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Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4

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. 7) State the meaning of molecular formula. Frequently Asked Questions in SPM Subatomic particle Proton Symbol p Relative mass 1 Relative charge +1 Electron e 1/1840 -1 Neutron n 1 neutral Standard Answers 6) State the meaning of empirical formula. 8) Why the method to determine the • Magnesium is more reactive than hydrogen. it is difficult to cannot be used to determine the convert copper to copper(II) oxide completely. • … is the formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound. neutron and electron. empirical formula of copper(Il) oxide Hydrogen gas cannot reduce magnesium oxide to cannot be used to determine the magnesium. empirical formula for copper(Il) oxide? Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 10) State the physical properties of Group 1. • … are atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons (or with the same proton number but different nucleon numbers). Compare and contrast the relative atomic mass and the relative charge of the subatomic particles of the atom. • Halogens exits as diatomic molecules. • Halogens have low melting and boiling points. Standard Answers • … is the temperature at which the substance at its solid state changes to liquid state at certain pressure. empirical formula of magnesium oxide It reacts slowly with oxygen. nazmymo@yahoo. 3) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process. 4) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process.com : Frequently Asked Questions Standard Answers • Alkali metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. • They are good insulator of electricity. Therefore. • They have relatively low melting and boiling points compare to other metals such as iron (MP : 1540°C). • An atom contains three types of subatomic particles. • They are poor conductors of heat. proton. 11) State the physical properties of Group I7.Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 2|P age Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 1) What is melting point? 2) State the meaning of isotopes. empirical formula for magnesium oxide? 9) Why the method to determine the • Because copper is not a reactive metal. • … is the formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of the compound. • There have low densities end float on surface of water. • Heat energy absorbed by the particles is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the molecules so that the solid can turn into liquid. 5) State the main subatomic particles of an atom. • The heat lost to the surroundings is exactly balanced by the heat energy given out / released as the molecules attracted one another to form solid. • They are soft metals and can be cut easily with a knife. • All alkali metals are grey in colour with silvery and shiny surfaces when freshly cut.

• Transition elements form coloured ionic solution or compound. • The outermost occupied shell of each halogen atom becomes further away from the nucleus. • Electron arrangement of X atom is 2. • Electrons are pulled closer inside to the nucleus. it is in Period 4. it is in Group 2. • Therefore. Explain why. atomic size increases. the force of attraction between the nucleus and electrons become weaker. 39 14) State the position of element . lose or share electrons with other atom of elements. Explain your answer 15) When across Period 3 from sodium to argon. • The number of protons in the nucleus increases. Explain why. • Hence.3|P age 12) State the changes of the physical properties of Group 17 when going down the group. (Why potassium is more reactive than sodium and sodium is more reactive than lithium?) 18) The reactivity of Group 17 elements decrease as going down the group.com : Frequently Asked Questions Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 • The physical state of halogens at room temperature changes from gas to liquid. Explain why. When going down Group 17. • The atomic size increases. • As a result. Therefore. • The single valence electron becomes further away from the nucleus. then to solid. • Sodium burns in oxygen to produce sodium oxide. • As a result it is more difficult to attract one electron into the outermost occupied shell. 16) When across Period 3 from sodium to argon. This increases the positive charge of the nucleus. • Helium has 2 valence electrons and achieves stable duplet electron arrangement. 13) State three special properties of transition elements. the electronegativity increases.  When across Period 3 from left to right. electronegativity increases. • Transition elements act as catalyst in certain chemical reactions. • The solution is an alkaline solution. proton number of elements is increase. the force of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron becomes weaker.2 • X atom has 2 valence electrons. • The colour of halogen becomes darker. • It does not need to gain. 20 𝑋 in Periodic table of Elements. the nucleus attraction force towards electrons becomes stronger. • The atomic size decreases • The number of protons in the nucleus increases. • Transition elements show various oxidation numbers in their compounds. it is easier for the atom to lose the single valence electron to achieve the octet or duplet electron arrangement. This increase the positive charge of the nucleus • As a result the attraction forces between the nucleus and the electrons in the outermost shell becomes stronger • This increases the tendency to attract electrons for the atom form a negative charge ion. When across Period 3 from left to right. • When going down Group 1. Explain why. causing the atomic size to decrease. • Thus. • The shells occupied by electrons increase.8. 17) The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group.8. the atomic size decreases. • Transition elements can form complex ions. • As a result. What nazmymo@yahoo. . 19) Why helium gas is not reactive chemically? 20) Sodium burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water. • X atom has 4 shells occupied with electrons Therefore.

it forms hydrochloric acid. Mg2+. O2. atoms. HOCl. and oxygen atom. nazmymo@yahoo.4 12 bond between carbon atom.6 • It receives 2 electrons from magnesium atom to achieve stable octet electron arrangement. • The intermolecular force between the molecules is week.7 • 1 carbon atom contributes 4 valence electrons to 4 chlorine chlorine atom. 2.4|P age is the property of the solution formed? Explain why. are attracted together by strong electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound with the formula MgO. 35 17𝐶𝑙 . • Usually soluble in water but do not dissolve in organic solvent. it has low melting point and boiling point and exist as gas at room condition. 26) Explain the formation of ionic bond • Magnesium atom has electron arrangement of 2.8.8. conduct electricity in aqueous state • In solid state. and negative ion. chlorine. • Blue litmus paper turns red and then bleached. 21) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water. • A negative ion. ions are free to move. Frequently Asked Questions in SPM Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 • Sodium oxide powder dissolves in water to produce sodium hydroxide solution. • Usually dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene but do not dissolve in water. solid state. • In aqueous or molten state. sodium and chloride ions are held by strong but cannot conduct electricity in electrostatic forces of attraction in the lattice structure. 8𝑂 • A positive ion.com : Frequently Asked Questions . • When chlorine gas dissolves in cold water. • Conduct electricity in aqueous solution molten state. What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed? Explain why. • Hydrogen chloride consists of neutral molecules. 27) Explain the formation of covalent • Carbon atom has electron arrangement of 2.is formed • Positive ion. Hence. • Magnesium ion and chloride ions are held together by strong magnesium chloride exists as a solid electrostatic forces of attraction. Standard Answers 22) State two physical properties of ionic • High melting point and boiling point compounds. • Ions are in fixed positions and cannot move freely. • Do not conduct electricity in all state. • Oxygen atom has electron arrangement of 2. condition. Explain why. it has very high but hydrogen chloride exists as a melting point and boiling point and exists as solid at room gas.2 • It donates 2 valence electrons to achieve the stable octet between magnesium atom.8. Mg2+ is formed. 24) Explain why sodium chloride can • Sodium chloride is an ionic compound. 6𝐶 and • Chlorine atom has electron arrangement of 2. ionic compounds in the solid state do not conduct electricity. 24 𝑀𝑔 12 16 electron arrangement. 25) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen • Magnesium chloride is an ionic compound whereas hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chloride is a covalent compound. covalent compounds. Therefore. At room condition. HCI and hypochlorous acid. 23) State two physical properties of • Low melting point and boiling point. Therefore. • Hydrochloric is an acid which tums blue litmus paper red while hypochlorous acid is a strong bleaching agent which decolourise the litmus paper. O2-. Therefore the compound can conduct electricity.

ions move to anode. copper(ll) sulphate solution. 34) Explain how Daniell Cell can • In Daniell Cell. • 1 C atom shares 4 pairs of electrons with 4 Cl atoms to form 4 single covalent bonds. • All of C and Cl atoms achieve stable octet electron arrangement. hydrogen chloride exists as neutral molecule. • At cathode. chloride in water can conduct • In methylbenzene. electrolyte affects the selective hydroxide ion is discharged at anode to produce oxygen gas.0 mol dm-3). The unchanged when copper is used as concentration of copper(ll) ions remains unchanged.0001 mol dm-3). Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 28) State the meaning of electrolyte. chloride in methylbenzene cannot • In water. Zn2+. no ion is discharged at anode. it cannot conduct electricity. 2 Cl. 2 H2O + O2 + 4e during electrolysis of hydrochloric • When using concentrated hydrochloric acid (1.com : Frequently Asked Questions . OR • The copper(ll) ions discharged at the cathode is replaced with the copper(Il) ion formed from the anode. zinc is more electropositive than copper. hydrogen chloride ionises to produce hydrogen ion and conduct electricity? chloride ion which are free to move.ion is selectively discharged because it is lower than NO3. electrodes. Na+ and H+ ions move to cathode and NO3carbon electrode and OH. electricity but solution of hydrogen Therefore. discharge of ions at the anode 4 OH. the copper anode itself dissolves to form copper(ll) ions. 33) Explain the process of electrolysis of • Sodium nitrate solution consists of Na+. and OH. • Zinc donates electrons to form zinc ions. • At copper electrode. generate electricity. OH.ion in electrochemical series. • Therefore. • Zinc acts as the negative terminal and copper acts as the positive terminal. • At anode. electrons are received by the copper(Il) nazmymo@yahoo.5|P age Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 • 4 chlorine atoms. • A covalent compound with formula CCI4 is formed. it can conduct electricity. H+. contribute 1 valence electron each to carbon atom. 29) Explain why solution of hydrogen • Hydrogen chloride is a covalent compound. • Oxygen gas is given out at anode. dilute sodium nitrate solution using • During electrolysis. 30) Explain how copper electrodes affect • When electrolyse copperl(ll) sulphate solution using copper the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes. The concentration of copper(ll) ions remains unchanged. H+ ion is selectively discharged because it is lower than Na+ ion in electrochemical series. NO3-. Cu  Cu2+ + 2e 31) Explain how concentration of ions in • When using dilute hydrochloric acid (<0. Standard Answers • Electrolyte is the substance that can conduct electricity in molten or aqueous state and undergo chemical change. chloride ion is discharged at anode to produce chlorine gas.ions. • Electrons flow from zinc electrode to copper electrode through the external circuit. • Hydrogen gas is given out at cathode. acid. anode during electrolysis of • Instead. Cl2 + 2e 32) Explain why the blue copper(ll) • The rate of the discharged of copper(ll) ions at the cathode is sulphate solution remains the same as the rate of ionisation of copper anode.

• The continuous flow of electrons from zinc electrode to copper electrode produces electric current in the Daniell Cell. CH. it does not show alkaline property. H+ will cause the aqueous solution of ethanoic acid. Explain why the pH values of the two substances are different 38) The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in trichloromethane is 7 Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different. OH• Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base / alkali to produce salt and water only • Glacial ethanoic acid.6|P age Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 ions. • In water. show its acidic property. • Dry ammonia gas (or ammonia gas) dissolved in trichloromethane consists of neutral molecules. . H+. Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 35) What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali. 39) The pH values of 1. • The concentration of hydrogen ions in sulphuric acid is double than that in nitric acid. Standard Answers • A salt is a (ionic) compound formed when hydrogen ion. Therefore.COOH is a dry acid (without water) which is consists of neutral molecules only. There is no hydrogen ions. • Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.com : Frequently Asked Questions Standard Answers • A strong acid is an acid that ionizes / dissociates completely in water to form high concentration of hydrogen ions. • The presence of hydroxide ions. • It ionizes completely in water to produce hydrogen ions with high concentration. Cu2+ in the copper(II) sulphate solution to form copper atoms.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is 4 and 1 respectively. • Ethanoic acid is a weak acid. the molecules of ethanoic acid ionise to produce hydrogen ions. H+ from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion. • Nitric acid is a monoprotic acid whereas sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid. H+ • A weak alkali is an alkali that ionises / dissociates partially in water to form low concentration of hydroxide ions. pH is high. it does not show acidic property. 36) What is neutralisation? 37) The pH value of glacial ethanoic acid is 9 but the pH value of dilute ethanoic acid is 5. Therefore. • There is no hydroxide ions. Hence. 40) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of 0. Explain why. • It ionizes partially in water. OH-. In a neutralisation experiment.will cause the aqueous ammonia solution to show alkaline properties. H+. OH. Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 41) What is salt? nazmymo@yahoo. • As a result.0 mol dm-3 of ethanoic acid and 1. • The presence of hydrogen ions. Hence. the NH3 molecules will ionise to produce hydroxide ions. 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. to produce hydrogen ions with low concentration. Explain the differences. the volume of sulphuric acid required is half compared to nitric acid.5 mol dm-3. pH is low. • In dilute ethanoic acid. OH-. NH3 only. NH4+.

in a solution. Fe3+ 48) Describe a chemical test to differentiate the lead(Il) ion. • Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube. • Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. • Hold the test tube slanted slightly. (a) Copper(Il) ion • Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess. A white precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess ammonia solution. (b) Magnesium ion • Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess A white precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. • Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.in a solution. (a) iron(II) ion • Pour 2 cm3 of the unknown solution into a test tube. • A white precipitate is formed. • Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. • A red blood colouration is formed. A white precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide solution to form a colourless solution. • Add 2 cm3 potassium iodide solution. (c) Zinc ion • Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess. Fe2+ b) iron(Ill) ion. • The lime water turns milky / chalky. Shake the mixture well. • A white precipitate is formed. • Flow / Bubble the gas liberated immediately through lime water. • Add potassium thiocynate solution into the test tube. • Add 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid into the test tube followed by about 2 cm3 of barium chloride solution. Zn2+ 47) Describe a chemical test to identify the following ions. A blue precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess ammonia solution to produce a dark blue solution. Al3+. KI into each of test tube. nazmymo@yahoo. in a solution.7|P age 42) Describe a chemical test to identify the presence of carbonate ions. a) iron(ll) ion. • Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. • Pour 5 cm3 of each solution into two separated test tubes. Iron(lll) ions confirm present. • Put a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid carefully and slowly along the side of slanting test tube into the mixture. NO3-. 43) Describe a chemical test to identify the presence of chloride ions. Pb2+ and aluminium ion. SO42in a powdered sample given. Mg2+ c) Zinc ion. • A dark blue precipitate is formed. A blue precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. • Dissolve the sample given in distil water to produce solution. • A brown ring is formed. A white precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess ammonia solution to form a colourless solution. • Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.com : Frequently Asked Questions Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 • Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube. CI. • Add potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution into the test tube. Cu2+ b) Magnesium ion. 46) Describe a chemical test to identity the following ions a) Copper(ll) ion. • Add 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid into the test tube. CO32. (b) iron (Ill) ion • Pour 2 cm3 of the unknown solution into a test tube. • The solution in the test tube produce yellow precipitate consists . Iron(II) ions confirm present. 44) Describe a chemical test to identify the presence of sulphate ions. • Add 2 cm3 of dilute nitric acid into the test tube follow by about 2 cm3 of silver nitrate solution. 45) Describe a chemical test to identify the presence of nitrate ions. • Add 2 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid into the test tube followed by 2 cm3 of iron(II) sulphate solution.

Chemistry SPM – Quick Review F4 8|P age 49) Describe a chemical test to identify the presence of ammonium ions. NH4+ in a solution Frequently Asked Questions in SPM 50) What is the meaning of alloy? 51) State the aims of making alloys 52) State the optimum conditions for the Contact process 53) State the optimum conditions for the Haber process 54) What is the meaning of polymers? Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride. Ammonium ions present.450°C . 2 SO2 + O2  2 SO3 • Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form oleum SO3 + H2SO4  H2S2O7 • The oleum is then diluted in water to produce dilute sulphuric acid H2S2O7 + H2O  2 H2SO4 Orang yang Tidak Kenal Erti Putus Asa Pasti Tidak Akan Gagal.Vanadium(V) oxide.. of lead(Il) ion. • This reduces the layers of copper atoms from sliding over one another easily. • Pour 2 cm3 of an unknown solution into a test tube.Iron filling • Temperature . Standard Answers • Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. V2O5 • Temperature . 56) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid Write all the chemical equations involved.com : Frequently Asked Questions . • The presence of tin atoms disrupts the orderly arrangement of copper atoms to bronze block. • Catalyst . • Ethene and chloroethene respectively. • The layers of copper atoms slide over easily if force is applied.1 atmosphere. Explain why bronze is harder than copper.550°C • Pressure . 55) Bronze is an alloy consists of copper and tin.200 atmospheres • Polymers are long chain molecules made up of many identical repeating units called monomers. • The copper atoms and the tin atoms are of different sizes. • Copper atoms in copper block are of the same sizes and arranged in an orderly arrangement. • Add sodium hydroxide solution is added into the test tube • Heat the mixture and place a damp red litmus paper near the mouth of test tube. • Improve the appearance of the pure metal • Improve the strength and hardness of the pure metal • Increase the resistance to corrosion of the pure metal • Catalyst . • The damp red litmus paper turns blue. • Molten sulphur is burnt in excess air to produce sulphur dioxide gas. nazmymo@yahoo. S + O2  SO2 • Sulphur dioxide and excess oxygen gas are passed over vanadium(V) oxide catalyst at 450°C and pressure of 1 atmosphere.450°C • Pressure .