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second edition

PIPE DESIGN HANDBOOK

For Use With


Special Hazard
Fire Suppression
Systems

FSSA PDH-01

PIPE DESIGN HANDBOOK


For Use With
SPECIAL HAZARD
FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
Second Edition
August 2003

Fire Suppression Systems Association


5024-R Campbell Boulevard
Baltimore, Maryland 21236-5974
Phone: (410) 931-8100
Fax: (410) 931-8111
www.fssa.net

2003 by the Fire Suppression Systems Association. All Rights Reserved. No part of this
book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic or mechanical
means, including photocopy, xerography, recording, or by use of any information or storage
and retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

Table of Contents
SECTION
Forward, Introduction & Definitions

Design Criteria

Pipe Pressure Tables

Pipe & Fittings- Rated Working Pressure

Special Requirements for Closed Sections of Piping

Pipe Supports and Hangers

Appendix A:

Pipe Requirements for FSSA Equipment Manufacturers


Engineered Systems

Appendix B:

Pipe Fittings for use in CLEAN AGENT SYSTEM


Piping

Appendix C:

References

Page 1 of 1

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

FORWARD

The Fire Suppression Systems Association (FSSA) has developed this handbook to provide
guidance to system designers on how to apply the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code in a uniform
and consistent manner, in order to determine the maximum allowable internal working pressure
for piping used in special hazard fire suppression systems.
The FSSA Technical Committee was assigned the task to address this issue. The resulting
document provides the necessary guidelines, along with supplemental information, to assist the
system designer in complying with the requirements specified in the applicable NFPA Standards
related to the Power Piping Code. This handbook is currently referenced in several of the NFPA
standards.
The first edition of this document was published in June 2001.
The second edition of the handbook was published in August 2003, and includes revisions to
Section 3, Appendix A, and Appendix C; along with the addition of new Section 6 and new
Appendix B.

CAUTION
This document provides general guidelines and is not intended to provide all information
necessary to determine equipment and material requirements for specific installations or
applications. Always refer to the equipment manufacturers instructions and recommendations,
along with other regulations and NFPA Standards that may apply.
Some limitations and restrictions apply. Please refer to the text and notes, which follow.
This document is subject to modifications. Users should obtain the latest version. The
Association, its members, and those participating in its activities accept no responsibility or
liability to any one for the completeness or use of, or reliance on this document, or for
compliance with the provisions herein.

Section 1 / Page 1 of 3

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

1.0 INTRODUCTION
This document provides general information and guidelines on the design of piping and tubing
systems for use with all types of special hazard fire suppression systems, where the ASME
B31.1 Power Piping Code is specified. This Guide follows the general design parameters of the
Power Piping Code, but has been modified similar to the accepted formats found in NFPA-12A
and NFPA-2001.
An expanded list of pressure Tables are found in Section 3. These Tables provide the system
designer with maximum allowable internal working pressures that have been pre-calculated for
various types of pipe and tubing materials and end connections.
In all cases, the pipe and fittings shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to or
greater than the minimum piping design working pressure specified in Appendix A of this
document, for the agent being used.

1.1 DEFINITIONS
Some terms used in this document, related to pipe and tubing and supports / hangers are
defined below.

Brazing:
A metal joining process where fusion is produced by use of a nonferrous filler metal having a
melting point above 800oF (425oC) but lower than that of the base metals used. The filler metal
is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary action.

Butt Joint:
A joint between two members lying approximately in the same plane.

Filler Metal:
Metal that is added during welding, soldering, or brazing.

Full Fillet Weld:


A fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner member joined.

Maximum Allowable Stress (SE):


The maximum stress value that may be used in the design formulas for a given material and
design temperature. These valves are given in the Tables in Appendix A of the Power Piping
Code, and in Table 2-1 of this document; and include the longitudinal seam joint efficiency
factors.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure:


The pressure at a coincident temperature to which the piping can be subjected without
exceeding the maximum allowable stress.

Section 1 / Page 2 of 3

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FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

Nominal Thickness:
The thickness given in the product material specification or standard, exclusive of
manufacturing tolerances.

Pipe and Tube:


The fundamental difference between pipe and tube is the dimensional standard to which each is
manufactured. For use in this document both have a round cross section.
A pipe is a tube of round cross section conforming to the dimensional requirements for
nominal pipe size as tabulated in ANSI B36.10.
A tube is a hollow product of round cross section that may be specified with respect to
any two, but not all three of the following: outside diameter, inside diameter, and wall
thickness. (Types K, L, and M copper tube may also be specified by nominal size and
type only).

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tubing (ERW):


Pipe or tubing having a longitudinal butt joint where fusion is produced by the heat obtained
from resistance to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the pipe/tubing is a part, and
by the application of pressure.

Furnace Butt Welded Pipe:


Pipe having its longitudinal butt joint forge welded by mechanical pressure developed in drawing
the furnace heated metal through a cone shaped die which serves as a combined forming and
welding die.

Electric Fusion Welded Pipe:


Pipe having a longitudinal butt joint where fusion is produced in the preformed metal by manual
or automatic arc welding. The weld may be made with or without the use of filler metal.

Seamless Pipe:
Pipe produced by several methods that result in a round pipe that does not have a longitudinal
seam.

Soldering:
A metal joining process where fusion is produced by heating to a suitable temperature and by
using a nonferrous alloy that melts at temperatures below 800oF (425oC) and having a melting
point below that of the base metals being used.

Rigid Support:
The method of securing pipe or tubing to walls, ceiling structures or columns to prevent
movement in any direction.

Intermediate Support:
The method of supporting piping or tubing to counter the force of gravity. The supports are
normally located between rigid supports, but are not intended to counter longitudinal or lateral
sway, or as bracing against thrusts associated with changes in direction.

Section 1 / Page 3 of 3

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA


All calculations to determine the maximum allowable working pressure for various types of pipe
and tubing, shall be based on the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code, 1998 edition, (including
B31.1a 1999 Addenda; & B31.1b 2000 Addenda); and as modified herein for use in all types of
special hazard fire suppression systems:
The criteria specified follows the basic format found in NFPA-12A and NFPA-2001, and covers
pressure-temperature ratings for allowable stress, longitudinal joint efficiencies, end connection
factors, and other allowances and limitations used in the design of actuation and distribution
system piping.

2.1 Limitations established for pipe and tubing, used in special hazard fire suppression
systems, are set by:
(Note: Where the word pipe is used it is understood to also mean tubing).
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

Maximum pressure expected in the pipe, or as specified in the applicable NFPA


Standard.
Materials of construction of the pipe, tensile strength, yield strength, and temperature
limitations of the material.
End connection joining methods, (e.g. threaded, welded, grooved, etc.).
Pipe construction method, (e.g. seamless, ERW, furnace welded, etc.).
Pipe diameter.
Pipe wall thickness.
Cast iron pipe, steel pipe conforming to ASTM A-120, aluminum pipe, or non-metallic
pipe, shall not be used.

2.2 The calculations are based on the following:


(a)
(b)

The appropriate maximum allowable stress value (SE) shall be taken from Appendix
A of the Power Piping Code (PPC).
The SE values taken from Appendix A of the Power Piping Code shall be based on a
temperature of not less than +130oF for the material being used.

Note: 130oF designation is based on the maximum operating temperature of most


listed/approved fire suppression systems.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

For piping, the calculations cover threaded, welded, brazed, rolled and cut groove,
end connections.
For tubing, the calculations cover using compression or flare fittings; or welded,
brazed, or soldered end connections.
Materials covered in the calculations include steel pipe and tubing, stainless steel
pipe and tubing, and copper tubing.
Other metallic pipe and tubing can be used, provided that the appropriate SE values,
wall thickness, and end connection factors are substituted.

Section 2 / Page 1 of 5

FSSA PDH-01
2.3

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

DESIGN CALCULATIONS
The basic equation to be used to calculate the maximum allowable working pressure for
piping/tubing subject to internal pressure is:

P = 2SE (t-A)/D

EQ #1

Where:
t = nominal wall thickness (inches)
D = outside diameter of pipe or tubing (inches)
P = maximum allowable working pressure (psig)
SE = maximum allowable stress [including longitudinal seam joint efficiency] (psi)
A = allowance for threading, grooving, etc. (inches).
NOTE: For these calculations:
A = depth of thread for threaded connections
A = depth of groove for cut groove connections
A = zero for welded or rolled groove connections
A = zero for joints in tubing using compression or flare fittings; or brazed
or welded end connections
The term SE is generally defined as 1/4 of the tensile strength of the piping material or 2/3
of the yield strength (whichever is lower) multiplied by a longitudinal seam joint efficiency
factor, as noted below.
Joint efficiency factors are:
1.00 for seamless
0.85 for ERW (electric resistance welded)
0.60 for furnace butt weld (continuous weld) (Class F)

When A=0 the basic equation can be further simplified to:

P = (2tSE)/D

EQ #2

Section 2 / Page 2 of 5

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

2.4 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS (SE) VALUES


The majority of special hazard fire suppression systems have piping systems that are not
normally pressurized. In addition, most of these systems have discharge times that are
considerably less than 60 minutes in duration, and therefore satisfy the criteria where the
SE values can be increased by 20% when calculating the maximum allowable working
pressures.
To directly address the most common type of systems, the maximum allowable working
pressures shown in the pipe pressure Tables in Section 3, use SE values that have been
increased by 20% for use with piping not normally pressurized. The 20% increase is
only valid where the duration of system discharge is limited to 60 minutes at any one time.

Reference Information
Paragraph 102.2.4 of the ASME B31.1b-2000 Addenda to the Power Piping Code,
recognizes that the piping system shall be considered safe under conditions where
the piping may be subjected to short periods of higher design pressure or
temperature. For this situation the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code allows the
maximum allowable stress to be exceeded by:
(a) 15% increase in allowable stress, if the event duration occurs for no more
than eight hours (480 minutes) at any one time, and no more than 800
hours/year, or
(b) 20% increase in allowable stress, if the event duration occurs for no more
than 1 hour (60 minutes) at any one time, and no more than 80 hours/year.

Table 2-1 gives values for SE as taken from Appendix A of the ASME B31.1, Power Piping
Code, along with SE values increased by 20% for use in the calculations.

CAUTION
The SE values used in the calculations are also limited to the maximum temperatures
shown in Table 2-1. If higher temperatures are anticipated, then the SE values must
be reduced to agree with the values shown in Appendix A of the Power Piping Code at
the higher temperature for the piping materials being used.

Section 2 / Page 3 of 5

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003
These values are from the 2001 edition
of ASME B31.1 which used a safety factor of "4".
The 2007 edition of ASME B31.1, uses a safety
factor of 3.5 and therefore these values will be
higher than indicated.

TABLE 2-1
Pipe or
Tube Material

Steel Pipe
Seamless
Seamless
Seamless
Seamless
Seamless
ERW
ERW
Furnace Welded
Stainless Steel Pipe
Type 304 Seamless
Type 304 Welded
Type 304L Seamless
Type 304L Welded
Type 316 Seamless
Type 316 Welded
Type 316L Seamless
Type 316L Welded
Steel Tubing
Seamless
ERW
ERW
Stainless Steel Tubing
Type 304 Seamless
Type 304 ERW
Type 304L Seamless
Type 304L ERW
Type 316 Seamless
Type 316 ERW
Type 316L Seamless
Type 316L ERW
Copper Tubing
Seamless, Annealed
Seamless, Drawn

ASTM Spec

SE Value
(psi)
(oF)
Taken From Temperature
Appendix A
Range
ASME B31.1

SE Value
Increased 20%
(psi)

A 106 Gr. C
A 53 Gr. B
A 106 Gr. B
A 53 Gr. A
A 106 Gr. A
A 53 Gr. B
A 53 Gr. A
A 53 Gr. F

17500
15000
15000
12000
12000
12800
10200
7200

-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650

21000
18000
18000
14400
14400
15360
12240
8640

A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312

15700
13300
13400
11400
16200
13800
13300
11300

-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200

18840
15960
16080
13680
19440
16560
15960
13560

A 179
A 178 Gr. A
A 178 Gr. C

11800
10000
12800

-20 to +650
-20 to +650
-20 to +650

14160
12000
15360

A 213, A 269
A 249, A 269
A 213, A 269
A 249, A 269
A 213, A 269
A 249, A 269
A 213, A 269
A 249, A 269

15700
13300
13400
11400
16200
13800
13300
11300

-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200
-20 to +200

18840
15960
16080
13680
19440
16560
15960
13560

B 88, B 280
B 88, B 280

5100
9000

-20 to +150
-20 to +250

6120
10800

Section 2 / Page 4 of 5

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

2.5 MULTIPLICATION FACTORS


To determine the maximum allowable working pressure for other type of systems (such as
where the piping is under continuous pressure, or for systems having longer discharge
times), the values of maximum allowable working pressure, shown in the Tables of Section
3, shall be reduced using the applicable multiplication factor shown below.

System Piping

Multiply By

For piping under continuous pressure

0.8333

For discharge times between 60 and 480 minutes

0.9583

Section 2 / Page 5 of 5

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

3.0 PIPE PRESSURE TABLES


The following Tables provide values of maximum allowable working pressure for various types
of pipe and tubing. These values have been calculated using the formulae, SE values and end
connections shown in:

Section 2.3 and Equations #1 and #2.


Table 2-1

Table 3-1: Steel Pipe with Threaded End Connections.

Table 3-2: Steel Pipe with Rolled Groove or Welded End Connections.

Table 3-3: Steel Pipe with Cut Groove End Connections.

Table 3-4: Stainless Steel Pipe with Threaded End Connections.

Table 3-5: Stainless Steel Pipe with Welded End Connections.

Table 3-6: Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flare, or Compression Fitting Ends.

Table 3-7: Stainless Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flare, or Compression Fitting Ends.

Table 3-8: ASTM B-88 Seamless Copper Water Tubing with Brazed, Soldered, Flare, or
Compression Fitting Ends. (Annealed and Drawn Tempers).

Table 3-9: ASTM B-280 Seamless Copper Refrigeration Tubing with Brazed, Soldered, Flare or
Compression Fitting Ends. (Annealed and Drawn Tempers).

CAUTIONS
a. The values of maximum allowable working pressure, shown in Tables 3-1 to 3-9, have
been calculated subject to the following limitations:
The pipe/tubing system is not normally pressurized.
System discharge time does not exceed 60 minutes in duration.
The pipe/tubing is not normally exposed to ambient temperatures that exceed the
temperature limitations shown in Table 2-1, for the material being used.
b. If the pipe/tubing system is subjected to higher ambient temperatures for a specific
application, then the SE values and the resultant maximum allowable working pressures,
must be reduced to agree with the lower SE values coincident with the higher
temperatures for the material being used. The SE values and temperature data are
found in Appendix A of the Power Piping Code.
c. For pipe/tubing normally under continuous pressure, or for systems having longer
discharge times, the values of maximum allowable working pressure shown in Tables 3-1
to 3-9, shall be reduced using the following multiplication factors:
Multiply By

For pipe/tubing under continuous pressure:

0.8333

For discharge times between 60 and 480 minutes:

0.9583

Section 3 / Page 1 of 17

FSSA PDH-01
3.1

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

HOW TO USE THE TABLES

The following examples provide typical procedures that can be used to select the proper pipe/tubing
for use in a specific application, where the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code is specified.

3.1.1
Example #1: High Pressure CO2 System, using stainless steel tubing for the distribution
piping. (Note: NFPA-12, 2000 Edition, section 1-10.1.4 specifies that the minimum pipe design
pressure shall be 2,800 psi when using this material)

Given:

The pipe/tubing is not normally pressurized.


There are no stop valves between the agent containers and the nozzles.
The discharge time is less than 60 minutes.
The application requires that Type 304 seamless or welded (ERW) stainless steel tubing be
used.
Tubing Size = 1 OD
Minimum design pressure specified: 2,800 psi
Use either flare or compression type tubing fittings (A=0).
Maximum ambient temperature that the tubing will normally be exposed to: +120oF.

Find:

Minimum wall thickness capable of withstanding a minimum allowable working pressure of


2,800 psi.

Procedure:
a. Check Table 2-1 for Type 304 stainless steel tubing. Note that the SE values are
acceptable for temperatures up to +200oF. This satisfies the requirement of +120oF.
b. Go to Table 3-7, titled Stainless Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression
Fitting Ends (A=0).
c. For 1 tube size, look under the Type 304 seamless and welded columns for wall thickness
where the calculated working pressure is 2,800 psi or greater.
d. Inspection of Table 3-7 shows that the following sizes are acceptable:
1 OD x 0.083 wall thickness (or greater) Type 304 seamless tubing is acceptable.
or:
1 OD x 0.095 wall thickness (or greater) Type 304 welded (ERW) tubing is acceptable.
e. Check with tubing supplier(s) for commercially available sizes and wall thickness.
f. Check with tubing fitting manufacturer(s) for pressure ratings of fittings.

Section 3 / Page 2 of 17

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August 2003

3.1.2
Example #2: 360 psi HFC-227ea Clean Agent System using threaded steel pipe.
Given:

The piping is not normally pressurized.


There are no stop valves between the agent containers and the nozzles.
The discharge time is less than 60 minutes.
The application allows the use of seamless, welded, or furnace welded steel pipe with
threaded end connections.
Pipe sizes: 2 and 3 schedule 40.
Minimum pipe design pressure: 416 psi. [This value obtained from NFPA-2001, 2000
edition, Table 2-2.1.1(b) for HFC-227ea at 72 Lb/Ft3 fill density].
Use threaded fittings.
Maximum ambient temperature that the pipe will normally be exposed to: +130oF.

Find:

The types and grades of sch.40 steel pipe that can be used in both 2 and 3 sizes.

Procedure:
a. Check Table 2-1 for steel pipe. Note that the SE values are acceptable for temperatures
up to +650oF. This satisfies the requirement of +130oF.
b. Go to Table 3-1, titled Steel Pipe with Threaded End Connections (A = thread depth).
Look in the sch. 40 section.
c. Look across the rows for 2 and 3 sizes, for the grades and types of steel pipe where
the calculated maximum allowable working pressures are equal to or greater than 416
psi.
d. Inspection shows that, for the 2 and 3 pipe sizes, all grades and types of sch. 40 steel
pipe are acceptable. (Note: Further inspection shows for this example, that all grades
and types of sch. 40 steel pipe can be used in all sizes up to 8 NPS).
e. Check pipe suppliers for commercial availability.
f. Check pressure rating of the threaded fittings to be used.

3.1.3
General Notes:
Note 1: When using copper tubing with brazed or soldered connections, the maximum
allowable stress (SE) must be based on the annealed value.
Note 2: Pipe supplied as dual stenciled A120/A53 Class F, meets the requirements of
Class F furnace welded ASTM A 53 as listed in Table 2-1.
Note:
1. For Inert Gas systems, the "Maximum Allowable Working Pressure" for the manifold will be that that of the cylinder pressure.
2. For Inert Gas systems, the "Maximum Allowable Working Pressure" for pipe downstream will be the maximum anticipated pressure
downstream of the pressure reducing orifice.
3. For pipe not indicated in Appendix A of ASTM B31.1, the "SE" value is either the "Tensile Strength" time a safety factor of 3.5, or 2/3 the
Yield value, which ever is lower.

Section 3 / Page 3 of 17

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August 2003

TABLE 3-1
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Pipe with Threaded End Connections (A = thread depth)

Sch.
40

Sch.
80

Sch.
120

Sch.
160

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8
4
5
6
8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8

Wall
Thick.
(t)
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.437
0.500
0.562
0.718
0.187
0.218
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.343
0.375
0.437
0.531
0.625
0.718
0.906

A
Dim.
0.044
0.044
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.044
0.044
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

A-53B
Grade: A-106C A-106B A-53B
Type: Smls. Smls.
ERW
SE: 21000 18000 15360
3422
2933
2503
2924
2507
2139
2593
2222
1896
2234
1915
1634
2026
1736
1482
1782
1528
1304
1667
1429
1220
1494
1280
1093
1505
1290
1100
1392
1193
1018
1278
1096
935
1193
1022
872
1141
978
834
1081
926
790
5833
5000
4267
5102
4373
3732
4493
3851
3286
3874
3320
2833
3495
2996
2556
3073
2634
2248
2883
2472
2110
2625
2250
1920
2571
2204
1882
2400
2057
1756
2212
1896
1618
2076
1780
1518
2105
1804
1540
1948
1669
1424
3145
2696
2301
3020
2589
2209
2929
2510
2142
3009
2579
2201
6500
5571
4754
6440
5520
4710
5749
4928
4205
4554
3904
3331
4664
3998
3412
4828
4138
3531
4017
3443
2938
4044
3466
2958
4023
3448
2942
3964
3397
2899
3918
3358
2866
3925
3364
2871

A-53A
A-106A
Smls.
14400
2347
2005
1778
1532
1390
1222
1144
1025
1032
954
876
818
782
740
4000
3499
3080
2657
2397
2107
1978
1800
1764
1645
1517
1423
1442
1336
2157
2071
2008
2064
4457
4416
3942
3123
3198
3310
2755
2773
2758
2718
2687
2691

A-53A
ERW
12240
1995
1704
1511
1302
1181
1038
972
871
877
811
745
693
664
630
3400
2974
2618
2258
2037
1792
1681
1530
1499
1399
1289
1210
1226
1135
1833
1760
1707
1754
3789
3754
3351
2654
2719
2814
2342
2357
2345
2310
2284
2288

A-53F
Furnace
8640
1408
1202
1067
919
833
732
686
615
618
572
526
490
469
444
2400
2099
1848
1593
1437
1264
1186
1080
1058
986
909
853
865
801
1293
1242
1204
1237
2674
2649
2365
1874
1918
1986
1652
1663
1654
1630
1611
1614

Note: All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 4 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-1 (Continued)


Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Pipe With Threaded End Connections (A = thread depth)

XXS

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8

Wall
Thick.
(t)
0.294
0.308
0.358
0.382
0.400
0.436
0.552
0.600
0.674
0.750
0.864
0.875

A
Dim.
.057
.057
.070
.070
.070
.070
.100
.100
.100
.100
.100
.100

Grade:
Type:
SE:

A-53B
A-106B
Smls.
18000
10157
8606
7884
6766
6253
5548
5660
5143
4592
4206
4152
3235

Note: All dimensions are in inches

Section 3 / Page 5 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-2
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Pipe with Rolled Groove or Welded End Connections (A = 0)

Sch.
40

Sch.
80

Sch.
120

Sch.
160

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8
4
5
6
8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8

Wall
Thick.
(t)
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.437
0.500
0.562
0.718
0.187
0.218
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.343
0.375
0.437
0.531
0.625
0.718
0.906

A-53B
Grade: A-106C A-106B A-53B
Type: Smls. Smls.
ERW
SE: 21000 18000 15360
6844
5866
5006
5662
4853
4145
5450
4672
3986
4520
3875
3306
4248
3641
3107
3542
3036
2591
3205
2747
2344
2723
2334
1992
2965
2542
2168
2592
2221
1896
2212
1896
1618
1948
1669
1424
1775
1522
1298
1568
1344
1147
9256
7933
6770
7840
6720
5734
7350
6300
5376
6160
5280
4506
5717
4900
4182
4833
4142
3535
4421
3789
3234
3855
3304
2820
4032
3456
2949
3600
3086
2633
3145
2696
2301
3831
2427
2071
2739
2347
2003
2435
2087
1781
4079
3496
2983
3775
3236
2761
3563
3054
2606
3496
2997
2557
9350
8014
6839
8720
7474
6378
7985
6844
5840
6325
5422
4627
6212
5324
4543
6066
5199
4437
5478
4696
4007
5244
4495
3836
4956
4248
3625
4719
4045
3451
4552
3902
3329
4412
3782
3227

A-53A
A-106A A-53A
A-53F
Smls.
ERW Furnace
14400 12240
8640
4693
3989
2816
3883
3300
2329
3737
3176
2242
3100
2634
1860
2912
2475
1747
2429
2064
1457
2197
1868
1319
1867
1588
1120
2033
1728
1220
1777
1511
1066
1516
1289
909
1336
1135
801
1217
1034
730
1075
914
644
6347
5395
3807
5376
4570
3225
5040
4284
3024
4224
3590
2534
3920
3332
2351
3314
2816
1988
3032
2576
1819
2644
2248
1586
2765
2350
1659
2469
2098
1417
2157
1834
1295
1941
1650
1164
1878
1596
1126
1670
1420
1001
2797
2377
1678
2589
2200
1553
2443
2077
1465
2397
2038
1438
6411
5450
3846
5979
5083
3587
5475
4654
3285
4337
3687
2602
4259
3620
2556
4159
3535
2496
3757
3193
2254
3596
3057
2157
3398
2889
2039
3236
2750
1941
3121
2653
1873
3025
2571
1814

Note: All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 6 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-2 (Continued)


Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Pipe With Welded End Connections (A = 0)

XXS

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
5
6
8

Wall
Thick.
(t)
0.294
0.308
0.358
0.382
0.400
0.436
0.552
0.600
0.674
0.750
0.864
0.875

Grade:
Type:
SE:

A-53B
A-106B
Smls.
18000
12600
10560
9801
8284
7579
6609
6912
6171
5392
4853
4695
3652

Note: All dimensions are in inches

Section 3 / Page 7 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-3
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Pipe with Cut Groove End Connections (A = Groove Depth)

Sch.
40

Sch.
80

Sch.
120

Sch.
160

NPS
Pipe
Size

A-53B
A-53A
Grade: A-106C A-106B A-53B A-106A A-53A
Type: Smls. Smls.
ERW
Smls.
ERW
SE: 21000 18000 15360 14400 12240

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

"A"
Dim.

A-53F
Furnace
8640

1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625

0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322

0.056
0.056
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.078
0.078
0.083
0.084
0.085
0.092

2650
2280
2236
1948
1813
1609
1826
1656
1437
1314
1236
1120

2271
1954
1916
1670
1554
1379
1565
1419
1232
1126
1060
960

1938
1668
1635
1425
1326
1177
1336
1211
1051
961
904
819

1817
1563
1533
1336
1243
1103
1252
1136
986
901
848
768

1545
1329
1303
1136
1057
938
1064
965
838
766
721
653

1090
938
920
802
746
662
751
681
591
540
509
461

1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625

0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500

0.056
0.056
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.078
0.078
0.083
0.084
0.085
0.092

4550
3920
3705
3239
3028
2741
2893
2664
2371
2197
2200
1987

3900
3360
3176
2776
2596
2349
2479
2283
2032
1883
1886
1703

3328
2867
2710
2369
2215
2005
2116
1949
1734
1607
1609
1453

3120
2688
2541
2221
2077
1880
1983
1827
1626
1507
1508
1362

2652
2285
2159
1888
1765
1598
1686
1553
1382
1281
1282
1158

1872
1613
1524
1332
1246
1128
1190
1096
975
904
905
817

4
5
6

4.500
5.563
6.625

0.437
0.500
0.562

0.083
0.084
0.085

3304
3141
3024

2832
2692
2592

2417
2297
2212

2266
2154
2074

1926
1831
1763

1359
1292
1244

8.625

0.718

0.092

3048

2613

2230

2090

1777

1254

1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625

0.187
0.218
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.343
0.375
0.437
0.531
0.625
0.718
0.906

0.056
0.056
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.063
0.078
0.078
0.083
0.084
0.085
0.092

6550
6480
5973
4731
4819
4952
4339
4308
4181
4084
4013
3964

5614
5554
5119
4055
4131
4244
3719
3693
3584
3501
3440
3398

4791
4740
4369
3461
3525
3622
3174
3151
3058
2988
2935
2899

4491
4443
4096
3244
3304
3395
2975
2954
2867
2801
2752
2718

3818
3777
3481
2758
2809
2886
2529
2511
2437
2381
2339
2310

2695
2666
2457
1947
1983
2037
1785
1772
1720
1680
1651
1631

Note: Maximum allowable pressure may be limited by the fitting used.


All dimensions are in inches.
Section 3 / Page 8 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-4
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Stainless Steel Pipe with Threaded End Connections (A = Thread Depth)

Sch.
40

Sch.
80

Sch.
120

Sch.
160

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8
4
5
6
8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8

OD
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625

Wall
Thick.
(t)
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.437
0.500
0.562
0.718
0.187
0.218
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.343
0.375
0.437
0.531
0.625
0.718
0.906

"A"
Dim.
0.044
0.044
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.044
0.044
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.057
0.057
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312


Grade: 304
304
304L 304L
Type: Smls. Welded Smls. Welded
SE: 18840 15960 16080 13680
3070
2601
2620
2229
2624
2223
2239
1905
2333
1976
1991
1694
2010
1702
1715
1459
1805
1529
1541
1311
1589
1346
1356
1154
1487
1260
1269
1080
1333
1129
1137
968
1350
1144
1152
980
1249
1058
1066
907
1147
972
979
833
1070
907
913
777
1024
867
874
743
970
822
828
704
5233
4433
4467
3800
4577
3878
3907
3324
4037
3420
3446
2931
3481
2949
2971
2528
3123
2646
2666
2268
2747
2327
2344
1994
2578
2184
2200
1872
2348
1989
2004
1705
2307
1954
1969
1675
2153
1824
1838
1563
1984
1681
1694
1441
1863
1578
1590
1353
1888
1600
1612
1371
1747
1480
1491
1269
2822
2390
2408
2049
2709
2295
2312
1967
2628
2226
2243
1908
2700
2287
2304
1960
5831
4940
4977
4234
5778
4894
4931
4195
5530
4685
4720
4016
4381
3711
3739
3181
4184
3545
3571
3038
4331
3669
3697
3145
3997
3386
3412
2903
3951
3347
3372
2869
3609
3057
3080
2620
3556
3012
3035
2582
3515
2978
3000
2552
3521
2983
3005
2557

A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312


316
316
316L 316L
Smls. Welded Smls. Welded
19440 16560 15960 13560
3168
2699
2601
2210
2707
2306
2223
1888
2407
2050
1976
1679
2074
1766
1702
1446
1863
1587
1529
1299
1640
1397
1346
1144
1535
1307
1260
1071
1375
1171
1129
959
1393
1187
1144
972
1289
1098
1058
899
1184
1008
972
826
1104
941
907
770
1056
900
867
737
1001
852
822
698
5400
4600
4433
3767
4723
4023
3878
3295
4166
3549
3420
2906
3592
3060
2949
2505
3223
2745
2646
2248
2834
2414
2327
1977
2660
2266
2184
1856
2423
2064
1989
1690
2380
2028
1954
1660
2222
1893
1824
1550
2048
1744
1681
1428
1922
1637
1578
1341
1948
1660
1600
1359
1803
1536
1480
1258
2912
2480
2390
2031
2796
2381
2295
1950
2711
2310
2226
1891
2786
2373
2287
1943
6017
5126
4940
4197
5962
5078
4894
4158
5706
4861
4369
3712
4520
3851
3461
2941
4318
3678
3545
3012
4469
3807
3669
3117
4125
3514
3053
2594
4077
3473
3073
2611
3724
3172
3057
2597
3669
3126
3012
2559
3627
3090
2978
2530
3633
3095
2983
2534

Note: Some sizes, grades and schedule combinations may not be commercially available.
All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 9 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-5
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Stainless Steel Pipe with Welded End Connections (A = 0)

Sch.
40

Sch.
80

Sch.
120

Sch.
160

NPS
Pipe
Size
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8
4
5
6
8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
6
8

OD
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625

A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312 A-312


Wall Grade: 304
304
304L
304L
316
316
316L
316L
Thick. Type: Smls. Welded Smls. Welded Smls. Welded Smls. Welded
(t)
SE: 18840 15960 16080 13680 19440 16560 15960 13560
0.088
6140
5202
5241
4459
6336
5397
5202
4420
0.091
5080
4303
4336
3689
5242
4465
4303
3656
0.109
4889
4142
4173
3550
5045
4298
4142
3519
0.113
4055
3435
3461
2944
4184
3564
3435
2919
0.133
3811
3228
3253
2767
3932
3350
3228
2743
0.140
3178
2692
2712
2307
3279
2793
2692
2287
0.145
2876
2436
2454
2088
2967
2528
2436
2070
0.154
2443
2070
2085
1774
2521
2148
2070
1759
0.203
2661
2254
2271
1932
2745
2339
2254
1915
0.216
2325
1970
1985
1689
2399
2044
1970
1674
0.237
1984
1681
1694
1441
2048
1744
1681
1428
0.258
1748
1480
1492
1269
1803
1536
1480
1258
0.280
1593
1349
1359
1156
1643
1400
1349
1146
0.322
1407
1192
1201
1021
1452
1236
1192
1012
0.119
8304
7034
7087
6029
8568
7299
7034
5976
0.126
7034
5958
6003
5107
7258
6182
5958
5062
0.147
6594
5586
5628
4788
6804
5796
5586
4746
0.154
5526
4682
4717
4013
5702
4858
4682
3978
0.179
5129
4345
4378
3724
5292
4508
4345
3692
0.191
4335
3673
3700
3148
4474
3811
3673
3120
0.200
3966
3360
3385
2880
4093
3486
3360
2855
0.218
3459
2930
2952
2511
3569
3040
2930
2489
0.276
3617
3064
3087
2627
3732
3180
3064
2604
0.300
3230
2736
2757
2345
3333
2839
2736
2325
0.337
2822
2390
2408
2049
2912
2480
2390
2031
0.375
2540
2152
2168
1844
2621
2233
2152
1828
0.432
2457
2081
2097
1784
2535
2160
2081
1768
0.500
2184
1850
1864
1586
2254
1920
1850
1572
0.437
3659
3100
3123
2657
3776
3216
3100
2634
0.500
3387
2869
2891
2459
3495
2977
2869
2438
0.562
3196
2708
2728
2321
3298
2810
2708
2301
0.718
3137
2657
2677
2278
3237
2757
2657
2258
0.187
8388
7106
7159
6091
8655
7373
7106
6037
0.218
7823
6627
6677
5680
8072
6876
6627
5631
0.250
7163
6068
6114
5202
7392
6297
6068
5156
0.250
5675
4807
4843
4120
5855
4988
4807
4084
0.281
5573
4721
4756
4046
5750
4898
4721
4011
0.343
5442
4610
4645
3951
5615
4783
4610
3917
0.375
4915
4163
4195
3569
5071
4320
4163
3537
0.437
4705
3985
4015
3416
4854
4135
3985
3386
0.531
4446
3767
3795
3228
4588
3908
3767
3200
0.625
4233
3586
3613
3074
4368
3721
3586
3047
0.718
4084
3459
3485
2965
4214
3589
3459
2939
0.906
3958
3353
3378
2874
4084
3479
3353
2849

Note: Some sizes, grades and schedule combinations may not be commercially available.
All dimensions are in inches.
Section 3 / Page 10 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-6
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)
Nom.
Tube
Size

1/4

3/8

1/2

5/8

3/4

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

Grade: A-179
Type: Smls.
SE: 14160

A-178
Gr. C
ERW
15360

A-178
Gr. A
ERW
12000

0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.625

0.022
0.028
0.032
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.022
0.028
0.032
0.035
0.049
0.058
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.120
0.035
0.049
0.058
0.065
0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.134
0.156
0.188
0.065

2492
3172
3625
3965
4758
5551
7363
9402
10762
1661
2115
2417
2643
3700
4380
4909
6268
7174
9062
1982
2775
3285
3682
4078
4701
5381
6174
6797
7590
8836
10648
2945

2703
3441
3932
4301
5161
6021
7987
10199
11674
1802
2294
2621
2867
4014
4751
5325
6799
7782
9830
2150
3011
3564
3994
4424
5100
5837
6697
7373
8233
9585
11551
3195

2112
2688
3072
3360
4032
4704
6240
7968
9120
1408
1792
2048
2240
3136
3712
4160
5312
6080
7680
1680
2352
2784
3120
3456
3984
4560
5232
5760
6432
7488
9024
2496

0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750

0.035
0.049
0.058
0.065
0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.134
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.219
0.250

1322
1850
2190
2454
2719
3134
3587
4116
4531
5060
5891
6495
7099
8269
9440

1434
2007
2376
2662
2949
3400
3891
4465
4915
5489
6390
7045
7700
8970
10240

1120
1568
1856
2080
2304
2656
3040
3488
3840
4288
4992
5504
6016
7008
8000

Nom.
Tube
Size

1 1/4

Wall Grade: A-179


Thick. Type: Smls.
(t)
SE: 14160

A-178
Gr. C
ERW
15360

A-178
Gr. A
ERW
12000

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

0.028
0.035
0.049
0.058
0.065
0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.134
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.219
0.250
0.281
0.313
0.375
0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.125
0.134
0.156
0.188
0.219
0.250

793
991
1388
1643
1841
2039
2351
2690
3087
3398
3795
4418
4871
5324
6202
7080
7958
8864
10620
793
1110
1473
1880
2152
2470
2719
2832
3036
3534
4259
4962
5664

860
1075
1505
1782
1997
2212
2550
2918
3348
3686
4116
4792
5284
5775
6728
7680
8632
9615
11520
860
1204
1597
2040
2335
2679
2949
3072
3293
3834
4620
5382
6144

672
840
1176
1392
1560
1728
1992
2280
2616
2880
3216
3744
4128
4512
5256
6000
6744
7512
9000
672
941
1248
1594
1824
2093
2304
2400
2573
2995
3610
4205
4800

1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

0.281
0.313
0.344
0.375
0.438

6366
7091
7794
8496
9923

6906
7692
8454
9216
10764

5395
6010
6605
7200
8410

OD

Section 3 / Page 11 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-6 (Continued)


Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)
Nom.
Tube
Size

1 1/2

1 3/4

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

Grade: A-179
Type: Smls.
SE: 14160

A-178
Gr. C
ERW
15360

A-178
Gr. A
ERW
12000

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

Grade: A-179
Type: Smls.
SE: 14160

A-178
Gr. C
ERW
15360

A-178
Gr. A
ERW
12000

1.500
1.500
1.500

0.035
0.049
0.058

661
925
1095

717
1004
1188

2.000
2.000
2.000

0.563
0.625
0.750

7972
8850
10620

8648
9600
11520

6756
7500
9000

1.500

0.065

1227

2 1/4

2.250

0.095

1196

1297

1013

1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.125
0.134
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.219
0.250
0.281
0.313
0.344
0.375
0.438
0.500

2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.125
0.134
0.148
0.156
0.180
0.188
0.219
0.220
0.250
0.281
0.313

396
555
736
940
1076
1235
1359
1416
1518
1677
1767
2039
2130
2481
2492
2832
3183
3546

430
602
799
1020
1167
1339
1475
1536
1647
1819
1917
2212
2310
2691
2703
3072
3453
3846

336
470
624
797
912
1046
1152
1200
1286
1421
1498
1728
1805
2102
2112
2400
2698
3005

1.750
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000

1303

2.500

0.344

3897

4227

3302

420
588
780
996
1140
1308
1440

2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.750

0.375
0.437
0.500
0.563
0.625
0.750
0.109

4248
4950
5664
6378
7080
8496
1123

4608
5370
6144
6918
7680
9216
1218

3600
4195
4800
5405
6000
7200
951

2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000

3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000

0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.125
0.134
0.148
0.156
0.165
0.180
0.188
0.219
0.250
0.281

463
614
784
897
1029
1133
1180
1265
1397
1473
1558
1699
1775
2067
2360
2653

502
666
850
973
1116
1229
1280
1372
1516
1597
1690
1843
1925
2243
2560
2877

392
520
664
760
872
960
1000
1072
1184
1248
1320
1440
1504
1752
2000
2248

Nom.
Tube
Size

560
784
928

1331

1040

1359
1567
1794
2058
2266
2360
2530
2945
3247
3549
4135
4720
5305
5909
6495
7080
8269
9440

1475
1700
1946
2232
2458
2560
2744
3195
3523
3850
4485
5120
5755
6410
7045
7680
8970
10240

1152
1328
1520
1744
1920
2000
2144
2496
2752
3008
3504
4000
4496
5008
5504
6000
7008
8000

0.095

1537

1668

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120

496
694
920
1175
1345
1543
1699

538
753
998
1275
1459
1674
1843

0.125
0.134
0.148
0.156
0.165
0.180
0.188
0.219
0.240
0.250
0.281
0.313
0.344
0.375
0.438
0.500

1770
1897
2096
2209
2336
2549
2662
3101
3398
3540
3979
4432
4871
5310
6202
7080

1920
2058
2273
2396
2534
2765
2888
3364
3686
3840
4316
4808
5284
5760
6728
7680

1500
1608
1776
1872
1980
2160
2256
2628
2880
3000
3372
3756
4128
4500
5256
6000

2 1/2

2 3/4

Section 3 / Page 12 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-6 (Continued)


Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

Grade: A-179
Type: Smls.
SE: 14160

A-178
Gr. C
ERW
15360

A-178
Gr. A
ERW
12000

3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.250
3.250
3.250
3.250

0.313
0.344
0.375
0.437
0.500
0.563
0.625
0.688
0.750
0.875
1.000
0.120
0.134
0.148
0.180

2955
3247
3540
4125
4720
5315
5900
6495
7080
8260
9440
1046
1168
1290
1568

3205
3523
3840
4475
5120
5765
6400
7045
7680
8960
10240
1134
1267
1399
1701

2504
2752
3000
3496
4000
4504
5000
5504
6000
7000
8000
886
990
1093
1329

3 1/2

3.500
3.500

0.120
0.134

971
1084

1053
1176

823
919

4.000
4.000

0.134
0.148

949
1048

1029
1137

804
888

4 1/2

4.500
4.500

0.134
0.148

843
931

915
1010

715
789

Nom.
Tube
Size

3 1/4

Note: All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 13 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-7
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Stainless Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)

Nom.
Tube
Size

1/4

3/8

1/2

3/4

1 1/4

OD

A-213
A-269
Wall Grade: 304
Thick.
Type: Smls.
(t)
SE: 18840

A-249 A-213 A-249 A-213


A-269 A-269 A-269 A-269
304
304L
304L
316
Welded Smls. Welded Smls.
15960 16080 13680 19440

A-249 A-213 A-249


A-269 A-269 A-269
316
316L
316L
Welded Smls. Welded
16560 15960 13560

0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250

0.020
0.028
0.032
0.035
0.049
0.065

3014
4220
4823
5275
7385
9797

2554
3575
4086
4469
6256
8299

2573
3602
4116
4502
6303
8362

2189
3064
3502
3830
5363
7114

3110
4355
4977
5443
7620
10109

2650
3709
4239
4637
6492
8611

2554
3575
4086
4469
6256
8299

2170
3037
3471
3797
5316
7051

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

0.028
0.035
0.049
0.065

2813
3517
4924
6531

2383
2979
4171
5533

2401
3002
4202
5574

2043
2554
3575
4742

2903
3629
5080
6739

2473
3091
4328
5741

2383
2979
4171
5533

2025
2531
3544
4701

0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500

0.028
0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.120

2110
2638
3693
4898
6255
7159
9043

1788
2234
3128
4150
5299
6065
7661

1801
2251
3152
4181
5339
6110
7718

1532
1915
2681
3557
4542
5198
6566

2177
2722
3810
5054
6454
7387
9331

1855
2318
3246
4306
5498
6293
7949

1788
2234
3128
4150
5299
6065
7661

1519
1898
2658
3526
4502
5153
6509

0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.120

1758
2462
3266
4170
4773
6029

1490
2085
2766
3532
4043
5107

1501
2101
2787
3559
4074
5146

1277
1788
2371
3028
3466
4378

1814
2540
3370
4303
4925
6221

1546
2164
2870
3665
4195
5299

1490
2085
2766
3532
4043
5107

1266
1772
2350
3001
3435
4339

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.120
0.188
0.250

1319
1846
2449
3127
3580
4522
7084
9420

1117
1564
2075
2649
3032
3830
6001
7980

1126
1576
2090
2669
3055
3859
6046
8040

958
1341
1778
2271
2599
3283
5144
6840

1361
1905
2527
3227
3694
4666
7309
9720

1159
1623
2153
2749
3146
3974
6227
8280

1117
1564
2075
2649
3032
3830
6001
7980

949
1329
1763
2251
2576
3254
5099
6780

1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.095
0.120
0.188
0.250

1055
1477
1959
2502
2864
3617
5667
7536

894
1251
1660
2119
2426
3064
4801
6384

900
1261
1672
2135
2444
3087
4837
6432

766
1073
1423
1817
2079
2627
4115
5472

1089
1524
2022
2582
2955
3732
5848
7776

927
1298
1722
2199
2517
3180
4981
6624

894
1251
1660
2119
2426
3064
4801
6384

759
1063
1410
1801
2061
2604
4079
5424

Section 3 / Page 14 of 17

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE 3-7 (Continued)


Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
Stainless Steel Tubing with Welded, Brazed, Flared or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)
Norm.
Tube
Size

OD

Wall
Thick.
(t)

A-213
A-269
Grade: 304
Type: Smls.
SE: 18840

1 1/2

1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500
1.500

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.120
0.188
0.250

879
1231
1633
2085
3014
4723
6280

745
1043
1383
1766
2554
4001
5320

750
1051
1394
1780
2573
4031
5360

638
894
1186
1514
2189
3429
4560

907
1270
1685
2151
3110
4873
6480

773
1082
1435
1833
2650
4151
5520

745
1043
1383
1766
2554
4001
5320

633
886
1175
1501
2170
3399
4520

2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000
2.000

0.035
0.049
0.065
0.083
0.120
0.180
0.188
0.250

659
923
1225
1564
2261
3391
3542
4710

559
782
1037
1325
1915
2873
3000
3990

563
788
1045
1335
1930
2894
3023
4020

479
670
889
1135
1642
2462
2572
3420

680
953
1264
1614
2333
3499
3655
4860

580
811
1076
1374
1987
2981
3113
4140

559
782
1037
1325
1915
2873
3000
3990

475
664
881
1125
1627
2441
2549
3390

2 1/2

2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500
2.500

0.049
0.065
0.120
0.188
0.250

739
980
1809
2834
3768

626
830
1532
2400
3192

630
836
1544
2418
3216

536
711
1313
2057
2736

762
1011
1866
2924
3888

649
861
1590
2491
3312

626
830
1532
2400
3192

532
705
1302
2039
2712

3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000
3.000

0.065
0.083
0.120
0.188
0.250

816
1042
1507
2361
3140

692
883
1277
2000
2660

697
890
1286
2015
2680

593
757
1094
1715
2280

842
1076
1555
2436
3240

718
916
1325
2076
2760

692
883
1277
2000
2660

588
750
1085
1700
2260

Note:

A-249 A-213 A-249 A-213


A-269 A-269 A-269 A-269
304
304L
304L
316
Welded Smls. Welded Smls.
15960 16080 13680 19440

A-249 A-213
A-269 A-269
316
316L
Welded Smls.
16560 15960

A-249
A-269
316L
Welded
13560

Some sizes, grades and schedule combinations may not be commercially available.
Maximum allowable pressure may be limited by the fitting used.
All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 15 of 17

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TABLE 3-8
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
ASTM B-88 Seamless Copper Water Tubing with Brazed, Flared
or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)
Nom.
Tube
Size
1/4

3/8

1/2

5/8

3/4

1 1/4

1 1/2

2 1/2

3 1/2

Note:

OD

Tube
Type

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.625
0.625
0.625
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.875
0.875
0.875
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.375
1.375
1.375
1.625
1.625
1.625
2.125
2.125
2.125
2.625
2.625
2.625
3.125
3.125
3.125
3.625
3.625
3.625
4.125
4.125
4.125
5.125
5.125
5.125
6.125
6.125
6.125
8.125
8.125
8.125

K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M

Wall Grade: B-88


B-88
Thick. Type: Drawn Annealed
(t)
SE: 10800
6120
0.035
2016
1142
0.030
1728
979
0.025
1440
816
0.049
2117
1200
0.035
1512
857
0.025
1080
612
0.049
1693
960
0.040
1382
783
0.028
968
548
0.049
1411
800
0.042
1210
685
0.032
922
522
0.065
1605
909
0.045
1111
629
0.032
790
448
0.065
1248
707
0.050
960
544
0.035
672
381
0.065
1021
579
0.055
864
490
0.042
660
374
0.072
957
542
0.060
798
452
0.049
651
369
0.083
844
478
0.070
712
403
0.058
590
334
0.095
782
443
0.080
658
373
0.065
535
303
0.109
753
427
0.090
622
353
0.072
498
282
0.120
715
405
0.100
596
338
0.083
495
280
0.134
702
398
0.110
576
326
0.095
497
282
0.160
674
382
0.125
527
299
0.109
459
260
0.192
677
384
0.140
494
280
0.122
430
244
0.271
720
408
0.200
532
301
0.170
452
256

If soldering or brazing drawn (straight) tubing use annealed allowable pressure.


Maximum allowable pressure may be limited by the fitting used. All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 16 of 17

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TABLE 3-9
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psig)
ASTM B-280 Seamless Copper Refrigeration Tubing with Brazed, Flared
or Compression Fitting Ends (A = 0)
Nom.
Tube
Size
1/4
5/16
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1 1/8
1 3/8
1 5/8
2 1/8
2 5/8
3 1/8
3 5/8
4 1/8

OD

Tubing
Type

Wall
Thick.
(t)

0.250
0.312
0.375
0.375
0.500
0.500
0.625
0.625
0.750
0.750
0.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
2.125
2.625
3.125
3.625
4.125

Coil
Coil
Coil
Straight
Coil
Straight
Coil
Straight
Coil
Strt./Coil
Strt./Coil
Strt./Coil
Strt./Coil
Strt./Coil
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight

0.030
0.032
0.032
0.030
0.032
0.035
0.035
0.040
0.035
0.042
0.045
0.050
0.055
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0.100
0.110

Grade:
Type:
SE:

B-280
B-280
Drawn
Annealed
10800
6120
(Straight)
(Coil)

1728
1512
1382
1210
1111
960
864
798
712
658
622
596
576

1469
1255
1044
979
783
857
685
783
571
685
629
544
490
452
403
373
353
338
326

Note: If soldering or brazing drawn (straight) tubing use annealed allowable pressure.
Maximum allowable pressure may be limited by the fitting used.
All dimensions are in inches.

Section 3 / Page 17 of 17

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4.0 PIPE & TUBING FITTINGS RATED WORKING PRESSURE


The tables found in this section include data that is representative of typical pressuretemperature ratings for several types of pipe fittings commonly used in the agent distribution
piping of special hazard fire suppression systems.
These tables provide guidance to assist the system designer in selection of pipe fittings used in
a particular application. It is recommended that the maximum allowable pressure ratings be
verified with the fitting manufacturer for the type of fittings being used. In addition, the pipe
fitting requirements specified in the suppression system equipment manufacturer's listed design
manual, and in the applicable NFPA Standards, should also be consulted.
If there are differences between the rated working pressure values shown in the tables of this
section, and the fittings specified in the equipment manufacturers listed manual or in the
applicable NFPA Standards, then the fitting requirements shown in the equipment
manufacturers manual and/or the applicable NFPA Standard shall take precedent.
Fittings shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to or greater than the minimum
piping design working pressure specified in Appendix A of this document, for the agent being
used.
The following tables provide values of maximum allowable working pressure for various types of
fittings.

Table 4-1: Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings

Table 4-2: Grooved Fittings and Couplings

Table 4-3: Forged Steel Threaded Fittings

Table 4-4: Forged Carbon Steel Flanges

Table 4-5: Ductile Iron Fittings

Table 4-6: Stainless Steel Threaded Fittings

Table 4-7: Carbon Steel Welded Fittings

TABLE 4-1
MALLEABLE IRON THREADED FITTINGS
Reference: ANSI B16.3
MAXIMUM RATED
PRESSURE
NPS FITTING SIZE

SERVICE
TEMPERATURE

FITTING

DEGREES F.

CLASS

1/4" to 1"

-20 TO 150
-20 TO 150

150 lb. Class (PSIG)


300 lb. Class (PSIG)

300
2000

1 1/4" to 2" 2 1/2" to 4"


300
1500

300
1000

5" to 8"
300
800

Note: 300 lb. Class street elbows are not recommended for pressures above 600 psi.

Section 4 / Page 1 of 6

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TABLE 4-1 (Continued)


Reference: ANSI B16.39
UNIONS & UNION FITTINGS
CLASS
CLASS
150
250

CLASS
300

Nonshock Cold Water, Oil or Gas (PSIG)


300
500

600

TABLE 4-2
GROOVED FITTINGS AND COUPLINGS
MANUFACTURER
AND TYPE
Victaulic

NPS PIPE
SIZE

RATED WORKING
PRESSURE PSI

Grooved Fittings
Style 005 Rigid FireLock Coupling

3/4" - 8"
1 - 4

500
350

Style 07 Zero-flex Rigid Coupling

1" - 6"

500

3/4" - 8"
1" - 4"
5 8
2" - 6"
2 1/2" - 8"

500
500
450
750
500

1" - 8"
1" - 4"
6" - 8"
1" - 8"
2" - 8"
1 1/2" - 2 1/2"
3 - 4
5 - 6
8

500
500
500
500
500
750
600
500
450

Style 77 Flexible Coupling


Style 75
Style HP-70 Rigid
Style 743 Vic-Flange
Gruvlok
Grooved Fittings
Fig. 7000 Coupling
Fig. 7000 Coupling
Fig. 7001 Standard Coupling
Fig. 7013 Flange
Fig. 7401 Rigidlok

Note: Underwriters Laboratories has indicated that listed rubber gasketed fittings (couplings
and fittings rated to 500 PSI minimum) that are not under continuous exposure to HFC227ea, and are downstream of the pressure reducing device, can be utilized in 360 psi
HFC-227ea fixed extinguishing systems.

Section 4 / Page 2 of 6

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TABLE 4-3
FORGED STEEL THREADED FITTINGS
Reference: ANSI B16.11
SERVICE
TEMPERATURES
DEGREES F.
-20 to 150

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE NON-SHOCK


PRESSURE RATINGS
(PSIG)
Class 2000
Class 3000
Class 6000
2000 PSI or rating of 3000 PSI or rating of
6000 PSI or rating of
Sch. 80 smls. pipe of Sch. 160 smls. pipe of XXS smls. pipe of the
the same material
the same material
same material

TABLE 4-4
FORGED STEEL FLANGES
WITH STANDARD FACINGS (OTHER THAN RING JOINTS)
Reference: ANSI B16.5 Material ASTM A-105
SERVICE
TEMPERATURES
DEGREES F.
-20 to 200

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE NON-SHOCK


PRESSURE RATINGS (PSIG)
@ PRIMARY SERVICE PRESSURE RATING
150 LB
260

300 LB
675

400 LB
900

600 LB
1,350

900 LB
2,025

1500 LB
3,375

2500 LB
5,625

Note: The pressure ratings of forged steel flanges are dependent on the type of gasket facing
and the ASTM Grade of material used.

TABLE 4-5
DUCTILE IRON PIPE FITTINGS
WORKING PRESSURES, NONSHOCK
(PSIG)
TEMPERATURE
DEGREES F.
-20 TO 150

CLASS 150
FLANGED
FITTINGS
1 6
250

CLASS 300
THREADED
FITTINGS
6
500

Section 4 / Page 3 of 6

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TABLE 4-6
STAINLESS STEEL THREADED FITTINGS
Reference: ASTM A-16.2, ANSI B16.11
TEMPERATURE
DEGREES F.

-20 to 150

WORKING PRESSURE RATING


NON-SHOCK (PSIG)
Class 150
Class 2000
Class 3000
Class 6000
1/8 4 NPT
1/8 4 NPT
1/8 4 NPT
1/8 4 NPT
300
2000 PSI or rating of
3000 PSI or rating of 6000 or rating of XXS
Sch. 80 smls. pipe of
Sch. 160 smls. pipe of smls. pipe of the same
the same material
the same material
material

TABLE 4-7a
STANDARD WEIGHT CARBON STEEL BUTTWELD FITTINGS
Reference: ANSI B16.9

SIZE OF
FITTING
INCHES

*WALL
THICKNESS
INCHES

**WORKING
PRESSURE PSIG AT THE
FAHRENHEIT
TEMPERATURES
INDICATED)

1/2"
3/4"
1"
1 - 1/4"
1 - 1/2"
2"
2 - 1/2"
3"
3 - 1/2"
4"
5"
6"
8"

0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322

-20 to 650 F
1695
1455
1575
1065
1005
900
1215
1095
1020
975
885
840
765

Note: * Nominal wall thickness that corresponds to Schedule 40 steel pipe.


**The pressure rating is dependent on the ASTM Grade of material and schedule of
seamless pipe used.

Section 4 / Page 4 of 6

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TABLE 4-7b
EXTRA STRONG CARBON STEEL BUTTWELD FITTINGS
Reference: ANSI B16.9

SIZE OF
FITTING
INCHES

*WALL
THICKNESS
INCHES

1/2"
3/4"
1"
1 - 1/4"
1 - 1/2"
2"
2 - 1/2"
3"
3 - 1/2"
4"
5"
6"
8"

0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500

**WORKING
PRESSURE (PSIG AT THE
FAHRENHEIT
TEMPERATURES
INDICATED)
-20 to 650 F.
3030
2595
2610
1935
1815
1665
1935
1770
1665
1590
1470
1470
1350

Note: *Nominal wall thickness that corresponds to Schedule 80 steel pipe.


**The pressure rating is dependent on the ASTM Grade of material and schedule of
seamless pipe used.

TABLE 4-7c
FORGED STEEL SOCKET-WELD FITTINGS
Reference: ANSI B16.11
TEMPERATURE
Degree F

-20 to 650

WORKING PRESSURE
NON-SHOCK (PSIG)
Class 3000
1/8" - 4" NPT
3000 PSI or rating of Sch. 160
smls. pipe of the same material

Class 6000
1/8" - 4" NPT
6000 PSI or rating of XXS smls.
pipe of the same material

Section 4 / Page 5 of 6

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COMPRESSION-TYPE TUBE FITTINGS


Tube fittings are rated to the maximum working pressure of tubing as shown in tables 3-6, 3-7,
3-8 and 3-9 of this document. Compression fittings that have NPT (female or male) pipe
threads are an exception and the fitting manufacturer shall be consulted.
The manufacturer of compression fittings being considered for use, should be consulted prior to
the use of the fittings with hard drawn copper tubing. Most manufacturers require the tubing be
soft annealed copper to ensure safe, reliable, leak-free connections. In addition, the metal
tubing material should be softer than the fitting material. (For example: stainless steel tubing
should not be used with brass fittings)

Section 4 / Page 6 of 6

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5.0 PIPE DESIGN GUIDELINGS FOR CLOSED SECTIONS OF PIPE


5.1

INTRODUCTION

Many of the NFPA Fire Extinguishing System Standards state in part that:
In sections where valve arrangement introduces sections of closed piping, such sections shall
be equipped with pressure relief devices, or the valves shall be designed to prevent entrapment
of the extinguishing agent.
These closed sections of pipe historically have been located between the agent containers
and stop valves. In this scenario the possibility exists that extinguishing agent may be trapped
in this section from actuation of the system agent containers. Because of this possibility,
pressure relief devices are required to be installed in these pipe sections, in order to prevent
over pressurization, in the event of high temperature exposure, and/or liquid full conditions that
may occur when liquefied extinguishing agents are used.
The pressure relief devices are designed to operate at higher than normal pressure. The
operating range of these relief devices may be specified in the applicable NFPA Standard, or
the equipment Manufacturers Listed Design Manual.

5.2

DESIGN GUIDELINES

The following guidelines are recommended for the design of closed sections of pipe that are
equipped with pressure relief devices, unless specified otherwise in the applicable NFPA
Standard, or as may be specified in the Equipment Manufacturers Listed Design Manual.

5.2.1
Select the proper pressure relief device as specified in the applicable NFPA Standard, the
manufacturers design manual, and/or other applicable standards.

5.2.1.1
The minimum allowable working pressure of the pipe must be equal to or greater than the
maximum operating pressure of the pressure relief device.

5.2.1.2
From the pipe tables in Section 3 select the desired type pipe that has a maximum allowable
working pressure equal to or greater than the maximum operating pressure of the pressure
relief device.

Section 5 / Page 1 of 1

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6.0 PIPE SUPPORTS AND HANGERS


6.1 The scope of this section provides general information and guidelines for the selection and
application of pipe supports and/or hangers utilized with special hazard fire suppression
systems. Pipe supports and hangers shall be capable of supporting the pipe in all conditions of
operation, including shock loads or thrusts created by system discharge.
These general guidelines are not intended to provide all information necessary to determine
equipment and material requirements for specific installations or applications.
Specific installation guidelines, as provided by the manufacturer of pipe supports and/or pipe
support systems, shall be followed.
The design examples provided in this section are typical of installations in the industry. Load
calculations have not been performed for any examples shown.
6.1.1 Conventional hanger design which is generally accepted as good practice, using standard
stock or production units, as manufactured by recognized manufacturers, shall be utilized
whenever possible.
6.1.2 All piping must be solidly anchored to walls, ceiling structure, floors, or columns by angle
iron brackets, channels / struts or equivalent brackets where longitudinal or lateral sway may
occur. Particular attention must be paid to the bracing of all changes in piping direction, nozzle
piping and header piping. As a minimum, rigid pipe supports shall be provided at all locations
where piping changes direction (See Figure 6-1).

FIGURE 6-1
Notes:
1. Actual number of braces will depend upon piping and nozzle arrangement.
2. Nozzles with different orifice orientation may require different types of bracing to counter
thrusts due to direction of agent discharge (Example: 360o, 180o, and orifices angled off the
horizontal).

Section 6 / Page 1 of 13

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6.1.3 Pipe support components shall be steel and adequate to support the pipe in response to
movements created by changing thermal conditions, and to allow for free and ample movement
for contraction except where anchored, thereby preventing excessive stress. Consideration
should be given to avoidance of rigidly restraining both ends of long pipe runs subject to
expansion or contraction. Either one or the other end of the pipe run should be supported with
an intermediate type hanger which will allow free movement of the piping and to avoid buckling
or separation due to expansion or contraction.
6.1.4 Where rod type hangers are permitted for intermediate support between rigid supports,
they shall be steel clevis or steel band hangers of the proper size for the supported pipe and
with solid bar-type hanger rod. Hanger rods shall not be subjected to stresses due to bending.
6.1.5 Grooved pipe, fittings, and couplings must be supported and anchored exactly per the
manufacturers specification. Installation shall be such as to allow for contraction over the
anticipated temperature range and pressure thrusts. Consideration should be given to provide
a minimum of two hangers per length of grooved pipe to avoid injury or accident during
installation or maintenance of piping. No grooved pipe length should be left unsupported
between any two couplings.
6.1.6 Cast iron supports, conduit clamps or C clamps shall not be used to support piping. All
parts of the supporting equipment shall be fabricated, assembled and installed so that they will
not be disengaged by movement of the supported pipe. Drilling of, welding or the use of beam
clamps are acceptable means of attaching hangers to the building structure. A pipeline is not to
be supported from another pipeline.
6.1.7 All pipe supports shall be installed to avoid interference with other piping, hangers,
electrical conduit, and supports or building structure and equipment.
6.1.8 Supports shall be sufficiently close together to avoid excessive bending stresses from
concentrated loads between supports.
(Refer to Table 6-1, Maximum Horizontal Spacing
Between Pipe Supports for Screwed, Welded, Or Grooved Pipe with Rod Diameters and Table
6-2, Maximum Horizontal Spacing Between Tubing Supports with Rod Diameters.)
6.1.9 When using concrete inserts or power driven studs, the manufacturers specifications
must be followed. Consideration should be given to minimum and maximum engagement
depths, edge distances, minimum spacing of anchors in the concrete and the quality of the
concrete.
6.1.10 When using channel / strut refer to manufacturer information for limitations.
6.1.11 Consideration shall be given to providing ring inserts to resist galvanic corrosion when
piping and hanger rings or U-bolts are of dissimilar metals.
6.1.12 For guidelines on the application of seismic bracing and supports refer to the following
documents:
9 MSS SP-127-2001 Bracing for Piping Systems Seismic Wind Dynamic Design,
Selection, Application Latest Edition
9 NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems Latest Edition
9 State and Local Building Codes Latest Edition

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6.2 Following are eighteen (18) examples of rigid pipe hangers. Specific installation guidelines,
as provided by the manufacturer of pipe supports and/or pipe support systems, shall be
followed.
6.2.1 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.2 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.3 Typical Rigid Support

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6.2.4 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.5 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.6 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.7 Typical Rigid Support

Section 6 / Page 4 of 13

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6.2.8 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.9 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.10 Typical Rigid Support

Section 6 / Page 5 of 13

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6.2.11 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.12 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.13 Typical Rigid Support

Section 6 / Page 6 of 13

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6.2.14 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.15 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.16 Typical Rigid Support

Section 6 / Page 7 of 13

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6.2.17 Typical Rigid Support

6.2.18 Typical Rigid Support

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6.3 Following are eleven (11) examples of intermediate pipe hangers. Specific installation
guidelines, as provided by the manufacturer of pipe supports and/or pipe support systems,
shall be followed.
6.3.1 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.2 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.3 Typical Intermediate Support

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6.3.4 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.5 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.6 Typical Intermediate Support

Section 6 / Page 10 of 13

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6.3.7 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.8 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.9 Typical Intermediate Support

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6.3.10 Typical Intermediate Support

6.3.11 Typical Intermediate Support

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TABLE 6-1
MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING BETWEEN PIPE SUPPORTS
FOR SCREWED, WELDED, OR GROOVED PIPE WITH ROD DIAMETERS
Reference: MSS SP-69-1996
Distance
Pipe
Between
Rod
Size
Supports Diameter
(inches)
(feet)
(inches)

7
3/8

7
3/8

7
3/8
1
7
3/8
1
7
3/8
1
9
3/8
2
10
3/8
2
11
1/2
3
12
1/2
4
14
5/8
5
16
5/8
6
17
3/4
8
19
3/4

Note: C Clamps are not acceptable to support rod hangers

TABLE 6-2
MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING BETWEEN TUBING SUPPORTS
WITH ROD DIAMETERS
Reference: MSS SP-69-1996
Distance
Tubing Between
Rod
Size
Supports Diameter
(inches)
(feet)
(inches)

5
3/8

5
3/8

5
3/8
1
6
3/8
1
7
3/8
1
8
3/8
2
8
3/8
2
9
1/2
3
10
1/2
4
12
1/2
5
13
1/2
6
14
5/8
8
16
3/4

Section 6 / Page 13 of 13

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

APPENDIX A
A.0

PIPE REQUIREMENTS FOR FSSA EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS


ENGINEERED SYSTEMS

A.1

MANUFACTURERS SUPPRESSION SYSTEM PARAMETERS

System
Type

Manufacturer

CO2

Ansul
Chemetron
Fike
Kidde
Ansul

CO2
High Press.

Product
Trade
Name

Cylinder
Pressure

Maximum
Operating

Psi @ 70F

Temp. F

850
850
850
850
300

130
130
130
130
130

Min Pipe
Design
Working
Pressure
per NFPA
(PSI)
NFPA 12
NFPA 12
NFPA 12
NFPA 12
350

Manufacturer
Specs: Pipe
(1a, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7,8)
(1a, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7,8)
(1a, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7,8)
(1a, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7,8)
(1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

Low Press.

Chemetron

300

130

350

(1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

Dry Chemical

Ansul

205

120

215

(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

FK-5-12
HFC-125

Ansul
Fike
Chemetron
Fenwal
Fike
Kidde
Pyro Chem
Siemens

Novec 1230
ECARO-25
FM-200
FM-200
FE-227
FM-200
FM-200
FM-200

360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360

130
120
130
130
130
130
130
130

416
500
416
416
416
416
416
416

(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

Kidde

FE-13

686

130

(Before Press Red.)


(After Press Red.)
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)
Chemetron
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)

Argon

2370

2370

(2, 3, 4, 5)

Argon

2964

130
Per Calcs
130
Per Calcs

2964

(2, 3, 4, 5)

2900

130
Per Calcs

2900

(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

2900

130
Per Calcs
130
Per Calcs

2900

(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

2404

(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

2175

130
Per Calcs

2175

(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

2900

130
Per Calcs

2900

(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

N/A
N/A

130
130

N/A
N/A

Corro-Proof, PPC
Corro-Proof, PPC

HFC-227ea

HFC-23

IG-01

IG-55

IG 100

IG-541

Water Mist

Fike
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)
Ansul
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)
Ansul
(Before Press Red.)
(After Press Red.)
Chemetron
Fike

927 to 1,371 (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)


(See Note 10)

Argonite

ProInert

Nitrogen

2404

Inergen

Inergen

MicroMist

Section 7 / Page 1 of 2

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

Piping & Fitting Notes:


1) Schedule 40 pipe
1a) Schedule 40 pipe, and smaller
2) Schedule 80 pipe
3) Schedule 160 pipe
4) ASTM A-106, Seamless, Grade C
5) ASTM A-53/A-106, Seamless, Grade B
6) ASTM A-53/A-106, Seamless, Grade A
7) ASTM A-53, ERW, Grade B
8) ASTM A-53, ERW, Grade A
9) ASTM A-53, Class F, Furnace Weld
10) For HFC-23 systems the pipe minimum design pressure rating depends on the cylinder fill density,
determined in accordance with NFPA 2001 Section 2-2.1.1, as follows:
3
Minimum Design Pressure (psig)
Fill Density (lb/ft )
48
1,371
45
1,248
40
1,106
35
1,007
30
927
PPC: Power Piping Code; ANSI B31.1
Note:

Appendix A includes piping parameters for engineered systems.


Pre-engineered and pre-calc systems have pre-selected parameters and therefore are not
included in this section.

Section 7 / Page 2 of 2

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

APPENDIX B
B.1

PIPE FITTINGS FOR USE IN CLEAN AGENT SYSTEM PIPING

Fittings that are acceptable for use in clean agent systems are found in Table B.1 and Table
B.2. The fittings shown in these tables are based on use in open ended piping systems.
For fittings used in closed sections of pipe, Section 5 of this Handbook should be consulted.

TABLE B.1 Pipe Fittings for Use in Clean Agent Systems (Note 1)
Pressure in
Agent Container
o
at 70 F
(up to and
including)
(psig)
360

Fitting
Minimum Design
Pressure
o
At 70 F
(Note 2)
(psig)
416
500 for HFC-125

600

820

HFC-23

609

1,371
(Note 4)

IG-541

2,175

Clean Agent

All Halocarbon
Agents
(Except HFC-23)

2,900

IG-01

2,370

2,964

2,175
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
2,900
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
2,370
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
2,964
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)

Minimum
Acceptable Fittings

Maximum
Pipe Size

Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron.


Class 300-lb. thrd. ductile iron.
Groove type fittings (Note 3).
Class 300-lb. flanged joints.
Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron
Class 2,000-lb. thrd./weld F.S.
Class 400-lb. flanged joint
Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron
Class 2,000-lb. thrd./weld F.S.
Class 600-lb. flanged joint
Class 2,000-lb. thrd. forged steel
Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint

(NPS)
6
6
6
All
4
All
All
2
All
All
2-1/2
All
All

(Note 5)

(Note 5)

Class 2,000-lb. thrd. forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd./weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

(Note 5)

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

1-1/2
All
All
(Note 5)

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

1
All
All

1
All
All
(Note 5)

Section 8 / 1 of 4

FSSA PDH-01

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August 2003

TABLE B.1 Clean Agent System Pipe Fittings (Note 1) (Continued)

Clean Agent

IG-55

Pressure in
Agent Container
o
at 70 F
(up to and
including)
(psig)
2,175

2,900

4,350

Fitting
Minimum Design
Pressure
o
o
At 70 F (21 C)
(Note 2)
(psig)
2,175
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
2,900
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
4,350
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)

Minimum
Acceptable Fittings

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

(NPS)
2-1/2
All
All
(Note 5)

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

1
All
All
(Note 5)

Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.


Class 6,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 2,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

Maximum
Pipe Size

1
All
All
(Note 5)

Section 8 / Page 2 of 4

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE B.1 Clean Agent System Pipe Fittings (Note 1) (Continued)

Clean Agent

IG-100

Pressure in
Agent Container
o
at 70 F
(up to and
including)
(psig)
2,404

3,236

4,061

Fitting
Minimum Design
Pressure
o
At 70 F
(Note 2)
(psig)
2,404
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
3,236
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)
4,061
Upstream of the
pressure reducer
Downstream of the
pressure reducer
(Note 5)

Minimum
Acceptable Fittings

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 1,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

(NPS)
1-1/2
All
All
Note 5)

Class 2,000-lb. thrd forged steel


Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S
Class 1,500-lb.flanged joint
(Note 5)

3/4
All
All
(Note 5)

Class 3,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.


Class 6,000-lb. thrd/weld F.S.
Class 2,500-lb. flanged joint
(Note 5)

Maximum
Pipe Size

1
All
All
(Note 5)

Notes:
1. All fitting ratings shown are based on open ended piping systems.
2. Minimum design pressures are taken from Table 2-2.1.1(a) and Table 2-2.1.1(b) of NFPA2001.
3. Check with grooved fitting manufacturers for pressure ratings.
4. This value good for all fill densities up to 48 lb/ft3.
5. The minimum design pressure, for fittings downstream of the pressure reducer, should be
determined by system flow calculations. Acceptable pipe fittings for several values of
pressures downstream of the pressure reducer can be found in Table B.2.
6. The materials shown in Tables B.1 and B.2 do not preclude the use of other materials and
other types and style of fittings that satisfy the pressure requirements.
7. The pressure ratings of the forged steel threaded or welded fittings are based on the
pressure equivalent of the numerical class of the fitting or on the pressure rating of ASTM
A-106, Grade B seamless steel pipe, whichever is higher.

Section 8 / Page 3 of 4

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

TABLE B.2 Pipe Fittings for use in Inert Gas Systems


Downstream of the Pressure Reducer
Maximum Pressure
Downstream of the
Pressure Reducer
o
At 70 F
(up to and
including)
(psig)
1,000

1,350

1,500

2,000

Minimum
Acceptable Fittings

Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron


Class 2,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 3,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 600-lb. flanged joint
Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron
Class 2,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 3,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 600-lb. flanged joint
Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron
Class 2,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 3,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 900-lb. flanged joint
Class 300-lb. thrd. malleable iron
Class 2,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 3,000-lb. thrd/welded forged steel
Class 900-lb. flanged joint

Maximum
Pipe Size
(NPS)
4
All
All
All
2
All
All
All
2
All
All
All
1
All
All
All

Section 8 / Page 4 of 4

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

APPENDIX C
C.0

REFERENCES

C.1

PUBLICATIONS
1.

ASME B31.1 1998 Edition, Power Piping Code


ASME B31.1a 1999 Addenda, issued November 30, 1999
ASME B31.1b 2000 Addenda, issued September 15, 2000

2.

ASME B 16.3 1998 Edition, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings

3.

ASME B 16.11 1996 Edition, Forged Steel Fittings Socket-Welding and


Threaded

4.

National Fire Protection Association Standards

5.

NFPA-12 Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, 2000 Edition


NFPA-12A Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, 1997 Edition
NFPA-17 Standard on Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 1998 Edition
NFPA 750 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems, 2000 Edition
NFPA-2001 Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, 2000 Edition
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Standard Specifications For:

ASTM A53 Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and
Seamless
ASTM A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A178 Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Tubes
ASTM A179 Seamless Cold Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and
Condenser Tubes
ASTM A213 Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Superheater,
and Heat Exchanger Tubes
ASTM A249 Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat Exchanger, and
Condenser Tubes
ASTM A269 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for
General Service
ASTM A312 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
ASTM B88 Seamless Copper Water Tube
ASTM B280 Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration
Service
6.

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.


MSS SP-127-2001 Bracing For Piping Systems Seismic Wind Dynamic
Design, Selection, Application

Section 9 / Page 1 of 2

FSSA PDH-01

FSSA Pipe Design Handbook


August 2003

To order copies of the referenced publications, contact:


a. ASME International
22 Law Drive
P.O. Box 2900
Fairfield, NJ 07007-2900
Phone:
800-843-2763
973-882-1167
Fax:
973-882-1717
Website: asme.org
b. NFPA Standards
National Fire Protection Association
11 Tracy Drive
Avon, MA 02322-9908
Phone:
800-344-3555
Fax:
800-593-6372
Website: www.nfpa.org
c. ASTM Standards
American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Bar Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
Phone:
610-832-9585
Website: astm.org
d. Manufacturers Standardization Society
127 Park Street, N.E.
Vienna, VA 22180
Phone:
703-281-6613
Website: www.mss-hq.com

Section 9 / Page 2 of 2