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America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

1970-1980

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1: Nikons Domestic Policy


The Watergate Scandal
Theme 2: Women Fight for Equality
Theme 3: The Carter Administration
Theme 4: The End of the Vietnam War

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1
Government and the People

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

Nixons Domestic Policy


Chapter 25, Section 1

How did Richard Nixons personality affect his


relationship with his staff?
How did Nixons domestic policies differ from those of
his predecessors?
How did Nixon apply his southern strategy to the
issue of civil rights and to his choice of Supreme
Court justices?
Describe the first manned moon landing.

Nixon in Person
Chapter 25, Section 1

Although he had a reserved and remote personality,


many Americans respected Nixon for his experience
and service.
Nixon was willing to say or do anything to defeat his
enemies, who included political opponents, the
government bureaucracy, the press corps, and
leaders of the antiwar movement.
Believing that the executive branch needed to be
strong, Nixon gathered a close circle of trusted
advisors around him.

Nixons Staff
Chapter 25, Section 1

Nixons Close Advisors


H. R. Haldeman After campaigning tirelessly for Nixon, advertising
executive H. R. Haldeman became Nixons chief of staff.
John Ehrlichman Lawyer John Ehrlichman served as Nixons
personal lawyer and rose to the post of chief domestic advisor.
John Mitchell Asked to be Attorney General after working with
Nixons campaign in New York, Mitchell often spoke with Nixon several
times a day.
Henry Kissinger Although he had no previous ties to Nixon,
Harvard government professor Henry Kissinger first became Nixons
national security advisor and later his Secretary of State.

Domestic PolicyOil and Inflation


Chapter 25, Section 1

During Nixons first few years in office, unemployment and


inflation rose, and federal spending proved difficult to control. In
response, Nixon turned to the practice of deficit spending, or
spending more money in a year than the government receives in
revenues. He also imposed two price freezes lasting several
months each.
When the United States supported its ally Israel in a war against
Egypt and Syria in 1973, the Arab members of the Organization of
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo, or
ban, on shipping oil to the United States. The resulting shortage
resulted in high oil prices, which in turn drove inflation even
higher.

Domestic PolicySocial Programs


Chapter 25, Section 1

Although Nixon himself supported cutting back or


eliminating federal social programs, he did not want to
alienate those voters who favored them.
Under Nixons New Federalism, states were asked to
assume greater responsibility for the well-being of
their citizens, taking some of this responsibility away
from the federal government.

The Southern Strategy


Chapter 25, Section 1

Nixons Views on Civil Rights


Nixon did not support
advances in civil rights,
believing that to do so would
cost him the support of many
white southern voters.
Hoping to win over white
southern Democrats, Nixon
sought a southern strategy
which would keep his
supporters happy.

Results of Nixons Views


Nixons views resulted in a
slowdown of desegregation.
Although Nixon tried to
prevent the extension of
certain provisions of the
Voting Rights Act of 1965,
Congress went ahead with
the extension.
Busing to end segregation in
schools was slowed, but not
halted entirely, by Nixons
opposition to it.

Nixons Supreme Court


Chapter 25, Section 1

During Nixons first term in office, four of the nine


Supreme Court justices either died, resigned, or
retired. This gave him the opportunity to name four
new justices and, thus, reshape the court.
Warren Burger, Nixons choice for Chief Justice, was
a moderate. However, Nixons later appointees
reflected his conservative views.
The Senate rejected two of Nixons nominees from the
South, charging that they showed racial bias.

The First Moon Landing


Chapter 25, Section 1

During Nixons presidency, the United States achieved


its goal of a successful moon landing.
On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong became the first
man to walk on the moon. He was joined by Edwin E.
Buzz Aldrin, Jr., a fellow crewman on the Apollo 11
spacecraft.
Television viewers around the world watched the
moon landing, and Apollo 11s crew were treated as
heroes when they returned.

Nixons Domestic PolicyAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 1

Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil embargo?


(A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
(B) Many social programs became the responsibility of the states.
(C) Busing to desegregate schools became more widespread.
(D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme Court justices.
What was Nixons southern strategy?
(A) a way to balance the federal budget
(B) an attempt to win the support of white southern Democrats
(C) the name of the first moon mission
(D) an effort to end segregation

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Nixons Domestic PolicyAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 1

Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil embargo?


(A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
(B) Many social programs became the responsibility of the states.
(C) Busing to desegregate schools became more widespread.
(D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme Court justices.
What was Nixons southern strategy?
(A) a way to balance the federal budget
(B) an attempt to win the support of white southern Democrats
(C) the name of the first moon mission
(D) an effort to end segregation

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Nixons Foreign Policy


Chapter 25, Section 2

What role did Henry Kissinger play in relaxing


tensions between the United States and the major
Communist powers?
What was Nixons policy toward the Peoples Republic
of China?
How did Nixon reach an agreement with the Soviet
Union on limiting nuclear arms?

Henry Kissinger
Chapter 25, Section 2

Practical Politics
Kissinger admired the
European political philosophy
of realpolitik, or practical
politics. Under this policy,
nations make decisions
based on maintaining their
strength rather than on moral
principles.
Kissinger applied a realpolitik
approach to his dealings with
China and the Soviet Union,
which led to better diplomatic
relations with both nations.

Public Opinion
Kissinger understood the
power of the media and was
able to use it to shape public
opinion.
Kissingers efforts in ending
the Vietnam War and easing
Cold War tensions made him
a celebrity. He topped a list
of most-admired Americans,
was often featured on the
cover of Time magazine, and
in 1973 shared the Nobel
peace prize.

Relaxing Tensions
Chapter 25, Section 2

Dtente
Although Nixon had built a
reputation as a strong antiCommunist, he and Kissinger
reversed the direction of
postwar American foreign
policy by holding talks with
China and the Soviet Union.
Nixon and Kissingers
greatest accomplishment was
in bringing about dtente, or a
relaxation in tensions,
between the United States
and these Communist
nations.

Complex Foreign Affairs


Kissinger understood that
foreign affairs were more
complicated than just a
standoff between the United
States and communism.
The Soviet Union and China,
once allies, had become bitter
enemies. This development
had the potential to reshape
global politics.

A New Approach to China


Chapter 25, Section 2

Easing Relations Between the United States and China


Historical Background After its Communist takeover in 1949, the United
States refused to recognize the Peoples Republic of China, viewing the
government of Taiwan as the legitimate Chinese rulers.
Steps to Ease Relations During the early 1970s, relations eased between
the United States and the Peoples Republic of China. Nixon referred to
the nation by name, travel and trade restrictions were lifted, and American
table-tennis players visited China, beginning Ping-Pong diplomacy.
Nixons Visit to China In February 1972, Nixon became the first
American President to visit China. Touring Chinese sites in front of
television cameras, Nixon established the basis for future diplomatic ties
during his visit.
Recognizing the Chinese Government The United States decided to join
other nations in recognizing the Chinese government. In October 1971,
Taiwan lost its seat in the United Nations to the Peoples Republic of
China.

Limiting Nuclear Arms


Chapter 25, Section 2

Nixon viewed arms control as a vital part of his foreign policy.


Although he had taken office planning to build more nuclear
weapons, Nixon came to believe that achieving balance between
the superpowers was a better strategy than an increasing nuclear
arms race.
In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the first
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, known as SALT I. In this treaty,
both nations agreed to freeze the number of certain types of
missiles at 1972 levels.
SALT I demonstrated that arms control agreements between the
superpowers were possible. However, it did not reduce the
number of weapons that either nation possessed, nor did it halt
the development of conventional weapon technologies.

Nixons Foreign PolicyAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 2

Which of these definitions best describes realpolitik?


(A) An understanding of the power of the media to shape public opinion
(B) A push to end the arms race
(C) A relaxation in international tensions
(D) A political policy that advocates national strength above moral
issues
What effect did Nixons 1972 visit to China have on American foreign policy?
(A) It began the practice of Ping-Pong diplomacy.
(B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties with China.
(C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
(D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of nuclear weapons.

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Nixons Foreign PolicyAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 2

Which of these definitions best describes realpolitik?


(A) An understanding of the power of the media to shape public opinion
(B) A push to end the arms race
(C) A relaxation in international tensions
(D) A political policy that advocates national strength above moral
issues
What effect did Nixons 1972 visit to China have on American foreign policy?
(A) It began the practice of Ping-Pong diplomacy.
(B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties with China.
(C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
(D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of nuclear weapons.

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The Watergate Scandal


Chapter 25, Section 3

How did the Nixon White House battle its political


enemies?
How did the Committee to Reelect the President
conduct itself during Nixons reelection campaign?
What was the Watergate break-in, and how did the
story of the scandal unfold?
What events led directly to Nixons resignation?

Battling Political Enemies


Chapter 25, Section 3

Nixons suspicious and secretive nature caused the White House to


operate as if it were surrounded by political enemies. One result of this
mind-set was the creation of an enemies list, a list of prominent people
seen as unsympathetic to the administration.
When someone in the National Security Council appeared to have leaked
secret government information to the New York Times, Nixon ordered that
wiretaps, or listening devices, be installed on the telephones of some
news reporters and members of his staff.
Leaks to the press continued, including former Defense Department
official Daniel Ellsbergs leak of the Pentagon Papers, a government study
that revealed widespread deception about the situation in Vietnam.
In response, Nixon organized a special White House unit, nicknamed the
Plumbers, to stop government leaks. In September 1971, the Plumbers
broke into the office of Ellsbergs psychiatrist, hoping to punish Ellsberg
by disclosing damaging personal information about him.

Nixons Reelection Campaign


Chapter 25, Section 3

Campaign Funding
The Committee to Reelect the
President, led by John Mitchell,
aimed to collect as much
campaign money as possible
before a new law required such
contributions to be reported.
The money that the Committee
collected was intended to fund
both routine campaign activities
and secret unethical actions.

Dirty Tricks
Attempts to sabotage Nixons
political opponents came to be
known as dirty tricks. These
efforts included sending hecklers
to disrupt Democratic campaign
meetings and assigning spies to
join the campaigns of opposing
candidates.
One particularly damaging dirty
trick involved a faked letter that
seriously hurt the candidacy of
Edmund Muskie, a leading
Democratic presidential
contender.

The Watergate Break-In


Chapter 25, Section 3

In March 1972, a group within the Committee to Reelect the


President made plans to wiretap the phones at the
Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the
Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C. This
group was led by E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy.
The groups first attempt failed. During their second
attempt on June 17, 1972, five men were arrested. The
money they carried was traced directly to Nixons
reelection campaign, linking the break-in to the campaign.
The break-in and the coverup which resulted became
known as the Watergate scandal.

The Watergate Coverup


Chapter 25, Section 3

Although Nixon had not been involved in the break-in,


he became involved in its coverup. He illegally
authorized the CIA to try to persuade the FBI to stop
its investigation of the break-in, on the grounds that
the matter involved national security.
Nixon advisors launched a scheme to bribe the
Watergate defendants into silence, as well as
coaching them on how to lie in court.
During the months following the break-in, the incident
was barely noticed by the public. Nixon won the 1972
election by a landslide.

The Scandal Unfolds


Chapter 25, Section 3

The Watergate Trial


At the trial of the Watergate
burglars in early 1973, all the
defendants either pleaded guilty
or were found guilty.
Judge John J. Sirica, presiding
over the trial, was not convinced
that the full story had been told.
He sentenced the burglars to long
prison terms, suggesting that
their terms could be reduced if
they cooperated with upcoming
Senate hearings on Watergate.

Woodward and Bernstein


Two young Washington Post
reporters, Bob Woodward and
Carl Bernstein, were influential in
tracking down information to
uncover the Watergate story.
Woodward and Bernstein
believed that the White House
would prove to be involved in the
Watergate scandal.

The Scandal Unfolds


Chapter 25, Section 3

The Senate Investigates


Aided by Woodward and
Bernstein and by the testimony of
one of the Watergate burglars, a
Senate Select Committee on
Presidential Campaign Activities
began to investigate the
Watergate affair.
Millions of Americans watched
the Senate hearings unfold on
national television.
Nixon attempted to protect
himself by forcing two top aides
to resign and by proclaiming that
he would take final responsibility
for the mistakes of others.

A Secret Taping System


During the Senate hearings,
Alexander Butterfield, a former
presidential assistant, revealed
the existence of a secret taping
system in the Presidents office.
The taping system had been set
up to provide a historical record
of Nixons presidency. Now it
could be used to show whether or
not Nixon had been involved in
the Watergate coverup.

The Saturday Night Massacre


Chapter 25, Section 3

In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May 1973


Nixon agreed to the appointment of a special
prosecutor for the Watergate affair. A special
prosecutor works for the Justice Department and
conducts an investigation into claims of wrongdoing
by government officials.
The Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox,
insisted that Nixon release the White House tapes.
Nixon ordered him fired on Saturday, October 20,
1973, beginning a series of resignations and firings
that became known as the Saturday Night Massacre.

An Administration in Jeopardy
Chapter 25, Section 3

Problems in the Nixon Administration, 19731974


Nixons public approval rating plummeted after his firing of
Cox.
When Coxs replacement, Leon Jaworski, also requested
that Nixon turn over the tapes, Nixon turned over edited
transcripts instead. Feelings of anger and disillusionment
arose among many who read them.
Vice President Spiro Agnew, accused of evading income
taxes and taking bribes, resigned in early October 1973.
His successor, Gerald Ford, was not confirmed until two
months later.

Impeachment Hearings and Nixons


Resignation
Chapter 25, Section 3

After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began the


process of determining if they should impeach the
President, or charge him with misconduct while in office.
In the summer of 1974, the House Judiciary Committee
voted to impeach Nixon on numerous charges. Conviction,
and removal from office, seemed likely.
On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the White House tapes,
with an 18 1/2 minute gap. Even with this gap, the tapes
revealed his involvement in the Watergate coverup. On
August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned, the first President ever to
do so. Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new President.

The Watergate ScandalAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 3

Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the President break into the
Watergate apartment complex in 1972?
(A) To cover up an increasing scandal
(B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
(C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
(D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National Committee
Which statement best describes Nixons role in the Watergate affair?
(A) He was involved in the break-in but not the coverup.
(B) He was involved in the coverup but not the break-in.
(C) He was involved in both the break-in and the coverup.
(D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor the coverup.

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The Watergate ScandalAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 3

Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the President break into the
Watergate apartment complex in 1972?
(A) To cover up an increasing scandal
(B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
(C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
(D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National Committee
Which statement best describes Nixons role in the Watergate affair?
(A) He was involved in the break-in but not the coverup.
(B) He was involved in the coverup but not the break-in.
(C) He was involved in both the break-in and the coverup.
(D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor the coverup.

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The Ford Administration


Chapter 25, Section 4

How did Gerald Ford become President, and why did


he pardon Richard Nixon?
What economic problems did the Ford administration
face?
What actions in foreign policy did President Ford take
during his term?
How did Americans celebrate the nations
bicentennial?

Ford Becomes President


Chapter 25, Section 4

When Gerald Ford took over the Presidency following


Nixons resignation, he was viewed as a popular and
noncontroversial political figure.
Ford named New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller
as Vice President, rounding off an administration in
which neither the President nor the Vice President had
been elected.

The Nixon Pardon


Chapter 25, Section 4

At the beginning of Fords presidency, Time magazine


noted a mood of good feeling and even exhilaration
in Washington. However, this was soon to change.
A month after Nixons resignation, Ford pardoned the
former President for all offenses he might have
committed, avoiding future prosecution. This
decision proved to be unpopular, both among the
general public and among Nixon loyalists still facing
prosecution. As a result, many Republicans were
voted out of office in the 1974 congressional
elections.

Economic Problems
Chapter 25, Section 4

The Economy Stalls


Preoccupation with Watergate
had prevented Nixon from dealing
with the economy. By 1974, both
inflation and unemployment were
rising, making the economy
stagnant. Economists named
this situation stagflation.
Although Ford tried to restore
public confidence in the economy
with the voluntary Whip Inflation
Now, or WIN program, he later
recognized the need for more
direct action.

Government Spending and Conflicts


With Congress
Although Ford was generally
against government spending,
he supported an increase in
unemployment benefits and a tax
cut in an effort to help the
economy.
Ford was often at odds with the
Democratic-controlled Congress,
which wanted the government to
take a more active role in the
economy. In response to Fords
vetoes, Congress created the
highest percentage of veto
overrides since the 1850s.

Foreign PolicySoutheast Asia


Chapter 25, Section 4

When North Vietnam began a new offensive against the South in


the spring of 1975, Ford asked for military aid to help South
Vietnam. However, both Congress and the American people were
against further involvement in Vietnam.
To prevent such involvement, Congress was prepared the invoke
the War Powers Act, a Nixon-era law limiting the Presidents
ability to involve the United States in foreign conflicts without
receiving a formal declaration of war from Congress.
When Communist Cambodia captured the American merchant
ship Mayaguez, Ford sent the marines to recapture the ship.
Forty-one American lives were lost in the effort, but the incident
dispelled impressions of American weakness in Southeast Asia.

Foreign Policy - Asia, Europe, and Africa


Chapter 25, Section 4

Asia Ford continued Nixons goals of friendship


with China and was the first American President to
visit Japan.
Europe and the Soviet Union In 1975, Ford signed
the Helsinki Accords, a series of agreements on
European security. He also continued Strategic Arms
Limitation Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union.
Africa Fords administration aimed to develop
relationships with African countries newly
independent from colonial rule.

The Nations Birthday


Chapter 25, Section 4

Americas bicentennial, or 200th anniversary,


provided Americans, discouraged by Watergate,
Vietnam, and the economy, an opportunity to
celebrate.
Parades, concerts, air shows, political speeches, and
fireworks took place on and around July 4, 1976, the
200th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of
Independence.

The Ford AdministrationAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 4

Why did Fords popularity fall soon after his term began?
(A) Americans did not like having a non-elected President.
(B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
(C) His WIN program became highly effective.
(D) He began to develop ties with newly-independent nations.
Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford and Congress disagreed?
(A) The level of government spending on economic programs
(B) Celebration of the bicentennial
(C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
(D) The recapture of the Mayaguez

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The Ford AdministrationAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 4

Why did Fords popularity fall soon after his term began?
(A) Americans did not like having a non-elected President.
(B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
(C) His WIN program became highly effective.
(D) He began to develop ties with newly-independent nations.
Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford and Congress disagreed?
(A) The level of government spending on economic programs
(B) Celebration of the bicentennial
(C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
(D) The recapture of the Mayaguez

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America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 2
Who are the Americans

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

Women Fight for Equality


Chapter 25, Section 5

What changes did women see from the 1960s?


How did feminist groups view different policies?
What legislation did women achieve?
Where did the movement turn after the 1970s?

Impact of the 60s


Demands of NOW
Fair pay
Equal job opportuni:es
A<acked marke:ng campaigns they considered portrayed
a false image of women
Balanced marriage where paren:ng and household chores
were shared
ACer four years the organiza:on had over 15,000 members

Response to NOW & Impact of Feminism

Some women felt it was too extreme


Others believed it only favored white, middle class women
S:ll others considered the organiza:on too so= in its ac:ons
Opened availability of knowledge to women
Our Bodies, Ourselves
Handbook for womens health issues sold 200,000 in rst year of
publica:on
12th edi:on published in 2005 and has sold over 3 million copies
Today has expanded to work with women in third world countries to
bring about health care change
Ms. Magazine
Founded by Gloria Steinem
First issue in 1972 sold out in eight days
Sharp contrast to tradi:onal womens magazines such as Good
Housekeeping and Ladies Home Journal

Carters Presidency
Chapter 25, Section 5

1972 Higher Educa:on Act

Included a prohibi:on against admissions


discrimina:on based on gender

Assisted women in gaining admission to military academies


and increased the number of women entering jobs in the
elds of business, law and medicine

Na:onal Womens Poli:cal Caucus

Formed to expand womens par:cipa:on in poli:cs


Helped Shirley Chisholm
The rst African American women elected to Congress
Ran for Democra:c presiden:al nomina:on in 1972

Paved the way for Geraldine Ferraro to be selected as


Democra:c presiden:al candidate Walter Mondales
running mate in 1984

Roe v. Wade
Feminist support of womans right to an abortion is
controversial
Roe v. Wade: women have right to an abortion in first trimester

Abor:on was a divisive issue among NOW members


1973 Supreme Court ruled
Abor:on was legal based on the cons:tu:onal right to
privacy
Struck down state laws banning abor:on in the rst three
months of pregnancy
Allowed states to regulate abor:on a=er three months
Most controversial Supreme Court ruling to date

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)


1972 Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Phyllis Schlafly with religious, political groups launch Stop-ERA
Some think it will lead to drafting women, end of child
support

The New Right Emerges


Conservatives build pro-family movement, later called
New Right
Focus on social, cultural, moral problems; build grassroots
support
Debate family-centered issues with feminists

The Movement Changes Society


ERA defeated; only gets 35 of 38 states for ratification by
1982
Womens movement changes roles, attitudes toward
career, family
Education, career opportunities expand

- many women run into glass ceiling


1983, women hold 13.5% elected state offices, 24 seats in
Congress

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 3
Economic and Social Change

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The Carter Administration


Chapter 25, Section 5

What changes did Jimmy Carter bring to the


presidency?
How did Carter deal with domestic issues?
What ideals guided Carters foreign policy?
What factors influenced the outcome of the 1980
election?

Carters Presidency
Chapter 25, Section 5

Although Gerald Ford had the advantage of being the


incumbent, or current office holder, he faced strong
opposition from Republicans inside his own party
during the 1976 presidential election. Democrat
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter won the election by a
narrow margin.
Carter had no national political experience and lacked
an ability to win reluctant politicians over to his side.
Nevertheless, he was well-liked for his informal
approach to the presidency.
As President, Carter appointed more women and
minorities to his staff than previous administrations.

Carters Domestic PoliciesEconomic Issues


and Deregulation
Chapter 25, Section 5

Economic Issues
Carter had inherited an
unstable economy in which
inflation and unemployment
continued to grow.
In response, Carter cut
federal spending, mostly on
social programs. This cut
angered liberal Democrats.
As bond prices fell and
interest rates rose, Americans
lost confidence in Carter and
his economic advisors.

Deregulation
Carter felt that government
controls on certain industries,
put in place in the 1800s and
early 1900s, hurt competition
and increased consumer
costs.
His move toward
deregulation, the reduction or
removal of government
controls, affected the energy,
railroad, trucking, and airline
industries. This move, which
continued during the next two
administrations, also angered
many Democrats.

Energy Issues
Chapter 25, Section 5

Energy Issues During Carters Presidency


Carters Energy Plan To save on rising oil prices, Carter asked
Americans to conserve fuel in their homes, cars, and businesses. He
also created a new Cabinet department, the Department of Energy.
Response to Carters Energy Plan States that produced oil and
gas fiercely opposed Carters conservation plans. The National Energy
Act, passed in 1978, incorporated many of Carters directives.
Alternative Energy Sources and Three Mile Island One of
Carters goals was to seek alternative energy sources. A partial
meltdown of a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania, eroded peoples confidence in nuclear power.

Civil Rights Issues


Chapter 25, Section 5

Carters concern for moral values influenced his civil rights


actions. Soon after taking office, he granted amnesty, or a general
pardon, to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam
War.
Many of Carters staff appointments won the approval of African
Americans. However, many African Americans were disappointed
by his weak support for social programs.
Affirmative action policies, which aimed to make up for past
discrimination against women and minorities, were a controversial
issue during Carters presidency. In the landmark case Regents
of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled
that race could be a factor in school admissions but that
numerical quotas could not be used.

Carters Foreign Policy


Chapter 25, Section 5

Camp David Accords


In 1978, Carter brought Egyptian
President Anwar el-Sadat and
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem
Begin together for negotiations at
Camp David.
The resulting framework for
Middle East peace, known as the
Camp David Accords, was an
important step toward peace in
the Middle East. Under its terms,
Israel agreed to withdraw from
the Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt
became the first Arab country to
recognize Israel officially.

Soviet-American Relations
Although dtente was at a high
point when Carter took office, by
the end of his term it was
effectively dead.
Soviets were angered by Carters
support of Soviet dissidents,
writers and other activists who
criticized the actions of their
government.
Although a second round of
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT II) was begun, the resulting
treaty was never ratified. Still,
both nations followed its terms.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan


Chapter 25, Section 5

Late in 1979, the Soviet Union invaded neighboring


Afghanistan to bolster a Soviet-supported government
there. Carter called the invasion a clear threat to the
peace and took steps to show American disapproval
of the Soviet aggression.
As one of these steps, Carter imposed a boycott on
the 1980 summer Olympic Games to be held in
Moscow. Sixty other nations eventually joined the
boycott.

The Iran Hostage Crisis


Chapter 25, Section 5

In January 1979, revolution broke out in Iran, replacing its


pro-American shah, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlevi, with
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, an anti-Western leader.
When Carter allowed the displaced shah to enter the United
States for medical treatment, angry Khomeini followers
seized the American embassy in Tehran, Irans capital.
Fifty-two Americans were taken hostage and moved from
place to place over the course of 444 days, being called the
Iran Hostage Crisis.
Carters failed attempts to secure the hostages freedom
decreased his popularity and made his chances for
reelection appear slim.

The 1980 Election


Chapter 25, Section 5

By the end of Carters term, his administration had


lost the confidence of many Americans. Although
Carter ran for reelection, the nation instead chose
conservative Republican candidate Ronald Reagan by
a landslide.
In early 1981, following months of secret talks, Iran
agreed to release the hostages. President Reagan
sent Carter to greet the hostages as they arrived at a
U.S. military base in West Germany.

The Carter AdministrationAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 5

Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?


(A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
(B) He believed that deregulation would improve affirmative action.
(C) He felt that government controls raised consumer costs.
(D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
Which of the following marked an end to American-Soviet dtente?
(A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
(B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the resulting widespread
boycott of the Olympic Games
(C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy in Tehran
(D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty

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The Carter AdministrationAssessment


Chapter 25, Section 5

Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?


(A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
(B) He believed that deregulation would improve affirmative action.
(C) He felt that government controls raised consumer costs.
(D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
Which of the following marked an end to American-Soviet dtente?
(A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
(B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the resulting widespread
boycott of the Olympic Games
(C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy in Tehran
(D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty

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America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 4
The U.S.A. and the World

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The End of the War


Chapter 24, Section 4

How did President Nixons policies lead to American


withdrawal from Vietnam?
Why did President Nixon lead a campaign promising
to restore law and order?
What happened in Vietnam after the withdrawal of
American forces?
What was the legacy of the Vietnam War?

Nixons Vietnam Policy


Chapter 24, Section 4

Toward the end of his term as President, Johnson had called for
peace negotiations to end the Vietnam War. However, the
resulting Paris peace talks, which began in May 1968, failed to
produce an agreement.
President Nixon campaigned on the claim that he had a secret
plan to end the war. In June 1969, he began the policy of
Vietnamization, replacing American troops in Vietnam with South
Vietnamese soldiers.
Although Nixon wanted to end the war, he did not want to lose it.
He therefore launched secret bombing raids and expanded the
war to Cambodia, hoping to destroy Viet Cong camps there.
Nixon hoped his Cambodian attacks would help America in peace
negotiations. Instead, the attacks resulted in both civil war in
Cambodia and more antiwar protests in the United States.

Nixon Calls for Law and Order


Chapter 24, Section 4

The Silent Majority


Nixon had campaigned promising
a return to law and order. As
President, he strengthened this
position, discouraging protest
against the war.
In a 1969 speech, Nixon appealed
to those who, he felt, quietly
supported his policies. He
referred to this group of
Americans as the silent
majority.

Kent State and Jackson State


When student antiwar protesters
at Kent State University in Ohio
reacted angrily to Nixons
invasion of Cambodia, Nixon
ordered the National Guard to
Kent State. After students threw
rocks at the guardsmen, the
troops opened fire, killing and
wounding both protesters and
bystanders.
The violence at Kent State, and a
similar incident at Jackson State
in Mississippi, horrified
Americans.

American Withdrawal
Chapter 24, Section 4

Provisions of Peace Settlement Between the United States, South


Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong,Signed in Paris in
January 1973
The United States would withdraw all its forces from South
Vietnam within 60 days.
All prisoners of war would be released.
All parties to the agreement would end military activities in Laos
and Cambodia.
The 17th parallel would continue to divide North and South
Vietnam until the country could be reunited.

Aftermath of the War in Asia


Chapter 24, Section 4

South Vietnam Falls


After American forces had
withdrawn, North Vietnam
attacked strategic cities in South
Vietnam, ending with its capital,
Saigon.
Following a last-minute
evacuation of both American
soldiers and Vietnamese
refugees, South Vietnam
surrendered in April 1975, and
Vietnam became unified under a
Communist government.

Southeast Asia After the War


In April 1975, Cambodia fell to the
Khmer Rouge, a Communist force
led by Pol Pot. The Khmer Rouge
killed a quarter of the Cambodian
population, claiming they were
tainted with Western ways.
Vietnams new leaders forced
hundreds of thousands of
Vietnamese into reeducation
camps; refugees from Vietnam,
Cambodia, and newly Communist
Laos fled their home countries.

The Legacy of the War


Chapter 24, Section 4

With a cost of at least $150 billion, and hundreds of thousands of


American soldiers killed or wounded, the Vietnam War was the
longest and least successful war in American history.
Thousands of American soldiers who did not return home after
the war were listed as POWs (prisoners of war) or MIAs (missing
in action). Many remain unaccounted for today.
In Vietnam, millions were dead or wounded, many of them
civilians. The war also heavily damaged the landscape of
Vietnam.
In 1994, the United States lifted its trade embargo against
Vietnam; in 1995, full diplomatic relations were restored.

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial


Chapter 24, Section 4

Designed by 21-year old Maya Ying Lin and completed


in 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial stands near
the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. It consists
of a long wall of black granite, listing the names of
every American who died in the Vietnam War. Since
its completion, visitors have added to the memorial by
leaving personal tokens at the wall in memory of their
loved ones.

The End of the WarAssessment


Chapter 24, Section 4

Which of these options best describes Vietnamization?


(A) American attacks on Viet Cong camps in Cambodia
(B) The takeover of Saigon by North Vietnam
(C) Nixons policy of replacing American troops with South Vietnamese
soldiers
(D) The redivision of Vietnam at the 17th parallel
Why did many Southeast Asians flee their countries after the Vietnam War?
(A) To make up for American POWs
(B) To aid in student protests
(C) To escape new and sometimes brutal Communist governments
(D) To contribute to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

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The End of the WarAssessment


Chapter 24, Section 4

Which of these options best describes Vietnamization?


(A) American attacks on Viet Cong camps in Cambodia
(B) The takeover of Saigon by North Vietnam
(C) Nixons policy of replacing American troops with South Vietnamese
soldiers
(D) The redivision of Vietnam at the 17th parallel
Why did many Southeast Asians flee their countries after the Vietnam War?
(A) To make up for American POWs
(B) To aid in student protests
(C) To escape new and sometimes brutal Communist governments
(D) To contribute to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

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