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Electrical Energy and Current

What do you think?


The term resistance is often used
when describing components of
electric circuits.
What behavior of the components
does this term describe?
Do conductors have resistance?
If so, are all conductors the same?
Explain.

What effect would increasing or


decreasing the resistance in a
circuit have on the circuit?
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Section 3

Electrical Energy and Current

Electric Current
Electric current (I) is rate at which
charges flow through an area.
SI unit: coulombs/second (C/s) or
amperes (A)
1 A = 6.25 1018 electrons/second

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Section 3

Electrical Energy and Current

Conventional Current
Conventional current (I) is
defined as the flow of
positive charge.
The flow of negative charge
as shown would be
equivalent to an equal
amount of positive charge in
the opposite direction.

In conducting wires, I is
opposite the direction of
electron flow.

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Section 3

Electrical Energy and Current

Section 3

Resistance to Current
Resistance is opposition to the flow of charge.
SI unit: volts/ampere (V/A) or ohms ()

Ohms Law : V = IR
Valid only for certain materials whose resistance is constant over
a wide range of potential differences
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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 3

Classroom Practice Problems


A typical 100 W light bulb has a current of
0.83 A.
How much charge flows through the bulb filament in
1.0 h? Answers: 3.0 103 C

This same 100 watt bulb is connected across a 120 V


potential difference. Find the resistance of the bulb.
Answer: 1.4 102

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

What do you think?


Hair dryers, microwaves, stereos, and other
appliances use electric power when plugged into
your outlets.
What is electric power?
Is electric power the same as the power discussed in the
chapter Work and Energy?

Do the utility companies bill your household for power,


current, potential difference, energy, or something
else?
What do you think is meant by the terms alternating
current (AC) and direct current (DC)?
Which do you have in your home?
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Electrical Energy and Current

Types of Current - Direct


Batteries use chemical energy to give electrons
potential energy.
Chemical energy is eventually depleted.

Electrons always flow in one direction.


Called direct current (DC)

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Section 4

Electrical Energy and Current

Types of Current - Alternating


Generators change
mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Falling water or moving steam

Electrons vibrate back and


forth.
Terminals switch signs 60 times
per second (60 Hz).
Called alternating current (AC)
AC is better for transferring
electrical energy to your home.

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Section 4

Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

Electric Power

Power is the rate of energy consumption (PE/t ). For electric


power, this is equivalent to the equation shown below.
SI unit: joules/second (J/S) or watts (W)
Current (I) is measured in amperes (C/s).
Potential difference (V) is measured in volts (J/C).

Substitute using Ohms law (V = IR) to write two other equations


for electric power.

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

Classroom Practice Problems


A toaster is connected across a 120 V kitchen
outlet. The power rating of the toaster is 925 W.
What current flows through the toaster?
What is the resistance of the toaster?
How much energy is consumed in 75.0 s?

Answers: 7.7 A, 16 , 6.94 104 J

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=d_5CWIYUoqk&index=91&list=PLS3iL7hsj4D
Ft_wwrpLd9HNK3Zg7zQhHt
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=XoHxAAnIOaw&list=PLS3iL7hsj4DFt_wwrpLd
9HNK3Zg7zQhHt&index=92
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=yRirbKxnYc0&list=PLS3iL7hsj4DFt_wwrpLd9
HNK3Zg7zQhHt&index=93

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

1. How long does it take 5.0 C of charge to pass


through a cross section of a copper wire if I = 5.0 A?

A. 0.20 s
B. 1.0 s
C. 5.0 s
D. 25 s

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

2. A potential difference of 12 V produces a current


of 0.40 A in a piece of copper wire. What is the
resistance of the wire?

A. 4.8
B. 12
C. 30
D. 36

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

3. How much power is needed to operate a radio that


draws 7.0 A of current when a potential difference of
115 V is applied across it?

A. 6.1 10-2 W
B. 2.3 100 W
C. 1.6 101 W
D. 8.0 102 W

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

4. How many joules of energy are dissipated by a


50.0 W light bulb in 2.00 s?

A. 25.0 J
B. 50.0 J
C. 100 J
D. 200 J

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Electrical Energy and Current

Section 4

5. How much current runs through a circuit that has


one 9volt battery with a 10 ohm load?

A. 90A
B. 9.0A
C. 0.9A
D. What?

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Electrical Energy and Current

Work on what you need to work on

Did you finish the Gizmo lab?


Pages 11-17?
Pages 26-29?
35-40?
What about the concept questions?

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Section 4