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CONCLUSION

As a conclusion based on my experiment, the hydrometer analysis is used to determine the


grain size distribution for the fraction of soil that is smaller than 0.063mm of diameter from
sieves analysis. Finer soil particles are dispersed by soaking the soil sample in a dispersing
agent and by rapid stirring to neutralize the charges between the soil particles. During this
experiment, its used a type of 152H hydrometer calibrated to give the mass of solids with
specific gravity equal to 2.65 in suspension. Therefore, as particles get larger, the variance
from spherical increase, a minor error will be caused.

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REFERENCES
1) http://www.scribd.com/grain_size_distribution
2) Bowles, Joseph E.Engineering Properties of Soils.4th.Bostom:Irwin McGraw-Hill.
1992.
3) ASTM Standard D 422-63, Standard Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of
Soils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA
4) http://www.wiki.org/wikipedia/sieveanalysis_hydrometeranalysis.com
5) Das, BrajaM.Principles of Geotechnical Engineering.6th.Toronto, ON: Thomson
Canada Ltd, 2006.
6) R. Krishna, Engineering Properties of Soils Based onLaboratory Testing, UIC 44
Experiment 6 Grain SizeAnalysis (Sieve and Hydrometer), University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, 2007, pp. 44-59.
7) B. M. Das, Soil Mechanics Laboratory Manual, 6thEdition, Oxford, New York,
2002, p. 277.
8) Yong R. N., and Warkentin, B. P. (1966) Introduction of Soil Behaviour, Macmillan,
NY, USA.
9) Das B.M. and Sobhan K. (2014). Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 8th edition,
CengageLearning, NY, USA.

DISCUSSION

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For classcification of soil for engineering purposes, we both to know the distribution of the
grain sizes in given soil mass especially the one obtain from the construction site or burrow
pits. Particle size distribution test, also known as sieve analysis test is method used to
determine the grain (granular) size distribution of soil samples. Grain size analysis is widely
used in engineering classcifications of soils. The standard grain size analysis test determines
the relative proportions of different grain sizes distribution of soil is determined. This test is
done by letting a sample of soil pass through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh opening
sizes and by measuring the weight retained on each sieves. The main concept in this process
is too retain the large particles not able to pass through yhe varying of sieve sizes. The sieve
analysis is primarily applied to soil particles with sizes from 3.35mm to 0.063microns. Sieve
analysis can be classcified as dry sieving and wet sieving. Dry sieving is a sieving process
that is used for soil with negligible amount of plastic fines like gravels and clean sands. On
the other hand, wet sieving is applied to soils with considerable plastic fines.
Based on this experiment, the particulate nature of soil was greatly observed. It was also
shown that certain classcification in soil can be done through sieve analysis. One essential
thing to do in this experiment is to arrange the sieves properly. The accuracy of this
experiment is very much dependent on the sieve arrangement. The arrangement of sieves
must be in decreasing mesh openings from top to bottom. This is very useful in order to
separate the particles from coarser to finer. Lastly, it was observed that the particles having
sizes large that the sieve opening to which it will be retained. On the other hand, those which
smaller sizes were able to pass through. This phenomena is the basic reason on how particles
were separated.
The grain size analysis is one process that deals in the determination of the distribution of soil
types contained in a soil sample. Knowing the distribution of soil is best applied in making
engineering judgements towards total of soil condition. The distribution of soil components is
one important soil profile applied in the field of foundation engineering. This analysis on
grains is also utilized in part of the specifications of soil for airfields, roads, earth dams and
other soil embankment construction.
Therefore, the grain size analysis method is mainly composed of two method called the sieve
analysis and hydrometer analysis. From the previous experiment, it was found that the sieve
analysis is very much applicable to soil particles having sizes ranging from 3.35mm to
0.063microns. In the most cases finer soils are present in soil samples. These samples are of
sizes less than 0.063microns. For these cases, the hydrometer analysis is employed. This
method is a combination of sieving and sedimentation analysis. The hydrometer analysis is
designed to sink into the suspension until the bulb is totally immersed, and the stem protrudes
above the surface of the suspension.It is because the length of stem that protrudes above the
surface is a function of the density of the suspension, more of the strem protrudes for denser
suspensions. It is thus possible to calibrate the hydrometer to read various densities. Soil
hydrometers are typically calibrated to read in gram per liter (g/l). Hence, an appropriate
hydrometer can be inserted into a suspension and a reading taken to obtain the average
concentration of the solids in the fluid displaced by the hydrometer analysis because the

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hydrometer analysis calibration is affected by temperature and the specific gravity of solids,
these factors will have to be taken into account during the experiment.
The Stokes Law is the primary basic of the hydrometer analysis method. This law assimes
that the dispersed soil particles of different shapes and sizes settle in water due to its own
weight as non-interacting spheres. It follows the principle that as the grain size will becomes
bigger, its meaning the greater weight it has, the faster it will settle to the bottom of the
container as it is imposed in a viscous fluid. The grain diameter can also be calculated
through the knowledge of the distance and time of fall principle. The hydrometer analysis is
used to determine the specific gravity of density of the suspension. Thus, this entails the
acquisition of the percentage of particles of a certain equivalent particle diameter was
calculated.
The hydrometer analysis is a process of grain size determination that usually takes 78 hours.
Due to some constraints, we had only performed a part of the whole experiment(24 hours).
As we had done the part of the experiment, some observations were still inferred. There is
really a need to take the temperature of the suspension from each time interval because this
imposes certain effects on the condition of soil and water being considered. It is important
that we employ patience in the performance of this experiment since we need to wait and
observed carefully while performing this experiment. It was also clearly seen and proven that
those particles larger in size settled faster than those smaller particles. We had observed that
the weight factor of the particles is really the principal consideration in this experiment.
Lastly, it was also very essential to assign certain persons to look after the temperature and
hydrometer analysis to ensure consistency in accurate reading.
Besides, the hydrometer analysis is having known the grain size of soil particles. Its will be
able to determine the corresponding treatment to be done in soil (most especially at times
needed to increase the strength of soil). In this experiment, the information gathered through
the grain size distribution has been employed for the design of structure. The results we had
gathered showed the direct relationship between temperature and the hydrometer analysis
reading. As temperature decreases, the reading on the hydrometer seemed to go down as well.
By considering time intervals and readings in the hydrometer, we can say that our obtained
results seemed to fall to what is prescribed or experted. Considering our data, the longer the
time is the lower the reading in the hydrometer becomes. This will to shown that particles
begin to settle down in the cylinder. Thus, the imposed a decrease in the reading in the
hydrometer analysis.
There are many sources of error in this experiment that will occur.

The human error in reading and recording hydrometer readings and instrumental error are
two sources of error that was caused during this experiment. The rrough insertion of the
hydrometer adds error since it introduces disturbance to the soil mix, causing turbulence.
Moreover, the different size of grains in the sample introduces error since the bigger particles
will flocculate faster than the smaller sizes and cause disturbance. Air bubbles floating on top

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of the liquid contributed to some error as well in reading the meniscus. Another error for this
experiment, may include the surface tension on the hydrometers rod. This may change how
the hydrometer sinks into the solution. Also the placing and removing the hydrometer from
the cylinder may disrupt some of the displacement of the particles of the soil water causing
false reading.
But, the employment of three different corrections namely as the meniscus correction,
temperature correction and the dispersing agent . Addition of dispersing agent increases the
density of solution. Hence, it will have more drag on the hydrometer hence the reading will
increase. The dispersing agent correction is always negative reading. This correction can
really improve the results. These corrections reduced the errors of some factors abservable in
the performance of the experiment. By having this, we can assure the accurate results.