EDITION 1.5
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Contents
Introduction ........................................................................... 4
Adding with Whole Tens ...................................................... 7
Subtracting Whole Tens ....................................................... 10
Adding in Columns ...............................................................
Doubling ...............................................................................
One-Half .............................................................................
Regrouping with Tens ........................................................
Going Over to The Next Ten ..............................................
12
14
16
18
21
24
26
28
30
32
35
38
41
44
46
49
52
55
58
61
Answers ................................................................................. 64
More from Math Mammoth ................................................ 78
Introduction
Math Mammoth Add & Subtract 2-B is a continuation to the book Math Mammoth Add & Subtract
2-A. The goal of this book is to study addition and subtraction within 0-100, both mentally and in
columns, especially concentrating on regrouping in addition (carrying) and in subtraction (borrowing).
Mental math
Mental math is important because it builds number sense. This book includes many lessons that practice
mental math. For example, the child practices adding and subtracting two-digit numbers when one of the
numbers is a whole ten (problems such as 30 + 14, or 66 20).
Also studied are problems such as 36 + 8 or 45 + 9. These problems use the idea of going over ten as in
problems 6 + 8 and 5 + 9. The child knows that 6 + 8 fills the first ten and is four more than the ten.
He/she will learn to use that fact when adding 36 + 8. The sum 36 + 8 fills the next whole ten (40), and is
four more than that, or 44.
Regrouping in tens
Simultaneously with this, the child learns adding two-digit numbers in columns, and regrouping with tens,
or carrying, which is illustrated and explained in detail with the help of visual models. These visual
models take the place of base-ten blocks or other manipulatives. You are welcome to use manipulatives to
get the idea across, if you prefer. The main concept to understand is that 10 ones are regrouped to form a
new ten, and this new ten is written using a little 1 in the tens column.
As a stepping stone into the standard way to add, you can show the child the method below. This can be
used if the child does not readily understand why the little 1 above the tens column corresponds to a
ten. Below, the ones are added first, and the answer is written using both columns. Then, the tens are
added and the answer is written under the sum of ones. Lastly, both sums are added.
tens ones
6
3
tens ones
3 6
+
1
add tens here 4
tens ones
3 6
+
total
1
4
Regrouping in subtraction
The next lessons teach subtracting in columns. First we only deal with the easy problems where you don't
need to regroup (borrow). Then the following lessons practice in detail the process of regrouping or
borrowing. You can use either term with your child, or even choose not to use either if you feel it is
confusing. You can alternatively use the phrase breaking a ten into ten ones.
First, the lesson Regrouping practices breaking down a ten into ten ones because we cannot subtract from
the ones. It is crucial that the child understands what happens here. Otherwise, he/she might end up only
memorizing the procedure, and will probably at some point misremember how it was done. That is why
this lesson deals with the regrouping process in detail with plenty of visual exercises.
If you notice that the child does not understand the concept of regrouping, he/she may need more practice
with concrete manipulatives or visual exercises before proceeding.
+
a.
+
b.
54 + 10 = ______
______ + 20 = ______
+
c.
+
d.
+
e.
+
f.
10 + 34 = _______
b. 10
(10 + 30 + 4)
+ 28 = _______
c.
20 + 24 = _______
(20 + _____ + _____ )
d.
30 + 21 = _______
e.
50 + 17 = _______
f.
40 + 33 = _______
g.
60 + 23 = _______
h.
30 + 37 = _______
i.
70 + 25 = _______
3. Add. Break the first number into tens and ones first. Then add the tens.
a.
45 + 20 = _______
b.
(40 + 5 + 20)
d.
27 + 20 = _______
( _____ + _____ + 20 )
46 + 30 = _______
c.
45 + 40 = _______
e.
16 + 50 = _______
f.
38 + 60 = _______
4. Add.
a. 77
+ 10 = ______
b.
20 + 45 = ______
c.
16 + 10 = ______
d. 77
+ 20 = ______
e.
30 + 45 = ______
f.
16 + 30 = ______
50 + 48 = ______
h.
60 + 21 = ______
i.
19 + 20 = ______
g.
Numbers ending in 6, 7, 8,
or 9 are closer to the next
ten so they are rounded up.
72 70
46 50
Middle numbers
ending in 5 are
rounded up.
5 10
23 ______
b.
54 ______
c.
78 ______
d.
96 ______
e.
65 ______
f.
95 ______
g.
8 ______
h.
3 ______
6. Gwen bought shoes for $39, a top for $8, and a skirt for $23.
Round these prices to the nearest ten, and then add them to
find the total cost.
7. Jacob had $61. Then he bought a toy for $29. Use rounded
numbers to estimate how much money he has left.
8. Fill in the missing numbers and find how many tens were added.
a.
12 + _____ = 22
b.
45 + _____ = 65
c.
23 + _____ = 63
12 + _____ = 52
45 + _____ = 55
23 + _____ = 53
12 + _____ = 42
45 + _____ = 75
23 + _____ = 93
9. Add 10, 20, 30, or 40. In the box below the number, write E if the number is even,
and O, if the number is odd. What can you notice?
+ 20
+ 10
12
22
19
+ 40
+ 30
32
37
+ 20
+ 30
23
+ 40
+ 10
58
85
How many different solutions can you find for this puzzle?
Find at least two. All numbers are whole tens.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
= 100
+
+
+
+
=
100
+
+
+
=
80
= 70
+
= 70
=
80
+
+
+
+
=
60
= 70
= 100
+
+
=
100
= 70
=
60
a.
b.
30 10 = ______
d.
47 20 = ______
50 30 = ______
e.
26 10 = ______
c.
70 40 = ______
f.
55 30 = ______
b.
c.
3. Subtract.
a.
b.
c.
23 10 = ________
48 20 = ________
56 10 = ________
23 20 = ________
48 30 = ________
56 30 = ________
d.
e.
f.
75 10 = ________
31 10 = ________
81 40 = ________
75 20 = ________
31 20 = ________
81 50 = ________
10
88 10 = ______
b.
100 60 = ______
c.
34 10 = ______
88 20 = ______
90 50 = ______
44 20 = ______
88 30 = ______
80 40 = ______
54 30 = ______
88 ______ = ______
88 ______ = ______
88 ______ = ______
88 ______ = ______
Find
numbers
for the
puzzles.
= 90
+
=
30
= 30
=
30
=
80
11
= 40
= 30
=
10
Adding in Columns
1. a.
b.
tens ones
2
3
5
tens ones
0
0
0
1
5
6
0
0
0
Write tens and ones in columns. Add the tens in their column.
c.
e.
tens
ones
tens
ones
tens
ones
tens
f.
tens
g.
d.
ones
tens
h.
ones
ones
12
a.
d.
f.
tens
ones
tens
ones
ones
ones
ones
b.
tens
e.
tens
tens
c.
ones
3. Add.
a.
2 0
+ 5 7
b.
6 2
+ 3 6
f.
4 6
+ 4 0
g.
7 1
+ 2 4
k.
2 5
1 3
+ 4 0
l.
4 1
3 2
+ 2 4
4 5
+ 1 3
d.
3 7
+ 3 2
e.
1 4
+ 7 2
h.
3 2
+ 5 5
i.
3 3
+ 4 3
j.
6 4
+ 2 5
m.
3 2
5 0
+ 1 5
n.
3 3
1 2
+ 4 3
o.
5 4
1 1
+ 2 4
c.
13
Doubling
Doubling a number means adding it to itself. It is finding two times the number.
Examples:
Double 7 is 7 + 7 is 14.
Double 20 is 20 + 20 is 40.
b. Double 30
c. Double 50
b. Double 34
c. 13 + 13
d. Double 41
Double 16 is 16 + 16 = 32.
14
8. In a board game, you throw two dice and move that many spaces.
Mary got double four. Andrea got double six.
How many spaces did Mary move?
How many spaces did Andrea move?
15
One-Half
When you divide something
into two equal parts, you
have divided it into two halves.
Each part is half of the whole.
We write one-half this way:
1
,
2
6 + 6 = 12
1
of 12 is 6.
2
2. Draw a line through these shapes and divide them into two halves. Color one half.
b.
a.
e.
c.
d.
3. Divide the things into two EQUAL groups. Write an addition sentence. Find half of the total.
a. 10
b. 40
1
of 10 is ____.
2
1
of 40 is _____.
2
16
c. 24
4. Fill in the doubles chart. Then use it to find one-half of the given numbers.
6 + 6 = _____
7 + 7 = _____
8 + 8 = _____
9 + 9 = _____
10 + 10 = _____
11 + 11 = _____
1
2
of 16 is _____.
12 + 12 = _____
1
2
of 28 is _____.
13 + 13 = _____
1
2
of 26 is _____.
14 + 14 = _____
1
2
of 30 is _____.
15 + 15 = _____
1
2
of 22 is _____.
5. Divide the dots into two EQUAL groups. Find half of the total.
a.
1
of 26 is ____.
2
c.
b.
1
of 30 is ____.
2
d.
1
of ____ is _____.
2
1
of ____ is _____.
2
6. Solve the word problems, and fill in another chart of doubles to help you.
a. Jack and Joe split $60 between them.
10 + 10 = ______
20 + 20 = ______
30 + 30 = ______
40 + 40 = ______
50 + 50 = ______
17
ones
3
+
9
1
tens
ones
1. Circle ten cubes to make a new ten. Count the tens, including the new one.
Count the ones. Write the tens and ones in their own columns.
a.
c.
e.
tens
ones
tens
ones
b.
tens
ones
tens
ones
d.
tens
ones
tens
ones
+ 1
+ 2
f.
18
tens ones
3
+ 2
6
5
7
2
To show this new ten, write a little 1 in the tens column above the other numbers.
Then add in the tens-column as usual, adding the little 1 also.
2. Circle ten ones to make a new ten. Add the tens and ones in columns.
a.
tens
1
ones
tens
1
ones
+ 2
+ 3
b.
c.
tens
1
ones
tens
1
ones
+ 1
+ 4
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
19
3. Add. If you can make a new ten from the ones, regroup the new ten with the other tens.
a.
4 2
+ 1 5
b.
2 7
+ 4 5
c.
6 5
+ 2 6
d.
8 3
+ 1 5
e.
3 4
+ 1 9
f.
5 2
+ 4 1
g.
1 3
+ 4 4
h.
6 3
+ 2 7
i.
3 6
+ 5 1
j.
6 6
+ 2 9
k.
1 8
+4 0
l.
3 9
+3 6
m.
5 9
+ 3 5
n.
7 2
+ 2 2
o.
1 7
+ 2 3
tens ones
2
3 6
2 7
+ 1 8
1
4. Add. Regroup the ones to make new tens. Add the new tens in the tens column.
a.
3 4
1 9
+ 2 6
b.
1 5
2 7
+ 4 5
c.
1 8
2 7
+ 2 6
d.
2 6
4 8
+ 1 9
e.
3 4
2 0
+ 1 9
5. Count by fours.
a. 0,
b. 100,
59 + 1 + 4
60 + 4 = 64
The 5 is broken into two parts: 1 and 4.
That is because 59 and 1 makes sixty.
Then, we have 60 and 4. We get 64.
1. Circle ten little cubes to make a ten. Count the tens and ones. Write the answer.
a. 13 + 9 = ______
b. 15 + 8 = ______
c. 17 + 7 = ______
d. 24 + 7 = ______
e. 25 + 6 = ______
f. 37 + 9 = ______
g. 36 + 6 = ______
h. 48 + 4 = ______
i. 58 + 5 = ______
21
2. Complete. Break the second number into two parts so that you complete the next ten.
28 + 8
a.
47 + 5
b.
\
28 + 2 + ____
39 + 3
d.
47 + 3 + ____
30 + ____ = ______
79 + 9
c.
79 + ____ + ____
50 + ____ = ______
27 + 5
e.
\
80 + ____ = ______
38 + 7
f.
39 + ____ + ____
27 + ____ + ____
40 + ____ = ______
38 + ____ + ____
3. Continue the patterns. COMPARE the columns, and NOTICE what is the same.
8 + 1 = _______
a.
28 + 1 = _______
b.
78 + 1 = _______
c.
8 + 2 = _______
28 + 2 = _______
78 + 2 = _______
8 + 3 = _______
28 + 3 = _______
78 + 3 = _______
8 + 4 = _______
28 + 4 = _______
78 + 4 = _______
8 + ____ = _______
28 + ____ = _______
78 + ____ = _______
8 + ____ = _______
28 + ____ = _______
78 + ____ = _______
8 + _____ = 10
b.
8 + _____ = 11
d.
7 + _____ = 10
7 + _____ = 12
13 + _____ = 20
c.
13 + _____ = 21
e.
18 + _____ = 20
18 + _____ = 22
22
67 + _____ = 70
67 + _____ = 71
f.
86 + _____ = 90
86 + _____ = 92
5. Solve the problems. Write a number sentence for each problem, not just the answer.
a. Benjamin wants to buy a kite that costs $30.
Then, little sister ate seven grapes. How many are left now?
6. Continue the patterns. COMPARE the columns, and NOTICE what is the same.
a.
9 + 1 = _______
b.
39 + 1 = _______
c.
59 + 1 = _______
9 + 2 = _______
39 + 2 = _______
59 + 2 = _______
9 + 3 = _______
39 + 3 = _______
59 + 3 = _______
9 + 4 = _______
39 + 4 = _______
59 + 4 = _______
9 + ____ = _______
39 + ____ = _______
59 + ____ = _______
9 + ____ = _______
39 + ____ = _______
59 + ____ = _______
23
1. Circle the nine dots and one more dot to form a complete ten. Add.
a.
19 + 5 = ______
b.
29 + 7 = ______
c.
49 + 5 = ______
d.
29 + 8 = ______
e.
39 + 6 = ______
f.
49 + 9 = ______
2. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the first
problem.
a.
19 + 7 = _______
b.
49 + 3 = _______
9 + 7 = ______
39 + 4 = _______
c.
9 + 3 = ________
19 + 3 = ________
d.
9 + 7 = ________
b.
9 + 6 = ________
c.
39 + 6 = ________
e.
9 + 9 = ________
9 + 4 = ________
49 + 4 = ________
f.
9 + 5 = ________
39 + 7 = ________
69 + 9 = ________
19 + 5 = ________
29 + 7 = ________
79 + 9 = ________
59 + 5 = ________
24
4. These problems review the basic facts with 9 and 8. By this time you should already
remember these addition facts. Try to remember what number will fit, and not count.
a.
b.
c.
d.
9 + _____ = 14
4 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 15
7 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 15
8 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 17
8 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 13
2 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 12
5 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 18
5 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 14
6 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 12
6 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 13
3 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 17
9 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 18
9 + 8 = _____
9 + _____ = 16
7 + 9 = _____
8 + _____ = 16
4 + 8 = _____
40
b.
48
16
c.
_____
53
+
21
+
61
+
____
66
+
27
+
34
+
____
42
+
_____
_____
25
_____
_____
_____
_____
+
67
_____ _____
+
_____ _____
+
71
74
76
9
+ 7 1
b.
2 4
+ 6 7
c.
5 5
+ 3 6
d.
4 5
+ 2 5
e.
3 8
+ 1 4
f.
3 4
9
+ 3 5
g.
2 5
4 2
+ 4 9
h.
5 8
3 0
+ 6
i.
2 9
4 4
+ 1 2
j.
1 6
1 4
+ 1 9
2. Write the numbers so that the ones and tens are in their own columns. Add.
a. 45 + 27
b. 8 + 56
c. 40 + 32
d. 25 + 45
e. 47 + 9
f. 6 + 31 + 25
g. 40 + 7 + 9
h. 46 + 8 + 20
i. 5 + 8 + 13
j. 5 + 4 + 57
26
b. 95 + 47
c. 29 + 75
d. 62 + 84
4. Add.
a.
6 7
+ 6 1
b.
9 0
+ 6 5
c.
3 9
+ 8 1
d.
8 5
+ 6 2
e.
2 9
+ 9 4
f.
6 5
1 8
+ 2 6
g.
7 4
7
+ 4 5
h.
6 8
4 7
+ 3 2
i.
1 2
8 8
+ 4 9
j.
8
5 0
+ 7 9
27
1. Circle the eight dots and two more dots to form a complete ten. Add.
a.
18 + 6 = ______
b.
28 + 7 = ______
c.
48 + 8 = ______
d.
38 + 4 = ______
e.
38 + 6 = ______
f.
48 + 5 = ______
2. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the top problem.
a.
18 + 7 = _______
b.
38 + 6 = _______
8 + 7 = ______
58 + 5 = _______
c.
3. Add. Compare the problems. What is similar about the problems in each box?
a.
8 + 3 = _______
18 + 3 = _______
d.
8 + 2 = _______
b.
8 + 6 = _______
c.
38 + 6 = _______
e.
8 + 9 = _______
8 + 4 = _______
78 + 4 = _______
f.
8 + 5 = _______
38 + 2 = _______
68 + 9 = _______
18 + 5 = _______
28 + 2 = _______
78 + 9 = _______
58 + 5 = _______
28
4. Circle the seven dots and three more dots to make a new ten. Add.
a.
27 + 4 = ______
b.
47 + 5 = _______
c.
37 + 7 = _______
5. Add. For each problem, write a helping problem using the ones from the top problem.
a.
75 + 7 = _______
b.
47 + 7 = _______
5 + 7 = ______
57 + 6 = _______
c.
6. Add. Compare the problems. What is similar about the problems in each box?
a.
7 + 6 = ________
27 + 6 = ________
d.
7 + 9 = ________
b.
7 + 5 = ________
c.
77 + 5 = ________
e.
7 + 3 = ________
7 + 7 = ________
87 + 7 = ________
f.
7 + 10 = ________
67 + 9 = ________
37 + 3 = ________
17 + 10 = ________
87 + 9 = ________
77 + 3 = ________
47 + 10 = ________
She already had 15 eggs. How many more does she need?
bag of potatoes. Now, only six kg are left. How many kilograms
of potatoes have they eaten?
29
Addition Practice
1. Break the second number into tens and ones, and then add mentally.
20 + 34 = _______
a.
70 + 18 = _______
b.
50 + 27 = _______
c.
2. Add mentally.
a.
17 + 10 = _______
b.
16 + 20 = _______
c.
50 + 14 = _______
26 + 10 = _______
34 + 30 = _______
60 + 23 = _______
42 + 10 = _______
67 + 20 = _______
30 + 45 = _______
3. Find the pattern and continue it. This pattern grows at each step.
+
13
21
31
_____
_____ _____
4. Add.
a.
4 4
+ 4 8
b.
c.
3 2
+ 5 9
1 6
+ 4 7
d.
2 3
+ 6 7
e.
5 5
+ 2 9
8+3
40 + 5
b.
8 + 54
9 + 53
d.
2 + 36
29 + 7
e.
46 + 8
48 + 5
30
c.
5 + 6 + 56
f.
85 + 9
61 + 6
6 + 88
33
+ 48
55
+ 39
711
814
b.
c.
d.
7 + 8 = ______
4 + 9 = ______
8 + 4 = ______
7 + 9 = ______
17 + 8 = ______
14 + 9 = ______
48 + 4 = ______
57 + 9 = ______
37 + 8 = ______
44 + 9 = ______
78 + 4 = ______
37 + 9 = ______
8. Count in threes.
a.
b.
9. Add.
a.
b.
c.
d.
29 + 4 = _____
45 + 8 = _____
22 + 8 = _____
78 + 6 = _____
38 + 9 = _____
24 + 9 = _____
46 + 8 = _____
69 + 5 = _____
48 + 6 = _____
36 + 8 = _____
91 + 8 = _____
62 + 9 = _____
b.
+ 1
c.
+
7
d.
e.
+ 2
+ 7
+ 2
31
Many Addends
Adding the
ones we get
8 + 7 + 8 = 23.
4 8
2 7
+ 1 8
9 3
Adding the
ones we get
9 + 9 + 7 + 6 = 31.
Write the three
new tens in the
tens column.
1
1
2
+ 2
9
9
7
6
9 1
1. Add mentally. First add the numbers that make 10 (if there are any).
8 + 4 + 5 = _______
a.
b.
5 + 8 + 7 = _______
9 + 2 + 6 = _______
9 + 9 + 9 = _______
c. 8
+ 5 + 6 + 4 = _______
4 + 9 + 5 + 6 = _______
2. Add. The answers are hidden in the list of numbers below the problems.
a.
5 2
3 0
+ 1 1
b.
1 3
2 5
+ 5 4
c.
3 3
3 8
+ 2 7
d.
3 6
2 7
+ 1 9
e.
3
2
1
+ 1
6
7
8
6
f.
4
1
1
+ 2
0
8
6
2
g.
1
1
1
+ 3
5
7
8
9
h.
1
2
2
+ 1
i.
1 9
7 9
+ 1 9
j.
5 6
3 2
+ 2 9
k.
4 5
6 5
+ 1 9
l.
5 1
1 5
+ 7 9
74
80
82
89
91
92
93
96
97
32
98
117
117
122
129
2
9
5
4
145
3. Solve the problems. Write an addition or subtraction sentence for each one. You can
add in columns if you need to.
a. A bus can seat 30 people. There were
Yes/No, because
have 57 people?
33
30 + 2 + 40 + 8 = ________
c.
9 + 40 + 1 + 4 = ________
b.
50 + 4 + 10 + 7 = ________
d.
20 + 10 + 8 + 9 = ________
5. Add. Below each number, write E for an even number, and O for an odd number.
a. 19 + 5 + 7 = 31
d. 57 + 21 =
c. 7 + 11 + 23 =
_______
_______
_______
g. 17 + 27 + 5 =
b. 25 + 7 + 3 =
_______
e. 5 + 1 + 11 + 9 =
_______
h. 25 + 13 + 3 + 1 =
_______
f. 25 + 9 =
i. 57 + 21 =
_______
_______
Underline the correct choice in the sentences below. Can you think why it is that way?
If I add two odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
If I add three odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
If I add four odd numbers, the answer is (even/odd).
4 7
+ 2 9
5 2
1 7
+ 1 4
6 0
+ 1 6
7 0
+ 1 3
7 6
8 3
Use Mary's method with these problems:
1 3
1 5
+ 4 8
2 7
2 8
+ 3 1
1 6
2 5
+ 4 7
34
4 6
2 5
+ 1 2
3 6
2 7
+ 3 4
Subtracting in Columns
tens
ones
1. a.
tens
ones
1. b.
It's easy: subtract the tens and ones in their own column.
2. Subtract.
a.
5 7
1 0
b.
6 6
2 4
c.
7 8
4 4
d.
8 7
2 0
e.
5 5
1 1
f.
9 5
3 5
g.
2 8
2 5
h.
6 7
3 3
i.
7 6
3 2
j.
8 8
6 6
c.
9 6
d.
2 7
e.
7 6
5 7
a.
4 8
b.
3 7
2 5
3 3
1 2
3 3
b.
c.
72 + 20 = _______
29 + 10 = _______
63 + 30 = _______
72 + 10 = _______
29 + 50 = _______
63 40 = _______
72 30 = _______
29 + 30 = _______
63 60 = _______
35
________ more
e. How many did Linda and Jane gather together? ________ seashells
f. Mark gave 10 of his to Linda.
Now how many does Linda have?
________ seashells
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
36
7. Solve the word problems. Write an addition or subtraction sentence for each one.
a. There were 36 birds sitting on the telephone line.
7
3
2 3
+ 3
4 2
5 0
+ 1
3
+ 1
5 0
7 3
8
1
37
+
9 3
6 2
4
1
+ 4
8 2
Break
a ten.
3 tens 15 ones
Now we have 3 tens and
15 ones. It is still 45, but
written in a different way.
Break
a ten.
4 tens 13 ones
1. Break a ten into 10 ones. What do you get? Draw or use manipulatives to help.
a.
3 tens 0 ones
b.
___tens ____ones
___tens ___ones
c.
___tens ___ones
d.
___tens ____ones
___tens ___ones
e.
___tens ___ones
___tens ____ones
___tens ____ones
f.
___tens ____ones
___tens ___ones
38
___tens ____ones
Break
a ten.
4 tens 5 ones
3 tens 15 ones
Break
a ten.
5 tens 2 ones
4 tens 12 ones
2. Fill in. Always subtract (cross out some) from the second picture.
Break
a ten.
3 tens 6 ones
Break
a ten.
2 tens 16 ones
Break
a ten.
Break
a ten.
39
3. First, break a ten. Then subtract ones and tens separately. Look at the example.
a.
b.
5 tens 5 ones
tens
3 tens
tens
15 ones
7 tens 2 ones
5 ones
5 ones
ones
c.
3 tens
d.
6 tens 0 ones
2 tens
6 tens 4 ones
7 ones
3 tens
8 ones
7 tens 6 ones
4 tens
5 tens 0 ones
7 ones
2 tens
2 ones
8 tens 1 one
6 tens
6 tens 3 ones
5 ones
2 tens
8 ones
4. Jessica had 37 colored pencils. Then she gave 12 of them to her brother, and six to
her sister.
a. How many pencils does Jessica have now?
b. How many more pencils does Jessica have than her brother?
c. How many more pencils does Jessica have than her sister?
40
5 tens, 3 ones
4 tens, 13 ones
Cross out 1 ten 6 ones. What is left? ____ tens ____ ones
13
We take (borrow) one ten from the 5 tens. There will be now only 4 tens in the
tens column, so to show this, we cross the 5 in the tens column and write 4
above it.
This new ten is now grouped with the ones. There were 3 ones, but with the 10
new ones there will be 13. To show this, we also cross the 3 in the ones column
and write 13 above it.
4 tens
3 tens, 10 ones
10
Cross out 2 tens 8 ones. What is left? ___ tens ___ ones
Here is another example: 40 28.
We take (borrow) one ten from the 4 tens. There will be now only 3 tens in the
tens column, so to show this, we cross the 4 in the tens column and write 3
above it.
This new ten is now grouped with the ones. There were 0 ones, but with the 10
new ones there will be 10. To show this, we also cross the 0 in the ones column
and write 10 above it.
41
6
3
Take away
3 tens, 9 ones.
0
9
3
1
Take away
1 ten, 7 ones.
7
4
1
6
5
7
8
3
Take away
3 tens, 4 ones.
Take away
4 tens, 8 ones.
7
1
Take away
1 ten, 6 ones.
0
4
Take away
5 tens, 1 one.
6
8
9
5
Take away
2 tens, 5 ones.
Take away
4 tens, 7 ones.
0
1
Take away
3 tens, 8 ones.
Take away
2 tens, 9 ones.
42
b.
Check:
4 16
5 6
2 7
2 9
+ 2 7
2 9
5 6
Check:
Check:
9 0
2 8
c.
4 2
1 5
+ 2 8
d.
9 0
3 5
e.
8 2
2 5
f.
6 5
3 9
g.
5 2
1 4
h.
6 5
2 6
i.
7 0
4 8
j.
5 5
1 7
k.
3 1
1 8
l.
6 6
2 8
+ 1 5
3
1
7
0
7
43
60
61
62
You would
go into debt
6 7 6 11
6 8 6 12
6 9 6 13
6 10 etc.
63
64
65
66
1. Cross out the subtractions that would make you go into debt. Do you notice any
patterns? (You can also write how much you would go into debt; for example 4 is a negative 4.)
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
2. Look at the ones' digits. Do you need to regroup (borrow a ten to ones' column)?
a. Do you need
to regroup?
6 1
2 6
Y/N
d. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
b. Do you need
to regroup?
7 4
2 3
Y/N
5 4
3 2
c. Do you need
to regroup?
5 0
2 5
Y/N
e. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
8 2
5 6
f. Do you need
to regroup?
9 0
2 7
Y/N
44
a. Do you need
to regroup?
6 0
1 6
b. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
d. Do you need
to regroup?
c. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
8 0
2 8
9 7
2 5
f. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
5 0
1 0
8 8
7 7
Y/N
h. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
4 3
1 7
Y/N
e. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
g. Do you need
to regroup?
5 7
3 2
3 7
2 7
i. Do you need
to regroup?
Y/N
6 0
4 1
Y/N
35 44 26 19 25 11 63 22 72 49 10 26 51 52 78 30 25 40
5 4
3 7
b.
9 4
3 4
c.
8 2
2 5
d.
6 2
2 9
e.
9 9
5 7
f.
4 0
2 3
45
Day
Mon
Tues
Wed
Thurs
Fri
Sat
Sun
about
about
about
about
about
about
about
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
Newspapers
b. About how many newspapers did Jack sell on Saturday and Sunday together? ______
c. About how many more newspapers did Jack sell on Sunday than on Monday? ______
10
16
11
blue
green
gray
brown
hazel
46
45 23
/ \
45 20 3 = ______
a.
76 15
/ \
76 10 5 = ______
b.
c.
47 15
5. Solve the word problems. Add or subtract in columns if you need to.
a. Jim has 62 marbles, Peter has 28, and Ed has 33 marbles.
47
6. The teacher made a chart that shows how many books the children read each month.
Books read
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Annie
13
21
18
14
Freddie
11
Lisa
13
16
18
Jonathan
10
14
15
Total
In April?
Freddie
Lisa
Jonathan
48
45 +
27
/ \
45 + 20 + 7
65 + 7 = 72
52 +
b.
26
38 +
52 + 20 + 6
____ +
35
= _____
57
25 + ____ + ____
e.
19
48 +
62 + ____ + ____
f.
36
54 +
48 + ____ + ____
39
54 + ____ + ____
g.
17 +
25 +
38 + ____ + ____
d.
62 +
c.
h.
64
44 +
17 + ____ + ____
i.
38
29 +
44 + ____ + ____
23
29 + ____ + ____
2. Add mentally.
a.
b.
c.
d.
34 + 35 = ______
15 + 29 = ______
44 + 46 = ______
19 + 18 = ______
47 + 12 = ______
8 + 12 = ______
43 + 18 = ______
13 + 17 = ______
33 + 56 = ______
47 + 36 = ______
56 + 25 = ______
34 + 18 = ______
27 + 26 = ______
50 + 33 = ______
12 + 19 = ______
45 + 35 = ______
49
(40 + 20) + (5 + 7)
60 + 12
= 72
36 + 22
a.
b.
72 + 18
(70 + 10) + (2 + 8)
_____ + ______ = ______
(30 + 20) + (6 + 2)
_____ + ______ = ______
c.
54 + 37
(50 + 30) + (4 + 7)
_____ + ______ = ______
d.
24 + 55
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______
e.
36 + 36
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______
f.
42 + 68
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______
g.
45 + 18
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______
h.
37 + 58
( ___ + ___ ) + ( __ + __ )
_____ + ______ = ______
4. Add mentally, using any strategy. Match the letters with the right answers, solving the riddle!
W 36 + 38 = _____
E 45 + 46 = _____
T 39 + 56 = _____
I 22 + 36 = _____
W 23 + 57 = _____
T 14 + 28 = _____
I 16 + 78 = _____
T 47 + 34 = _____
B 27 + 41 = _____
L 28 + 13 = _____
T 37 + 33 = _____
L 66 + 37 = _____
H 52 + 35 = _____
E 44 + 53 = _____
Y 48 + 27 = _____
H 27 + 24 = _____
51
94
95
42
103
91
68
50
75
80
87
58
70
81
41
97
33 + 28 + 16
(30 + 20 + 10) + (3 + 8 + 6)
60 + 17
= 77
27 + 39 + 38
27 is 3 less than 30. 39 is 1 less than 40.
38 is 2 less than 40.
15 + 27 + 45
(5 + 5 + 10 + 40) + 27
60 + 27 = 87
5. Add mentally, and find the answer to the riddle. Use any strategy.
L 22 + 43 + 38 = ______
V 52 + 14 + 18 = ______
L 28 + 18 + 36 = ______
C 37 + 18 + 15 = ______
E 47 + 32 + 21 = ______
E 50 + 15 + 16 = ______
E 22 + 44 + 38 = ______
L 19 + 17 + 25 = ______
B 64 + 12 + 17 = ______
R 24 + 13 + 25 = ______
W 55 + 14 + 28 = ______
O 16 + 60 + 20 = ______
W 54 + 16 + 22 = ______
E 27 + 11 + 21 = ______
E 50 + 31 + 19 = ______
93 81 103 96 92
70
82 104 84 100 61
Son: They...
51
53
8
= 53 3 5
= 50 5 = 45
6
72
= 72 2 4
= 70 4 = 66
(In other words, first subtract to the previous whole ten, then the rest.)
1. Subtract the elevated number in parts (first subtract to the previous whole ten; then the rest).
5
/
a.
( 51 1 ) 4 = ______
b.
4
/
c.
5
\
d.
e.
7
\
f.
g.
7
/
6
/
5
\
d.
51 7 = _______
b.
42 4 = _______
51 5 = _______
42 5 = _______
51 3 = _______
42 3 = _______
51 6 = _______
42 6 = _______
52
Method 2:
f.
14 9 = _______
c.
17 8 = _______
d.
12 9 = _______
24 9 = _______
27 8 = _______
52 9 = _______
44 9 = _______
37 8 = _______
32 9 = _______
15 9 = _______
g.
13 8 = _______
h.
16 8 = _______
65 9 = _______
33 8 = _______
86 8 = _______
45 9 = _______
93 8 = _______
36 8 = _______
b.
c.
d.
34 5 = ______
65 9 = ______
51 8 = ______
62 7 = ______
73 7 = ______
36 8 = ______
93 6 = ______
83 8 = ______
53
Method 3: Add.
You can add backwards. This works well if the two numbers are close to each other.
Instead of subtracting, think how much you need to add to the number being subtracted
(the subtrahend) in order to get the number you're subtracting from (the minuend).
Think: 84 + ____ = 92
Think: 25 + ___ = 75
+____
92 84 = _____
+___
75 25 = _____
+ 8
a. 92
+____
84 =______
b. 51
+____
49 =______
c. 76
69 =______
g.
32 28 = ______
j.
90 83 = ______
m.
100 95 = ______
h.
22 14 = ______
k.
64 56 = ______
n.
64 55 = ______
i.
53 46 = ______
l.
72 65 = ______
o.
44 37 = ______
78
77
72
70
65
60
57
53
46
+ 10 = 34
= ______
b.
= 22
=4
= _____,
= _____
54
c.
+
+
= _____,
= 22
= 36
= _____
b. 81 45
/ \
45 30 2 = _______
/ \
81 40 5 = _______
d. 52 34 = _______
e. 55 22 = _______
f. 88 53 = _______
g. 70 34 = _______
h. 50 27 = _______
i. 66 27 = _______
j. 73 33 = _______
k. 94 27 = _______
l. 60 36 = _______
c. 74 21 = _______
42 35 = _______
b. 71 + _____ = 78
c. 3 + _____ = 42
d. 10 + _____ = 33
78 71 = _______
42 3 = ______
33 10 = _______
a. 78 + _____ = 85
b. 63 55 = ______
c. 5 + ______ = 43
d. 76 69 = ______
e. 95 65 = ______
f. 8 + ______ = 96
g. 20 + ______ = 75
h. 11 + ______ = 86
3. Solve.
b.
c.
40 4 20 2 = ________
74 20 4 5 = _______
72 8 60 2 = _______
50 8 10 20 = _______
91 7 10 3 = _______
66 20 2 5 = _______
60 2 6 4 = ________
82 5 7 11 = _______
86 8 5 20 = _______
55
39 + _____ = 44
56 + _____ = 64
36 + _____ = 44
70 + _____ = 74
18 + _____ = 24
58 + _____ = 64
30 + _____ = 34
29 + _____ = 34
15 + _____ = 24
58 + _____ = 64
79 + _____ = 84
35 + _____ = 44
85 + _____ = 94
69 + _____ = 74
67 + _____ = 74
27 + _____ = 34
56
54 45 = ______
b. 99 11 = ______
c. 100 50 = ______
63 36 = ______
88 22 = ______
99 51 = ______
45 5 5
40 25
Key:
55 40
13 5
'
20 14 10 47
35 15
50
32 25
19 4
15 9
24 16
17 8
53 6
82 30 2
13 8
16 6
20 7 7
23 13
60 51
24 2 8
52 20 12
61 7 4
42 22 10
33 8 7 4
!
2
2
4 9
5
7
1 7
8
1
2 4
57
8
3 6
3 4
Euclid's Game
Euclid's game is simple, fun, and lets you practice finding the difference of two numbers!
Rules:
1. The first player chooses any number on the 100-chart and circles or colors it.
2. The next player chooses any other number on the 100-chart and circles or colors it.
After this, the numbers get marked by crossing them out.
At his turn, each player has to find the difference of any two numbers already marked,
and mark that number. The player can choose any two numbers for this; they just have
to be already marked numbers.
The player who cannot find any more numbers to mark is the loser.
Use the 100-chart on the next page as a game board. You can print it anew for every new game.
Alternatively you may write the 100-chart on paper, of course.
Example. Initially Jane chooses 28 and Joe chooses 9.
After that:
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
58
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99 100
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99 100
59
10
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
10
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
60
Review
1. Complete the next ten.
a.
b.
c.
16 + _____ = 20
47 + ____ = ______
75 + ____ = ______
64 + _____ = 70
38 + ____ = ______
92 + ____ = ______
2. Add.
a.
4 3
+ 2 8
b.
3 3
+ 3 9
c.
2 4
+ 4 7
d.
2 3
+ 3 7
e.
5 5
+1 7
f.
3 8
1 3
+ 4 2
g.
3 9
1 0
+ 4 6
h.
4 1
1 4
+ 3 6
i.
3 8
2 9
+ 2 3
j.
1 8
1 9
+5 5
3. Add.
a.
b.
c.
d.
25 + 8 = ______
76 + 5 = ______
88 + 3 = ______
82 + 8 = ______
81 + 8 = ______
72 + 7 = ______
42 + 9 = ______
54 + 9 = ______
24 + 9 = ______
50 + 6 = ______
34 + 7 = ______
10 + 9 = ______
b. 44 + _____ = 51
c. 17 + _____ = 26
d. 34 + _____ = 41
87 + _____ = 93
67 + _____ = 75
79 + _____ = 85
21 + _____ = 30
61
5. For each problem, write one where you subtract from 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or 18.
a.
55 7 = ____
b.
15 7 = 8
d.
72 7 = ____
____ ___ = ____
74 8 = ____
c.
51 3 = ____
93 5 = ____
____ ___ = ____
f.
33 4 = ____
____ ___ = ____
b. Molly has 23 stuffed toys that she likes to play with, and
62
7. Subtract.
8
77
______
88
10
______
______
______
10
______
______
______
38
______
______
______
43
d.
Check:
8 8
5 4
6 6
1 7
b.
+ 5 4
e.
Check:
6 3
4 8
c.
+ 4 8
7 1
2 2
f.
Check:
6 9
2 7
+ 2 7
8 4
4 9
9. Compare the problems, and find a way to do them. Place a letter in the box next
to each problem according to the right answer. Read the words vertically.
a.
b.
c.
______ 28 = 45
______ + 12 = 45
______ + 12 + 13 = 45
______ 33 = 29
______ + 23 = 99
______ + 23 + 19 = 96
______ 37 = 55
______ + 66 = 100
______ + 67 + 4 = 88
______ 41 = 50
______ + 24 = 50
______ + 24 + 26 = 80
A D E E H K M N O O R T W W
62 20 30 99 91 26 73 17 54 76 34 92 85 33
63
c. 20 + 20 + 4 = 44
g. 60 + 20 + 3 = 83
c. 85 d. 76 e. 66
e. 50 + 10 + 7 = 67
i. 70 + 20 + 5 = 95
f. 98
4. a. 87 b. 65 c. 26 d. 97 e. 75 f. 46
5. a. 20 b. 50
d. 30 + 20 + 1 = 51
h. 30 + 30 + 7 = 67
g. 98
h. 81
i. 39
c. 80 d. 100 e. 70 f. 100 g. 10 h. 0
6. Shoes about $40, top about $10, skirt about $20. Total bill about $70.
7. He has about $60 $30 = $30 left.
8. a. 10, 40, 30
b. 20, 10, 30
c. 40, 30, 70
9. What can you notice? When you add 10, 20, 30, or 40 to an even number, the answer is also an even number.
When you add 10, 20, 30, or 40 to an odd number, the answer is also an odd number.
+ 20
+ 10
+ 30
+ 40
12
22
19
39
32
62
37
77
+ 30
+ 40
+ 20
+ 10
23
63
58
88
27
85
95
20 + 30 + 20 = 70
Puzzle Corner:
Here are
two solutions.
There are more.
10 + 50 + 10 = 70
+
40 + 40 + 20 = 100
20 + 40 + 40 = 100
20 + 30 + 20 = 70
50 + 10 + 10 = 70
=
80
=
80
=
100
=
60
=
100
64
=
60
b. 28, 18
c. 46, 26
d. 65, 55 e. 21, 11
f. 41, 31
4.
a. 88 10 = 78
88 20 = 68
88 30 = 58
88 40 = 48
88 50 = 38
88 60 = 28
88 70 = 18
b. 100 60 = 40
90 50 = 40
80 40 = 40
70 30 = 40
60 20 = 40
50 10 = 40
40 0 = 40
c. 34 10 = 24
44 20 = 24
54 30 = 24
64 40 = 24
74 50 = 24
84 60 = 24
94 70 = 24
50 10 = 40
30
10 + 20 = 30
= 30
= 30
= 80
= 10
30 + 60 = 90
45
35
0
= 30
+ 30 = 30
= 30
= 30
= 80
= 40
= 30
= 10
Adding in Columns, p. 12
1. a.
20
+ 30
b.
50
2. a.
32
+ 14
46
10
+ 50
c.
60
b.
54
+ 5
59
32
+ 20
d.
52
c.
41
+ 27
68
43
+ 33
e.
76
d.
65
+ 13
78
35
+ 12
f.
57
+ 22
47
e.
31
+ 40
79
f.
g.
26
+ 51
77
h.
43
+ 34
77
25
+ 33
71
58
3. a. 77 b. 98 c. 58 d. 69 e. 86 f. 86 g. 95 h. 87 i. 76 j. 89 k. 78 l. 97 m. 97 n. 88 o. 89
65
Doubling, p. 14
1. a. 5 + 5 = 10
b. 30 + 30 = 60
c. 50 + 50 = 100
2.
a. 2 2
+ 2 2
b. 3 4
+ 3 4
c. 1 3
+ 1 3
d. 4 1
+ 4 1
4 4
6 8
2 6
8 2
3.
Double 6 is 6 + 6 = 12.
Double 7 is 7 + 7 = 14
Double 8 is 8 + 8 = 16.
Double 9 is 9 + 9 = 18.
Double 10 is 10 + 10 = 20.
Double 11 is 11 + 11 = 22.
Double 12 is 12 + 12 = 24.
Double 13 is 13 + 13 = 26.
Double 14 is 14 + 14 = 28.
Double 15 is 15 + 15 = 30
Double 16 is 16 + 16 = 32.
Double 17 is 17 + 17 = 34.
Double 18 is 18 + 18 = 36.
Double 19 is 19 + 19 = 38.
One-Half, p. 16
1. a.
b.
2. a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3.
a. 5 + 5 = 10
b. 20 + 20 = 40
c. 12 + 12 = 24
1
of 10 is 5.
2
1
of 40 is 20.
2
1
of 24 is 12.
2
4.
1
6 + 6 = 12
11 + 11 = 22
7 + 7 = 14
12 + 12 = 24
8 + 8 = 16
13 + 13 = 26
9 + 9 = 18
14 + 14 = 28
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
10 + 10 = 20
15 + 15 = 30
1
2
of 16 is 8.
of 28 is 14.
of 26 is 13.
of 30 is 15.
of 22 is 11.
66
5.
b.
a.
1
of 26 is 13.
2
c.
1
of 48 is 24.
2
1
of 30 is 15.
2
d.
1
of 32 is 16.
2
10 + 10 = 20
20 + 20 = 40
30 + 30 = 60
40 + 40 = 80
50 + 50 = 100
33
+ 9
42
2. a.
25
b. + 8
33
13
+ 29
24
b. + 38
62
42
2. g.
25
+ 55
80
38
c. + 9
47
27
d. + 7
34
35
c. + 19
54
36
e. + 18
54
24
d. + 47
71
25
f. + 27
52
44
e. + 17
61
26
f. + 36
62
39
+
35
h.
74
3. a. 57 b. 72 c. 91 d. 98 e. 53 f. 93 g. 57 h. 90
i. 87 j. 95 k. 58 l. 75 m. 94 n. 94 o. 40
4. a. 79 b. 87 c. 71
d. 93 e. 73
b. 47 + 5
/ \
47 + 3 + 2
c. 79 + 9
/ \
79 + 1 + 8
50 + 2 = 52
e. 27 + 5
/ \
27 + 3 + 2
80 + 8 = 88
f. 38 + 7
/ \
38 + 2 + 5
30 + 2 = 32
40 + 5 = 45
67
3.
a.
8+1= 9
8 + 2 = 10
8 + 3 = 11
8 + 4 = 12
8 + 5 = 13
8 + 6 = 14
b.
28 + 1 = 29
28 + 2 = 30
28 + 3 = 31
28 + 4 = 32
28 + 5 = 33
28 + 6 = 34
c.
78 + 1 = 79
78 + 2 = 80
78 + 3 = 81
78 + 4 = 82
78 + 5 = 83
78 + 6 = 84
What do you notice? The two patterns are similar. The ones digits are the same.
4. a. 2, 3 b. 7, 8 c. 3, 4 d. 3, 5 e. 2, 4 f. 4, 6
5. a. $22 + $8 = $30 or $30 $22 = $8. Benjamin needs $8 more. b. $20 + $5 + $5 = $30. Natasha has $3.
c. 28 8 = 20 fruit trees left to plant. d. 37 32 = 5 came later. e. Half of 40 is 20. 40 20 7 = 13 grapes are left.
6.
9
9
9
9
9
9
a.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+5 =
+ 6 =
10
11
12
13
14
15
39
39
39
39
39
39
b.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+ 5=
+ 6=
40
41
42
43
44
45
59
59
59
59
59
59
c.
+ 1 =
+ 2 =
+ 3 =
+ 4 =
+ 5 =
+ 6=
60
61
62
63
64
65
a. 19 + 5 = 24
b. 29 + 7 = 36
c. 49 + 5 = 54
d. 29 + 8 = 37
e. 39 + 6 = 45
f. 49 + 9 = 58
2. a. 19 + 7 = 26
9 + 7 = 16
b. 49 + 3 = 52
9 + 3 = 12
c. 39 + 4 = 43
9 + 4 = 13
68
5.
a.
+
40
b.
48
32
41
49
56
62
67
12
72
+
92
+
11
61
+
87
+
10
51
+
79
+
42
+
74
+
34
66
+
27
+
61
21
9
53
+
16
c.
84
+
71
74
2
76
b. 91
c. 91
d. 70
e. 52
f. 78
g. 116
h. 94
i. 85
j. 49
2. a. 72
b. 64
c. 72
d. 70
e. 56
f. 62
g. 56
h. 74
i. 26
j. 66
3. a. 107
b. 142
c. 104
d. 146
4. a. 128
b. 155
c. 120
d. 147
e. 123
f. 109 g. 126
h. 147
i. 149
j. 137
a. 18+ 6 = 24
b. 28 + 7 = 35
c. 48 + 8 = 56
d. 38 + 4 = 42
e. 38 + 6 = 44
f. 48 + 5 = 53
b. 38 + 6 = 44
8 + 6 = 14
c. 58 + 5 = 63
8 + 5 = 13
2. a. 18 + 7 = 25
8 + 7 = 15
c. 44
5. a. 75 + 7 = 82
5 + 7 = 12
b. 47 + 7 = 54
7 + 7 = 14
c. 57 + 6 = 63
7 + 6 = 13
69
Addition Practice, p. 30
1.
a. 20 + 34 = 54
(20 + 30 + 4)
b. 70 + 18 = 88
(70 + 10 + 8 )
c. 50 + 27 = 77
(50 + 20 + 7 )
+ 2
1
+ 4
3
+ 6
7
+ 8
13
+ 10
21
+ 12
31
+ 14
43
+ 16
57
73
4. a. 92 b. 91 c. 63 d. 90 e. 84
5. a. <
b. =
c. =
d. > e. > f. =
6. The person did not carry to the tens, but instead wrote the sum of the ones down in its completeness, and then
wrote the sum of the tens next to it.
7. a. 15, 25, 45 b. 13, 23, 53 c. 12, 52, 82 d. 16, 66, 46
8. a. 42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 63
b. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25
9. a. 33, 47, 54 b. 53, 33, 44 c. 30, 54, 99 d. 84, 74, 71
Puzzle corner.
a.
b.
2 7
+ 1 4
c.
6 8
+
3
4 1
d.
2 6
+ 2 5
7 1
1 3
+ 7 8
5 1
e.
3 5
+ 2 6
9 1
6 1
Many Addends, p. 32
1. a. 17, 27 b. 20, 17 c. 23, 24
2. a. 93 b. 92 c. 98 d. 82 e. 97 f. 96 g. 89 h. 80 i. 117 j. 117 k. 129 l. 145
3. a. No, because 23 plus 9 is more than 30. It can only hold 7 more people.
b. 47 people total. c. 2 buses for the 57 people and 3 buses for 88 people.
d. 30 6 = 24. e. 30 13 7 = 10. f. 16 people
g. 20 8 + 5 = 17, so there are 17 people now.
h. 30 7 12 = 11, so there were 11 people on the bus originally.
4. a. 80 b. 71
c. 54 d. 47
5. a. 19 + 5 + 7 = 31
O
d. 57 + 21 =
O
78
e. 5
g. 17 + 27 + 5 = 49
O
c. 7 + 11 + 23 = 41
b. 25 + 7 + 3 = 35
+ 11 +
O
=
26
f. 25 +
h. 25 + 13 + 3 + 1 = 42
O
O
=
34
E
i. 57 + 21 = 78
O
Underline the correct choice in the sentences below. Can you think why it is that way?
70
27
28
+ 31
16
25
+ 47
46
25
+ 12
36
27
+ 34
60
+ 16
70
+ 16
70
+ 18
70
+ 13
80
+ 17
76
86
88
83
97
Subtracting in Columns, p. 35
1. a. 55 32 = 33.
2. a. 47
b. 42
b. 73 61 = 12.
c. 34
d. 67
e. 44
f. 60
g. 3
h. 34
i. 44
j. 22
3. a. 20 b. 23 c. 63 d. 15 e. 43
4. a. 92, 82, 42 b. 39, 79, 59 c. 93, 23, 3
5. a. Linda
b. Luis
c. 33 more
d. 3 more
e. 87 seashells f. 45
g. no
2 3
8
5 0
4 2
3
1
3
7
5 0
5
1
4
8
6 2
2
6
6 8
7 3
3
2
4
4
4
1 5
71
7
6
9 3
8
8 2
b.
5 tens 5 ones
4 tens
3 tens
15 ones
5 ones
1 tens
10 ones
c.
7 tens 2 ones
6 tens
3 tens
12 ones
5 ones
3 tens
7 ones
5 tens
3 tens
14 ones
8 ones
2 tens
6 ones
4 tens
2 tens
10 ones
2 ones
2 tens
8 ones
5 tens
2 tens
13 ones
8 ones
3 tens
5 ones
d.
6 tens 0 ones
5 tens
2 tens
10 ones
7 ones
3 tens
3 ones
e.
6 tens 4 ones
f.
7 tens 6 ones
6 tens
4 tens
16 ones
7 ones
2 tens
9 ones
g.
5 tens 0 ones
h.
8 tens 1 one
7 tens
6 tens
11 ones
5 ones
1 tens
6 ones
6 tens 3 ones
72
Take away
3 tens, 9 ones.
Take away
1 ten, 6 ones.
Take away
1 ten, 7 ones.
Take away
3 tens, 4 ones.
Take away
5 tens, 1 one.
Take away
3 tens, 8 ones.
Take away
2 tens, 5 ones.
Take away
4 tens, 8 ones.
Take away
4 tens, 7 ones.
Take away
2 tens, 9 ones.
2. In this exercise the child is asked to check each subtraction with addition. Adding back is just one method of checking.
Estimating the result beforehand is another method of checking - it won't tell you if you got it exactly right but it does
check that the result is at least reasonable. Yet another way is to solve the same problem with some different method
(there might not always be a different method) . It is not good that children get used to always checking answers
for math problems from the back of the book or from their teacher. They should get used to checking the result themselves.
You can encourage that even if the problem set does not tell them to, to check the answers.
a. 29 b. 62 c. 27 d. 55. e. 57 f. 26 g. 38 h. 39 i. 22. j. 38 k. 13 l. 38
Puzzle corner:
9 3
1 8
7 5
8 3
6 7
1 6
8 0
3 8
4 2
8 2
1 4
6 8
73
6 2
9
5 3
2. a. YES; 35
f. NO; 11
4. a. 17 b. 60 c. 57 d. 33 e. 42 f. 17
Newspapers
Sat
Sun
b. about 100
c. about 40 more.
2.
a.
b. 27 children c. 23 children
b. 61
c. 32
13
21
18
14
66
Freddie
11
33
Lisa
13
16
18
55
Jonathan
10
14
15
47
f. 33
74
3. a. 58 b. 90 c. 91 d. 79 e. 72 f. 110 g. 63 h. 95
4. WHITTLE BY WHITTLE
5. ...WERE BELOW C LEVEL.
b. ( 62 2 ) 5 = 55
f. ( 63 3 ) 4 = 56
c. ( 33 3 ) 1 = 29 d. ( 92 2 ) 3 = 87
g. ( 35 5 ) 2 = 28 h. ( 74 4 ) 2 = 68
+2
+7
a. 92 84 = 8
b. 51 49 = 2
c. 76 69 = 7
(Think: 84 + 8 = 92)
(Think: 49 + 2 = 51)
(Think: 69 + 7 = 76)
d. 32 28 = 4
g. 22 14 = 8
j. 53 46 = 7
e. 90 83 = 7
h. 64 56 = 8
k. 72 65 = 7
f. 100 95 = 5
i. 64 55 = 9
l. 44 37 =7
7. 1, 5, 2, 5, 5, 3, 4, 7
Puzzle Corner:
a.
= 12
b.
= 9,
= 13
c.
= 4,
= 18
b. 8
c. 38
d. 7 e. 30 f. 88
g. 55
h. 75
75
6.
7.
a. 54 45 = 9
b. 99 11 = 88
c. 100 50 = 50
63 36 = 27
88 22 = 66
99 51 = 48
72 27 = 45
77 33 = 44
98 52 = 46
81 18 = 63
66 44 = 22
97 53 = 44
90 09 = 81
55 55 = 0
96 54 = 42
8. Y O U ' R E A S U P E R S U B T R A C T E R!
Puzzle corner:
7 2
7 4
5 7
7 5
5 1
5 4
1 8
8 2
4 8
2 3
4 9
1 7
2 4
3 6
3 4
Euclid's Game, p. 58
1. No.
2. All the numbers that get marked are also even.
3. All the numbers that get marked will also be multiples of 5.
4. a. No. You cannot mark numbers that are greater than 90. b. Yes.
c. No. You will only get to mark multiples of 10. d. Yes.
76
Review, p. 61
1.
a.
b.
c.
16 + 4 = 20 47 + 3 = 50 75 + 5 = 80
64 + 6 = 70 38 + 2 = 40 92 + 8 = 100
2. a. 71 b. 72
c. 71 d. 60 e. 72 f. 93
3. a. 33, 89, 33
b. 81, 79, 56
c. 91, 51, 41
g. 95
h. 91
i. 90
j. 92
d. 90, 63, 19
4. a. 10, 6 b. 7, 8 c. 9, 6 d. 7, 9
5. a. 55 7 = 48 b. 74 8 = 66 c. 93 5 = 88
15 7 = 8
14 8 = 6
13 5 = 8
d. 72 7 = 65
12 7 = 5
e. 51 3 = 48 f. 33 4 = 29
11 3 = 8
13 4 = 9
6. a. There were 39 people originally. b. Annie has now 33 toys. Annie has more toys; 10 more toys than Molly.
c. about 2 hours d. He cannot buy the car. He needs $3 more.
7. 77 69 60 50 45 41 38
88 82 73 63 56 48 43
8. a. 34 b. 15
c. 42 d. 49 e. 49
f. 35
77
78