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# Electrical Energy and Current

## What do you think?

The term resistance is often used
when describing components of
electric circuits.
What behavior of the components
does this term describe?
Do conductors have resistance?
If so, are all conductors the same?
Explain.

## What effect would increasing or

decreasing the resistance in a
circuit have on the circuit?
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Section 3

## Electrical Energy and Current

Electric Current
Electric current (I) is rate at which
charges flow through an area.
SI unit: coulombs/second (C/s) or
amperes (A)
1 A = 6.25 1018 electrons/second

Section 3

## Electrical Energy and Current

Conventional Current
Conventional current (I) is
defined as the flow of
positive charge.
The flow of negative charge
as shown would be
equivalent to an equal
amount of positive charge in
the opposite direction.

In conducting wires, I is
opposite the direction of
electron flow.

Section 3

## Electrical Energy and Current

Section 3

Resistance to Current
Resistance is opposition to the flow of charge.
SI unit: volts/ampere (V/A) or ohms ()

Ohms Law : V = IR
Valid only for certain materials whose resistance is constant over
a wide range of potential differences
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Section 3

## Classroom Practice Problems

A typical 100 W light bulb has a current of
0.83 A.
How much charge flows through the bulb filament in
1.0 h? Answers: 3.0 103 C

## This same 100 watt bulb is connected across a 120 V

potential difference. Find the resistance of the bulb.

Section 4

## What do you think?

Hair dryers, microwaves, stereos, and other
appliances use electric power when plugged into
What is electric power?
Is electric power the same as the power discussed in the
chapter Work and Energy?

## Do the utility companies bill your household for power,

current, potential difference, energy, or something
else?
What do you think is meant by the terms alternating
current (AC) and direct current (DC)?
Which do you have in your home?
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

## Types of Current - Direct

Batteries use chemical energy to give electrons
potential energy.
Chemical energy is eventually depleted.

## Electrons always flow in one direction.

Called direct current (DC)

Section 4

## Types of Current - Alternating

Generators change
mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Falling water or moving steam

## Electrons vibrate back and

forth.
Terminals switch signs 60 times
per second (60 Hz).
Called alternating current (AC)
AC is better for transferring

Section 4

Section 4

Electric Power

## Power is the rate of energy consumption (PE/t ). For electric

power, this is equivalent to the equation shown below.
SI unit: joules/second (J/S) or watts (W)
Current (I) is measured in amperes (C/s).
Potential difference (V) is measured in volts (J/C).

## Substitute using Ohms law (V = IR) to write two other equations

for electric power.

Section 4

## Classroom Practice Problems

A toaster is connected across a 120 V kitchen
outlet. The power rating of the toaster is 925 W.
What current flows through the toaster?
What is the resistance of the toaster?
How much energy is consumed in 75.0 s?

## Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

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Section 4

## 1. How long does it take 5.0 C of charge to pass

through a cross section of a copper wire if I = 5.0 A?

A. 0.20 s
B. 1.0 s
C. 5.0 s
D. 25 s

Section 4

## 2. A potential difference of 12 V produces a current

of 0.40 A in a piece of copper wire. What is the
resistance of the wire?

A. 4.8
B. 12
C. 30
D. 36

Section 4

## 3. How much power is needed to operate a radio that

draws 7.0 A of current when a potential difference of
115 V is applied across it?

A. 6.1 10-2 W
B. 2.3 100 W
C. 1.6 101 W
D. 8.0 102 W

Section 4

## 4. How many joules of energy are dissipated by a

50.0 W light bulb in 2.00 s?

A. 25.0 J
B. 50.0 J
C. 100 J
D. 200 J

Section 4

## 5. How much current runs through a circuit that has

one 9volt battery with a 10 ohm load?

A. 90A
B. 9.0A
C. 0.9A
D. What?

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35-40?