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56 Chapter? Sequences of Real Numbers ‘This can also be proved directly. Since limb, = 0, given € > 0, there exists nn, E Ni such that 0 = b, < €/(M + 1) for all m = n,, Thus for: ia al smb, 0.then tin ©) Up > 0, then lim Wp = 1 © jin Ya = (@ ip > Land ais reat then tim, = 0, oR ©) fel <1 then jig p* = 0 (8) Foraltp € R, jim ™ = Proof. The proofs of (a) and (b) ate left to the exercises (Exercise 5). The proof of (a) is straightforward and the proof of (b) (for p > 1) is similar to the proof | | | i i } t i E g 22 LimitTheoems \$7 1. Since ., is positive, by the binomial of (c). For the proof of (c), let 5, = sc rare (eat Be for all n = 2. Therefore, x2 2/(n ~ 1) for all n = 2, and as a consequence, ‘Thus by (a) and Theorem 2.24, lim x, = 0, from which the result follows. Since k fn > bn. Therefore, wo-) + ot >a He 2 and as a consequence, ” (24) 1 mee ‘The result now follows by part (a) and Theorem 2.2.4 (©) Write p as p = *1/a, where q > 1. Then, Ie" = el a Which by (4) (with a = 0) converges to 0 as n —r00. (©) Fix k © N such that k > |p|. Forn > & ea (2) Since |p|/k < 1, the result follows by (e). Ch EXAMPLES We now provide several examples to illustrate the previous theorems, dt) Bn +2 att _ 02+) 2et Ine 2 nG+2) see 58 Chapter2. Sequences of Real Numbers = 0, by Corollary 2.2.26 = sim weQed)-2 me med) Since lim, ‘Therefore by Theorem 2.2.1, sel!) wale sale)” ¢ 1 tat (b) Consider the sequence | : sean Na 7 03 |" | Vat? “Thus by Theorem 2.2.4 and Theorem 2.2.6(a) with p = 3 cr fi oo, an eT rin (6 Forournext example we consider the sequence | 37,3 f -ASin(@), we fist wank jer in both the numerator and the denominator. By ‘Theorem 2.2.6(0, fim '/r* = 0 for any a ER and p > 1. This simply states that Pp > 1) grows fier than any power of n, Therefore she dovninant terms inthe me fneeator and denominator are 2” and 3°, respectively. Thus to factor out the dominant pows ree ay +8) yew +S) () a+8) By Theorem 2.2.1 and Theorem 2.2:6(4), Finally, since lim @ (@) As our final example we consider the sequence {n((1 + 3)? ~ 1}. Before we: an oat the Knit of this sequence we ust fist simplify de mh term of the eae ‘This is accomplished 2s follows: a@ty?- d=