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Problem 1
Firstly, we must change the host IP address to a binary number. I will show you the way to
change it below. It is the easy way.
Change 172 to binary number
We must multiply number 2 until it reach the number 128.
20 = 1
21 = 2
23 = 4
24 = 8
25 = 16
26 = 32
27 = 64
28 = 128
Then do 8 columns to represent the coloured number.
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

When we change 172 to binary number, we must subtract the 172 using
the coloured number until the last answer is 0.

172
- 128
44
- 32
12
- 8
4
- 4
0

## If you used the coloured number in the box when you

subtract, you write number 1. But if you dont use the
coloured number, you write number 0.
And the final answer is 10101100
You just repeat this step to the next decimal number to
change it into binary number.
10101100.00011110.00000001.00100001
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

## 2. DETERMINE THE NETWORK ADDRESS

Arrange the binary notation of the IP address and the binary notation of the network mask
like the following below

172 .
30 .
0
.
0
(Network address from binary to decimal)

NOTES:
First method
1 AND 1 RESULTS IN A 1, 0
AND ANYTHING RESULTS IN
A0
Second method
1 MULTIPLE BY 1 THE
ANSWER IS 1, AND IF 1
MULTIPLE BY 0

## TO EASILY REMEMBER FOR THE NETWORK ADDRESS:

The IP address number and the subnet mask number will be performed as a bit-wise. So, all
number is equal to 0 (zero) except 1 1.

The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. The
arrangement is same. It is bit-wise like below

10101100.00011110.00000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
= 10101100.00011110.11111111.11111111
172 . 30 . 255 . 255

to decimal)

NOTES:
First method
1 AND 1 RESULTS IN A 1, 0
AND 0 RESULTS IN A 1
Second method
IF THE SAME NUMBER IT
WILL BE 1, THE DIFFERENT
NUMBER WILL BE 0

The network address number and the subnet mask number will be performed as a bit-wise.
So, all number is equal to 0 (zero) except the same number.

## 4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST

By counting the number of host bits, we can determine the total number of usable hosts for
this network.
HOST BITS IS THE NUMBER ZERO IN
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

Host bits = a
2a = b
Example:
Host bits = 16
216 = 65 536
= 65 536 2
= 65 534#

## Add this information to the table:

Total Number of Host Bits
Number of Hosts

172.30.1.33
255.255.0.0
172.30.0.0
172.30.255.255
16
65534

Problem 2
172.30.1.33 = 10101100.00011110.00000001.00100001
255.255.255.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
172 .
30 .
1
.
0
(Network address from binary to decimal)

10101100.00011110.00000001.00000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
= 10101100.00011110.00000001.11111111
172 . 30 .
1
. 255

to decimal)

## 4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST

Host bits = 8
28 = 250
= 256 2
= 254#
Total Number of Host Bits
Number of Hosts

172.30.1.33
255.255.255.0
172.30.1.0
172.30.1.255
8
254

Problem 3
192.168.10.234 = 11000000.10101000.00001010.11101010
255.255.255.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
192 .
168 .
10
.
0
(Network address from binary to decimal)

11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
= 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111
192 . 168 .
10
. 255

to decimal)

## 4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST

Host bits = 8
28 = 250
= 256 2
= 254#
Total Number of Host Bits
Number of Hosts

192.168.10.234
255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0
192.168.10.255
8
254

Problem 4
172.17.99.71 = 10101100.00010001.01100011.01000111
255.255.0.0 = 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
172 .
17 .
0
.
0
(Network address from binary to decimal)

10101100.00010001.00000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
= 10101100.00010001.11111111.11111111
172 . 17 .
255
. 255

to decimal)

## 4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST

Host bits = 16
216 = 65536
= 65536 2
= 65534#
Total Number of Host Bits
Number of Hosts

172.17.99.71
255.255.0.0
172.17.0.0
172.17.255.255
16
65534

Problem 5
192.168.3.219 = 11000000.10101000.00000011.11011011
255.255.0.0 = 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
192 .
168 .
0
.
0
(Network address from binary to decimal)

11000000.10101000.00000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
= 11000000.10101000.11111111.11111111
192 . 168 .
255
. 255

to decimal)

## 4. DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF HOST

Host bits = 16
216 = 65536
= 65536 2
= 65534#
Total Number of Host Bits
Number of Hosts

192.168.3.219
255.255.0.0
192.168.0.0
192.168.255.255
16
65534

Problem 6
192.168.3.219 = 11000000.10101000.00000011.11011011
255.255.255.224 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
192 .
168 .
3
.
192
(Network address from binary to decimal)

11000000.10101000.00000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
= 11000000.10101000.00000011.11011111
192 . 168 .
3
. 223

to decimal)

Host bits = 5
25 = 32
= 32 2
= 30#