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# Copyright 2006 - 2012 Taina Maria Miller.

EDITION 1.5
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the author.
Copying permission: Permission IS granted to reproduce this material to be used with one (1)
teacher's students by virtue of the purchase of this book. In other words, one (1) teacher MAY make
copies of these worksheets to be used with his/her students. Permission is not given to reproduce the
material for resale. If you have other needs, such as school-wide licensing, contact the author at
www.MathMammoth.com/contact.php.

Please visit www.MathMammoth.com for more information about ebooks and books by Maria
Miller.
Create free math worksheets at www.HomeschoolMath.net/worksheets/

Contents
Introduction ........................................................................... 4
Adding with Whole Tens ...................................................... 7
Subtracting Whole Tens ....................................................... 10
Adding in Columns ...............................................................
Doubling ...............................................................................
One-Half .............................................................................
Regrouping with Tens ........................................................
Going Over to The Next Ten ..............................................

12
14
16
18
21

## Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 9 ........................

Add in Columns Practice .....................................................
Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 8 or 7 ................
Addition Practice .................................................................
Many Addends ....................................................................

24
26
28
30
32

## Subtracting in Columns .......................................................

Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 1 .......................................
Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 2 .......................................
Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 3 .......................................

35
38
41
44

## Graphs and Problems ..........................................................

Adding 2-Digit Numbers Mentally ......................................
Mental Subtraction Methods ..............................................
More Mental Subtraction ....................................................
Euclid's Game ......................................................................
Review ...................................................................................

46
49
52
55
58
61

Answers ................................................................................. 64
More from Math Mammoth ................................................ 78

Introduction
Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2-B is a continuation to the book Math Mammoth Add & Subtract
2-A. The goal of this book is to study addition and subtraction within 0-100, both mentally and in
columns, especially concentrating on regrouping in addition (carrying) and in subtraction (borrowing).

Mental math
Mental math is important because it builds number sense. This book includes many lessons that practice
mental math. For example, the child practices adding and subtracting two-digit numbers when one of the
numbers is a whole ten (problems such as 30 + 14, or 66 20).
Also studied are problems such as 36 + 8 or 45 + 9. These problems use the idea of going over ten as in
problems 6 + 8 and 5 + 9. The child knows that 6 + 8 fills the first ten and is four more than the ten.
He/she will learn to use that fact when adding 36 + 8. The sum 36 + 8 fills the next whole ten (40), and is
four more than that, or 44.

Regrouping in tens
Simultaneously with this, the child learns adding two-digit numbers in columns, and regrouping with tens,
or carrying, which is illustrated and explained in detail with the help of visual models. These visual
models take the place of base-ten blocks or other manipulatives. You are welcome to use manipulatives to
get the idea across, if you prefer. The main concept to understand is that 10 ones are regrouped to form a
new ten, and this new ten is written using a little 1 in the tens column.
As a stepping stone into the standard way to add, you can show the child the method below. This can be
used if the child does not readily understand why the little 1 above the tens column corresponds to a
ten. Below, the ones are added first, and the answer is written using both columns. Then, the tens are
added and the answer is written under the sum of ones. Lastly, both sums are added.
tens ones
6
3

tens ones
3 6
+

## add ones first 1

1
add tens here 4

tens ones
3 6
+

total

1
4

Regrouping in subtraction
The next lessons teach subtracting in columns. First we only deal with the easy problems where you don't
need to regroup (borrow). Then the following lessons practice in detail the process of regrouping or
borrowing. You can use either term with your child, or even choose not to use either if you feel it is
confusing. You can alternatively use the phrase breaking a ten into ten ones.
First, the lesson Regrouping practices breaking down a ten into ten ones because we cannot subtract from
the ones. It is crucial that the child understands what happens here. Otherwise, he/she might end up only
memorizing the procedure, and will probably at some point misremember how it was done. That is why
this lesson deals with the regrouping process in detail with plenty of visual exercises.

If you notice that the child does not understand the concept of regrouping, he/she may need more practice
with concrete manipulatives or visual exercises before proceeding.

## More mental math

After learning regrouping, we practice mental subtraction in three separate lessons. One of them expounds
on several methods for mental subtracting. Another is about Euclid's gamea fun game that also
practices subtraction of two-digit numbers.
I wish you success with math teaching!
Maria Miller, the author

## Helpful Resources on the Internet

Use these free online resources to supplement the bookwork as you see fit.
You can access an up-to-date online version of this list at
www.mathmammoth.com/weblinks/add-subtract-2B.htm
Base Blocks Addition
A virtual manipulative that shows regrouping in addition. You can either solve addition problems that are
provided, or create your own. Lasso with a mouse ten units, ten tens, or ten hundreds to regroup them.
Choose Columns = 2 to restrict the work to two-digit numbers.
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_154_g_1_t_1.html?from=category_g_1_t_1.html
Base Blocks Subtraction
A virtual manipulative that helps teach borrowing in subtraction. Choose "Create Problem", then click on
the red and blue blocks to create a problem. The number to be subtracted (the subtrahend) is illustrated by
the RED blocks whereas the minuend is by the BLUE blocks. Click BEGIN problem to start solving.
Drag a red block on top of a blue to subtract they cancel each other. Drag bigger place values to the
column on their right to break them upin other words regroup or borrow.
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_155_g_1_t_1.html?from=category_g_1_t_1.html
Callum's Addition Pyramid
Add the pairs of numbers to get a number on the next level and finally the top number.
Three difficulty levels.
http://www.amblesideprimary.com/ambleweb/mentalmaths/pyramid.html
Techno Tortoise
Practice adding two two-digit numbers in parts on a number line.
http://www.ictgames.com/technowithflock.html
Mr. Martini's Classroom: Addition and Subtraction Inequalities
Compare expressions that involve addition and subtraction of one and two-digit numbers.
http://www.thegreatmartinicompany.com/inequalities/number-comparison.html
and
http://www.thegreatmartinicompany.com/inequalities/add-subtract-comparison.html

## Mr. Martini's Classroom: Long Addition

Practice adding two-digit numbers in columns online.
http://www.thegreatmartinicompany.com/longarithmetic/longaddition.html
Mathionare Addition Quiz
Answer increasingly more difficult addition questions (one and two-digit numbers), and win a million!
http://www.mathsisfun.com/games/mathionaire-addition-quiz.html
Button Beach Challenge
Figure out what number the various colored buttons represent.
http://www.amblesideprimary.com/ambleweb/mentalmaths/buttons.html
Teaching Treasures - Year 2 Maths Worksheets
Simple online addition and subtraction worksheets where the student types in the answer and can check it.
http://www.teachingtreasures.com.au/maths/maths_level2.html
Euclid's Game
An online version of Euclid's game (a Java applet).
http://www.cut-the-knot.org/blue/EuclidAlg.shtml
Count on Convict
Practice adding up strategy for mental subtraction. First type the amount to move on to the next whole
ten, then count on tens, then the rest.
http://www.ictgames.com/countonconvict.html
Double Digit Addition
Match the addition problem with the correct sum. Enjoy!
http://www.quia.com/mc/818288.html
Addition Level 2
A matching game where you add a one-digit number and a two-digit number.
http://www.quia.com/mc/65798.html
Speed Grid Addition
Find numbers on the grid that add up to the given number. This uses both single-digit and two-digit
numbers.
http://www.oswego.org/ocsd-web/games/SpeedGrid/Addition/urikares.html

## Adding with Whole Tens

1. The numbers are shown with ten-sticks and one-dots. Write the sums.

+
a.

+
b.

54 + 10 = ______

______ + 20 = ______

+
c.

+
d.

+
e.

+
f.

## Adding whole tens and

another 2-digit number
Break down the other
number into tens and ones.
Add the tens. Then, add the ones.
2. Add. Break the second number into tens and ones first. Then add the tens.
a.

10 + 34 = _______

b. 10

(10 + 30 + 4)

+ 28 = _______

c.

## (10 + _____ + _____ )

20 + 24 = _______
(20 + _____ + _____ )

d.

30 + 21 = _______

e.

50 + 17 = _______

f.

40 + 33 = _______

g.

60 + 23 = _______

h.

30 + 37 = _______

i.

70 + 25 = _______

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

3. Add. Break the first number into tens and ones first. Then add the tens.
a.

45 + 20 = _______

b.

(40 + 5 + 20)
d.

27 + 20 = _______

( _____ + _____ + 20 )

46 + 30 = _______

c.

45 + 40 = _______

## ( _____ + _____ + 40)

e.

16 + 50 = _______

f.

38 + 60 = _______

4. Add.
a. 77

+ 10 = ______

b.

20 + 45 = ______

c.

16 + 10 = ______

d. 77

+ 20 = ______

e.

30 + 45 = ______

f.

16 + 30 = ______

50 + 48 = ______

h.

60 + 21 = ______

i.

19 + 20 = ______

g.

## Remember rounding to the nearest ten?

Numbers ending in 1, 2, 3, or 4 are
closer to the previous ten than the
next, so they are rounded down.

Numbers ending in 6, 7, 8,
or 9 are closer to the next
ten so they are rounded up.

72 70

46 50

Middle numbers
ending in 5 are
rounded up.
5 10

## 5. Round these numbers to the nearest ten.

a.

23 ______

b.

54 ______

c.

78 ______

d.

96 ______

e.

65 ______

f.

95 ______

g.

8 ______

h.

3 ______

6. Gwen bought shoes for \$39, a top for \$8, and a skirt for \$23.
Round these prices to the nearest ten, and then add them to
find the total cost.
7. Jacob had \$61. Then he bought a toy for \$29. Use rounded
numbers to estimate how much money he has left.

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

8. Fill in the missing numbers and find how many tens were added.
a.

12 + _____ = 22

b.

45 + _____ = 65

c.

23 + _____ = 63

12 + _____ = 52

45 + _____ = 55

23 + _____ = 53

12 + _____ = 42

45 + _____ = 75

23 + _____ = 93

9. Add 10, 20, 30, or 40. In the box below the number, write E if the number is even,
and O, if the number is odd. What can you notice?
+ 20

+ 10

12

22

19

+ 40

+ 30

32

37

+ 20

+ 30

23

+ 40

+ 10

58

85

How many different solutions can you find for this puzzle?
Find at least two. All numbers are whole tens.
+
+

+
+

+
+

+
= 100

+
+

+
+

=
100

+
+

+
=
80

= 70

+
= 70
=
80

+
+

+
+

=
60

= 70

= 100
+

+
=
100

= 70
=
60

## Subtracting Whole Tens

1. Cross out as many ten-pillars as the problem indicates. What is left?

a.

b.

30 10 = ______

d.

47 20 = ______

50 30 = ______

e.

26 10 = ______

c.

70 40 = ______

f.

55 30 = ______

## What can you notice?

2. Count by tens backwards.
a.

b.

c.

3. Subtract.
a.

b.

c.

23 10 = ________

48 20 = ________

56 10 = ________

23 20 = ________

48 30 = ________

56 30 = ________

d.

e.

f.

75 10 = ________

31 10 = ________

81 40 = ________

75 20 = ________

31 20 = ________

81 50 = ________

10

## 4. Find the pattern and continue it.

a.

88 10 = ______

b.

100 60 = ______

c.

34 10 = ______

88 20 = ______

90 50 = ______

44 20 = ______

88 30 = ______

80 40 = ______

54 30 = ______

88 ______ = ______

## _____ _____ = _____

88 ______ = ______

## _____ _____ = _____

88 ______ = ______

## _____ _____ = _____

88 ______ = ______

## 5. Use rounded numbers to solve these problems.

a. Three suitcases weigh 29 kg, 18 kg, and 31 kg.
About how much is their total weight?
b. Chairs cost \$29 apiece. Can
Dale buy three of them with \$80?
c. Henry received \$50 for his birthday.
If he buys three books that cost \$9 each,
about how much will he have left?

Find
numbers
for the
puzzles.

= 90

+
=
30

= 30
=
30

=
80

11

= 40

= 30
=
10

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Adding in Columns

1. a.

b.

## _____ + _____ = _____

tens ones

2
3
5

tens ones

0
0
0

1
5
6

0
0
0

Write tens and ones in columns. Add the tens in their column.

c.

e.

tens

ones

tens

ones

tens

ones

tens

f.

tens

g.

d.

ones

tens

h.

ones

ones

12

tens

a.

d.

f.

tens

ones

tens

ones

ones

ones

ones

b.

tens

e.

tens

tens

c.

ones

3. Add.
a.

2 0
+ 5 7

b.

6 2
+ 3 6

f.

4 6
+ 4 0

g.

7 1
+ 2 4

k.

2 5
1 3
+ 4 0

l.

4 1
3 2
+ 2 4

4 5
+ 1 3

d.

3 7
+ 3 2

e.

1 4
+ 7 2

h.

3 2
+ 5 5

i.

3 3
+ 4 3

j.

6 4
+ 2 5

m.

3 2
5 0
+ 1 5

n.

3 3
1 2
+ 4 3

o.

5 4
1 1
+ 2 4

c.

13

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Doubling
Doubling a number means adding it to itself. It is finding two times the number.
Examples:
Double 7 is 7 + 7 is 14.

Double 20 is 20 + 20 is 40.

a. Double 5

b. Double 30

c. Double 50

a. 22 + 22

b. Double 34

c. 13 + 13

d. Double 41

## Double 6 is 6 + 6 = _____. Double 13 is 13 + 13 = _____.

Double 7 is 7 + 7 = _____. Double 14 is 14 + 14 = _____.
Double 8 is 8 + 8 = _____. Double 15 is 15 + 15 = _____.
Double 9 is 9 + 9 = 18.

Double 16 is 16 + 16 = 32.

## Double 10 is 10 + 10 = 20. Double 17 is 17 + 17 = 34.

Double 11 is 11 + 11 = 22. Double 18 is 18 + 18 = 36.
Double 12 is 12 + 12 = 24. Double 19 is 19 + 19 = 38.

14

## We can use doubles chart to solve problems about equal sharing.

Example. Two children need to clean 18 chairs. They divide the job equally.
How many chairs does each child clean?
We can use the doubles chart. Since 9 + 9 = 18, each child will clean 9 chairs.

## Solve the problems. You can use the doubles chart.

4. Mother tells two children to make 16 sandwiches.
The children share the job equally.
How many sandwiches will each child make?
5. You and your brother share equally 32 pieces of candy.
How many pieces of candy will you get?

## 6. A batch of brownies makes 16 brownies.

Mom makes a double batch.
How many brownies will she make?

## 7. Two teachers divide 28 worksheets evenly.

How many worksheets will each one get?

8. In a board game, you throw two dice and move that many spaces.
Mary got double four. Andrea got double six.
How many spaces did Mary move?
How many spaces did Andrea move?

## 9. Mother and her friend need to make 20 dolls to sell.

They share the job evenly.
How many dolls will each woman make?

15

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

One-Half
When you divide something
into two equal parts, you
have divided it into two halves.
Each part is half of the whole.
We write one-half this way:

## To find half of 10 apples,

divide the ten into two equal
parts. 5 + 5 = 10. Half of ten
apples is five apples.

1
,
2

6 + 6 = 12
1
of 12 is 6.
2

## b. Color two halves of each shape.

2. Draw a line through these shapes and divide them into two halves. Color one half.

b.

a.

e.

c.

d.

3. Divide the things into two EQUAL groups. Write an addition sentence. Find half of the total.
a. 10

b. 40

1
of 10 is ____.
2

1
of 40 is _____.
2

16

c. 24

1
of 24 is _____.
2

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

4. Fill in the doubles chart. Then use it to find one-half of the given numbers.

6 + 6 = _____
7 + 7 = _____
8 + 8 = _____
9 + 9 = _____
10 + 10 = _____

11 + 11 = _____

1
2

of 16 is _____.

12 + 12 = _____

1
2

of 28 is _____.

13 + 13 = _____

1
2

of 26 is _____.

14 + 14 = _____

1
2

of 30 is _____.

15 + 15 = _____

1
2

of 22 is _____.

5. Divide the dots into two EQUAL groups. Find half of the total.

a.
1
of 26 is ____.
2

c.

b.
1
of 30 is ____.
2

d.

1
of ____ is _____.
2

1
of ____ is _____.
2

6. Solve the word problems, and fill in another chart of doubles to help you.
a. Jack and Joe split \$60 between them.

10 + 10 = ______

20 + 20 = ______

30 + 30 = ______

40 + 40 = ______

## Missie spent \$10 on a toy.

How many dollars does Missie have now?

50 + 50 = ______

## half of Mom's apples. How many apples had Mom

bought originally?

17

tens

## When adding 3 + 9, we can circle ten

little ones to form a ten. We write 1
in the tens column.

ones

3
+

## There are two little ones left over, so

we write 2 in the ones column.
With 35 + 8, we circle ten little ones
to make a ten. There already are three
tens, so in total we now have four tens.
So, we write 4 in the tens column.

9
1

tens

ones

## There are three little cubes left over, so

we write 3 in the ones column.

1. Circle ten cubes to make a new ten. Count the tens, including the new one.
Count the ones. Write the tens and ones in their own columns.

a.

c.

e.

tens

ones

tens

ones

b.

tens

ones

tens

ones

d.

tens

ones

tens

ones

+ 1

+ 2

f.

18

## When we make a new ten from the ones

(cubes), we are regrouping. The ten little
ones get grouped and become a ten.

tens ones

## This is also called carrying to tens.

Imagine someone gathering ten little
cubes in his lap and carrying them over into the tens column as 1 ten.

3
+ 2
6

5
7
2

To show this new ten, write a little 1 in the tens column above the other numbers.
Then add in the tens-column as usual, adding the little 1 also.
2. Circle ten ones to make a new ten. Add the tens and ones in columns.

a.

tens
1

ones

tens
1

ones

+ 2

+ 3

b.

c.

tens
1

ones

tens
1

ones

+ 1

+ 4

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

19

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

3. Add. If you can make a new ten from the ones, regroup the new ten with the other tens.
a.

4 2
+ 1 5

b.

2 7
+ 4 5

c.

6 5
+ 2 6

d.

8 3
+ 1 5

e.

3 4
+ 1 9

f.

5 2
+ 4 1

g.

1 3
+ 4 4

h.

6 3
+ 2 7

i.

3 6
+ 5 1

j.

6 6
+ 2 9

k.

1 8
+4 0

l.

3 9
+3 6

m.

5 9
+ 3 5

n.

7 2
+ 2 2

o.

1 7
+ 2 3

tens ones
2

## Sometimes we can get or regroup two tens from

all the ones (cubes). On the right, when you add
the ones, you get 6 + 7 + 8 = 21. This makes two
new tens.

3 6
2 7

## We need to add them with the other tens in the

tens column. So, we write a little 2 above the
tens column.

+ 1 8
1

4. Add. Regroup the ones to make new tens. Add the new tens in the tens column.
a.

3 4
1 9
+ 2 6

b.

1 5
2 7
+ 4 5

c.

1 8
2 7
+ 2 6

d.

2 6
4 8
+ 1 9

e.

3 4
2 0
+ 1 9

5. Count by fours.
a. 0,

b. 100,

20

## Going Over to the Next Ten

Sums that go over to the next ten
Let's add 59 + 5 so that we first complete 60.
59 + 5
|

59 + 1 + 4
60 + 4 = 64
The 5 is broken into two parts: 1 and 4.
That is because 59 and 1 makes sixty.
Then, we have 60 and 4. We get 64.

## 9 and 1 make a ten.

We get 6 tens.
59 + 5 = 64

1. Circle ten little cubes to make a ten. Count the tens and ones. Write the answer.

a. 13 + 9 = ______

b. 15 + 8 = ______

c. 17 + 7 = ______

d. 24 + 7 = ______

e. 25 + 6 = ______

f. 37 + 9 = ______

g. 36 + 6 = ______

h. 48 + 4 = ______

i. 58 + 5 = ______

21

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

2. Complete. Break the second number into two parts so that you complete the next ten.

28 + 8

a.

47 + 5

b.
\

28 + 2 + ____

39 + 3

d.

47 + 3 + ____

30 + ____ = ______

79 + 9

c.

79 + ____ + ____

50 + ____ = ______
27 + 5

e.
\

80 + ____ = ______
38 + 7

f.

39 + ____ + ____

27 + ____ + ____

40 + ____ = ______

## ______ + ____ = _____ ______ + ____ = _____

38 + ____ + ____

3. Continue the patterns. COMPARE the columns, and NOTICE what is the same.

8 + 1 = _______

a.

28 + 1 = _______

b.

78 + 1 = _______

c.

8 + 2 = _______

28 + 2 = _______

78 + 2 = _______

8 + 3 = _______

28 + 3 = _______

78 + 3 = _______

8 + 4 = _______

28 + 4 = _______

78 + 4 = _______

8 + ____ = _______

28 + ____ = _______

78 + ____ = _______

8 + ____ = _______

28 + ____ = _______

78 + ____ = _______

a.

8 + _____ = 10

b.

8 + _____ = 11
d.

7 + _____ = 10
7 + _____ = 12

13 + _____ = 20

c.

13 + _____ = 21
e.

18 + _____ = 20
18 + _____ = 22
22

67 + _____ = 70
67 + _____ = 71

f.

86 + _____ = 90
86 + _____ = 92

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

5. Solve the problems. Write a number sentence for each problem, not just the answer.
a. Benjamin wants to buy a kite that costs \$30.

## He has saved \$22.

How much more money will he need?

## selling eggs, and earned \$5 more for selling fruit.

How much money does she have now?

## 50th birthday party. Thirty-two of them came

before noon. How many came after noon?

## e. Dad bought a bunch of 40 grapes and ate half of them.

Then, little sister ate seven grapes. How many are left now?

6. Continue the patterns. COMPARE the columns, and NOTICE what is the same.
a.

9 + 1 = _______

b.

39 + 1 = _______

c.

59 + 1 = _______

9 + 2 = _______

39 + 2 = _______

59 + 2 = _______

9 + 3 = _______

39 + 3 = _______

59 + 3 = _______

9 + 4 = _______

39 + 4 = _______

59 + 4 = _______

9 + ____ = _______

39 + ____ = _______

59 + ____ = _______

9 + ____ = _______

39 + ____ = _______

59 + ____ = _______

23

## Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 9

Imagine that 29 wants to be 30...
so it grabs one from 5.
Then, 29 becomes 30, and 5 becomes 4.
The addition problem is changed to 30 + 4 = 34.

1. Circle the nine dots and one more dot to form a complete ten. Add.

a.

19 + 5 = ______

b.

29 + 7 = ______

c.

49 + 5 = ______

d.

29 + 8 = ______

e.

39 + 6 = ______

f.

49 + 9 = ______

2. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the first
problem.
a.

19 + 7 = _______

b.

49 + 3 = _______

9 + 7 = ______

39 + 4 = _______

c.

## 3. Add. Compare the problems.

a.

9 + 3 = ________
19 + 3 = ________

d.

9 + 7 = ________

b.

9 + 6 = ________

c.

39 + 6 = ________
e.

9 + 9 = ________

9 + 4 = ________

49 + 4 = ________
f.

9 + 5 = ________

39 + 7 = ________

69 + 9 = ________

19 + 5 = ________

29 + 7 = ________

79 + 9 = ________

59 + 5 = ________

24

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

4. These problems review the basic facts with 9 and 8. By this time you should already
remember these addition facts. Try to remember what number will fit, and not count.

a.

b.

c.

d.

9 + _____ = 14

4 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 15

7 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 15

8 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 17

8 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 13

2 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 12

5 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 18

5 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 14

6 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 12

6 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 13

3 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 17

9 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 18

9 + 8 = _____

9 + _____ = 16

7 + 9 = _____

8 + _____ = 16

4 + 8 = _____

a.

40
b.

48

16
c.

_____

53
+

21
+

61
+

____

66
+

27
+

34
+

____

42
+

_____

_____

25

_____

_____

_____

_____
+

67

_____ _____
+

_____ _____
+

71

74

76

## Add in Columns Practice

1. Add in columns.
a.

9
+ 7 1

b.

2 4
+ 6 7

c.

5 5
+ 3 6

d.

4 5
+ 2 5

e.

3 8
+ 1 4

f.

3 4
9
+ 3 5

g.

2 5
4 2
+ 4 9

h.

5 8
3 0
+ 6

i.

2 9
4 4
+ 1 2

j.

1 6
1 4
+ 1 9

2. Write the numbers so that the ones and tens are in their own columns. Add.
a. 45 + 27

b. 8 + 56

c. 40 + 32

d. 25 + 45

e. 47 + 9

f. 6 + 31 + 25

g. 40 + 7 + 9

h. 46 + 8 + 20

i. 5 + 8 + 13

j. 5 + 4 + 57

26

## Here we have more

than 10 tens.
Ten tens make
a hundred (100)!
Add the tens: 8 + 7 = 14 tens. The 1 of the 14 goes in the hundreds' column,
and the 4 stays in the tens column. The answer 149 is read one hundred fifty-nine.
Another example. Add the tens normally: 1 + 5 + 6 = 12 tens.
Write the 12 so that the 1 is in the hundreds' column, and the
2 is in the tens column. The 12 tens make 1 hundred and 2 tens.
The answer 123 is read one hundred twenty-three.
You will study more about hundreds later.
3. Add. You will have more than 10 tens.
a. 27 + 80

b. 95 + 47

c. 29 + 75

d. 62 + 84

4. Add.
a.

6 7
+ 6 1

b.

9 0
+ 6 5

c.

3 9
+ 8 1

d.

8 5
+ 6 2

e.

2 9
+ 9 4

f.

6 5
1 8
+ 2 6

g.

7 4
7
+ 4 5

h.

6 8
4 7
+ 3 2

i.

1 2
8 8
+ 4 9

j.

8
5 0
+ 7 9

27

## Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 8 or 7

Imagine that 38 wants to be 40, so it grabs two from 7.
Then, 38 becomes 40, and 7 becomes 5.
The addition problem is changed to 40 + 5 = 45.

1. Circle the eight dots and two more dots to form a complete ten. Add.

a.

18 + 6 = ______

b.

28 + 7 = ______

c.

48 + 8 = ______

d.

38 + 4 = ______

e.

38 + 6 = ______

f.

48 + 5 = ______

2. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the top problem.
a.

18 + 7 = _______

b.

38 + 6 = _______

8 + 7 = ______

58 + 5 = _______

c.

## ____ + _____ = ______

3. Add. Compare the problems. What is similar about the problems in each box?
a.

8 + 3 = _______
18 + 3 = _______

d.

8 + 2 = _______

b.

8 + 6 = _______

c.

38 + 6 = _______
e.

8 + 9 = _______

8 + 4 = _______

78 + 4 = _______
f.

8 + 5 = _______

38 + 2 = _______

68 + 9 = _______

18 + 5 = _______

28 + 2 = _______

78 + 9 = _______

58 + 5 = _______

28

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

4. Circle the seven dots and three more dots to make a new ten. Add.

a.

27 + 4 = ______

b.

47 + 5 = _______

c.

37 + 7 = _______

5. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the top problem.
a.

75 + 7 = _______

b.

47 + 7 = _______

5 + 7 = ______

57 + 6 = _______

c.

## ____ + _____ = ______

6. Add. Compare the problems. What is similar about the problems in each box?
a.

7 + 6 = ________

27 + 6 = ________
d.

7 + 9 = ________

b.

7 + 5 = ________

c.

77 + 5 = ________
e.

7 + 3 = ________

7 + 7 = ________

87 + 7 = ________
f.

7 + 10 = ________

67 + 9 = ________

37 + 3 = ________

17 + 10 = ________

87 + 9 = ________

77 + 3 = ________

47 + 10 = ________

## 7. Solve the word problems.

a. Jenny needed 24 eggs to make omelettes for her family.

She already had 15 eggs. How many more does she need?

## b. Her large family eats lots of potatoes. Dad bought a 25-kilogram

bag of potatoes. Now, only six kg are left. How many kilograms
of potatoes have they eaten?

29

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Addition Practice
1. Break the second number into tens and ones, and then add mentally.

20 + 34 = _______

a.

70 + 18 = _______

b.

## (20 + ______ + ____ )

50 + 27 = _______

c.

## (50 + ______ + ____ )

2. Add mentally.
a.

17 + 10 = _______

b.

16 + 20 = _______

c.

50 + 14 = _______

26 + 10 = _______

34 + 30 = _______

60 + 23 = _______

42 + 10 = _______

67 + 20 = _______

30 + 45 = _______

3. Find the pattern and continue it. This pattern grows at each step.
+

13

21

31

_____

_____ _____

4. Add.
a.

4 4
+ 4 8

b.

c.

3 2
+ 5 9

1 6
+ 4 7

d.

2 3
+ 6 7

e.

5 5
+ 2 9

a.

8+3

40 + 5

b.

8 + 54

9 + 53

d.

2 + 36

29 + 7

e.

46 + 8

48 + 5

30

c.

5 + 6 + 56
f.

85 + 9

61 + 6
6 + 88

33
+ 48

55
+ 39

711

814

## 7. Add. Compare the problems!

a.

b.

c.

d.

7 + 8 = ______

4 + 9 = ______

8 + 4 = ______

7 + 9 = ______

17 + 8 = ______

14 + 9 = ______

48 + 4 = ______

57 + 9 = ______

37 + 8 = ______

44 + 9 = ______

78 + 4 = ______

37 + 9 = ______

8. Count in threes.
a.

b.

9. Add.
a.

b.

c.

d.

29 + 4 = _____

45 + 8 = _____

22 + 8 = _____

78 + 6 = _____

38 + 9 = _____

24 + 9 = _____

46 + 8 = _____

69 + 5 = _____

48 + 6 = _____

36 + 8 = _____

91 + 8 = _____

62 + 9 = _____

a.

b.

+ 1

c.

+
7

d.

e.

+ 2

+ 7

+ 2

31

Many Addends
Adding the
ones we get
8 + 7 + 8 = 23.

## When adding the ones,

you may get two or even
three tens. Regroup.

new tens in the
tens column.

## Write the new tens in

the tens column.

4 8
2 7
+ 1 8
9 3

Adding the
ones we get
9 + 9 + 7 + 6 = 31.
Write the three
new tens in the
tens column.

1
1
2
+ 2

9
9
7
6

9 1

1. Add mentally. First add the numbers that make 10 (if there are any).

8 + 4 + 5 = _______

a.

b.

5 + 8 + 7 = _______
9 + 2 + 6 = _______

9 + 9 + 9 = _______

c. 8

+ 5 + 6 + 4 = _______

4 + 9 + 5 + 6 = _______

2. Add. The answers are hidden in the list of numbers below the problems.
a.

5 2
3 0
+ 1 1

b.

1 3
2 5
+ 5 4

c.

3 3
3 8
+ 2 7

d.

3 6
2 7
+ 1 9

e.

3
2
1
+ 1

6
7
8
6

f.

4
1
1
+ 2

0
8
6
2

g.

1
1
1
+ 3

5
7
8
9

h.

1
2
2
+ 1

i.

1 9
7 9
+ 1 9

j.

5 6
3 2
+ 2 9

k.

4 5
6 5
+ 1 9

l.

5 1
1 5
+ 7 9

74

80

82

89

91

92

93

96

97

32

98

117

117

122

129

2
9
5
4

145

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

3. Solve the problems. Write an addition or subtraction sentence for each one. You can
add in columns if you need to.
a. A bus can seat 30 people. There were

## already 23 people. Is there room for

nine more people?

## the second bus had 25. What is the

total number of people on the buses?

Yes/No, because

have 57 people?

it now?

have 88 people?

## 13 people. Then it dropped off seven

more people. How many people
were left on the bus?

## 13 more got on. Now there are 29

people on the bus. How many were on
the bus originally?

## dropped off eight people. Then five

people got on. Now how many people
are on the bus?

## up 12 people, and then seven people

more. Then it was full. How many
people were on the bus originally?

33

## 4. Add mentally. Try to find the easiest order.

a.

30 + 2 + 40 + 8 = ________

c.

9 + 40 + 1 + 4 = ________

b.

50 + 4 + 10 + 7 = ________

d.

20 + 10 + 8 + 9 = ________

5. Add. Below each number, write E for an even number, and O for an odd number.
a. 19 + 5 + 7 = 31

d. 57 + 21 =

c. 7 + 11 + 23 =

_______

_______

_______

g. 17 + 27 + 5 =

b. 25 + 7 + 3 =

_______

e. 5 + 1 + 11 + 9 =

_______

h. 25 + 13 + 3 + 1 =

_______

f. 25 + 9 =

i. 57 + 21 =

_______

_______

Underline the correct choice in the sentences below. Can you think why it is that way?
If I add two odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
If I add three odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
If I add four odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
4 7
+ 2 9

5 2
1 7
+ 1 4

6 0
+ 1 6

## Can you figure out how Mary

is adding and why it works?

7 0
+ 1 3

7 6

8 3
Use Mary's method with these problems:
1 3
1 5
+ 4 8

2 7
2 8
+ 3 1

1 6
2 5
+ 4 7

34

4 6
2 5
+ 1 2

3 6
2 7
+ 3 4

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Subtracting in Columns
tens

ones

1. a.

tens

ones

1. b.

and 2 ones.

## Cross out 6 tens

and 1 one.

It's easy: subtract the tens and ones in their own column.
2. Subtract.
a.

5 7
1 0

b.

6 6
2 4

c.

7 8
4 4

d.

8 7
2 0

e.

5 5
1 1

f.

9 5
3 5

g.

2 8
2 5

h.

6 7
3 3

i.

7 6
3 2

j.

8 8
6 6

c.

9 6

d.

2 7

e.

7 6

5 7

a.

4 8

b.

3 7

2 5

3 3

1 2

3 3

## 4. Subtract and add. Compare the problems.

a.

b.

c.

72 + 20 = _______

29 + 10 = _______

63 + 30 = _______

72 + 10 = _______

29 + 50 = _______

63 40 = _______

72 30 = _______

29 + 30 = _______

63 60 = _______

35

## 5. Kids gathered seashells on the

beach, and counted how many
each one got. Then they made
a bar graph.
a. Who gathered the least
seashells?
__________________________
b. Who gathered the most?
__________________________
c. How many more did Luis gather than Linda? ________ more
d. How many more did Annie gather than Mark?

________ more

e. How many did Linda and Jane gather together? ________ seashells
f. Mark gave 10 of his to Linda.
Now how many does Linda have?

________ seashells

## g. If Luis gives 10 of his to Annie,

will Luis and Annie have equal amount? ________________
6. Count by six, seven, eight, and nine - and backwards by 5!
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

36

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

7. Solve the word problems. Write an addition or subtraction sentence for each one.
a. There were 36 birds sitting on the telephone line.

## 15 of them flew away.

How many were left?

## for the crafts class. She already had 21.

How many more did she need?

## A little later she counted only 30 birds on the line.

How many had flown away?

## Find the missing numbers in these

addition and subtraction problems!

7
3

2 3

+ 3

4 2

5 0

+ 1

3
+ 1

5 0

7 3

8
1

37

+
9 3

6 2

4
1

+ 4
8 2

## Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 1

We will now study regrouping
(borrowing) in subtraction.

Break
a ten.

## As a first step, we study breaking

a ten-pillar into ten little cubes.
This is called regrouping,
4 tens 5 ones
because one ten changes
First we have 45. We
groups from the tens group
break one ten-pillar
into the ones.
into little cubes.

3 tens 15 ones
Now we have 3 tens and
15 ones. It is still 45, but
written in a different way.

Break
a ten.

## Here is another example. First we

have 5 tens 3 ones. We break
one ten-pillar into 10 little cubes.
We end up with 4 tens 13 ones.
5 tens 3 ones

4 tens 13 ones

1. Break a ten into 10 ones. What do you get? Draw or use manipulatives to help.

a.

3 tens 0 ones

b.

___tens ____ones

___tens ___ones

c.

___tens ___ones

d.

___tens ____ones

___tens ___ones

e.

___tens ___ones

___tens ____ones

___tens ____ones

f.

___tens ____ones

___tens ___ones

38

___tens ____ones

## Let's study subtraction. The pictures

on the right illustrate 45 17.

Break
a ten.

## First, a ten is broken into 10 ones.

So, 4 tens 5 ones becomes
3 tens 15 ones.
After that, cross out (subtract)
1 ten 7 ones.

4 tens 5 ones

3 tens 15 ones

## Cross out 1 ten 7 ones (from the second picture).

What is left? ____ tens ____ ones

## The pictures on the right

illustrate 52 39.

Break
a ten.

## First, a ten is broken into 10 ones.

So, 5 tens 2 ones becomes
4 tens 12 ones.
After that, cross out (subtract)
3 tens 9 ones.

5 tens 2 ones

4 tens 12 ones

## Cross out 3 tens 9 ones (from the second picture).

What is left? ____ tens ____ ones

2. Fill in. Always subtract (cross out some) from the second picture.
Break
a ten.

3 tens 6 ones

Break
a ten.

2 tens 16 ones

Break
a ten.

Break
a ten.

39

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

3. First, break a ten. Then subtract ones and tens separately. Look at the example.
a.

b.

5 tens 5 ones

tens
3 tens

tens

15 ones

7 tens 2 ones

5 ones

5 ones

ones

c.

3 tens

d.

6 tens 0 ones

2 tens

6 tens 4 ones

7 ones

e.

3 tens

8 ones

f.

7 tens 6 ones

4 tens

5 tens 0 ones

7 ones

g.

2 tens

2 ones

h.

8 tens 1 one

6 tens

6 tens 3 ones

5 ones

2 tens

8 ones

## ___ tens ___ ones

4. Jessica had 37 colored pencils. Then she gave 12 of them to her brother, and six to
her sister.
a. How many pencils does Jessica have now?

b. How many more pencils does Jessica have than her brother?

c. How many more pencils does Jessica have than her sister?

40

## Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 2

In columns:

5 tens, 3 ones

4 tens, 13 ones

Cross out 1 ten 6 ones. What is left? ____ tens ____ ones

13

## When the subtraction is done in columns:

We take (borrow) one ten from the 5 tens. There will be now only 4 tens in the
tens column, so to show this, we cross the 5 in the tens column and write 4
above it.

This new ten is now grouped with the ones. There were 3 ones, but with the 10
new ones there will be 13. To show this, we also cross the 3 in the ones column
and write 13 above it.

## Then we subtract the tens and ones separately.

4 tens

3 tens, 10 ones

10

Cross out 2 tens 8 ones. What is left? ___ tens ___ ones
Here is another example: 40 28.

We take (borrow) one ten from the 4 tens. There will be now only 3 tens in the
tens column, so to show this, we cross the 4 in the tens column and write 3
above it.

This new ten is now grouped with the ones. There were 0 ones, but with the 10
new ones there will be 10. To show this, we also cross the 0 in the ones column
and write 10 above it.

41

## 1. Regroup first. Then subtract.

a. 6 tens 0 ones ____ tens _____ ones

6
3

Take away
3 tens, 9 ones.

0
9

3
1

Take away
1 ten, 7 ones.

7
4

1
6

5
7

8
3

Take away
3 tens, 4 ones.

Take away
4 tens, 8 ones.

7
1

Take away
1 ten, 6 ones.

0
4

Take away
5 tens, 1 one.

6
8

9
5

Take away
2 tens, 5 ones.

Take away
4 tens, 7 ones.

0
1

Take away
3 tens, 8 ones.

Take away
2 tens, 9 ones.

42

a.

b.

Check:

4 16

5 6
2 7

2 9
+ 2 7

2 9

5 6

Check:

Check:

9 0
2 8

c.

4 2
1 5

+ 2 8

d.

9 0
3 5

e.

8 2
2 5

f.

6 5
3 9

g.

5 2
1 4

h.

6 5
2 6

i.

7 0
4 8

j.

5 5
1 7

k.

3 1
1 8

l.

6 6
2 8

+ 1 5

## Figure out the missing numbers in these subtractions!

You might need to regroup.

3
1
7

0
7

43

You can
subtract

## How do we know when to break a ten

into 10 ones, and when not to?
From six cubes, we can cross out
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 cubes.
We cannot cross out 7, 8, 9, etc. because
there are not that many cubes to begin with.

60
61
62

You would
go into debt
6 7 6 11
6 8 6 12
6 9 6 13
6 10 etc.

63
64
65
66

1. Cross out the subtractions that would make you go into debt. Do you notice any
patterns? (You can also write how much you would go into debt; for example 4 is a negative 4.)
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

2. Look at the ones' digits. Do you need to regroup (borrow a ten to ones' column)?
a. Do you need
to regroup?

6 1
2 6

Y/N

d. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N

b. Do you need
to regroup?

7 4
2 3

Y/N

5 4
3 2

c. Do you need
to regroup?

5 0
2 5

Y/N

e. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N

8 2
5 6

f. Do you need
to regroup?

9 0
2 7

Y/N

44

## If you subtract in columns and you don't have enough ones,

you have regroup one ten to the ones' column.
3. Do you need to regroup? Find the answers in the line of numbers below.

a. Do you need
to regroup?

6 0
1 6

b. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

d. Do you need
to regroup?

c. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

8 0
2 8

9 7
2 5

f. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

5 0
1 0

8 8
7 7

Y/N

h. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

4 3
1 7

Y/N

e. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

g. Do you need
to regroup?

5 7
3 2

3 7
2 7

i. Do you need
to regroup?

Y/N

6 0
4 1

Y/N

35 44 26 19 25 11 63 22 72 49 10 26 51 52 78 30 25 40

a.

5 4
3 7

b.

9 4
3 4

c.

8 2
2 5

d.

6 2
2 9

e.

9 9
5 7

f.

4 0
2 3

45

## Graphs and Problems

1. The graph shows how many
newspapers Jack sold at his
newspaper stand from Monday
through Sunday.
a. For each day, find about how
many newspapers Jack sold.
Look how tall each column is,
and round to the nearest ten.

Day

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

Sun

about

about

about

about

about

about

about

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

Newspapers

b. About how many newspapers did Jack sell on Saturday and Sunday together? ______
c. About how many more newspapers did Jack sell on Sunday than on Monday? ______

## 2. The table lists the eye colors

of a group of 50 children.

10

16

11

blue

green

gray

brown

hazel

## a. Draw the bars for the bar

graph.
b. How many children have
either brown or hazel eyes?

## c. How many children have

either blue, green, or gray
eyes?

46

## 3. a. How many Arctic animals does the zoo have?

How many rain forest birds?
b. How many European and Arctic animals

## does the zoo have together?

c. How many more African animals does the zoo

## have than Australian animals?

4. Break the number you are subtracting into tens and ones, and subtract in parts.

45 23
/ \
45 20 3 = ______

a.

76 15
/ \
76 10 5 = ______

b.

c.

47 15

5. Solve the word problems. Add or subtract in columns if you need to.
a. Jim has 62 marbles, Peter has 28, and Ed has 33 marbles.

## Peter and Ed put their marbles together.

Now do they have more than Jim?

## of 95 pages. Then you read ten more pages.

How many pages have you read now?
How many pages do you have left to read?

47

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

6. The teacher made a chart that shows how many books the children read each month.
Books read

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Annie

13

21

18

14

Freddie

11

Lisa

13

16

18

Jonathan

10

14

15

Total

## a. How many books did Jonathan read in March?

b. Who read the most books in February?

In April?

## in February than in January?

d. How many more books did Lisa read

## in April than Freddie?

e. Find how many books each child read in all.

Annie

Freddie

Lisa

Jonathan

48

## Adding 2-Digit Numbers Mentally

Strategy 1: Break the second addend in parts
Break the 27 into tens and ones.
First add 45 and 20.
Then add 7.

45 +

27

/ \
45 + 20 + 7
65 + 7 = 72

a.

52 +

b.

26

38 +

52 + 20 + 6
____ +

35

= _____

57

25 + ____ + ____

e.

19

48 +

62 + ____ + ____

f.

36

54 +

48 + ____ + ____

39

54 + ____ + ____

g.

17 +

25 +

38 + ____ + ____

d.

62 +

c.

h.

64

44 +

17 + ____ + ____

i.

38

29 +

44 + ____ + ____

23

29 + ____ + ____

2. Add mentally.
a.

b.

c.

d.

34 + 35 = ______

15 + 29 = ______

44 + 46 = ______

19 + 18 = ______

47 + 12 = ______

8 + 12 = ______

43 + 18 = ______

13 + 17 = ______

33 + 56 = ______

47 + 36 = ______

56 + 25 = ______

34 + 18 = ______

27 + 26 = ______

50 + 33 = ______

12 + 19 = ______

45 + 35 = ______

49

45 + 27

## Add tens on their own.

Add ones on their own.
Lastly, add the two sums.

(40 + 20) + (5 + 7)
60 + 12

= 72

## 3. Add by adding tens and ones separately.

36 + 22

a.

b.

72 + 18
(70 + 10) + (2 + 8)
_____ + ______ = ______

(30 + 20) + (6 + 2)
_____ + ______ = ______
c.

54 + 37
(50 + 30) + (4 + 7)
_____ + ______ = ______

d.

24 + 55
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______

e.

36 + 36
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______

f.

42 + 68
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______

g.

45 + 18
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______

h.

37 + 58
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______

4. Add mentally, using any strategy. Match the letters with the right answers, solving the riddle!
W 36 + 38 = _____

E 45 + 46 = _____

T 39 + 56 = _____

I 22 + 36 = _____

W 23 + 57 = _____

T 14 + 28 = _____

I 16 + 78 = _____

T 47 + 34 = _____

B 27 + 41 = _____

L 28 + 13 = _____

T 37 + 33 = _____

L 66 + 37 = _____

H 52 + 35 = _____

E 44 + 53 = _____

Y 48 + 27 = _____

H 27 + 24 = _____

74

51

94

95

42

103

91

68

50

75

80

87

58

70

81

41

97

## Adding three numbers

The basic strategy is to simply break the numbers into parts, and add them little by little. You
can add all the tens and ones separately. Or, you can add with rounded numbers, and lastly
correct the rounding errors. Just do whatever works!
Add tens and ones separately:

## Add with rounded numbers.

Then correct the final answer.

33 + 28 + 16
(30 + 20 + 10) + (3 + 8 + 6)
60 + 17
= 77

27 + 39 + 38
27 is 3 less than 30. 39 is 1 less than 40.
38 is 2 less than 40.

## So, 27 + 39 + 38 is exactly 6 less than

30 + 40 + 40, or 6 less than 110,
which is 104.

15 + 27 + 45
(5 + 5 + 10 + 40) + 27
60 + 27 = 87

5. Add mentally, and find the answer to the riddle. Use any strategy.
L 22 + 43 + 38 = ______

V 52 + 14 + 18 = ______

L 28 + 18 + 36 = ______

C 37 + 18 + 15 = ______

E 47 + 32 + 21 = ______

E 50 + 15 + 16 = ______

E 22 + 44 + 38 = ______

L 19 + 17 + 25 = ______

B 64 + 12 + 17 = ______

R 24 + 13 + 25 = ______

W 55 + 14 + 28 = ______

O 16 + 60 + 20 = ______

W 54 + 16 + 22 = ______

E 27 + 11 + 21 = ______

E 50 + 31 + 19 = ______

## Father: How were your test scores?

Son: Underwater.
Father: What do you mean underwater?
97 100 62 59

93 81 103 96 92

70

82 104 84 100 61

Son: They...

51

Method 1:

53
8
= 53 3 5
= 50 5 = 45

6
72
= 72 2 4
= 70 4 = 66

## Subtract 6 in two parts: first 2, then 4.

(In other words, first subtract to the previous whole ten, then the rest.)

1. Subtract the elevated number in parts (first subtract to the previous whole ten; then the rest).

5
/
a.

( 51 1 ) 4 = ______

b.

4
/
c.

5
\

d.

e.

7
\

f.

g.

7
/

6
/

5
\

d.

a.

51 7 = _______

b.

42 4 = _______

51 5 = _______

42 5 = _______

51 3 = _______

42 3 = _______

51 6 = _______

42 6 = _______
52

Method 2:

## Since 14 6 = 8, we know that the answer to 74 6 will end in 8,

but it will be in the sixties (sixty-something). So it is 68.
Since 15 8 = 7, we know that the answer to 55 8 will end in 7,
but it will be in the forties (forty-something). So it is 47.
3. Subtract. The first problem in each box is a helping problem for the others.
b.

f.

14 9 = _______

c.

17 8 = _______

d.

12 9 = _______

24 9 = _______

27 8 = _______

52 9 = _______

44 9 = _______

37 8 = _______

32 9 = _______

15 9 = _______

g.

13 8 = _______

h.

16 8 = _______

65 9 = _______

33 8 = _______

86 8 = _______

45 9 = _______

93 8 = _______

36 8 = _______

a.

b.

c.

d.

34 5 = ______

65 9 = ______

51 8 = ______

62 7 = ______

73 7 = ______

36 8 = ______

93 6 = ______

83 8 = ______

## 5. a. Terry is on page 56 of her book. The book has a total of 92 pages.

How many pages does she have left to read?
b. Terry reads nine pages more. Now how many
pages does she have left to read?

53

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Method 3: Add.
You can add backwards. This works well if the two numbers are close to each other.
Instead of subtracting, think how much you need to add to the number being subtracted
(the subtrahend) in order to get the number you're subtracting from (the minuend).
Think: 84 + ____ = 92

Think: 25 + ___ = 75

+____

more makes 92?)

more makes 75?)

92 84 = _____

+___
75 25 = _____

+ 8
a. 92

+____

84 =______

b. 51

+____

49 =______

c. 76

69 =______

g.

32 28 = ______

j.

90 83 = ______

m.

100 95 = ______

h.

22 14 = ______

k.

64 56 = ______

n.

64 55 = ______

i.

53 46 = ______

l.

72 65 = ______

o.

44 37 = ______

78

77

72

70

65

60

57

53

46

## The triangle and square represent mystery numbers.

Find them. Guess and check! Then change your guess.
a.

+ 10 = 34

= ______

b.

= 22

=4

= _____,

= _____

54

c.

+
+

= _____,

= 22
= 36
= _____

## More Mental Subtraction

1. Break the number you are subtracting into two parts (tens and ones). Subtract in parts.
a. 45 32

b. 81 45

/ \
45 30 2 = _______

/ \
81 40 5 = _______

d. 52 34 = _______

e. 55 22 = _______

f. 88 53 = _______

g. 70 34 = _______

h. 50 27 = _______

i. 66 27 = _______

j. 73 33 = _______

k. 94 27 = _______

l. 60 36 = _______

c. 74 21 = _______

## 2. What is the difference? Solve whichever is easier.

a. 35 + _____ = 42

42 35 = _______

b. 71 + _____ = 78

c. 3 + _____ = 42

d. 10 + _____ = 33

78 71 = _______

42 3 = ______

33 10 = _______

a. 78 + _____ = 85

b. 63 55 = ______

c. 5 + ______ = 43

d. 76 69 = ______

e. 95 65 = ______

f. 8 + ______ = 96

g. 20 + ______ = 75

h. 11 + ______ = 86

3. Solve.

## 4. Subtract in the easiest order!

a.

b.

c.

40 4 20 2 = ________

74 20 4 5 = _______

72 8 60 2 = _______

50 8 10 20 = _______

91 7 10 3 = _______

66 20 2 5 = _______

60 2 6 4 = ________

82 5 7 11 = _______

86 8 5 20 = _______

55

## 5. Solve the word problems.

a. Mariana had 64 marbles. She gave 8 to her brother.

## Then her brother gave her 4 back.

How many marbles does Mariana have now?

## How much wider is the first chair?

c. Mary had 50 cards, and Jack had 5. Mary gave 20 cards to Jack.

## Mary gave half of her marbles to Jack.

How many marbles does Jack have now?

## Brian has collected 94 stamps. If Ken and Bill combine their

collections, will they together have more than Brian?

39 + _____ = 44

56 + _____ = 64

36 + _____ = 44

70 + _____ = 74

18 + _____ = 24

58 + _____ = 64

30 + _____ = 34

29 + _____ = 34

15 + _____ = 24

58 + _____ = 64

79 + _____ = 84

35 + _____ = 44

85 + _____ = 94

69 + _____ = 74

67 + _____ = 74

27 + _____ = 34

56

## 7. Follow the patterns.

a.

54 45 = ______

b. 99 11 = ______

c. 100 50 = ______

63 36 = ______

88 22 = ______

99 51 = ______

45 5 5
40 25

Key:

55 40
13 5

'

20 14 10 47

35 15

50

32 25

19 4

15 9

24 16

17 8

53 6

## 8. Match each answer

to a letter to unveil
a secret message.

82 30 2

13 8

16 6

20 7 7

23 13

60 51

24 2 8

52 20 12
61 7 4
42 22 10
33 8 7 4
!

## Figure out the missing numbers in these subtraction

problems! You might need to borrow from the tens.

2
2

4 9

5
7
1 7

8
1

2 4

57

8
3 6

3 4

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Euclid's Game
Euclid's game is simple, fun, and lets you practice finding the difference of two numbers!
Rules:
1. The first player chooses any number on the 100-chart and circles or colors it.
2. The next player chooses any other number on the 100-chart and circles or colors it.
After this, the numbers get marked by crossing them out.
At his turn, each player has to find the difference of any two numbers already marked,
and mark that number. The player can choose any two numbers for this; they just have
to be already marked numbers.
The player who cannot find any more numbers to mark is the loser.
Use the 100-chart on the next page as a game board. You can print it anew for every new game.
Alternatively you may write the 100-chart on paper, of course.
Example. Initially Jane chooses 28 and Joe chooses 9.
After that:

10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

50

## You can continue Jane's and Joe's play if you'd like.

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

60

## Eventually you should see all of the numbers from

1 to 28 marked, with Jane as the loser.

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

90

## Jane: I mark 19 since it's the difference of 28 and 9.

Joe: I mark 10 since it's the difference of 19 and 9.
Jane: I mark 18 since it's the difference of 28 and 10.
Joe: I mark 1 since it's the difference of 19 and 18.
... and so on.

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

## Questions to ponder after you have played a few games:

1. Let's say that 28 and 9 are chosen as the initial numbers, like in Jane's and Joe's game. Can Jane and
Joe ever mark a number that is more than 28?
2. Let's say that the two initial numbers are both even. What can you say about the numbers that get
marked in the game?
3. Let's say that the two initial numbers are both multiples of 5, such as 55 and 30. What can you say
about the numbers that get marked in the game?
4. Can you mark off all of the the numbers on the 100-chart during the game, if the initial numbers are
(you can try these out): a. 90 and 7?
b. 100 and 1?
c. 100 and 10?
d. 100 and 13?

58

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99 100

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99 100

59

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

10

10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

10

10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

60

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Review
1. Complete the next ten.
a.

b.

c.

16 + _____ = 20

47 + ____ = ______

75 + ____ = ______

64 + _____ = 70

38 + ____ = ______

92 + ____ = ______

2. Add.
a.

4 3
+ 2 8

b.

3 3
+ 3 9

c.

2 4
+ 4 7

d.

2 3
+ 3 7

e.

5 5
+1 7

f.

3 8
1 3
+ 4 2

g.

3 9
1 0
+ 4 6

h.

4 1
1 4
+ 3 6

i.

3 8
2 9
+ 2 3

j.

1 8
1 9
+5 5

3. Add.
a.

b.

c.

d.

25 + 8 = ______

76 + 5 = ______

88 + 3 = ______

82 + 8 = ______

81 + 8 = ______

72 + 7 = ______

42 + 9 = ______

54 + 9 = ______

24 + 9 = ______

50 + 6 = ______

34 + 7 = ______

10 + 9 = ______

## 4. Find the missing addends.

a. 25 + _____ = 35

b. 44 + _____ = 51

c. 17 + _____ = 26

d. 34 + _____ = 41

87 + _____ = 93

67 + _____ = 75

79 + _____ = 85

21 + _____ = 30

61

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

5. For each problem, write one where you subtract from 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or 18.
a.

55 7 = ____

b.

15 7 = 8
d.

72 7 = ____
____ ___ = ____

74 8 = ____

c.

e.

51 3 = ____

93 5 = ____
____ ___ = ____

f.

33 4 = ____
____ ___ = ____

## 6. Solve the problems.

a. There are some people in the bus. At the next bus stop,

## 13 people come in. Now there are 52 people in the bus.

How many were there originally?

b. Molly has 23 stuffed toys that she likes to play with, and

## 16 stuffed toys that she does not care for.

Her little sister Annie has 17 stuffed toys.
Molly gives the 16 toys to her little sister.
How many does Annie have now?
Who has more stuffed toys now?
How many more?

## typically eats for about 16 hours a day, and sleeps for

about 6 hours a day. How many hours a day can an
elephant spend on other activities?
d. Andy has \$47 in his wallet. He earns \$15 by selling lemonade.

## Can he now buy a remote-controlled toy car for \$65?

If yes, how much money would have have left after buying it?
If not, how much more money would he need?

62

7. Subtract.
8

77

______

88

10

______

______

______

10

______

______

______

38

______

______

______

43

## 8. Subtract. Check by adding.

a.

d.

Check:

8 8
5 4

6 6
1 7

b.

+ 5 4

e.

Check:

6 3
4 8

c.

+ 4 8

7 1
2 2

f.

Check:

6 9
2 7

+ 2 7

8 4
4 9

9. Compare the problems, and find a way to do them. Place a letter in the box next
to each problem according to the right answer. Read the words vertically.
a.

b.

c.

______ 28 = 45

______ + 12 = 45

______ + 12 + 13 = 45

______ 33 = 29

______ + 23 = 99

______ + 23 + 19 = 96

______ 37 = 55

______ + 66 = 100

______ + 67 + 4 = 88

______ 41 = 50

______ + 24 = 50

______ + 24 + 26 = 80

A D E E H K M N O O R T W W
62 20 30 99 91 26 73 17 54 76 34 92 85 33
63

## Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2-B Answers

Adding with Whole Tens, p. 7
1. a. 64 b. 59 + 20 = 79 c. 34 + 50 = 84 d. 20 + 13 = 33
e.. 40 + 26 = 66 f. 30 + 34 = 64
2. a. 44 b. 10 + 20 + 8 = 38
f. 40 + 30 + 3 = 73
3. a. 65 b. 47

c. 20 + 20 + 4 = 44
g. 60 + 20 + 3 = 83

c. 85 d. 76 e. 66

e. 50 + 10 + 7 = 67
i. 70 + 20 + 5 = 95

f. 98

4. a. 87 b. 65 c. 26 d. 97 e. 75 f. 46
5. a. 20 b. 50

d. 30 + 20 + 1 = 51
h. 30 + 30 + 7 = 67

g. 98

h. 81

i. 39

c. 80 d. 100 e. 70 f. 100 g. 10 h. 0

6. Shoes about \$40, top about \$10, skirt about \$20. Total bill about \$70.
7. He has about \$60 \$30 = \$30 left.
8. a. 10, 40, 30

b. 20, 10, 30

c. 40, 30, 70

9. What can you notice? When you add 10, 20, 30, or 40 to an even number, the answer is also an even number.
When you add 10, 20, 30, or 40 to an odd number, the answer is also an odd number.
+ 20

+ 10

+ 30

+ 40

12

22

19

39

32

62

37

77

+ 30

+ 40

+ 20

+ 10

23

63

58

88

27

85

95

20 + 30 + 20 = 70
Puzzle Corner:
Here are
two solutions.
There are more.

10 + 50 + 10 = 70
+

40 + 40 + 20 = 100

20 + 40 + 40 = 100

20 + 30 + 20 = 70

50 + 10 + 10 = 70

=
80

=
80

=
100

=
60

=
100

64

=
60

## Subtracting Whole Tens, p. 10

1. a. 20 b. 20 c. 30 d. 27 e. 16 f. 25. The ones digit does not change.
2. a. 76, 66, 56, 46, 36, 26, 16
b. 72, 62, 52, 42, 32, 22, 12
c. 67, 57, 47, 37, 27, 17, 7
3. a. 13, 3

b. 28, 18

c. 46, 26

d. 65, 55 e. 21, 11

f. 41, 31

4.
a. 88 10 = 78
88 20 = 68
88 30 = 58
88 40 = 48
88 50 = 38
88 60 = 28
88 70 = 18

b. 100 60 = 40
90 50 = 40
80 40 = 40
70 30 = 40
60 20 = 40
50 10 = 40
40 0 = 40

c. 34 10 = 24
44 20 = 24
54 30 = 24
64 40 = 24
74 50 = 24
84 60 = 24
94 70 = 24

## 5. a. 30 + 20 + 30 = 80. So they weigh about 80 kg.

b. \$30 + \$30 + \$30 = \$90. No, he cannot.
c. \$50 \$10 \$10 \$10 = \$20. He has about \$20 left.
Puzzle corner: Answers vary. There are many solutions for both puzzles.
40 + 50 = 90

50 10 = 40

30

10 + 20 = 30
= 30

= 30

= 80

= 10

30 + 60 = 90

45

35

0
= 30

+ 30 = 30
= 30

= 30

= 80

= 40

= 30

= 10

Adding in Columns, p. 12
1. a.

20
+ 30

b.

50
2. a.

32
+ 14
46

10
+ 50

c.

60
b.

54
+ 5
59

32
+ 20

d.

52
c.

41
+ 27
68

43
+ 33

e.

76
d.

65
+ 13
78

35
+ 12

f.

57
+ 22

47
e.

31
+ 40

79
f.

g.

26
+ 51
77

h.

43
+ 34
77

25
+ 33

71

58

3. a. 77 b. 98 c. 58 d. 69 e. 86 f. 86 g. 95 h. 87 i. 76 j. 89 k. 78 l. 97 m. 97 n. 88 o. 89

65

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Doubling, p. 14
1. a. 5 + 5 = 10

b. 30 + 30 = 60

c. 50 + 50 = 100

2.
a. 2 2
+ 2 2

b. 3 4
+ 3 4

c. 1 3
+ 1 3

d. 4 1
+ 4 1

4 4

6 8

2 6

8 2

3.
Double 6 is 6 + 6 = 12.
Double 7 is 7 + 7 = 14
Double 8 is 8 + 8 = 16.
Double 9 is 9 + 9 = 18.
Double 10 is 10 + 10 = 20.
Double 11 is 11 + 11 = 22.
Double 12 is 12 + 12 = 24.

Double 13 is 13 + 13 = 26.
Double 14 is 14 + 14 = 28.
Double 15 is 15 + 15 = 30
Double 16 is 16 + 16 = 32.
Double 17 is 17 + 17 = 34.
Double 18 is 18 + 18 = 36.
Double 19 is 19 + 19 = 38.

## 4. Each child will make 8 sandwiches.

5. You each get 16 pieces of candy.
6. A double batch of brownies makes 32 brownies.
7. Each teacher will get 14 worksheets.
8. Mary moved 8 spaces. Andrea moved 12 spaces.
9. Each woman will make 10 dolls.

One-Half, p. 16
1. a.

b.

2. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

3.
a. 5 + 5 = 10

b. 20 + 20 = 40

c. 12 + 12 = 24

1
of 10 is 5.
2

1
of 40 is 20.
2

1
of 24 is 12.
2

4.
1

6 + 6 = 12

11 + 11 = 22

7 + 7 = 14

12 + 12 = 24

8 + 8 = 16

13 + 13 = 26

9 + 9 = 18

14 + 14 = 28

2
1
2
1
2
1
2

10 + 10 = 20

15 + 15 = 30

1
2

of 16 is 8.
of 28 is 14.
of 26 is 13.
of 30 is 15.
of 22 is 11.

66

5.
b.

a.
1
of 26 is 13.
2

c.
1
of 48 is 24.
2

1
of 30 is 15.
2

d.
1
of 32 is 16.
2

10 + 10 = 20

20 + 20 = 40

30 + 30 = 60

40 + 40 = 80
50 + 50 = 100

## Regrouping with Tens, p. 18

1. a.

33
+ 9
42

2. a.

25
b. + 8
33

13
+ 29

24
b. + 38
62

42
2. g.

25
+ 55
80

38
c. + 9
47

27
d. + 7
34

35
c. + 19
54

36
e. + 18
54

24
d. + 47
71

25
f. + 27
52

44
e. + 17
61

26
f. + 36
62

39
+
35
h.
74

3. a. 57 b. 72 c. 91 d. 98 e. 53 f. 93 g. 57 h. 90
i. 87 j. 95 k. 58 l. 75 m. 94 n. 94 o. 40
4. a. 79 b. 87 c. 71

d. 93 e. 73

## 5. a. 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32

b. 100, 96, 92, 88, 84, 80, 76, 72, 68

## Going Over to the Next Ten, p. 21

1. a. 22 b. 23 c. 24 d. 31 e. 31 f. 46 g. 42 h. 52 i. 63
2.
a. 28 + 8
/ \
28 + 2 + 6
30 + 6 = 36
d. 39 + 3
/ \
39 + 1 + 2
40 + 2 = 42

b. 47 + 5
/ \
47 + 3 + 2

c. 79 + 9
/ \
79 + 1 + 8

50 + 2 = 52
e. 27 + 5
/ \
27 + 3 + 2

80 + 8 = 88
f. 38 + 7
/ \
38 + 2 + 5

30 + 2 = 32

40 + 5 = 45

67

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

3.
a.
8+1= 9
8 + 2 = 10
8 + 3 = 11
8 + 4 = 12
8 + 5 = 13
8 + 6 = 14

b.
28 + 1 = 29
28 + 2 = 30
28 + 3 = 31
28 + 4 = 32
28 + 5 = 33
28 + 6 = 34

c.
78 + 1 = 79
78 + 2 = 80
78 + 3 = 81
78 + 4 = 82
78 + 5 = 83
78 + 6 = 84

What do you notice? The two patterns are similar. The ones digits are the same.
4. a. 2, 3 b. 7, 8 c. 3, 4 d. 3, 5 e. 2, 4 f. 4, 6
5. a. \$22 + \$8 = \$30 or \$30 \$22 = \$8. Benjamin needs \$8 more. b. \$20 + \$5 + \$5 = \$30. Natasha has \$3.
c. 28 8 = 20 fruit trees left to plant. d. 37 32 = 5 came later. e. Half of 40 is 20. 40 20 7 = 13 grapes are left.
6.
9
9
9
9
9
9

a.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+5 =
+ 6 =

10
11
12
13
14
15

39
39
39
39
39
39

b.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+ 5=
+ 6=

40
41
42
43
44
45

59
59
59
59
59
59

c.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+ 5 =
+ 6=

60
61
62
63
64
65

## Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 9, p. 24

1.

a. 19 + 5 = 24

b. 29 + 7 = 36

c. 49 + 5 = 54

d. 29 + 8 = 37

e. 39 + 6 = 45

f. 49 + 9 = 58

2. a. 19 + 7 = 26
9 + 7 = 16

b. 49 + 3 = 52
9 + 3 = 12

c. 39 + 4 = 43
9 + 4 = 13

## 3. a. 12, 22 b. 15, 45 c. 13, 53 d. 16, 46, 36 e. 18, 78, 88 f. 14, 24, 64

The answers to the problems in each box end in the same digit.
4. a. 5, 6, 4, 9, 3, 8, 7 b. 13, 17, 11, 14, 15, 18, 16
c. 7, 9, 4, 6, 5, 10, 8 d. 15, 16, 13, 14, 11, 17, 12

68

5.

a.

+
40

b.

48

32

41

49

56

62

67

12

72
+

92
+

11

61
+

87
+

10

51
+

79
+

42
+

74
+

34

66
+

27
+

61

21
9

53
+

16
c.

84
+

71

74

2
76

1. a. 80

b. 91

c. 91

d. 70

e. 52

f. 78

g. 116

h. 94

i. 85

j. 49

2. a. 72

b. 64

c. 72

d. 70

e. 56

f. 62

g. 56

h. 74

i. 26

j. 66

3. a. 107

b. 142

c. 104

d. 146

4. a. 128

b. 155

c. 120

d. 147

e. 123

f. 109 g. 126

h. 147

i. 149

j. 137

## Add with Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 8 or 7, p. 28

1.

a. 18+ 6 = 24

b. 28 + 7 = 35

c. 48 + 8 = 56

d. 38 + 4 = 42

e. 38 + 6 = 44

f. 48 + 5 = 53

b. 38 + 6 = 44
8 + 6 = 14

c. 58 + 5 = 63
8 + 5 = 13

2. a. 18 + 7 = 25
8 + 7 = 15

## 3. a. 11, 21 b. 14, 44 c. 12, 82 d. 15, 95

e. 10, 40, 30 f. 17, 77, 87 g. 13, 23, 63 h. 16, 36, 96
The answers to the problems in each box end in the same digit.
4. a. 31 b. 52

c. 44

5. a. 75 + 7 = 82
5 + 7 = 12

b. 47 + 7 = 54
7 + 7 = 14

c. 57 + 6 = 63
7 + 6 = 13

## 6. a. 13, 33 b. 12, 82 c. 14, 94 d. 16, 76, 96 e. 10, 40, 80 f. 17, 27, 57

The answers to the problems in each box end in the same digit.
7. a. She needs nine eggs. b. They have eaten 38 pounds of potatoes.

69

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Addition Practice, p. 30
1.
a. 20 + 34 = 54
(20 + 30 + 4)

b. 70 + 18 = 88
(70 + 10 + 8 )

c. 50 + 27 = 77
(50 + 20 + 7 )

## 2. a. 27, 36, 52 b. 36, 64, 87 c. 64, 83, 75

3. At each step, we add two more than we added in the previous step.

+ 2
1

+ 4
3

+ 6
7

+ 8
13

+ 10
21

+ 12
31

+ 14
43

+ 16
57

73

4. a. 92 b. 91 c. 63 d. 90 e. 84
5. a. <

b. =

c. =

d. > e. > f. =

6. The person did not carry to the tens, but instead wrote the sum of the ones down in its completeness, and then
wrote the sum of the tens next to it.
7. a. 15, 25, 45 b. 13, 23, 53 c. 12, 52, 82 d. 16, 66, 46
8. a. 42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 63
b. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25
9. a. 33, 47, 54 b. 53, 33, 44 c. 30, 54, 99 d. 84, 74, 71
Puzzle corner.
a.

b.

2 7
+ 1 4

c.

6 8
+
3

4 1

d.

2 6
+ 2 5

7 1

1 3
+ 7 8

5 1

e.

3 5
+ 2 6

9 1

6 1

Many Addends, p. 32
1. a. 17, 27 b. 20, 17 c. 23, 24
2. a. 93 b. 92 c. 98 d. 82 e. 97 f. 96 g. 89 h. 80 i. 117 j. 117 k. 129 l. 145
3. a. No, because 23 plus 9 is more than 30. It can only hold 7 more people.
b. 47 people total. c. 2 buses for the 57 people and 3 buses for 88 people.
d. 30 6 = 24. e. 30 13 7 = 10. f. 16 people
g. 20 8 + 5 = 17, so there are 17 people now.
h. 30 7 12 = 11, so there were 11 people on the bus originally.
4. a. 80 b. 71

c. 54 d. 47

5. a. 19 + 5 + 7 = 31
O

d. 57 + 21 =
O

78

e. 5

g. 17 + 27 + 5 = 49
O

c. 7 + 11 + 23 = 41

b. 25 + 7 + 3 = 35

+ 11 +

O
=

26

f. 25 +

h. 25 + 13 + 3 + 1 = 42
O

O
=

34
E

i. 57 + 21 = 78
O

Underline the correct choice in the sentences below. Can you think why it is that way?

70

## If I add two odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).

If I add three odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
If I add four odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
Each odd number is actually some even number plus one. In other words, each odd number of items can be organized into
pairs so that one item is left over. When we have two odd numbers, we can put those two items together
to form another pair. That is why the sum of two odd numbers is even.
If we have three odd numbers, from those we can form one pair but one item will be left
over. So, the sum is odd.
Similarly with adding two odd numbers, adding four odd numbers gives us an even sum.
Puzzle Corner. Can you explain how Mary is adding and why it works?
First she adds all of the tens and writes that under the line. Then she adds the ones and
writes those under the tens' sum. Lastly, she adds the two sums.
13
15
+ 48

27
28
+ 31

16
25
+ 47

46
25
+ 12

36
27
+ 34

60
+ 16

70
+ 16

70
+ 18

70
+ 13

80
+ 17

76

86

88

83

97

Subtracting in Columns, p. 35
1. a. 55 32 = 33.
2. a. 47

b. 42

b. 73 61 = 12.
c. 34

d. 67

e. 44

f. 60

g. 3

h. 34

i. 44

j. 22

3. a. 20 b. 23 c. 63 d. 15 e. 43
4. a. 92, 82, 42 b. 39, 79, 59 c. 93, 23, 3
5. a. Linda

b. Luis

c. 33 more

d. 3 more

e. 87 seashells f. 45

g. no

## 6. a. 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48

b. 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56
c. 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64
d. 0, 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72
e. 100, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 70, 65, 60
f. 77, 72, 67, 62, 57, 52, 47, 42, 37, 32
7. a. 21 flew away b. She needed 13 sheets of paper. c. The teacher needed to buy 2 packages. d. 8 had flown away.
Puzzle corner:

2 3

8
5 0

4 2

3
1

3
7
5 0

5
1

4
8
6 2

2
6

6 8

7 3
3
2

4
4

4
1 5

71

7
6
9 3

8
8 2

## Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 1, p. 38

1. a. 3 tens 0 ones 2 tens 10 ones b. 3 tens 6 ones 2 tens 16 ones c. 5 tens 1 one 4 tens 11 ones
d. 5 tens 5 ones 4 tens 15 ones e. 4 tens 3 tens 10 ones f. 3 tens 7 ones 2 tens 17 ones
2. a. What is left? 2 tens 8 ones
b. 5 tens 4 ones 4 tens 14 ones. What is left? 2 tens 7 ones.
c. 4 tens 3 ones 3 tens 13 ones. What is left? 1 ten 8 ones.
d. 6 tens 1 one 5 tens 11 ones. What is left? 1 ten 7 ones.
3.
a.

b.

5 tens 5 ones

4 tens
3 tens

15 ones
5 ones

1 tens

10 ones

c.

7 tens 2 ones

6 tens
3 tens

12 ones
5 ones

3 tens

7 ones

5 tens
3 tens

14 ones
8 ones

2 tens

6 ones

4 tens
2 tens

10 ones
2 ones

2 tens

8 ones

5 tens
2 tens

13 ones
8 ones

3 tens

5 ones

d.

6 tens 0 ones

5 tens
2 tens

10 ones
7 ones

3 tens

3 ones

e.

6 tens 4 ones

f.

7 tens 6 ones

6 tens
4 tens

16 ones
7 ones

2 tens

9 ones

g.

5 tens 0 ones

h.

8 tens 1 one

7 tens
6 tens

11 ones
5 ones

1 tens

6 ones

6 tens 3 ones

72

## Regrouping (Borrowing), Part 2, p. 41

1.
a. 6 tens 0 ones 5 tens 10 ones

Take away
3 tens, 9 ones.

Take away
1 ten, 6 ones.

Take away
1 ten, 7 ones.

Take away
3 tens, 4 ones.

Take away
5 tens, 1 one.

Take away
3 tens, 8 ones.

Take away
2 tens, 5 ones.

Take away
4 tens, 8 ones.

Take away
4 tens, 7 ones.

## j. 4 tens 7 ones 3 tens 17 ones

Take away
2 tens, 9 ones.

2. In this exercise the child is asked to check each subtraction with addition. Adding back is just one method of checking.
Estimating the result beforehand is another method of checking - it won't tell you if you got it exactly right but it does
check that the result is at least reasonable. Yet another way is to solve the same problem with some different method
(there might not always be a different method) . It is not good that children get used to always checking answers
for math problems from the back of the book or from their teacher. They should get used to checking the result themselves.
You can encourage that even if the problem set does not tell them to, to check the answers.
a. 29 b. 62 c. 27 d. 55. e. 57 f. 26 g. 38 h. 39 i. 22. j. 38 k. 13 l. 38

Puzzle corner:

9 3
1 8
7 5

8 3
6 7
1 6

8 0
3 8
4 2

8 2
1 4
6 8

73

6 2

9
5 3

1.

2. a. YES; 35

## 3. a. YES; 44 b. NO; 25 c. YES; 26 d. YES; 52 e. NO; 72

g. NO; 40 h. NO; 10 i. YES; 19

f. NO; 11

4. a. 17 b. 60 c. 57 d. 33 e. 42 f. 17

1. a.
Day

Newspapers

Sat

Sun

## about about about about about about about

30
40
40
40
50
30
70

b. about 100

c. about 40 more.

2.

a.

b. 27 children c. 23 children

4. a. 22

b. 61

c. 32

## 5. a. 28 + 33 = 61. No they don't have more than Jim.

b. You have read now 48 + 10 = 58 pages. You have 95 58 = 37 pages left.
6. a. 14 books b. Annie, Lisa c. 8 more d. 9 more
e.
Books read Jan Feb Mar Apr Total
Annie

13

21

18

14

66

Freddie

11

33

Lisa

13

16

18

55

Jonathan

10

14

15

47

f. 33

74

## Adding 2-Digit Numbers Mentally, p. 49

1. a. 78 b. 73 c. 82 d. 81 e. 84 f. 93 g. 81 h. 82 i. 52
2. a. 69, 59, 89, 53

## b. 44, 20, 83, 83 c. 90, 61, 81, 31 d. 37, 30, 52, 80

3. a. 58 b. 90 c. 91 d. 79 e. 72 f. 110 g. 63 h. 95
4. WHITTLE BY WHITTLE
5. ...WERE BELOW C LEVEL.

## Mental Subtraction Methods, p. 52

1. a. ( 51 1 ) 4 = 46
e. ( 75 5 ) 1 = 69

b. ( 62 2 ) 5 = 55
f. ( 63 3 ) 4 = 56

c. ( 33 3 ) 1 = 29 d. ( 92 2 ) 3 = 87
g. ( 35 5 ) 2 = 28 h. ( 74 4 ) 2 = 68

## 2. a. 44, 46, 48, 45 b. 38, 37, 39, 36

3. a. 5, 15, 35 b. 9, 19, 29 c. 3, 43, 23 d. 6, 56, 36 e. 5, 25, 85 f. 8, 78, 28
4. a. 29; 66 b. 56; 28 c. 43; 87 d. 55; 75
5. a. 36 pages b. 27 pages
6.
+ 8

+2

+7

a. 92 84 = 8

b. 51 49 = 2

c. 76 69 = 7

(Think: 84 + 8 = 92)

(Think: 49 + 2 = 51)

(Think: 69 + 7 = 76)

d. 32 28 = 4
g. 22 14 = 8
j. 53 46 = 7

e. 90 83 = 7
h. 64 56 = 8
k. 72 65 = 7

f. 100 95 = 5
i. 64 55 = 9
l. 44 37 =7

7. 1, 5, 2, 5, 5, 3, 4, 7
Puzzle Corner:
a.

= 12

b.

= 9,

= 13

c.

= 4,

= 18

## More Mental Subtraction, p. 55

1. a. 13 b. 36 c. 53 d. 18 e. 33 f. 35 g. 36 h. 23 i. 39 j. 40 k. 67 l. 24
2. a. 7 b. 7 c. 39 d. 23
3. a. 7

b. 8

c. 38

d. 7 e. 30 f. 88

g. 55

h. 75

## 4. a. 14, 12, 48 b. 45, 71, 59 c. 2, 39, 53

5. a. 64 8 + 4 = 60. She has 60 marbles.
b. 64 cm 55 cm = 9 cm. The chair is 9 cm wider.
c. 50 30 = 20. 5 + 20 = 25. Jack has 25 cards now.
d. 1/2 of 40 is 20. 5 + 20 = 25. Jack has 25 marbles now.
e. Ken's stamps plus Bill's stamps equal 34 + 57 = 91 stamps. 91 is less than 94. No, they will not have more than Brian.

75

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

6.

7.
a. 54 45 = 9

b. 99 11 = 88

c. 100 50 = 50

63 36 = 27

88 22 = 66

99 51 = 48

72 27 = 45

77 33 = 44

98 52 = 46

81 18 = 63

66 44 = 22

97 53 = 44

90 09 = 81

55 55 = 0

96 54 = 42

8. Y O U ' R E A S U P E R S U B T R A C T E R!

Puzzle corner:

7 2

7 4
5 7

7 5
5 1

5 4
1 8

8 2
4 8

2 3
4 9

1 7

2 4

3 6

3 4

Euclid's Game, p. 58
1. No.
2. All the numbers that get marked are also even.
3. All the numbers that get marked will also be multiples of 5.
4. a. No. You cannot mark numbers that are greater than 90. b. Yes.
c. No. You will only get to mark multiples of 10. d. Yes.

76

## Math MammothAdd & Subtract 2-B (Blue Series)

Review, p. 61
1.
a.
b.
c.
16 + 4 = 20 47 + 3 = 50 75 + 5 = 80
64 + 6 = 70 38 + 2 = 40 92 + 8 = 100
2. a. 71 b. 72

c. 71 d. 60 e. 72 f. 93

3. a. 33, 89, 33

b. 81, 79, 56

c. 91, 51, 41

g. 95

h. 91

i. 90

j. 92

d. 90, 63, 19

4. a. 10, 6 b. 7, 8 c. 9, 6 d. 7, 9
5. a. 55 7 = 48 b. 74 8 = 66 c. 93 5 = 88
15 7 = 8
14 8 = 6
13 5 = 8
d. 72 7 = 65
12 7 = 5

e. 51 3 = 48 f. 33 4 = 29
11 3 = 8
13 4 = 9

6. a. There were 39 people originally. b. Annie has now 33 toys. Annie has more toys; 10 more toys than Molly.
c. about 2 hours d. He cannot buy the car. He needs \$3 more.
7. 77 69 60 50 45 41 38
88 82 73 63 56 48 43
8. a. 34 b. 15

c. 42 d. 49 e. 49

f. 35

## 9. MATH WORK DONE.

In set a., add the numbers. For example, to solve ___ 28 = 45, add 28 and 45.
In set b. and c., subtract. For example, to solve ___ + 12 = 45 , subtract 45 12.
To solve ___ + 12 + 13 = 45, subtract 45 12 13.

77

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all the instruction and exercises all in the same book, answer keys, tests, cumulative reviews, and a worksheet
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## Math Mammoth Blue Series

Blue Series books are worktexts that each concentrate on a few interconnected topics, such as addition, clock,
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or activities in these books are taken from real life, and use real data. The series includes various workbooks for
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78