56 Chapter? Sequences of Real Numbers
‘This can also be proved directly. Since limb, = 0, given € > 0, there exists
nn, E Ni such that 0 = b, < €/(M + 1) for all m = n,, Thus for:
ia al smb,
0.then tin
©) Up > 0, then lim Wp = 1
© jin Ya =
(@ ip > Land ais reat then tim, = 0,
oR
©) fel <1 then jig p* = 0
(8) Foraltp € R, jim ™ =
Proof. The proofs of (a) and (b) ate left to the exercises (Exercise 5). The proof
of (a) is straightforward and the proof of (b) (for p > 1) is similar to the proof


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22 LimitTheoems $7
1. Since ., is positive, by the binomial
of (c). For the proof of (c), let 5, =
sc rare (eat Be
for all n = 2. Therefore, x2 2/(n ~ 1) for all n = 2, and as a consequence,
‘Thus by (a) and Theorem 2.24, lim x, = 0, from which the result follows.
Since k fn > bn. Therefore,
wo)
+ ot
>a
He 2
and as a consequence,
” (24) 1
mee
‘The result now follows by part (a) and Theorem 2.2.4
(©) Write p as p = *1/a, where q > 1. Then,
Ie" = el a
Which by (4) (with a = 0) converges to 0 as n —r00.
(©) Fix k © N such that k > p. Forn > &
ea (2)
Since p/k < 1, the result follows by (e). Ch
EXAMPLES We now provide several examples to illustrate the previous theorems,
dt)
Bn +2
att _ 02+)
2et
Ine 2 nG+2)
see58 Chapter2. Sequences of Real Numbers
= 0, by Corollary 2.2.26
= sim
weQed)2 me med)
Since lim,
‘Therefore by Theorem 2.2.1,
sel!) wale sale)”
¢
1 tat
(b) Consider the sequence 
: sean Na 7
03 " 
Vat?
“Thus by Theorem 2.2.4 and Theorem 2.2.6(a) with p = 3
cr
fi oo,
an eT
rin
(6 Forournext example we consider the sequence  37,3 f ASin(@), we fist wank
jer in both the numerator and the denominator. By
‘Theorem 2.2.6(0, fim '/r* = 0 for any a ER and p > 1. This simply states that
Pp > 1) grows fier than any power of n, Therefore she dovninant terms inthe me
fneeator and denominator are 2” and 3°, respectively. Thus
to factor out the dominant pows
ree ay +8)
yew +S) () a+8)
By Theorem 2.2.1 and Theorem 2.2:6(4),
Finally, since lim @
(@) As our final example we consider the sequence {n((1 + 3)? ~ 1}. Before we: an
oat the Knit of this sequence we ust fist simplify de mh term of the eae
‘This is accomplished 2s follows:
a@ty? d=