand!

***amon
***aman
***ock
***amock
***amóck
***hettit

waûtamon
waûtaman
waûtock
waûtamock
waûtamóck
waûthettit

I understanding
You (sg.) understanding
He, she understanding
We understanding
You (pl.) understanding
They understanding

SUBJUNCT.
I
You (sg.)
He, she
We
You (pl.)
They
Indefinite

15

TYPE I

GRAMMATICAL
FORM

CONJUGATION

OBJECTIVE
INDICATIVE
I-You (sg.)
I-Him, her
I-You (pl.)
I-Them
You (sg.)-Me
You (sg.)-Him,her
You (sg.)-Us
You (sg.)-Them
He, she-Me
He, she-You (sg.)
He-Him, her
He, she-You (pl.)
He, she-Us
He, she-Them
We-You (sg.)
We-Him, her
We-You (pl.)
We-Them
You (pl.)-Me
You (pl.)-Him, her
You (pl.)-Us
You (pl.)-Them
They-Me
They-You (sg.)
They-Him, her
They-Us
They-You (pl.)
They-Them

k'***ous (aunsh)
n'***
k’*** unumwoo
n'***oock
k'***i (e)
k’***
k’***imun
k'***ook
n'***uck (unck, eug, qun)
k'***uck
oow***oh (uh)
k’*** ukkou
n’***uckqun (ickqun)
oow***oh (uh)
k’***unumun
n’***óun
k’***unumun
n’***óunónog
k’***imwoo
k’***au
k’***imun
k’***auoog
n’***uckwock
k'***uckwock
oow***ouh
n'***uckwunonock
k’***ukoooog
***auhettuock

cowaûtous
nowaût
cowaûtunumwoo
nowaûtoock
cowaûti
cowaût
cowaûtimun
cowaûtook
nowaûtuck
cowaûtuck
oowaûtoh
cowaûtukkou
nowaûtuckqun
oowaûtoh
cowaûtunumun
nowaûtóun
cowaûtunumun
nowaûtóunónog
cowautimwoo
cowaûtau
cowaûtimun
cowaûtauoog
nowaûtuckwock
cowaûtuckwock
oowaûtouh
nowaûtuckwunonock
cowaûtukoooog
waûtauhettuock

I understand you (sg.)
I understand him, her
I understand you (pl.)
I understand them
You (sg.) understand me
You (sg.) understand him,her
You (sg.) understand us
You (sg.) understand them
He, she understands me
He, she understands you (sg.)
He, she understands him, her
He, she understands you (pl.)
He, she understands us
He, she understands them
We understand you (sg.)
We understand him, her
We understand you (pl.)
We understand them
You (pl.) understand me
You (pl.) understand him, her
You (pl.) understand us
You (pl.) understand them
They understand me
They understand you (sg.)
They understand him, her
They understand us
They understand you (pl.)
They understand them

OBJECTIVE IMPERATIVE
You (sg.)-Me
You (sg.)-Him,her
We-Us

***amiinnea
***inish
***auhettemina

waûtamiinnea
waûtinish
waûtauhettemina

You (sg.) understand me!
You (sg.) understand him, her!
We understand us!
(Let us understand each other!)

MODE

OBJECTIVE SUBJUNCT.
You (sg.)-Me

™
16

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

About the Authors

T

he research of Moondancer Dr. O'Brien and Strong Woman Julianne Jennings into the
regional lost American Indian languages has appeared in the American Indian Culture and
Research Journal of the University of California and Gatherings: The En'owkin Journal of
First North American Peoples of Canada. Their first textbook, Understanding Algonquian
Indian Words (New England), is used in Native language classes in New England, and Dr.
O'Brien teaches the language to regional tribal peoples through the Rhode Island Indian
Council. They have provided Indian language translations for two public monuments in
Rhode Island, one endorsed by the Rhode Island Committee for the Humanities and the other
endorsed by the Rhode Island State Council on the Arts.

S

trong Woman attended the Algonquin Indian School where she received intensive training
in the Massachusett language (Natick) by Chief Spotted Eagle. She is a member of the
Rhode Island Indian Council. Her biography is in Who's Who in America for her
outstanding achievements in Indian language reconstruction, traditional arts, crafts, and
music. Recently the International Biographical Centre of Cambridge, England selected her as
1000 Outstanding Americans.

M

oondancer is the Former Secretary, Rhode Island Indian Council. He holds a Ph.D. from
Columbia University, where he presented his dissertation on linguistics, and is an elected
member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He is listed in 2000 Outstanding
Scientists of the 20th Century & The International Biographical Dictionary published by
International Biographical Centre of Cambridge, England. He was recognized for his original
contributions to science and engineering at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Rhode
Island, as well as his original technical contributions to Native American studies.

C

urrently the couple is participating in the television historical documentary, Mystic Voices:
The Story of the Pequot War (http://ourworld.cs.com/pequotwar/) to be aired in 2001.
Strong Woman sings songs and chants in their latest collaborative work, a CD —Nókas-I
Come from Her—a compilation of music sung entirely in the lost dialects of the
Massachusett, Narragansett and Pequot languages

D

r. O'Brien and Julianne Jennings' work has been funded and supported by many
organizations at the local, State, Federal and International levels. A partial listing includes—

M

ashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, the Rhode Island Indian Council, Eastern Pequot
Tribal Nation, Aquidneck Indian Council, Dighton Inter-tribal Indian Council, The
United States Department of Defense, The United States Department of the Interior,
Rhode Island Committee for the Humanities (National Endowment for the Humanities),
Rhode Island State Council on the Arts (National Endowment for the Arts), Rhode Island
Foundation, Expansion Arts, Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology (Brown University),
Harvard University, The Rhode Island State Historical Society, Rhode Island School of
Design, Annawan Historical Society, Rehoboth Antiquarian Society, Kiwanis Club of
Newport, The Wandering Bull, Inc. of Attleboro, MA, Frank's Trading Post of Stonington,
CT, individual donors, and many others too numerous to list.

W

hispering Wind (Vol. 31, No. 2, 2000) recently featured the couple's work on
language revival.