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Objective of the experiment


Learning Outcome


Theoretical background


Problem Statement






Result and Analysis










Table Content

1.1 Introduction

A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water

supply system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping
system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Although historically only used in factories
and large commercial buildings, systems for homes and small buildings are now available at
a cost-effective price. Fire sprinkler systems are extensively used worldwide, with over 40
million sprinkler heads fitted each year. In buildings completely protected by fire sprinkler
systems, over 99% of fires were controlled by fire sprinklers alone.
A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant (such
as foam) to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire
hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's standpipe or plumbing system.
1.2 Objectives
The objective of this activity is:
To understand the basic operation concepts and principles of fire sprinkler system
and fire hose reel in building.
1.3 Learning Outcomes
At the end of the laboratory activities, student would be able to:
1. Describe the basic concept and principles of a fire sprinkler system.
2. Explain the installation and selection of the fire sprinkler head as a safety aid in the
3. Describe at least the minimum requirement of installation of safety equipment and
measurement according to Uniform Building by Laws (UBBL) 1984
1.4 Theoretical Background
Fire fighting system is a prevention system to prevent fire from spreading in a building. For
most fire fighting, water represents the ideal extinguishing agent. Fire sprinklers utilize water
by direct application onto flames and heat, which cause cooling of combustion process and
prevent ignition of adjacent combustibles.
2.0 Problem Statement
The system are most effective during the fires initial flame growth stage, while the fire is
relatively easy to control. A properly selected sprinkler head will detect the fires heat, initiate
alarm, and begin suppression within moments after flames appear. In most instances
sprinklers will control fire advancement within a few minute of their activation, which will in
turn result in significantly less damage than otherwise would happen without sprinklers.
Each group are require to operate the Sprinkler Trainer Unit Model AFSS-1055-24 and
determine the appropriate parameter namely the time taken for the sprinkler hear to rupture
and the pressure required for the system to stabilize.
Each group are also require to identify the location of fire hose reel installation in facultys

3.1 Apparatus

Sprinkler System Model


3.2 Procedure
1. The sprinkler head was inserted into the holder ( make sure the seal tape is used to
prevent leakage at sprinkler heads )
2. Open water inlet valve and water pressure reading was taken.
3. The fire was lighted up by using candle and was put under the sprinkler. ( make sure
the fire is heat up the sprinkler )
4. The sprinkler model door was closed to prevent the fragment and the water form flow
5. The time taken and the water pressure reading was taken from the sprinkler start to
heat until the bust.

4.0 Result
Type of Sprinkler :
Colour of Liquid used :
Time Taken to Bust:

Quartzoid Bulb Type Head

1 Minute 32 Seconds

Pressure of water Before Bust :

64 bar

Pressure of water after bust :

0 bar

Type of Sprinkler
a) Quartzoid Type Head

A glass tube is used to retain a water valve on its seating.

The bulb or tube contains a coloured volatile fluid, which when heated to a specific
temperature expands to shatter the glass and open the valve.
Water flows on to a deflector, dispersing as a spray over the source of fire. Operating
temperatures vary with a colour coded liquid


- 57


- 68










-204 or 260

Figure 1 : Quartzoid Sprinkler

b) Fusible Strut Type Head

Contains metal struts soldered together which are used to hold the water valve in place.
At certain temperature, heat from a fire melts the solder and the struts fall away allowing
the head to open
Under heat, the strut part to allow the valve to discharge water on the fire .

Figure 2 : Fusible Soldered Strut type Head

c) Duraspeed Solder Type Head

Contains a heat collector on which a cap is soldered.

When heat from the fire melts the solder, the caps falls away.
Thus, displacing a strut which allows the head to open.
Produced in a range of operating temperatures.

Figure 3 : Duraspeed Soldered type head

Operation of Sprinkler System

The quartzoid bulb sprinkler system is activated by bursting or expansion bulb acted as
valve, thus water sprayed.
A wet pipe sprinkler system is a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinkler heads
attached to a piping system containing water and connected to a water supply so that
water discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat from a fire.
Permanently charged with water for instant response when sprinkler head burst.
If there is a burst of town water main from one side, the stop valve of both town water
main and branch pipe can be closed, and water is supply from the other branch pipe.

Figure 4 : Water Supply to hose reel and sprinkler installation

Water Supply for Sprinkler System

By using direct from the main pipe

By using suction tank and pump (indirect from Main)
By using elevated water tank


Hose reel system is intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of fire and
comprises hose reel pumps ,fire water tank ,hose reels ,pipe work and valves. The hose reel
system generally serves as an initial fire fighting aid. When the hose reel is brought into use
the pressure in the pipe immediately downstream of the pump check valves will drops below
the field adjusted pressure setting of the pressure switch thereby trigerring the pump to
comes into operation automatically to feed a steady supply of water to discharge through the
Fire fighting hose reel is the part which can be easily accessible. The fire hose reel outlets
should be properly housed in glass fronted cabinet secured under lock and key.
Fire hose reels are manufactured to comply with AS/NZS 1221. They are connected to the mains
water supply or Fire Systems, and are either wall-mounted or in cabinets. They require appropriate
signage indicating their location and suitability. The length of a fully extended fire hose is between 18
and 36 meters with a diameter of 13, 19mm or 25mm.

Figure 5 : Hose Reel for Faculty of Civil engineering in UiTM Pasir Gudang

Component in Hose Reel system

Stop Valve


The hose reel drum is a universal swing type, where the hose
drum rotates around a horizontal shaft and the hose can be
withdrawn from any direction.
The fire hose reel is made of non-kinking, braided rubber type
and the length of the hose is 30 meter.
A 25mm diameter stop valve to BS 1010 is provided for the
connection of the hose reel to the water supply.
The shut off nozzle assembly which is fitted at the end of the
hose is constructed of corrosion resistant material conforming to
BS 336. There are markings to indicate the open/shut positions
of the nozzle

Principle of Operation
to operate the system efficiently, the following instructions should be followed.
1. Ensure the nozzle or jet is in the closed position
2. Turn on the main valve (some will not let the nozzle out until this is done)
3. Reel out the hose, towards the fire
4. Open the nozzle or valve and direct the stream of water at the fire, from a safe

In the discussion, the equipment for sprinkler system have been handle careful due
to avoid any injuries to the student when conduct the demonstration. One of the precaution
steps that have been taken was the sprinkler system have been conduct in the secured
glass. This is to avoid the Quartzoid bulbs glass that have break due to the high
temperature can endangered the students watching around the demonstration. Besides that,
the experiment must be conduct by lecturer or laboratory assistor to avoid any accidents
happen in demonstration. This is because the lecturer or laboratory assistor already know
how to conduct the equipment.
The advantages for sprinkler system installed in the building is because the system
use water as a good medium which protect and give a cooling the object we prevent it from
reaching its ignition point. By this way we can overcome the fire. Besides that, this system
always available 24 hours because the system have automatic progress when fire detect the
smoke and fire.
The disadvantages for this sprinkler system is water that from the sprinkler system
can damaged the electronic things or any equipment in area. This is because water can
conduct the electric that can cause short circuit to electric components.
For the maintenance of the system, the stop valve must closed first. The test valve
can be opened to create flow and cause the non-return section alarm valve to open, to test
the alarm. Regular maintenance of the system consists of greasing the various valves and
checking their freedom of movement, logging the pressure gauge reading, before and after
each alarm valve (thus checking the tightness of the non-return valves) and checking the
alarm system.
The pressure tank level is checked and recharged, if necessary, with fresh water and
air. The centrifugal salt-water pump should also be tested by closing the isolating valves and
draining the pressure switch circuit, when pump should start automatically. Besides that, the
delivery pressure should be logged. In the event of a fire, when a normal situation is
recovered the section and system are drained and flushed out; the recharged with fresh
water and air.


From the experiment, we have achieved the objective of the experiment which is to to
understand the basic operation concepts and principles of fire sprinkler system and fire hose
reel in building. In the conclusion, all the operations, functions each components in the
system, advantages and disadvantages of system, and background for this system have
been included to this report. The Quartzoid bulb contained red liquid take about 1 minutes 32
second to break the glass. That means the system have late respond for mercury to expand
and burst to break the sprinkler head.
Besides that, we can conclude from the experiment that this type of sprinkler, the life
span of this sprinkler is about 50 years can be hold if the sprinkler is not burst out. The
sprinkler is being used in the high rise building or large building. There is also many type
sprinkler that is being used in building. From the experiment, we have learn about only three
types of sprinkler.



Figure 1:Fire fighting room

Figure 4: sprinkler

Figure 2: Map fire exit routes

Figure 5: Spinkler experiment

Figure 3:

Figure 6: Fire reel hose


Figure 7: Type of colours at


Figure 8: experiment sprinkler head

Figure 9: Fire reel hose sprinkler