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ARTIFICIAL

LIGHTING

Types of Lighting

Incandescents/Halogens.
Fluorescents.
High Intensity Discharge (HID).
Inductive.
Light Emitting Diode.

Incandescent Lamps
One of the oldest
electric lighting
technologies.
Light is produced by
passing a current
through a tungsten
filament.
Least efficient (4
to 24 lumens/watt).
Lamp life ~ 1,000
hours.

Incandescent Lamps
(contd)
High CRI (100) Warm Color (2700K)
Halogen 2900K to 3200K)
Inexpensive
Excellent beam control
Easily dimmed no ballast needed
Immediate off and on
No temperature concerns can be used outdoors
100, 75, 60 and 40 watt lamps will be going away
per 2007 law beginning 2012

Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps
A type of incandescent
lamp.
Encloses the tungsten
filament in a quartz
capsule filled with
halogen gas.
Halogen gas combines
with the vaporized
tungsten and redeposits
it on the filament.
More efficient.
Lasts longer (up to
6,000 hrs.)

Fluorescent Lamps
Most common commercial lighting
technology.
High Efficicacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.
Improvements made in the last 15
years.
T12: 1.5 inch in diameter.
T8: 1 inch in diameter.
~30% more efficient than T12.

T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.


~40% more efficient than T12.

Fluorescent Lamps (contd)


Configurations
Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1
ft.)
Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft.
fixture).
Circular (rare, obsolete).
Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or
1 lamp per fixture.

Output Categories
Standard Output (430
mA).
High Output (800 mA).
Very High Output (1,500
mA).

Schematic of Fluorescent
Lamp

Phosphor crystals

Mercury atom

Electron

Electrode

Compact Fluorescent Lamps


(CFLs)
Fluorescent lamp that
is small in size (~2 in.
diameter, 3 to 5 in. in
length).
Developed as
replacement for
incandescent lamps.
Two Main Types
Ballast-integrated.
Ballast non-integrated
(allows only lamp to be
replaced).

Compact Fluorescent
Excellent color available comparable to incandescent
Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)
Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures
Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)
Long Life (generally 10,000 hours
lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps)
Less expensive dimming now available (0-10v dimming to 5%)
Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology

Compact Fluorescent Lamps


(contd)
Use the power of
an incandescent for
an equivalent amount
of light. (an 18-watt
CFL is equivalent to a
75-watt
incandescent.)
10,000 hour life. (10x
an incandescent).
Saves about $30 over
the life of the CFL.

Ballasts
Auxiliary component that
performs 3 functions:
Provides higher starting
voltage.
Provides operating voltage.
Limits operating current.

Old type ballasts were


electromagnetic.
New ballasts are
electronic.
Lighter, less noisy, no lamp
flicker, dimming capability).

Ballast Factor
DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lampballast combination
APPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor
(1.00-1.30)

Increases output
AND energy consumption

Typical Ballast Factor


(0.85-0.95)

Comparable light output in


one-to-one replacement

Low Ballast Factor


(0.47-0.83)

Decreases light output


AND energy consumption

For optimal efficiency lamps and ballasts must be properly matched.


Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that
provides target illuminance.

Ballast Circuit Types


Instant Start Ballast starts lamp instantly
with higher starting voltage. Efficient but may
shorten lamp life.
Rapid Start delay of about 0.5 seconds to
start; supplies starting current to heat the
filament prior to starting and continues during
operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an
instant start ballast.
Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5
seconds to start; starting current heats the
filament prior to starting, then cuts off during
operation.

High Intensity Discharge (HID)


Lamps

High Intensity Discharge


Fixtures

High Intensity Discharge (HID)


Lamps
produces light by
means of an electric
arc between
tungsten electrodes
housed inside a
translucent or
transparent fused
quartz or fused
alumina (ceramic)
arc tube filled with
special gases.

High Intensity Discharge


Lamps (contd)
Arc tube can be filled by various types
of gases and metal salts.
HID lamps are used in industrial high
bay applications, gymnasiums, outdoor
lighting, parking decks, street lights.
Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).
Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).
Drawback take up to 15 minutes to
come up to full light after power outage.

High Intensity Discharge


Lamps (contd)
Types of HIDs
Mercury Vapor
(obsolete)
Sodium Vapor
High pressure
Low pressure

Metal Halide
Arc tube contains
argon, mercury, and
metal halides.
Gives better color
temperature and
CRI.

Metal Halide Lamps


Most common HID in use today.
Recent Improvements.
Allow higher pressure & temperature.
Better efficiency, better CRI and better
lumen maintenance.
Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start
Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.

Light Emitting Diodes (LED)


Latest Lighting Technology.
Invented in 1962.
In the past, used as indicator lights,
automotive lights, and traffic lights; now
being introduced for indoor and outdoor
lighting.
LED is a semiconductor technology.
Electroluminescence. Electrons
recombine with holes in the
semiconductor, releasing photons.

Light Emitting Diodes


(contd)
Lower energy
consumption.
Longer lifetime
(50,000 to 100,000
hrs).
Smaller size.
Faster switching.
Greater durability
and reliability.
Cycling.
Dimming.

LED Replacement Lamps for a


4-ft. Fluorescent Fxture

Comparison of LED with a


Fluorescent Lamp
Watt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.8
Lumens, initial
CRI
Color Temperature
Life Expectancy 12 hrs per
start / 3 hrs per start
Light output at 0 C

EverLED-TR

Popular T8 Brand
Fluorescent

22W

34W

Equivalent

2850

85

85

5000K

5000K

10 years 10
years
20% increase

20000 hours 16000


hours
50% decrease

LED Applications
Successfully used today for many markets
Signs & Traffic signals (most common)
Displays (change colors for attention)
Exit Signs (most common)
Indicators and Flashlights
Under Counter & Coves
Accent
Parking Garage & Outdoor
Downlights
Food Freezers

LED vs. HPS

26

Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal


Halide

Cree LED Lighting LRP38 Total Wattage = 36W

Ceramic Metal Halide Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W


27

Induction Lights

Light source in which the power required to generate light is


transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of
electromagnetic fields.
Type of fluorescent lamp uses radio waves rather than arc to
excite phosphor coating on lamp to glow
Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and
100,000 hours depending on the lamp model;
High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90
Lumens/Watt [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];
High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency
electronic ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98%
efficient;
Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age)
compared to other lamp types as filament evaporation and
depletion is absent;
Instant-on and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps
used in commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as
Mercury-Vapor lamp, Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);
Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and
use less mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting
due to their long lifespan.

Induction Lighting
Type of fluorescent lamp uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
phosphor coating on lamp to glow
Advantages:
QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours if used 12 hours each
day will last 20 years!
Good for hard to maintain locations
Disadvantages:
Large light source difficult to control beam of light making it
inefficient for delivered and task lumens
Expensive - $200+ adder to HID
No industry standards for Induction

Induction Applications
Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or
difficult
24 hour a day.7 days a week applications
Bridges
Low Bay Industrial
Select Outdoor Lighting Applications
Long burning hour applications

Exit Signs
Old incandescent exit signs
used (2) 20-watt incandescent
lamps.
At $0.08/kWh, energy cost
for 1 sign = $28/yr.
CFL exit signs use 10 to 12
watts
Energy cost for 1 sign = $7
to $8.50/yr.
LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts
energy cost for 1 sign = $3
to $4/yr.
Photoluminescent sign uses 0
watts, but may have (slightly)
radioactive material.
New technology claims
completely non-toxic and
recyclable.

Outdoor Lighting
Older technology for
outdoor lighting
High pressure sodium
Metal Halide

Newer technology
Compact fluorescents
LEDs
Solar street lights
(economical when
electric lines dont
need to be run in a
new installation).

HID Upgrade to Fluorescent


Lamps

400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input


6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts

Older Lighting Technology


Subject to be Changed Out
T-12 Fluorescent-4 and 8 Systems
Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts
Incandescent
Standard Metal Halide
Mercury Vapor
Neon
Manual Controls

New Energy Efficient


Lighting Replacements
T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems
Electronic Ballasts
Halogen
Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide
LED
Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
New Fixtures

Change from Old to New


and To Save Energy and
Money
OLD TECHNOLOGY

=>

NEW TECHNOLOGY

T12 Fluorescent 4 and 8 Systems

T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems

Magnetic Ballasts

Electronic Ballasts

Incandescent

Halogen IR, MH & LED

Halogen

Metal Halide and LED

Probe Start Metal Halide


and Mercury Vapor

Pulse Start and


Ceramic Metal Halide

Neon

LED

Manual Controls

Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and


Continuous Dimming Systems

Recommended Illumination
Levels
Activity

Illumination
Footcandles

Offices: Average Reading and Writing

50-75

Offices: Hallways

10-20

Offices: Rooms with Computers

20-50

Auditoriums / Assembly Places

15-30

Hospitals: General Areas

10-15

Labs / Treatment areas

50-100

Libraries

30-100

Schools

30-150