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Blood is an important fluid that keeps us alive. We cannot live without it.

The heart pumps blood

to all parts of the body and brings them oxygen and food. At the same time blood carries all the
substances we dont need away from us. Blood fights infections, keeps our body temperature the
same and carries chemicals that control body functions. Finally, blood has substances that repair
broken blood vessels so that we dont bleed to death.
Blood is a mixture of fluid and solid matter. Plasma is the liquid part of our blood. It makes up
about 50 60 % of it. Plasma consists mostly of water but many other substances are in it. It
contains dissolved food, chemicals that control our growth and do other jobs, proteins, minerals
and waste products.
Red blood cells look like flat round discs. They contain haemoglobin, a protein that carries
oxygen to the body and gives blood its red colour. Each drop of blood has about 300 million of
these red cells.
White blood cells, also called leukocytes, fight infections and harmful substances that invade the
body. Most of these cells are round and colourless. They have different sizes and shapes. White
blood cells are not as numerous as red ones. For every 700 red blood cells there is only one white
blood cell.
Platelets are tiny bodies that are much smaller than red blood cells. They stick to the edges of a
cut and form blood clots to stop bleeding. The blood of a normal adult has about 2 trillion
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2 trillion

The circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. The heart pumps
blood through big blood vessels called arteries and veins. In our body there are also
millions of small blood vessels called capillaries. Oxygen, food and other substances
pass through the thin walls of these capillaries into the tissue.
When you inhale air oxygen passes through your lungs and and is picked up by
haemoglobin which transports it to your whole body. It is released into cells which
produce energy. In return cells produce carbon dioxide which enters your blood
stream and is transported back to your lungs where it is exhaled.
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Find verbs that go with these prepositions in the text, the explanation on the right
would help you:


Move from one

side to another
Move in opposite
Press from one to

Food also reaches your body by means of blood. It is digested in your stomach and
important substances like fat, sugar, proteins, vitamins and minerals are separated.
These nutrients enter your blood stream and are moved to the cells and muscles
where they are needed in order to give you energy or fuel. The work of the muscles
and other tissue creates heat. Blood is the transporting system which carries heat
throughout your body and warms you. The things that you dont need are
transported to your intestines and kidneys and leave your body again.
White blood cells play an important role in your immune system. When harmful
substances invade your body an alarm goes off and white blood cells are activated.
Then they work to destroy the invaders. They fight off viruses, harmful bacteria and
begin anti-body production.
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You would bleed to death from a small cut if your blood didnt clot. When a blood
vessel breaks platelets rush to the damaged area and stick to one another, forming
a plug.


Blood cells come from bone marrow. They begin as stem cells and then develop into
red or white blood cells, or platelets. They dont live forever and must be replaced
by new ones. Red blood cells live an average of 120 days before wearing out. Then
they are captured and destroyed in the liver and spleen. Platelets live only for about
10 days.


The amount of blood in your body depends on your size, weight and the altitude at
which you live. An adult who weighs 80 kg has about 5 litres of blood, a 40 kg child
about half the amount. People who live in high areas where the air is thinner need
more blood to deliver more oxygen to the body.


Blood groups are very important in order to find out if a person can donate blood or
receive blood in case of an accident or another disease. Almost everyones plasma
has antibodies that that may not work together with another persons blood.
The origin or Where it comes from

Donors important info

Vessel doctors

It is all red but nor the same in


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Wear out


You need to _____ the hole if you want to take the bath.
At ________, sunburn can seriously damage your skin, be careful in mountains.
Its hard to find a person with matching _____________.
They operated her ________ that lies next to stomach.
There is also the danger of a stroke which is when a blood ______ occurs in the brain
You pay for quality, sir, the cheaper car will __________ quicker.

There are four main blood groups :

Type 0 is the most common blood group. In an emergency type 0 blood can be
transfused to anybody.
Type AB is the most seldom group. People with this blood group can receive any
other blood in case of an emergency.
Type A can only be received by donors with A or 0.
Type B can only be received by donors with B or 0.

Put ticks in donation table according to ability of transfusion: