You are on page 1of 178

B GIO DC V O TO

B NNG NGHIP V PTNT

HC VIN NNG NGHIP VIT NAM

NGUYN VN TAM

NGHIN CU MT S THNG S CHNH


LM C S THIT K B PHN CT THI RM
LIN HP VI MY P LA

LUN N TIN S
CHUYN NGNH: K THUT C KH

H NI, NM 2015

B GIO DC V O TO

B NNG NGHIP V PTNT

HC VIN NNG NGHIP VIT NAM

NGUYN VN TAM

NGHIN CU MT S THNG S CHNH


LM C S THIT K B PHN CT THI RM
LIN HP VI MY P LA

CHUYN NGNH:K THUT C KH


M S:6252 01 03

NGI HNG DN KHOA HC:


1. TS. L MINH L
2. TS. NGUYN XUN THIT

H NI, NM 2015

LI CAM OAN

Ti xin cam oan, y l cng trnh nghin cu ca ring ti,cc kt qu


nghin cu c trnh by trong lun n l trung thc, khch quan v cha tng
dng bo v bt k hc v no.
Ti xin cam oan rng mi s gip cho vic thc hin lun n c
cm n, cc thng tin trch dn trong lun n ny u c ch r ngun gc.
H Ni, ngy ..... thng .... nm ...........

Tc gi lun n

Nguyn Vn Tam

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page i

LI CM N
Vi tt c lng chn thnh, ti xin by t lng bit n su sc ti cc thy:
TS. L Minh L; TS. Nguyn Xun Thit v PGS.TS. Lng Vn Vt- Hc
vin Nng nghip Vit Nam, nhng ngi tn tnh ng vin, ch bo, hng
dn v gip ti trong nhiu nm ti quyt tm hon thnh bn lun n ny.
Ti xin chn thnh cm n tp th cc thy, c gio B mn C hc k thut,
Khoa C in, Ban Qun l o to, Ban Gim cHc vin Nng nghip Vit
Nam v cc Khoa, Phng, Ban, Vin trong Hc vin gip v chuyn mn
cng nh to iu kin cho ti trong qu trnh thc hin lun n.
Ti xin chn thnh cm n ti Ban Gim hiu v tp th cn b CNV Trng
Cao ng ngh C gii Ninh Bnh, to mi thun li gip ti trong sut qu
trnh ti hc tp v nghin cu.
Xin chn thnh cm n Ban Gim c v tp th cn b CNV Trung tm
Gim nh my v thit b (trc thuc Vin C in NN v Cng ngh STH) to
iu kin gip ti v thit bv ghi nhn kt qu o trong qu trnh trin khai th
nghim.
Ti xin trn trng cm n cc nh khoa hc, cc bnng nghip trong v
ngoi c quan v c bit l cc thnh vin trong gia nh, gip , ng h, ng
vin, gp kin ti hon thnh lun n ny.
Xin trn trng cm n!

Tc gi lun n

Nguyn Vn Tam

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page ii

MC LC

LI CAM OAN

LI CM N

ii

H THNG K HIU V CH VIT TT

vi

DANH MC HNH

xii

DANH MC BNG BIU

xiv

M U

Chng 1. TNG QUAN V VN NGHIN CU

1.1.

Tnh hnh sn xut v c gii ha khu thu hoch la Vit Nam

1.1.1. Sn lng la v rm, r Vit Nam trong nhng nm gn y

1.1.2. Tnh hnh c gii ha khu thu hoch la Vit Nam

1.2.

Mt s c im ca cy la v rm sau thu hoch

1.3.

Tnh hnh khai thc v x l rm, r trn th gii v Vit Nam

1.3.1. X l rm lm thc n cho i gia sc

1.3.2. X l rm, r lm phn vi sinh.

10

1.3.3. X l rm, r trong nui trng nm

11

1.3.4. X l rm, r p ng cho mt s ngnh cng ngh cao

11

1.4.

13

Tng quan v mt s mu my ct thi rm trn th gii v Vit Nam

1.4.1. My ct thi rm dao dng trng

13

1.4.2. My ct rm dao dng a

16

1.4.3. B phn ct thi s dng nguyn l ct kiu rng dao

17

1.4.4. B phn ct thi vi nguyn l ct cho cc khi rm dng l kin

19

1.4.5. B phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my GLH

22

1.5.

La chn nguyn l ct cho b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la

23

1.5.1. u, nhc im ca cc nguyn l ct khi lin hp vi my p la

23

1.5.2. La chn nguyn l ct cho b phn ct thi lin hp vi my p la

24

Yu cu k thut v cc ch tiu nh gi ca b phn ct thi CTR-1

26

1.6.

1.6.1. Yu cu k thut i vi b phn ct thi CTR-1

26

1.6.2. Cc ch tiu nh gi cho b phn ct thi CTR-1

27

Kt lun chng 1

28

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page iii

Chng 2. I TNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU


2.1.

29

i tng nghin cu

29

2.1.1. Xc nh cc thng s chnh nh hng n qu trnh ct thi

29

2.1.2. Xc nh mc nghin cu cc thng s chnh v gi tr cc hm ch tiu

31

2.2.

37

Phng php nghin cu l thuyt

2.2.1. Phng php gii tch

42

2.2.2. Phng php s

42

2.2.3. Phng php m hnh ha v m phng h thng k thut

43

2.3.

43

Phng php nghin cu thc nghim

2.3.1. Phng php nghin cu thc nghim n yu t

43

2.3.2. Phng php nghin cu thc nghim a yu t

45

2.3.3. K hoch thc nghim cho m hnh nghin cu b phn ct thi CTR-1

51

Chng 3. KT QU NGHIN CU L THUYT

55

3.1.

Thng s cu to v thng s ng hc ca b phn ct thi CTR-1

58

3.1.1. Xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao cho b phn ct thi CTR-1

59

3.1.2. Xc nh mt s thng s cu to c bn ca b phn ct thi CTR-1

64

3.1.3. Xc nh gc cc theo gc quay v tnh gc kp trong giai on ct 69


3.1.4. Cc thng s ng hc c bn ca b phn ct thi rm
3.2.

72

Xy dng m hnh ton v kho st nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n


cc hm nng lng trong qu trnh ct
73

3.2.1. Xc nh di on cnh sc dao lm vic S, khi lng cc phn rm


cha ct mrtv ct mrs
74
3.2.2. Lc cn cnh gt do ma st gia khi rm ct vi mt bn ca thn dao 78
3.2.3. Xc nh phn lc cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm trong giai on ct

79

3.2.4. M hnh ton m t nh hng ca mt s thng s chnh n cc hm nng


lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
85
3.2.5. Kho st nh hng ca mt s thng s chnh n gi tr cc hm nng
lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
89
3.3.

ng lc hc h truyn ng

94

3.3.1. Kho st ng lc hc qu trnh m my v bnh n ca h truyn ng

98

3.3.2. Kho st ng cong bin-tn ca h truyn ng

100

Kt lun chng 3

102

Chng 4. KT QU NGHIN CU THC NGHIM

103

4.1.

Kt qu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt ca m hnh ton

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

103

Page iv

4.1.1. c im ca khi rm trc v sau khi qua b phn p la

103

4.1.2. Kt qu v mt s c tnh c, l ca rm ti

105

4.2.

114

Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim

4.2.1. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim n yu t

115

4.2.2. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim a yu t

124

4.2.3. Kt qu nghin cu ti u tng qut

131

Kt lun chng 4

131

KT LUN V KIN NGH

133

DANH MC CC CNG TRNH LIN QUAN N LUN N C


CNG B
135
TI LIU THAM KHO

136

PH LC

141

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page v

H THNG K HIU V CH VIT TT


K hiu

n v

ngha

Mc ngha thng k

rad;

Gc nghing cnh gt

rad/s

Vn tc gc ca trng ct

rad/s

Vn tc gc t trng quay ca ng c

rad,

Cc bc t do xc nh gi tr tra bng chun Kohren thc


nghim n yu t.

1; 2

Gc to bi phng cnh gt v phng hng tm ca im


u cnh gt (cn c gi l gc cu to)

rad,

Gc to bi hai phng hng tm ca u cnh gt v chn


cnh gt (cn c gi l gc cu to)
Tha s Lagrange trong hm ti u tng qut

rad,

rad

Gc quay trng ct

c; cht v
ck

rad

Gc h u dao; gc bao vo; gc bao ct; gc bao vng chuyn


tip v gc bao vng chy khng

'

rad,

Gc ma st gia vt liu lm dao v vt liu ct thi

1; 2

rad,

Gc quay ca trc ng c; gc quay ca trc trng ct

2q

rad,

Gc quay quy i ng trc

rad

Gi tr bin thin gia gc cc v gc quay .

rad

Gc cc (gc xc nh bn knh cc R())

0; v;

Gc trt

T s nn tng i

Hm ti u tng qut ca cc hm ch tiu

ht

Hm hao tn cn dao ng

rad,

Chiu di on dao ngp vo vt thi khi va nn va ct

S
Sc

Gc kp

cm, m

Chiu di on dao ct
Chiu di on dao nn

Sn

mm, m

d;

Khe h gia mt bn dao v mt bn cnh gt


dy vt liu ch to dao; quay khng u trc trng ct

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page vi

Hiu sut b truyn ai

v; r

rad;

Gc nghing mng dn ca vo rm v ca ra rm

kg/m3

Khi lng ring ca rm ti trng thi t nhin

H s trt ca ng c tc thp hn tc in t

H s trt ng vi m men cc i ca ng c

H s trt n hi ca b truyn ai

at; an

m/s2

Gia tc tip tuyn; php tuyn vi bin dng cnh sc dao

ai; aij; aii

H s hm ch tiu dng thc

Aii
Act

H s hm ch tiu dng chnh tc


kJ

Cng do mt hng cnh gt thc hin mt ln ct


2

Acr

kJ/cm

Cng ct thi ring


Khong cch trc trong truyn ng ai
h s cn dao ng trong hm hao tn

b
bi; bij; bii

H s hm ch tiu dng m

bcg; bhcg

Chiu rng cnh gt; chiu di hng cnh gt

bd

Khong cch hai mt bn ca hai dao k nhau

Cx

Hm ch tiu cht lng ct

Dcg; Dr

m2

Din tch b mt mt cnh gt; 1/10 din tch b mt cnh gt

Dcr

cm2

Din tch ngang phn khi rm ct p vo mt bn dao

mm2

Din tch tit din dy ai

Dnr

m2

Din tch rm do on cnh sc dao lm vic nn vo

Drt

m2

Din tch cn khng kh ca phn khi rm cha ct chiu ln


phng bn knh cc R()

Drs

m2

Din tch cn khng kh ca phn khi rm ct chiu ln


phng bn knh cc Rt

Drh

m2

Tng din tch khi rm c ct do 7 dao thc hin trong mt


qu trnh ct

Gt; Gb
f; fr
f1; f2
f0; ft; fe

Gi tr tnh theo chun Kohren; gi tr tra bng chun Kohren


1/s

Tn s dao ng ca m men cn; tn s dao ng ring ca h


Bc t do trong k hoch thc nghim a yu t
Bc t do tng qut; bc t do nghim thc; bc t do sai bit
trong thc nghim n yu t

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page vii

f'

H s ma st gia rm ti v thp

Fqn

Lc qun tnh ly tm do khi rm cha ct chuyn ng theo


qu o cnh sc dao

Fqns

Lc qun tnh ly tm do khi rm ct chuyn ng theo qu


o trn bn knh Rt

Fqt

Lc qun tnh theo phng tip tuyn vi cnh sc dao do khi


rm cha ct chuyn ng trn cnh sc dao

Fmsd

Lc ma st gia rm v cnh sc dao

Fmst

Phn lc cnh gt theo phng cnh gt cng on nn ct

Fmss

Phn lc cnh gt theo phng cnh gt cng on y rm

Ft; Fb

Gi tr phn tch phng sai; gi tr tra bng chun Fisher

hr

Chiu cao ban u khi rm cha c nn trong vng ct

hn

gim chiu cao ban u ca khi rm sau khi c nn

hc

Chiu cao khi rm sau khi c nn n trng thi ct

Jrt

kg.m2

M men qun tnh khi lng roto ng c

Jplc

kg.m2

M men qun tnh khi lng puly ng c

J1

kg.m2

M men qun tnh khi lng quy dn v bnh ai ch ng t


u trc ng c.

J2; J2q

kg.m2

M men qun tnh khi lng ca b phn ct CTR-1 v bnh


ai b ng v m men qun tnh khi lng quy i ng trc.

ktn

S h s trong m hnh hi quy thc nghim y

k*

S h s c ngha trong m hnh hi quy

kd

S dao c nh

kn

N/m

cng ca nhnh ai

N.m

cng truyn ng ai

Lcg; Lt

Chiu di cnh gt; chiu di trng ct

Chiu di danh ngha dy ai

S th nghim lp li

mc

S dao ng ca phn ng u ra giai on chuyn tip

mc

kg

Khi lng phn khi rm ct t.

mmr

kg

Khi lng rm ly mu sau khi phn loi xong (tng ca khi


lng rm ct t v ct khng t).

mcg

kg

Khi lng rm do mt hng cnh gt v vo vng ct

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page viii

mr

kg

Khi lng rm do mt cnh gt v vo vng ct

mrt

kg

Khi lng rm trn mt cnh gt cha ct trong giai on ct

mrs

kg

Khi lng rm trn mt cnh gt ct trong giai on ct

Mct; Mthr;
Mck; Mctb

N.m

M men trn trc trng ct giai on ct; giai on chuyn tip;


giai on chy khng; m men trung bnh ca 1 qu trnh ct.

Mc; Mcq

N.m

M men cn ct v m men cn quy i ng trc

Md1; Md2

N.m

M men trn ai nhn t ng c v truyn cho b phn ct

Me

N.m

M men pht ng ca ngun ng lc (ng c).

Mm

N.m

M men nh mc ng c

Mmax

N.m

M men cc i ca ng c

Mctb

N.m

M men trung bnh trn trc trng ct trong mt qu trnh ct

MSn; MSe
n; nch

Trung bnh bnh phng: nghim thc; sai bit


vg/ph

Tc quay trng ct v tc quay trng ct c cng hng.


S thng s vo (s thng s nh hng chnh); s thng s ra

nv; nr
ntn

S th nghim cho mt thng s trong qu trnh thc nghim a


yu t c k n s th nghim lp li

Ntn

Tng s th nghim trong qu trnh thc nghim a yu t khng


k th nghim lp li

Ne

kW.s/kg Hm ch tiu chi ph nng lng ring


S th nghim tm (mc c s)

N0
Nc; Nctb

kW

Cng sut v cng sut trung bnh ca mt qu trnh ct

Nc

kW

Cng sut ngun ng lc (ng c)

H s rt gn trong quy hoch thc nghim bc 2

Pc

Lc ct thi theo phng vn tc dao

Pct

Lc do dao tc dng vo khi rm theo phng vung gc vi


tip tuyn ca cnh sc dao ti v tr tip xc

Pntb

Lc nn trung bnh trong cng on nn rm

Prt

Trng lng phn khi rm cha ct

Prs

Trng lng phn khi rm ct

kg/s

ql

kg la/s

qct

N/cm

p lc ct thi ring

qn

N/cm2

p lc nn trong cng on nn

Lng cung cp rm vo b phn ct thi


Lng cung cp la vo my p

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page ix

qnb

N/cm2

Qnc; Qdr

Phn lc do mt cnh gt tc dng vo phn khi rm: cha ct


trong cng on nn ct; ct trong cng on y rm.

Rm

Hp ca lc ct theo phng php tuyn v lc ma st trn cnh


sc dao

p lc do phn khi rm ct vo hai mt bn ca dao

S mc thay i th nghim trong qu trnh thc nghim

r
rt

r1; r2

mm, m

R0

Bn knh v tr t u dao (bn knh u cnh sc dao)

Rt

Bn knh cc xc nh v tr trung im on cnh gt qua


cnh sc ca dao

R()

Bn knh quay (l khong cch t tm quay O n giao im ca


phng bn knh u cnh gt vi cnh sc dao)

R()

Bn knh cc (l khong cch t tm quay O n v tr giao im


gia cnh gt v cnh sc dao)

S2max

Bn knh danh ngha bnh ai ch ng v b ng

Phng sai ln nht trong r mc th nghim

S2u
s

Bn knh trng ct

Phng sai th nghim mc th u trong r mc th nghim


m

Hm ng i ca cnh sc dao
Ta im c bit ca hm ch tiu dng thc

SX; SY

Tr s tra bng chun Student bc t do2

t
tct; tcht; tck

Thi gian ca mt giai on: ct; chuyn tip; chy khng.

tm

Thi gian m my ca h truyn ng

Td

Thnh phn ca lc Pct theo phng tip tuyn cnh sc dao

TMc

Chu k dao ng ca m men kch ng (m men cn)

Tr

Chu k dao ng ring ca h hai khi lng

Tmsb (Tms)

Lc ma st do khi rm ct vi hai mt bn thn dao

m/s

Vn tc ct

vt

m/s

Vn tc ct theo phng tip tuyn vi cnh sc dao

Vr

m3

Th tch khi rm trng thi t nhin do mt hng cnh gt


thc hin mt ln v rm.

xi v Xi

K hiu dng m v dng thc cho cc thng s vo

yi v Yi

K hiu dng m v dng thc cho cc hm ch tiu

X; Y

Tr s thng s vo v ra phng trnh chnh tc dng thc

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page x

w0

N/m2

p lc gi

Wrr

m/s2

Gia tc trong chuyn ng thng ca khi rm trn b mt cnh


gt khi rm ra khi vng ct.

W0

Lc cn khng kh vo phn rm cha ct

W0s

Lc cn khng kh vo phn rm ct

CGH

C gii ha

CTR-1

Tn ca b phn ct thi theo nguyn l nhiu dao ct c nh

BSH

ng bng sng Hng

BSCL

ng bng sng Cu Long

GLH

Gt p lin hp

TB

Trung bnh (gi tr trung bnh)

TT

Th t

TCVN
TN
TNHH

Tiu chun Vit Nam


Th nghim
Trch nhim hu hn

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page xi

DANH MC HNH

STT

Tn hnh

Trang

1.1

Qu trnh ng ha rm lm thc n cho gia sc

1.2

Gii php x l rm, r trong nui trng nm

11

1.3

Nguyn l cu to v my ct thi rm dao dng trng

14

1.4

S cu to v my ct x, si v da

15

1.5

Nguyn l cu to my bm rm dao dng a

16

1.6

My bm thi rm trong dy chuyn sn xut nm v m thm

17

1.7

Cu to nguyn l b phn ct thi loi rng - dao v loi hai dao

18

1.8

S nguyn l my bm rm v gc r trn ng

19

1.9

Kt qu thu gom rm theo nguyn l con ln v nguyn l pittng

19

1.10 My bm rm Pazt Mode 9427 v cc b phn ca my

20

1.11 My ct rm kin trn

21

1.12 My bm rm l kin

21

1.13 Nguyn l cu to v m hnh lin hp b phn ct thi vi my gt p

22

1.14 B phn ct thi rm v m hnh lin hp vi my p la

25

2.1

M hnh xc nh cc thng s chnh cho b phn ct thi CTR-1

31

2.2

H thng thit b o m men, cng sut v S Worksheet

36

2.3

S nh hng ca cung li dao v tm k ln vt thi

38

2.4

th ph thuc Act, Pc theo v

40

2.5

Chuyn ng ca cht im M

41

3.1

S tng qut qu trnh lm vic ca b phn ct thi CTR-1

56

3.2

Phn tch c im bin dng li dao dng cung trn lch tm

60

3.3

Xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao

62

3.4

M hnh xc nh bn knh u dao R0v chiu di cnh gt Lcg

66

3.5

M hnh xc nh hm vc t bn knh cc R() theo gc quay

69

3.6

th ng hc phn t rm trt theo giao im Q

73

3.7

Hng cnh gt v rm vo vng ct

75

3.8

Xc nh di on dao Sc v Sn

77

3.9

Phn tch cc thnh phn lc trong cng on nn ct

80

3.10 Phn tch cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln phn khi rm ct mrs

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

83

Page xii

3.11 Lu ton xc nh gi tr ca cc hm nng lng mi mc nghin cu


ca cc thng s chnh
90
3.12 M men trn trc trng ct trong mt qu trnh ct

90

3.13 nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n cc hm nng lng

91

3.14 S h truyn ng

94

3.15 Biu m men cn trong mt vng quay ca trng ct

96

3.16 ng lc hc qu trnh m my v bnh n

99

3.17 ng cong bin-tn ca h

101

4.1

Kch thc rm trc v sau khi qua b phn p

103

4.2

S qu trnh ct thi bng li dao

105

4.3

th thc nghim v th hm hi quy m t quan h n - qn

107

4.4

th quan h gia lc ct v chuyn v ca dao cc mc gc trt

108

4.5

S ph thuc ca qct v Ar vi

111

4.6

nh hng khe h n lc ma st ln hai mt bn ca dao

112

4.7

nh hng ca khe h n qnb

113

4.8

M hnh th nghim b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la

114

4.9

nh hng v n Cx v Ne

116

4.10

nh hng ca q n Cx v Ne

118

4.11 nh hng ca q n kh nng ct rm ca b phn ct thi

118

4.12 nh hng ca n Cx v Ne

120

4.13 nh hng ca n Cx v Ne

122

4.14 nh hng ca khe h n Cx v Ne

122

4.15 th mt ch tiu hm Y1

128

4.16 th Pareto Chart

128

4.17 th mt ch tiu hm Y2

130

4.18 th mt ch tiu tng qut

131

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page xiii

DANH MC BNG BIU


STT

Tn bng

Trang

1.1

Sn lng la v rm, r theo cc a phng

1.2

Mc c gii ha khu thu hoch la cc tnh BSCL

1.3

Mt s mu my p la c s dng ph bin BSH

2.1

Xc nh cc mc vn tc ct v theo tn s bin tn

32

2.2

Xc nh lng cung cp q theo lng la trn mt di bng ti ml

33

2.3

Thay i gc kp bng cch thay i gc nghing

34

2.4

Gi tr cc mc th nghim n yu t ca cc thng s vo

52

2.5

Bng k hiu m cho cc ln th nghim

52

2.6

Gi tr kt qu cc hm ch tiu Cx (%) v Ne (kW.s/kg)

53

4.1

Gi tr khi lng phn khi rm theo cc khong chiu di rm

104

4.2

Kt qu o cc thng s c tnh ca rm ti

107

4.3

Lc trung bnh v cng trong giai on nn v ct

109

4.4

Gi tr p lc ct thi ring v cng ring theo gc trt

110

4.5

Gi tr p lc qnb tc dng ln thnh bn ca dao cc mc khe h

113

4.6

Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghim ca v

115

4.7

Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghim q

117

4.8

Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghim gc kp

119

4.9

Kt qu Cx v Ne cc mc th nghim khe h

121

4.10 Cc mc v bc thay i ca cc thng s

124

4.11 Bng c lng xc nh gi tr v tnh c ngha ca h s hi quy

125

4.12 Bng c lng h s hi quy sau khi loi b tng tc cp CD

126

4.13 Bng phn tch phng sai

126

4.14 To im ti u cho hm ch tiu Y1 t gi tr Max

128

4.15 Bng c lng h s hi quy sau khi loi b tng tc cp X3X4

128

4.16 Bng phn tch phng sai

129

4.17 Ta im ti u cho hm ch tiu Y2 t gi tr Min

130

4.18 Ta im ti u tng qut

131

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page xiv

M U
1. Tnh cp thit ca ti nghin cu
Nm 2013 sn lng thcc nc c tnh t 44,1 triu tn, trong din
tch gieo trng la c nm c tnh t 7,9 triu ha (Tng cc Thng k, 2013),vi
t l rm, r chim khong 50 55% v thc chim 45 50% khi lng cy la
kh (Nguyn Trng, 2012; Nguyn Nng Nhng, 2013),do mi nm c nc
cho ra khong 46,305 triu tn rm, r.
Lm th no khai thc c hiu qu ngun ph phm to ln ny trong khi
sau thu hoch la ngun rm, r ny li phn b ri rc trn cnh ng, vic thu
gom rm, r i hi phi tn nhiu cng sc v chi ph. Chnh v vy, mc d c
nhiu hng nghin cu c t ra khai thc ph phm rm, r sau thu hoch
nh trng nm, ch bin lm thc n chn nui cho i gia sc, ch bin thnh phn
hu c bng ch phm vi sinhNhng thc t lng rm, r cn b li trn ng
rung vn cn chim mt t trng ln, tnh ring cc tnh vng BSHlng rm, r
b t ngay trn ng rung sau thu hoch chim khong t 30 90% tng lng
rm, r sau thu hoch, c bit cc ni gn th hay cc huyn ngoi thnh H Ni
t l t rm, r ngoi ng rung t 6090% tng lng rm, r sau thu hoch la
(Nguyn Mu Dng, 2012).
Rm sau khi thu hoch bng my GLH hoc my p tnh ti c c im
si dai, di, ri nn trong trng hp s dng my GLH lng rm li trn
ng rung s cn tr ln ti cc cng on canh tc tip theo, trng hp s dng
my p tnh ti, rm c cht thnh tng ng nh ngay trn ng rt thun li
cho vic ch bin thnh phn hu c bng ch phm sinh hc, nhng cng on
o trn c thun li cn chiu di on rm sau khi c ct thikhong 10 cm
(Trn Minh Vng v Nguyn Th Minh Thun, 1999), do vy rm sau khi qua b
phn p ca my p la cn gy kh khn cho qu trnh x l lm phn vi sinh.
Hin nay nhiu cng trnh nghin cu s dng rm, r lm thc n cho i
gia sc, lm nm, lm g cng nghip, lm nhin liu ethanol u cho cng mt
yu cu l rm, r cn c ct ngn thnh cc on trc khi ch bin, do vy n

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 1

nay c mt s mu my ct thi rm ang c s dng ti cc c s sn xut,


cc mu my ny ch yu s dng cc nguyn l ct truyn thng nh nguyn l ct
kiu dao trng; dng dao a, vi nguyn l ct truyn thng khi rm cn c nn
p trc khi c a vo vng ct, v vy cc nguyn l ct truyn thng ny rt
kh khn khi lin hp vi my p la do rm ra t my p la c trng thi
khng c nn p trc.
Khu p la hin nay nc ta, c bit l cc vng sn xut la tp trung
c bn c c kh ha, nu kt hp c vic p tch ht v ct ngn rm
ngay trong mt cng on s tit kim lng ln nng lng v ct rm ti chi ph
nng lng thp hn rm kh, tn dng ngun nng lng tung rm t my p vo
thng b phn ct thi; gim chi ph lao ng cho qu trnh ny v cho cng on
sau khi ct. c bit hn na s gip tn thu ngun rm, r trit s dng vo cc
mc ch hu ch; gim thiu nhim mi trng.
Vic nghin cu b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la c ngha
thc tin to ln v thi s. V nhng l do trn nn vic thc hin ti lun n:
"Nghin cu mt s thng s chnh lm c s thit k b phn ct thi rm lin
hp vi my p la" l cp bch v cn thit.
2. Mc tiu, nhim v v i tng nghin cu
i tng nghin cu:
i tng nghin cu trong lun n l mt s thng s chnh nh hng n
qu trnh ct ca b phn ct thi rm lp lin hp vi my p la.
Mc tiu nghin cu:
- Mc tiu chung: To ra c b phn ct thi rm lp lin hp sau b phn
p ca my p la nhm nng cao nng sut, gim chi ph nng lng v lao
ng, to iu kin thun li cho vic khai thc, x l rm nhanh v trit , gp
phn gim thiu nhim mi trng.
- Mc tiu c th: Xc nh mt s thng s ti u v cu to v ch lm
vic, lm c s thit k, ch to b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la.
Nhim v nghin cu:
Xc nh mt s tnh cht v c, l tnh carm ti lin quan n qu trnh
ct thi bng li dao.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 2

Xy dng m hnh ton m t nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n chi ph


nng lng cho b phn ct thirm lin hp vi b phn p ca my p la.
Xy dng m hnh ton m t qu trnh ng lc hc, t lm c s ch
to b phn ct thi rm lm vic c n nh.
Nghin cu thc nghim nh gi nh hng ca mt s thng s n cc
hm ch tiu ca b phn ct thi rm, trn c s xc nh cc gi tr ti u cho
cc thng s chnh nh hng ti qu trnh ct.
3. ngha khoa hc v thc tin ca ti
- ngha khoa hc:
+ Lun n ng dng v pht trin mt nguyn l mi thit k b phn
ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la, phc v cho vic ct ngn rm ti ngay ti
ng rung.
+ Xy dng c c s l thuyt tnh ton xc nh cc thng s c bn v
cu to v ch lm vic ca b phn ct thi rm, nhm nh hng cho vic thit
k, ch to. Kt qu nghin cu trn l ti liu tham kho cn thit khi thit k cc
loi my ct thi hay bm rm hoc cc vt liu tng t c nng sut khc nhau.
+ Gp phn thc y s pht trin ca ngnh ch to my nng nghip
nc ta hin nay.
- ngha thc tin:
+ Ngay sau thu hoch la, rm c ct ngn v cht thnh ng ti ng
rung, ngha ny lm tng tnh nng s dng cng nh kh nng khai thc v x
l rm, r c tt hn.
+ B phn ct thi rm c thit k v ch to c cu to n gin, hon
ton c th ch to c trong nc thay cho thit b ngoi t tin, nh c th
trin khai, p dng rng ri cho cc c s sn xut.
+ Kt qu nghin cu ca lun n gp phn khai thc v x l ph phm
nng nghip phc v sn xut v i sng, gim thiu nhim mi trng.
4. Nhng ng gp mi ca lun n
+ Xy dng c m hnh b phn ct thi rm lin hp my p la. y l
b phn ct thi c thit k theo nguyn l mi, thc hin ct c trt nh cnh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 3

gt ko v nn khi rm vo li dao cong t c nh, cho php va ct va y


phn khi rm ct ra ngoi, nh nng cao nng sut my, gim chi ph
nng lng v lao ng cho qu trnh ct.
+ Cnh sc dao c xy dngtheo bin dng ng xon c lgarit c c
im gc trt khng i trong qu trnh ct, t xy dng c m hnh ton v
kho st nh hng ca cc thng s nghin cu n cc hm nng lng. Kt qu
ny ng gp mt phng php tnh ton mi cho b phn ct thi v mt tnh
ton nng lng.
+ Xy dng c mi quan h gia cc tham s nghin cu v c im c
l tnh ca rm ti nh hng n qu trnh ct thi bng li dao. Kt qu ny
lm c s tnh ton nng lng, ng thi l ti liu tham kho cho cc cng trnh
nghin cu khc lin quan n rm ti.
+ Bng phng php nghin cu l thuyt v thc nghim xc nh c
cc gi tr ti u ca qu trnh ct thi, lm c s thit k v ch to b phn ct thi
rm lin hp vi my p la ng dng vo thc tin sn xut.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 4

Chng 1.TNG QUAN V VN NGHIN CU


1.1. Tnh hnh sn xut v c gii ha khu thu hoch la Vit Nam
1.1.1. Sn lng la v rm, r Vit Nam trong nhng nm gn y
Sn lng la c nc nm 2013 c tnh t 44,1 triu tn, tng 338,3
nghn tn so vi nm trc (Nm 2012 tng 1,3 triu tn so vi nm 2011), trong
din tch gieo trng c nm c tnh t 7,9 triu ha (Tng cc Thng k, 2013).
Sn lng la v rm, r phn theo a phng trn c nc trong nhng nm gn
y th hin trn bng 1.1.
Bng 1.1. Sn lng la v rm, r theo cc a phng
n v: Triu tn
Nm 2009
Nm 2010
Nm 2011
Nm 2012

Nm
Vng min

Thc

Rm

Thc

38,95

42,84

40,01 44,01 42,39 46,63 43,67 48,04

BSH

6,79

7,45

6,81

7,49

6,97

7,67

6,87

7,56

Trung du min ni pha


Bc

3,03

3,35

3,09

3,40

3,20

3,52

3,26

3,59

Bc trung B v Duyn
hi min Trung

6,25

6,87

6,15

3,48

6,54

7,19

6,71

7,38

Ty Nguyn

0,99

1,09

1,04

1,14

1,08

1,19

1,13

1,24

ng Nam B

1,32

1,45

1,32

1,45

1,39

1,49

1,39

1,53

BSCL

20,48

22,53

21,59 23,74 23,27 25,60 24,29 26,72

C nc

Rm

Thc

Rm

Thc

Rm

Ngun: Nguyn Nng Nhng(2013)


Cng vi s pht trin cng nghip ha, hin i ha, din tch trng la
khng ngng b st gim t 6,6 triu ha nm 1995xung cn 3,9 triu ha nm 2012
(Nguyn Vit Chin, 2012). Trc tnh hnh trn di s lnh o ca ng, ngy
11 thng 05 nm 2012 Ngh nh S: 42/2012/N-CP ca Chnh ph c ban
hnh, s kin ny thc y mnh m ngnh trng la nc ta nhm gi vng n
nh ng thi khuyn khch khai hoang m rng din tch trng la bng chnh
sch h tr sn xut la (Chnh ph, 2012). thc y mnh m hn na ngnh
sn xut nng nghip, B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn ph duyt n
pht trin ngnh trng trt n nm 2020, tm nhn n nm 2030. Trong qu t
trng la nm 2015 l 3,899 triu ha, la nc 2 v tr ln l 3,258 triu ha, din

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 5

tch gieo trng trn nm l 7,3 triu ha; nm 2020 bo v qu t la n nh l


3,812 triu ha, trong la nc 2 v tr ln l 3,222 triu ha, din tch gieo trng 7
triu ha; p dng ng b cc bin php thm canh tin tin t sn lng t 41
43 triu tn vo nm 2015 v 2020; t 44 triu tn nm 2030, m bo an ninh
lng thc v xut khu (B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn, 2012).
1.1.2. Tnh hnh c gii ha khu thu hoch la Vit Nam
Hin nay c nc c khong 580.000 my tut p la; khong 19.221 my
gt la cc loi (my GLH tng 19 ln so vi nm 2007; my gt xp dy tng 1,2
ln), ring vng BSCL c 12.455 chic my gt cc loi, trong : 8.919 my
GLH v 3.536 chic my gt ri hng.
V c gii ho sn xut la, nm 2012 mc c gii ho bnh qun cc
khu: lm t trng la t 80%; thu hoch t 30% (vng BSCL t 58%); sy
la ch ng BSCL 42%; tut la 95%; xay xt la, go 95%.
V c gii ha sn xut la vng ng bng sng Cu Long: Tng hp bo
co ca cc tnh BSCL, mc c gii ha khu thu hoch la nm 2012 trnh
by trn bng 1.2.
Bng 1.2. Mc c gii ha khu thu hoch la cc tnh BSCL
TT

Tnh

T l gt bng my (%)

TT

Tnh

T l gt bng my (%)

An Giang

50

Sc Trng

75

Kin Giang

60

Vnh Long

76

ng Thp

61

10

Tr Vinh

30

Long An

95

11

Hu Giang

43

Cn Th

64

12

Bn Tre

10

Tin Giang

45

13

C Mau

35

Bc Liu

20

TB

58

Ngun: Nguyn Vit Chin(2013)


Ring v c gii ha nng nghip cc tnh pha Bc, tng hp bo co ca
mt s tnh pha Bc tnh n ht nm 2012, mc c gii ha khu lm t trng
la trn bnh qun 76,4% (cng kh cao so vi c nc t 89,5%), trong Nam
nh t mc cao nht 100%. Hin nay, khu vc BSH c trn 1.500 my gt la
cc loi trong c 1.206 my GLH cn li l my gt ri hng, c gii ha thu
hoch bnh qun trong vng t 12%.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 6

n nay BSH
BSH gi
gii quyt c bn khu p la bng my (Trung
Trung tm Khuy
Khuyn
nng Quc gia, 2012).. V l khu nng
n
nhc, yu cu thi v khn tr
ng cho nn t l
CGH khu ny tng rt
t nhanh. C nc u t trang b 587.364 my p la c
ng c, t trn 90%.
%. Tnh n nm 2010, cc tnh thuc BSH trang bb 152.563
chic my p la (Trung
Trung tm Khuyn
Khuy nng Quc gia, 2012). Phn
n l
ln cc loi my
p c trang b BSH l
l do cng ty c kh Nht Vit cung cp.
p. Ngo
Ngoi ra, ti mt
s a phng,
ng, nng dn t
t lp thm ng c diezen (lp vo gung
ng tu
tut la p chn
c trang b trc y gim nh cng lao ng).
Mt s muu my p
la c s dng rng ri hin nay (bng
ng 1.
1.3).
Bng 1.3. Mt
t s mu my p la c s dng ph bin
BSH
n v sn xut
(ngun)

Thng s k thut

Cng ty TNHH C
Kh Nng Lng

- Kiu
Ki 1600 -1800- 2200
- Cng sut:
su 18 20 Hp
- Trc
Tr l quay: 1000 vg/ph
- Nng
N sut:
6-7
6 pht/so Bc B
- T
T l sch: 99%

Cng ty TNHH sn
xut v thng mi
Bnh Qun.

- Kiu:
Ki 2200
- Cng sut:
su 15 Hp
- Trc
Tr l quay:
900 1000 vg/ph
- Nng
N sut:
3 pht/so Bc
B B
- T
T l sch: 99%

Cng ty TNHH Cng


nghip c kh Minh
Hi

- Kiu:
Ki 2000
- Cng sut:
su 15 Hp
- Trc
Tr l quay:
900 1000 vg/ph
- Nng
N sut: 3 T/h
- T
T l sch: 99%

Cng Ty TNHH C
kh Nht Vit

- Kiu:
Ki 1600 -1800- 2200
- Cng sut:
su 15 20 Hp
- Trc
Tr l quay:
900 1000 vg/ph
- Nng
N sut: 2 5 T/h
- T
T l sch: 99%

Hnh nh

1.2. Mt s c im ca cy la v rm sau thu hoch


Ngy nay vic p dng cc tin b khoa hc vo sn xut ang c ch
trng pht trin. Mt s tnh cht v c im ca cy la c nh hng n qu
trnh lm vic ca b phn ct thi rmtheo sau my p la.
- m: m la ph thuc vo ging la, iu kin kh hu, t ai, ch
canh tc v thi im thu hoch. Nhn chung m ht thay i t 18 26%,
m rm thay i trong khong 60 80% (Dng Ngc Th v cs., 1980). m
la s tip tc gim sau khi ct ty theo ma: sau khi ct hai ngy v ma h m
ht gim 4,2 6,1%, m rm gim t 13,1 17,8%; v ma ng m ht
gim t 0,8 2,4%, m rm gim 4,2 13% (Nguyn Vn Hu, 2000). m
la c nh hng n dai lin kt, bn c hc ca ht v rm, do c nh
hng n ch tiu nng sut v cht lng lm vic ca b phn ct thi rm lin
hp vi my p la.
- Chiu cao cy: Cc ging la min Bc c chiu cao trung bnh khong0,8
1,15m. Ngy nay vi trnh thm canh, cng tc chn ging tt nn trn mt tha
rung chiu cao cy chnh lch khng ng k. chiu di cy khi ct ph thuc vo
ging la, tp qun canh tc v phng php thu hoch. Vi tp qun canh tc v thu
hoch ngy nay khi thu hoch la ngi nng dn ch ct phn rm c cha bng la,
chnh v vy chiu di cy sau khi ct thng trong khong 0,45 0,6m.
- T l ht/rm (t l gia khi lng ht v khi lng rm): T l ht/rm
ph thuc vo ging la, iu kin sinh trng, m v chiu cao ct, t l
ht/rm thng trong khong 0,44 0,55 (Trn c Dng v cs., 1995).
- H s ma st: Ph thuc nhiu vo m, t cc cng trnh nghin cu cho
thy h s ma st gia la v thp dao ng trong khong 0,39 0,6 ( ,
1978), gia la v vi bt cao su l 0,7 1 (, 1979). H s ma st ni ca thn cy
la ph thuc vo ging la, m song khc bit nhau khng ng k, c th ly fc =
1,8(, 1979; Nguyn Vn Hu, 2000).
H s ma st rm kh m 15% vi thp l 0,6 v rm ti vi thp l
0,46,khi lng ring ca khi rm kh trng thi t nhin ( dng xp ng ln

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 8

thng xe) l 48 50 kg/m3(Nguyn c Long, 2004; Nguyn Nng Nh


ng, 2013).
- dai lin kt:
t: dai lin kt ca ht vi bng ph thuc
c vvo ging la,
m v v tr ht trn
n bng. Cng bt
b mt ht ra khi bng dao ng trong khong
kho
3,2.10-3 6,3.10-3J. Lc
c bt
b ht ra khi bng nh hn 825 ln lc
c ko t dc thn
cy la (, 1994; , 1991).
- Kt qu nghin
n cu
c nh hng ca p lc p n khi lng
ng ri
ring ca rm
kh c m 10,5 15,2% (Nguyn c Long, 2004):

trong : rk l khi lng


ng ring
ri
ca rm kh, kg/m3.
1.3. Tnh hnh khai thc v x
x l rm, r trn th gii v Vitt Nam
1.3.1. X l rm lm th
c n cho i gia sc
nc Nga x
l rm dng kin lm thc nn cho gia sc bbng phng
php ng
ng ha cc cng on c tin hnh v chun b nh:Nh
Nh hp-Chun b
thc n th xanh- Ch bin thc n th -ng harm vi cc bc
c c trnh by
trn hnh 1.1.

Hnh 1.1.. Qu trnh ng ha rm lm thc n


n cho gia sc

Ngun:
n: (2012)
Vit Nam rm
m la tti ngay sau khi thu hoch c chua(v
chua(vi 0%, 1%,
2% v 3% r mt) v kim
m ho (vi
(v 1%, 1,5% v 2% ur). Trcc khi ,
rmla ti
c bm nh ti kchth
c t 13 cm ri trn u vi cc cht bsung(tu
sung(tutheo cng
thc) theo ng t l.. Sau
cho 2 kg hn hp trnvo mi silo
ilo th nghi
nghim (lp li
3ln), ln cht v btt kn kh v
v trong phng thnghim. Sau khi c

30, 60 hay
90 ngy cc mu i din
di
c ly theoTCVN 1532-86 nhgitheo cc

chtiutrc quan(mu sc, mc v mi), pH, thnh phn ho hc (vt cht kh,
protein thv khong tng s theoAOAC, 1997; NDF, ADF v ADL) nng cao kh
nng bo qun v tng gi trdinh dng ca rm la lm thc n cho tru b thay th
cho phngphp phi kh truyn thng (Nguyn Xun Trch v cs., 2006).
i vi qu trnh x l thc n th cho i gia sc, cht lng sn phm bm
thi c nh gi thng qua cht lng thc n th, xanh.Vi mt sn phm bm
t yu cu, chiu di cho php nm trong khong 5 10 cm,do vi on bm c
chiu di ln hn 10 cm, khi n gia sc s nhai li v khng n ht, cn nu sn
phm bm qu nh, vn s gy ra s mt cht dch lm gim cht lng sn phm,
tr trng hp nghin nh vn lm cm vin (Nguyn Xun Trch, 2004).
n nay vic x l rm lm thc n cho gia sc mt s nc trn th gii
c x l bng nhiu phng php khc nhau, ng thi t l rm c x l vi
mc ch chn nui tng i cao nh Trung Quc chim 28%, Thi Lan chim
24%, n 18% cn Vit Nam cha c thng k c th nhng con s ny c gi
tr cn khim tn (Nguyn Ngc Huyn, 2012).
1.3.2. X l rm, r lm phn vi sinh.
Quy trnh sn xut phn vi sinh (Compost): Ct cc phthi hu c ngn
khong t 5 8 cm

Lm m v a vo cc h

B sung 5kg ure, 5kg ln

supe, 750 ml sinh khi vi sinh vt. Sau 10 ngy nui cy c ho vo 30 lt nc


v trn u vi khi nguyn liu (Khuyt danh, 2009).
i vi vic x l rm, c n chung lm phn yu cu ct thi rm, c
di khong 10 cm(Trn Minh Vng v Nguyn Th Minh Thun, 1999).
n cng on x l rm, r lm phn vi sinh bng vic tn dng cc
ngun ph thi t cht thi gia cm c trn ln vi rm, r mt t l nht nh,
m bo cho gi tr ti u hm lng dinh dng, thun li cho s pht trin ca
cy trng. Kt qu ny c nghin cu ti khoa Sinh vt- i hc Khoa hc c
bn CSK HPKV, Palampur-176.062 n . Cc cng on x l nh: rm la kh
c ct nh c kch thc trung bnh khong 3'' (76,2 mm) c trn vi phn g
vi t l 3:1 sau cho vo h c th tch: di x rng x cao = 1 x 1 x 0,5m vi
thi gian l 180 ngy (Sunita et al., 2012).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 10

1.3.3. X l rm, r trong nui trng


tr
nm
Ti Sri Lanka (nm
m n Dng), Trung tm nghin cu
u vv pht trin
nng nghip
p trong khu vc,
v ti K yu ca Hi ngh ln th 7 Quc
c tt v sinh hc
v nui trng nm
m (ICMBMP7) 2011, trong c ni dung v cch th
thc x l rm,
r trong nui trng nm
m nh:
nh Rm kh c ngm trong nc vi
i hhm lng vi
2%, thii gian ngm khong
kho 4 ting sau vt ro nc

Trn
n rrm vi hm

lng xi mng, m ur
r 1%, thch
th
cao 5% v cho khi rm trn
n vvo trong thi
gian khong 6 ngy
khong 5 ngy

Cc khi rm sau khi c bao ph bng


ng nilong trong

M
lp
l nilong bao bc khi rm, ti thi im ny kh
khi rm bt

u cho u qu nm (Palitha, 2011).


Vit Nam hin
n nay c nhiu c s v m hnh nui trng
ng n
nm khc nhau,
song c bn cc phng
ng n x
x l rm, r v quy trnh nui trng nm
m u c nhng
cng onn chung, trong
Vin Cng ngh v Khoa hcc Nng nghip (NIAST) a
ra gii php x l rm, r trong nui tr
trng nm trnh by trn hnh 1.2..

Hnh 1.2.. Gi
Gii php x l rm, r trong nui trng nm
m

Ngun: Vin Cng ngh v Khoa hcc Nng nghip(2011)


nghi
1.3.4. X l rm, r p
p ng cho mt s ngnh cng ngh cao
Hin ny trn th gii
gi v Vit Nam c nhiu nghin cu
u ng
dng x l
rm, r cho cc mc ch cao nh
nh: lm g cng nghip, lm giy,
y, llm nhin liu
Ethanol
Mt lu h x
x dng rm lm vt liu thay th tm g ho
hoc tm nha
dorm, rc cha hn60%
n60% silignocellulose.Trong
s
trng la, hu ht rmcn
litrong lnh vc ny phn hysau
h
khithu hoch la. Do , vic s dng cc
ngun ti nguynsirmcho
mcho cc ng dng cgi tr caon nay vn
n ccn nhiugii

hn.Chuyncc ngun sirmthnh cc sn phmbng iu khincht lng


caocung cpmt gii phptim nngcho vn x lrm. Vt liu tng hprmda
trncung cptim nnglm nguyn liu chophntng, t, kv cc sn phmxy
dng.
Cc on rmx lc m t 2 3%trc khisn xutbng iu khin.
Trongsn xutbng iu khin,onrmkh cpha trnvi cc mc khc
nhaucapolymemethylene(CH2)diphenyl(C5H6-C5H6)diisocyanate(PMDI)

nha

vnh tngsp vi mth thngpha trntrong phng th nghim. Sau khi tmThm
(Tm rm v cc thnh phn pha trn gi l bng iu khin)chnh thnh
vnh bngthnh bngvng chc. Kim trabng bao gm ctnh cht c hcvvt
l c bnc thc hintheo quy nh caHip hi Kim nghimv Vt liutiu
chun. Kt qu th nghimc phn tchv so snh vicc gi trtng ng
caparticleboardsgda trnquy nh caVinTiu chun quc giaM(Qinglin,
2005).
Thi Lan ethanol t ngun ti nguyn ti to c quan tm trong nhng
thp k gn y nh mt nhin liu thay th cho nhin liu truyn thng. Rm v
bt giy c ci ng l nguyn liu tim nng cho sn xut mt s sn phm c
gi tr cao nh ethanol nhin liu v du diesel sinh hc. Ln n 80% l
lignocellulosespolysaccharides (Kaparaju et al., 2009). Cc nguyn liu ti to y
ha hn thay th cc nhin liu khng thn thin vi mi trng v do , to
ra sn phm "xanh". Trong tng phn vi cc nhin liu truyn thng, qu trnh
ln men ethanol khng gp phn vo hiu ng nh knh. Rm, r c ct ngn
khong 2 5 cmtrong qu trnh sn xut Ethanol t rm, r. Ni dung phn tch
trn v qu trnh x l rm, r thnh Ethanol c gii thiu trn tp ch khoa hc
(Nutawan, 2010).
Vit Nam mi y, Cng ty C phn nghin cu v pht trin cng ngh
sch nghin cu thnh cng cng ngh sn xut g nhn to t rm, r.
Rm, r sau thu hoch c phi kh v a vo my ct nh vi chiu di 5
10 cm, sau c x l bng dung dch QA1 v QA2 trong 8 10 gi ri a
vo my nghin chuyn dng nghin thnh bt v cc si rt nh. Sau khi

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 12

nghin, nguyn liu c a qua my tch nc, nh ti, sy kh ri vo my


trn trn u cng ph gia 2A v keo, sau c tri vo khun v p bng
my p thy lc 260 300 tn, sy kh ri ct cnh v x l b mt. Cng ngh sn
xut g nhn to m bo sn phm t cht lng cao, g thnh phm bn v p,
tiu tn t nng lng, cng sut: 3.500m3/nm (Cng ty C phn Nghin cu v
Pht trin cng ngh sch, 2013).
Nhn xt: Cc phng n x l rm, r trnh by cc ni dung trn n
nay v ang c ng dng rng ri trn th gii v Vit Nam, ngoi ra n nay
cn c nhiu phng n khc x l tn dng ngun rm, r nh trong lnh vc ngh
thut lm tranh, lm l hoa Song hu ht cc phng n x l rm, r mang tnh
cng nghip (sn xut dng dy chuyn hay quy m ln) trong quy trnh x l rm,
ru c yu cu ct ngn rm v chiu di on rm thng trong khong

10

cm. Vi tnh hnh , cng vi vic nghin cu cc phng n x l rm, r thnh


sn phm hu dng th vic nghin cu v ch to cc mu my ct rm l cn thit.
1.4. Tng quan v mt s mu my ct thi rm trn th gii v Vit Nam
n nay trn th gii v Vit Nam c nhiu mu my ct thi rm c
ch to v s dng. Nu phn bit v nguyn l ct, nng sut ct, kiu dng, kch
thc v cng sut ca b phn ct thi rm, th s mu my ct rm n nay rt a
dng.Song vi mc ch tm hiu mt s mu my ct hin c v phn tch u,
nhc im ca cc nguyn l ct, t lm c s la chn nguyn l ct ph
hp cho b phn ct thilin hpvi my p la. Vi l do ny y tc gi ch
tm hiu phn tch cc mu my ct hin c theo cc nguyn l ct khc nhau.
1.4.1.My ct thi rm dao dng trng
Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca my ct rm dao dng trng trnh by trn
hnh 1.3a, trong cc chi tit 1, 2 l cp l cun v p khi rm trc khi vo v
tr ct, 3 l dao cong hoc dao thng c lp trn trng. Nguyn l ny c u v
nhc im sau:

u im: d dng thay i chiu di on ct bng cch thay i s dao 3 lp


trn trng hoc thay i tc quay ca cp l 1; 2,d dng iu chnh khe h gia

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 13

dao v tm k bng
ng cch di chuyn
chuy tm k theo phng rm hng
ng vvo v tr ct,
nguyn l ny i hi
i khe h gia dao v tm k t 0,5 1 mm trnh hi
hin tng
cng rm khng b ct
t m
m b ko v rt (hoc gp) vo khe h gia
a dao v
v tm k
ct, do khi rm trc
c khi c ct c nn nh cp l 1; 2 nn nht cct c
ct ngt v d dng.
Nhc im:: Do khe h
h gia dao v tm k nh t 0,5 1 mm,, mt
m khc vn tc
quay ca trng thng rt
t ln
l m bo vn tc ct 30 35 m/s, nn i hi vic ch
to cn chnh xc cao.
Rm u vo

2
3

Rm u ra

a)

b)

c)

Hnh 1.3. Nguyn l cu to v my ct thi rm dao dng tr


trng
a) - Nguyn l ct dao dng
ng trng;
tr b) - My ct thi rm dao dng trng; c) - Lin hp
p my thu gom rrm

Ngun:(1978); Shen et al.(2004)


Mt s muu my c
ct rm hoc vt liu tng t :
Mu My bm 9RSZ-2
9RSZ do hng Trung Sn, Trung Quc ch to (hnh 1.3b).
My bm 9RSZ-2 loi my bm thc n cho chn nui i gia sc. My bm 9RSZ2 ch yu c s dng bm cc loi cy ng, la m, rm, r, c. Sau khi qua my
bm sn phm c chiu di t 1 18 cm (d dng iu chnh trn my). Tin li
cho vic ng bao ct tr
tr thc n. My bm 9RSZ-2 c c cu hp
p l, ngoi hnh
p, an ton v ng tin cy, v d dng bo tr,sa cha, hiu qu
qu sn xut cao.
Cc thng s k thut c
a my bm 9RSZ-2: Nhn cng cp liu tt 1 2 ngi,
nng xut 2 t/h, ng c in hai hoc ba pha 5,5 kW, tc trc chnh 2280vg/ph,
chiu di sn phm sau khi c ct t 1 18cm, tng khi lng 140 kg (khng
bao gm ng c) v kch thc bao:di x rng x cao = 1650x610x950 mm (Shen
et al., 2004).
Cc lin hpp my thu hoch
ho
rm, c kh s dng nguyn
n l bbm dao dng
trng (hnh 1.3c),, dao cong c b
b phn cun v p a vo b phn bbm. Rm,c
kh sau khi bm nh
c a vo thng xe.

Vit Nam nm
m 2010 Trng
Tr
i hc Bch khoa, i
i hhc Quc gia
TPHCM nghin cu
u thit
thi k my ct x, si lm ct liuu cho cc lo
loi vt liu
com posit,, nguyn l v cu
c to cho trn hnh 1.4.

Hnh 1.
1.4. S cu to v my ct x, si v da
a) - Nguyn l cu to; b)- My ct x, si v da

Ngun: Nguyn Hng


ng Ngn
Ngn(2010)
B phn ct thi(hnh
(hnh 1.4) dng nguyn l lm vic ca loi
i dao ccu thi
thuc, ngha l thi bng
ng m
mt li dao chuyn ng (quay) v mt l
i dao c nh
(tm k), ng thi x
c
nn v a vo dao thi.
Nguyn l cuu to my ct x gm: bphnn thi c 2 dao c nh trong
mt dao c nh ng vi
i tr va
v l dao va l tm k t bn c
a cp liu v 6
dao chuyn ng
ng quay c

lp trn trng lp dao; b phnn cung c


cp gm hai trc
cun kt hp vii dy chuyn
chuy cung cp nn v a x vo bphn
n thi. Vi
Vic iu
chnh di on
n thi c

thc hin bng hai cch: hocc thay


i s dao lp
trng, hoc thay i t s truyn cho b phn cung cpp (cho hai trc
tr cun v dy
chuyn).X sau khi ct
t s c ri xung li pha di ra ngoi,
i, cc ssi x di
hn kch thc nh
nh s c dao quay a ln ct tip chu kquay
quay tip
ti theo.
Thng s k thut
t ca
c my ct x, si v da nh sau:sdao
dao ct
c c nh: 2;
sdao ct di ng
ng (quay): 6; kho
khong dch chnh giadao c nh vv di ng: 0,5
1mm; gc mi dao di
ng150, dao c nh 25 300; gc nghing ng

trc dao
quay so vi trc trng 50; ng knh qut ca dao ding: 200mm;
mm; chiu
chi di ct:
100mm; vn tc ct ca
a dao: 6m/
6m/s v cng sut ng c: 3 kW.My
My th nghim
ct x da cho vt liu
u b
b tng nh. Vt liu np: x da ri di 50
200mm, ng
knh si nh hnn 1mm. Vt
V liu thnh phm: chiu di x sau my ct 1015mm t
yu cu trn cho b tng nh
nh, nng sut ct 60 kg/h (Nguyn Hng
ng Ngn, 2010).
2010

1.4.2. My ct rm dao dng a


Cu to v nguyn l ct ca my thi rau, c, rm dng a ng trn hnh
1.5a, my ct rm dng a c ng c di ng c trnh by trn hnh 1.5b.

Hnh 1.5. Nguyn l cu to my bm rm dao dng a


a) - nguyn l cy to: 1- Bng ti cp liu; 2- Trc cun; 3- Tm k ct; 4 ng c; 5,6 B phn ct
thi ng thi ht rm ra ngoi; 7- B phn truyn ng; b) - my bm rm 93QS

Ngun: (1978); Zhengzhou Shuliy Machinery Company(2011)


B phn my gm:
B phn cp liu: dng bng ti c cc trc cun c tc dngcun v nn p
rm trc khi a vo b phn ct thi, b phn cp liu c cc iu chnh cng
bng ti trong qu trnh cp liu.
B phn thi: hai li dao cong lp vo cnh 6, tm k 3 lp vo hng thi c
hai cnh sc thay i c.
B phn thu vt thi: kiu qut truyn c hai cnh qut 5 c lp vo cnh
lp dao 6, ng dn vt thi c ni trn cao v dn vt thi ra ngoi.
B phn truyn ng: c b ly hp v cc cp bnh rng nhm mc ch iu
chnh c chiu quay ca b phn cung cp phng khib phn ct thi b kt, ng
thi iu chnh c chiu di on ct thng qua tc cp liu.
Mu my 93QS (hnh 1.5b) do Cng ty TNHH My nng nghip Trnh
Chu-H Nam Trung Quc sn xut. My c th ct kh hoc ct t cc ph
phm nng nghip nh: rm, la m, ng, c khVi chiu di on ct c th

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 16

c iu chnh t 10 50 mm.Khe h gia dao ct v tm k ct


t dao ng trong
khong 0,5 1,5 mm. u im ca loi my ny l iu chnh c
c chi
chiu di on
thi theo mt khong
ng cho trc,
tr
chiu di vt thi ng u do
c nn p trc
khi vt vo hng
ng thi trnh hin
hi tng vt thi b ko theo m khng b ct
(Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou Shuliy Machinery Company, 2011).
2011
Nguyn l cu to
o my ct
c rm dao dng a(hnh 1.5a) cng
ng c ng dng
trn my thi rau c rm
m PCC-6
PCC c cc c tnh k thut nh: Nng
ng sut
su ct i vi
rau, c 5 6 t/h; i vi
i ct
c rm 1,5 2 t/h, cng sut ng c in
n 7 kW
kW, mc tiu
th nng lng ring
ng 1,5 5 kWh/t, di on ct t 6 104 mm, ttc ca trc
dao 450 vg/ph tng ng vvi vn tc ct u dao 29 m/s (Trn
n Minh V
Vng v
Nguyn Th Minh Thun,
n, 1999).
1999
Vit Nam, nm
m 2007 vvi ti "Nghin cu thit k,, ch to v kho
nghim my bm thi rm
m trong c
c kh ha cc khu sn xut nm
m vv m thm" tc
gi Nguyn Hong i
i
s dng nguyn l ct kiu a (hnh 1.5a)
a) cho mu
m my
trn hnh 1.6.
Kt qu nghin cu
u cho cc thng s
s
k thut ph hp l: Nng
ng su
sut ct 1,62 t/h;
chiu di on rm
m sau khi cct t 4 10
cm; vn tc ct u
u dao l
l 39 m/s, vn tc
ct ti v tr chn dao l 15 m/s; tc
t quay
ca trcc dao 820 vg/ph; cng sut
su ng
c3,5 kW v cng ct
t thi ri
ring t 103
114 N/cm (Nguyn Hong
ng i, 2007).

Hnh 1.6. My bm
m thi rrm trong dy
chuyn sn xut nm
m vv m thm

1.4.3. B phn ct thi s


s dng nguyn l ct kiurng dao
B ct theo nguyn
n l ct
c kiurng dao c s dng rng ri
i i vi cc vt
liu th, si c phng
ng ch
ch yu theo phng vung gc vi phng
ng dch
d
chuyn
ca dao. u im caa nguy
nguyn l ct ny l nht ct ngt do khe h
gia
gi dao di ng
v dao (tm k) c nh rt
r nh c th gn st vi nhau v cc cnh
nh sc
s ca dao
thng c bm tru lm
m tng
t
kh nng ct cc vt liu th, si v xx.Nguyn l
ny c ng dng
ng trong my GLH hoc my ct gc r.

Cu to v nguyn l b phn ct thi loi rng dao v b ph


phn ct thi loi
hai dao c s dng
ng trong cc my GLH trn hnh 1.7.

Hnh 1.7. Cu to
o nguyn
nguy l b phn ct thi loi rng - dao v lo
loi hai dao

Ngun: (1975);Phm
m Xun Vng(2000)
V
B phn ct thi loi
lo rng dao c hai phn: phn di ng l dao v ph
phn c
nh l rng, i vii thu ho
hoch la cnh sc ca li dao thng
ng c bm tru,
nhim v ca rng
ng phn chia khi
kh la cn ct u cho cc li ct,
t, t
tm k ct ch
to ri v c tn vo
o rng,
r
m rng v tm k ct l hai im ta
a khi dao chuy
chuyn
ng ct cy.
lo hai dao c hai loi: loi mt dao c nh ccn mt dao di
B phn ct thi loi
ng v loi hai dao chuy
huyn ng ngc chiu nhau. Vi cu trc ny
y th m
mt trong
hai dao lm nhim v tm k
k ct. Nhng th nghim vo nhng nm
m 1962 n 1966
cho hai loi b phn ca
a b phn ct thi loi hai dao th loii hai dao chuy
chuyn ng
c cht lng lm vic
c tt
t hn, khe h ti u gia hai dao i vi bb phn ct thi
loi hai dao chuyn ng l 0,89 mm (,1975).
Hin nay vic s
dng
d my GLH cho nng sut cao v phn trm hao ht
nh khong 2 3%. Song gim chi ph cho my GLH th sau khi ggt chiu di
gc r cn li trn ng
ng tng
t
i cao trung bnh t 30 40cm.
cm. khc phc
c tnh trng trn nm
m 2010 Vin
Vi C in v Cng ngh sau thu ho
hoch nghin
cu v ch to lin hp
p my cct gc r trn ng theo dng kt
t h
hp gia ct v
phay, vi b phn ct thi gc r ti tin hnh la chn v th
th nghim hai
dng nguyn l l ct
t b
bng a dao tc cao v nguyn l ct
t ki
kiu rng - dao
nhiu tng c trnh
nh by s nguyn l hnh 1.8.

Hnh 1.8. S

nguyn l my bm rm v gc r trn ng
1- B phn ct thi gc r kiu
u rng -dao; 2- My ko; 3- B phn phay vi gc r vo
o t; 4- B phn ct
thi gc r kiu a.

Ngun: u Th Nhu v Cao ng ng(2010)


Cc thng s cu
u t
to ca b phn ct thi gc r: i vib phn cct thi gc r
kiu rng - dao cc thit kk 3 tng cch nhau 13,5cm, b rng lm
m vic
vi theo b phn
ct thi ca my GLH 1,25m. i vi b phn ct thi gc r kiu
u
a c truyn
ng bng ng c thy
y lc,
l tc quay trc dao 2000 vg/ph, b rng llm vic ca
mt a dao 270 mm, s dao lp
l trn mt a l 2 v s lng aa dao ll 5.
Sau khi gc r
c ct, mt phn c bm nh nh b phn
n cct thi gc r
phn cn li c bm
m v
v lp vo t nh b phn phay lpp sau my ko. K
Kt qu
bo co kho nghim lin
n hp
h my c kh nng lm vic tt trong ri
i vn
v tc 2,12
3,27 km/h, m bo nng
ng sut
su lm vic trn 0,3ha/h, lng rm, r c bm nh
trung bnh di 15 cm t trn 80%, lng rm, r c o trn v vi llp vo t
trn 90% (u Th Nhu vv Cao ng ng, 2010).
1.4.4. B phn ct thi vi
v nguyn l ct cho cc khi rm dng l kin
i vi cc nc
c c din
di tch rung dng cnh ng mu ln
n nh
nh Nga, M,
n
Sau khi thu hoch
hoc la, rm c ri ngay ra cnh ng
ng theo hhng v c
thu gom li bng
ng my chuyn
chuy dng, do to ra cc kin rm khi
i d
dng trn, dng
kin vung ty thuc vo
o ph
phng php thu gom v ng kin(hnh
hnh 1.9).
1.

Hnh 1.9. Kt qu thu gom rrm theo nguyn l con ln v nguyn l pittng

Ngun: Shanghai Jiajing


iajing Machinery Company
Company(2011)

Vic thu gom rm


m nh
nh trn s thun li cho vn chuyn v tch tr
tr phc v
cho lnh vc chn
n nui hay s
s dng rm, r lm vt liuu cng nghip, song vvi mc
ch no cn thit
t cho vic
vi ct rm nh: bm nh lm thc n cho gia sc, s
s
dng rm, r lm nm
m i
hi rm cn c bm nh,, th cc nguyn l bbm, ct
rm truyn thng s
dng
ng nguyn
nguy l dao ct quay tm k c nh nh
nh dao dng
trng v dao dng a nh trnh by nhng mc trc rt kh thc
c hi
hin, nu c li
phi cn cng on
n ph kh
khi rm ra thnh tng phn v a tng
ng ph
phn c ph
vo b phn ct thi rm
m lm tng chi ph nhn cng trong qu trnh
nh ct rm.
khc phc c tnh trng
ng ny
n i vi cc kin rm c kch thc
c l
ln, mt s nc
nh M, Nga, c a ra nhiu mu my bm rm vii cc nguy
nguyn l c bit.
M Tng
ng cng ty Patz c thnh lp nm 1948 tinn thn l
l nn kinh k
h gia nh, n nm
m 1971 nh
nh my c xy dng v thnh lp
p cng ty mang
thng hiu Patz, k t

cng ty lun cho ra cc sn phm ng dng
d
cho mc
ch phc v chn
n nui, Nm
N
2011 cng ty ch to thnh
nh cng mu
m my Patz
Mode 9427phc v cho vic
vi ct cc khi kin rm dng trn
n hay ddng vung lm
thc n cho gia sc trnh by trn hnh 1.10.

Hnh 1.10.My
My bm
b
rm Pazt Mode 9427 v cc b phn ca
a my
1- Dao ct;
c 2- Tay gt; 3- bc cch; 4- Thng quay vo liu.

Ngun: Patz Corporation


Corporation(2011)
My bm rm
m Patz Mode 9427 c cc b phn gm: dao ct
t 1 c bb dy 4,7
mm, ng knh ngoi
i ca
c dao 127 mm, cc dao c lp ln trc
c chnh nh
nh cc
bc cch bng
ng nhm 3, t
tc lm vic ca dao 2850 vg/ph; iu
u ch
chnh lng ct
v chiu di on rm
m sau khi c ct b phn ct thi c lp
p tay gt
g 2, cc

thanh trn tay gtt 2 c b dy 6 mm, khong cch giaa cc thanh tr


trn tay gt bng
khong cch giaa cc dao cct lp trn trc chnh, tay gt 2 c th c
c iu chnh
nng cao hay h thp
p chiu
chi di lm vic ca li dao. Khi kin rm
m c a vo
thng quay 4, kin rm
m m
mt phn c quay nh thng quay 4, u
u ddi ca kin
rm t ln tay gtt 2, cc dao cct bm vo kin rm, nh cnh sc ca
a dao vv cht
ban u ca kin rm
m m khi
kh kin rm dn dn c bm nh v thot ra qua ca
c
thot liu. My c th s dng mt trong hai ngun ng lc nh
ng c xng
v ng c in c cng sut
su t 10 16HP(Patz
Patz Corporation, 2011
2011).
My ct cun rm (hnh 1.11)
1.1 c sn xut Nga,
thi gian bm mt cun
n rm
r
ty thuc vo mc
bm t 3 15 pht, chiu di
d on ct khong t 40
100 mm, nng sut t
0,8 2,5 tt/h, cng sut ng
c 40 kW, tc quay ca
c trc chnh 1500 vg/ph,
tc quay ca thng
ng cha
ch 4,1vg/ph, cun rm
c ct c ng
ng knh khng qu 1,6m, nhn vin
vi
phc v 1 ngi (,
, 2011).
2011)

Hnh 1.11.. My cct rm


kin
n tr
trn

Vit Nam hin


n nay, gii quyt c khng gian tch tr r
rm cho gia sc
ngi ta thng ng
ng bnh (kin)
(ki
rm trc khi aa vo kho tch tr
tr. Nhng khi
mang kin rm
m ra cho tru b
b n th li phi ch bin bng
ng cch bm
b trn vi
thc n tinh hocc khng trn.
tr
Trc thc trng tc gi Nguyn c Tht
nghin cu v ch too m
mu my bm rm l kin trnh by trn hnh
nh 1.12.
1.12
Kt qu nghin cuu cc thng s
s k
thut ca my bm rm
m l kin:
ki
tc
quay trng
ng dao 700 vg/ph; tc
t
quay thng cp liu
u 12 vg/ph; chiu
chi
di on bm 7 12 cm; cng sut
su
ng c bm
m 7,5 kW, cng su
sut ng
c c cp liu 1,1 kW v chi ph nng
n
lng ring
ng l 13,855 kWh/t (Nguyn
(
c Tht, 2010).

Hnh 1.12. My bm
m rm l ki
kin

1.4.5. B phn ct thi rm


r lin hp vi my GLH
Di nhu cu bc
c thi
thit cn mt b phn ct thi c lin
n hp
h sau my
GLH khi rm cha c
cun hoc ng kin, nm
m 1999 nh nghin ccu ngi
M Franz Schrattenecker thit k v ch to ra b phn bm rm
m lin hhp ngay
sau my GLH hocc my thu gom rm,
r
cu to v nguyn l b ph
phn ct thi rm
trnh by trn hnh 1.13aa (Franz, 2009).Tp on Claas Group ng dng
d
nguyn
l ct ny kt hp vi
i my GLH cho ra mt mu my mang th
ng hiu Claas
Lexion Straw Chopper trnh by trn hnh 1.13b.

Hnh 1.13. Nguyn l cu


u to
t v m hnh lin hp b phn ctt thi v
vi my gt p

Ngun: Franz(2009); Class Group


Group(2011)
B phn ct thihnh
hnh 1.13a gm: Trng ct 5 nhn truyn ng qua bb truyn
t ngun ng lc ca
a my GLH,
G
trn trng ct 5 c lpp cc dao cct 7 c cnh
qut 8, trng ctt 5 quay theo chiu
chi quay 6. Cc dao c nh 11, 23
c lp trn gi
10, 24. Rm cc cung cp
c theo mng dn hng 3 vo khe h
22. B
B phn r to
27, 26quay theo chiu
u quay 28 to
t kh y khi rm vo vng ct,
t, llng rm vo
c iu chnh bi cc tay gt
g 25, 12. Khi rm khi qua vng cp
p li
liu c a
vo vng ct di tc ng ca
c dao ct 7 v dao c nh
nh 11, 23 kh
khi rm c ct
ng thi di s tc ng ca
c cnh 8 cng vi lng kh y ca
a b phn r to 26,
27 khi rm c yy ra ngoi
ngo qua ca thot liu 13.
tin cho vic
c so snh v
v nh gi gia cc nguyn l ct,
t, tc gi
gi gi b
phn ct thi ca Franz Schrattenecker (hnh 1.13a) l "b phn ct thi
thiFranz-S".

1.5. La chn nguyn l ct chob phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la


T tnh hnh khai thc v x l rm, r trn th gii v trong nc nh trnh
by trn ta thy, i vi cc nc trn th gii c nn cng nghip hin i h x
l v tn dng rm, r mt cch trit thng qua lin hp my c trang b b phn
ct thi ngay sau my thu hoch la, ng thi rm c tung trc tip trn ng,
qua my lm t, rm c vi vo t lm tng ngun dinh dng cho t. Cn
Vit Nam tnh n nay c nhiu m hnh tn dng v x l rm, t cho ra
nhiu mu my ct rm ch yu theo hai nguyn l ct rm truyn thng dng dao
trng v dng dao a c tm k c nh. Vy tn dng v khai thc rm, r c
trit hn, cn nghin cu b phn ct thi rm c nguyn l ph hp khi lin hp
vi my p la.
1.5.1. u, nhc im ca cc nguyn l ct khi lin hp vi my p la
mc 1.4 tc gi trnh by cc nguyn l ct ph bin hin nay ang
c ng dng vo nhiu mu my ct rm, r trn th gii v Vit Nam. Song xt
v kh nng lm vic v tnh ph hp cho b phn ct thilin hp vi my p la
th c nhiu nhc im c th c cn phn tch.
i vi cc mu my ct s dng nguyn l ct kiu trng v kiu a:
V mt ch to: do i hi khe h gia dao ct v tm k nh 0,5 1 mm
nn vic ch to cn chnh xc rt cao, i cng vi n l cc cp bi, gi ca
trc lp dao thng l c ln.
V kt cu my: b phn ct thi i hi phi c cp l cun p v bng
truyn cho b phn cp liu, i cng vi n lm cho h thng truyn ng phc tp
hn v ngoi vic truyn ng cho trng lp dao cn phi truyn ng cho cp l
cun p v bng truyn.
V mt rm khi cp liu: cc mu my ny hin nay Vit Nam thng
c cp liu th cng (bng tay) do khi rm khi t ln bng truyn hay mng
ca vo rm cho mt rm nht nh, mt rm c cp kiu ny s ln
hn mt rm c tung ra t ca ra ca my p la.
Vy xt v mt ch to, kt cu my v mt rm khi cp liu th nguyn l
dao dng trng v dao dng a, khng ph hp cho vic lin hp vi my p la,

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 23

v nu lin hp vi my p la th b phn ct thi cng knh do phi lp cc cp


l cun p v bng truyn. Hn na rm c tung ra t ca ra rm ca my p
la c mt rm nh hn so vi khi rm c cp bng tay a vo bng truyn,
vi l do ny lm cht lng ct gim hn so vi khi cp liu bng tay.
i vi cc nguyn l ct kiurng dao hay cc nguyn l ct cc khi rm
dng l kin:
Vi phn tch trn hai nguyn l ct ny i hi trng thi rm khc hn
vi trng thi rm c tung ra t ca ra ca my p la: i vi nguyn l ct
kiu rng dao i hi cng rm c ct phi c phng khng nm theo phng
dch chuyn ca dao ct. Do vy hai nguyn l ct ny khng kh thi khi ng dng
cho b phn ct thilin hp vi my p la c.
i vi nguyn l ct trn b phn ct thiFranz-Slin hp vi my GLH
Nh phn tch trn, nguyn l ct ny clp trn my GLH mang thng
hiu Claas Lexion Straw Chopper. C th ni trng thi rm c tung ra t ca ra
rm ca my GLH tng t nh my p la, vy nguyn l ct rm ny hon
ton c th ng dng v ch to ra b phn ct thilin hp vi my p la. Nhng
xt v mt cu to lin hp vi my p la th nguyn ly ny li phc tp do
phi lp b phn roto 26, 27 lm nhim v to kh y khi rm vo vng ct, ng
thi cng cnh qut 8 tung khi rm ct ra ngoi. Mt khc ngoi mng dn 3,
b phn ct thi ny i hi phi lp tay gt 25 v 12 va lm nhim v iu chnh
lng rm v ng thi lm mng dn rm ti cnh sc dao.
Mt sut vi tng da trn nguyn l ctca b phn ct thi Franz-S,
bng cch lm sao cho ra c mt b phn ct thi tng t nhng khng cn b
phn roto 26, 27 v b phn tay gt 12, 25 m vn c th v c rm vo vng ct,
dn rm n li dao ct v tung c rm ct ra khi vng ct. T tng ,
tc gi xut v la chn nguyn l ct c trnh by mc tip theo.
1.5.2. La chn nguyn l ct cho b phn ct thilin hp vi my p la
Nguyn l ct cho b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la c la
chn v trnh by trn hnh 1.14. Nguyn l ct ny theo kiu nhiu dao ct c nh
v nhiu cnh gt (tm k) chuyn ng quay.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 24

Nguyn l cu to ca b phn ct thi rm c thit k da trn mt s


thng s c bn ca nguyn l ct c tm k theo l thuyt ct thi, sao cho qu
trnh ct c trt, li dao c dng cong trn v c bm tru ph hp cho ct cc
vt liu c dng th, si v x.
2

1 A

L cg

Rm vo

Ca ra

htd1

Cnh sc dao
htd2

3
Ca vo la

A-A

My p la

1
4
2
3
5
bcg

bd

B phn ct thi rm

B phn ct thi rm
Ca ra rm
M hnh lin hp b phn ct rm vi my p la

Hnh 1.14. B phn ct thi rm v m hnh lin hp vi my p la


1-Trng ct; 2- Cnh gt (tm k); 3- Thn dao c nh; 4 - M lin kt; 5 - Thanh lp dao

thng nht tn gi, tc gi k hiu tn gi cho b phn ct thi rm c


nguyn l nh trn hnh 1.14 l "b phn ct thi CTR-1", nguyn l ct s dng
cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 gi l "nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh".
B phn ct thi CTR-1 gm c: Trng ct 1 dng hnh tr c chiu di l Lt,
bn knh mt ngoi l rt,trn trng ct lp ba hng cnh gt cch u nhau nh lin
kt gia m lin kt 4 ca hng cnh gt v mt tr ca trng ct bng bu lng.
Hng cnh gt c cu to bi cc cnh gt 2 lp song song, ng phng v cch
u nhau trn m lin kt 4,cnh gt 2 c cu to dng thp tm dy 0,004 m rng l
bcg, di l Lcg v c lp nghing mt gc so vi phng hng knh ti chn
cnh gt. Dao c nh 3 c cnh sc dng cong c thit k sao cho qu trnh ct
c trt, cc dao c nh 3 c lp vi cc cnh sc ca dao song song vi nhau v
khong cch gia hai mt bn ca hai dao k nhau l bdnh thanh dn 5 (hnh 1.14).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 25

Nguyn l hot ng: Khi rm c tung ra t ca ra ca my p la,


lng rm ny c tung trc tip vo ca vo rm ca b phn ct thi, nh cnh
gt 2 khi rm c a vo vng ct v c p trn cnh sc ca li dao vi
mt p lc ct cn thit, khi rm sau khi c ct nh cnh gt 2 tung khi rm
c ct ra ngoi qua ca ra ca b phn ct thi rm.
u im ca b phn ct thi CTR-1:
+ Thc hin nguyn l ct c trt, d dng ct cc vt liu th, si v lm
cho chi ph nng lng ct c gi tr nh.
+ Cnh gt lp nghing mt gc cho php va ko (v) rm vo vng ct,
nn p v gt khi rm trt trn cnh sc dao, ng thi tung nhng phn rm
c ct ra ngoi.
+ Nh s lin hp vi b phn p la tn dng ngun ng nng ca
khi rm t ca ra ca b phn p la c tung thng vob phn ct thi CTR-1,
qua lm gim chi ph nhn cng cho qu trnh cp liu khi ct rm. ng thi
rm c ct ngay sau b phn p l rm ti, nn chi ph nng lng ct gim
ng k so vi ct khi rm kh ti c s sn xut.
+ C th thay i chiu di on ct bng cch thay i b rng thanh lp
dao 5 v cc hng cnh gt.
Nhc im ca b phn ct thi CTR-1: Khng ct c nhng cng rm
c phng song song vi cnh sc dao, song thc t rt t nhng cng rm m ton
b chiu di thn cng rm u song song vi cnh sc dao. khc phc nhc
im ny, ty theo yu cu chiu di on ct m chn khong cch gia hai dao k
nhau bd (hnh 1.14) sao cho ph hp.
1.6. Yu cu k thut v cc ch tiu nh gi ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
1.6.1. Yu cu k thut i vi b phn ct thi CTR-1
- Tnh cng dng a nng, ct c nhiu loi ph phm nng nghip dng
th si nh: rm, r; thn ng; u; lc;
- C th iu chnh c chiu di on ct theo yu cu cng ngh x l
rm, r nh: lm nm; lm thc n cho i gia sc; lm phn vi sinh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 26

- C kh nng c kh ha khu cp liu (rm) vo b phn ct thi v thu sn


phm rm sau khi c ct, to iu kin cho qu trnh ct rm c lin tc v
iu ha, p ng qu trnh t ng ha trong dy chuyn x l rm, r.
- Cu to n gin, d vn hnh, bo tr v sa cha, d dng ch to trong
nc thay v cc my mc thit b ngoi t tin.
- C nng sut t l tng ng vi nng sut ca my p la.T l gia lng
la vo v lng rm thot ra t ca ra ca my p la l 2:1, do vy t l gia nng
sut ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 vi nng sut ca my p la l 1:2.
- C chi ph nng lng ring ph hp: Chi ph nng lng ring i vi cc
my ct, thi rau, c v rm c gi l thp khi chi ph nng lng ring khong 1
kWh/t, chi ph nng lng ring c gi tr tng i nh c cho l ph hp trong
khong t 1 1,5 kWh/t (, 1958).
1.6.2. Cc ch tiu nh gi cho b phn ct thiCTR-1
C nhiu ch tiu nh gi cho b phn ct thi rm nh: chiu di on ct,
dp nt ca sn phm sau khi ct, chi ph nng lng ring, nng sut. Song
y tc gi chn hai ch tiu nh gi chnh cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 l: cht
lng ct v chi ph nng lng ring.
Ch tiu c th i vi cht lng ct:
i vi tng phng n x l khc nhau, cng on ct rm i hi chiu di
on rm sau khi ct c tng hp li nh sau:Trong lnh vc chn nui, ct rm
lm cm vin t 1 3 cm; tch tr rm lm thc n trc tip th 10 cm; trong x l
lm phn vi sinh khong 10 cm; trong lm nm c quy trnh khng cn ct rm
nhng i vi cc quy trnh sn xut quy m ln yu cu chiu di on rm 10 20
cm; trong sn xut lm g cng nghip rm c ct t 5 10 cm. T cc yu cu v
chiu di on rm sau khi ct, b phn ct thi CTR-1 c nghin cu vi ch tiu
chiu di on rm sau khi ct

10 cm t gi tr cao, i lng c tnh bng

phn trm ca t s gia khi lng rm sau khi ct c chiu di cc cng rm

10

cm trn tng khi lng rm c ct gi l cht lng ct, k hiu l Cx c n v


%, ch tiu v cht lng ct ra i vi b phn ct thi CTR-1 l: Cx > 90 %.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 27

V ch tiu chi ph nng lng ring:


Chi ph nng lng ring cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 c k hiu l Ne c
n v kW.s/kg, ch tiu ra cho Ne c gi tr ph hp t 3,6 5,4 kW.s/kg.
Kt lun chng 1
1. V tnh cp thit ca ti: Ngy nay rm, r c coi l ngun ph phm
nng nghip mang li gi tr kinh t cao, song lng rm, r vn cha c s dng
trit gy lng ph v nhim mi trng. Vic lin hp b phn ct rm vi my
p la ct ngn rm ngay ti ng rung l cn thit, nng cao tnh nng s
dng rm, r vo cc mc ch hu ch nh: rm, r lm phn vi sinh; tung rm
trc tip ln mt ng; tch tr rm lm thc n cho i gia sc; lm nm
2. V la chn nguyn l ct: Vi cc nguyn l ct truyn thng dao chuyn
ng, tm k c nh c cu to phc tp do khi rm a vo vng ct cn c
nn p trc, cc nguyn l ct ny c nhiu nhc im khi lin hp vi my p
la. Nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh lp trn b phn ct thi CTR-1 c cu
to n gin,trng thi rm vo vng ct ph hp vi trng thi rm c tung ra t
ca ra ca my p la, thun tin khi lin hp vi my p la.
3. B phn ct thi CTR-1 c nghin cu vi cc thng s nh hng
chnh n qu trnh ct, vi ch tiu chiu di on rm sau khi c ct c di
10 cm chim t l hn 90% v chi ph nng lng Ne c gi tr ph hp, p ng
c nhiu lnh vc ng dng v x l rm, r c hiu qu.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 28

Chng 2. I TNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU


Trong nghin cu khoa hc v mt vn no , qu trnh nghin cu
thun li cho kt qu nghin cu c tnh logic v m bo tin cy, khi ngi
nghin cu cn c nhng phng php nghin cu c th. Trong cc phng php
nghin cu hin nay, hai phng php nghin cu c s dng rng ri l phng
php nghin cu l thuyt v phng php nghin cu thc nghim, ty tng m
hnh nghin cu m hai phng php ny c thc hin c lp hoc ph thuc.
Ni dung thc hin cc phng php nghin cu, ph thuc vo i tng
nghin cu v cc ch tiu nh gi ca m hnh nghin cu, do vy trc khi thit
lp cc phng php nghin cu cn xc nh r i tng v cc ch tiu nh gi
cho m hnh nghin cu.
2.1. i tng nghin cu
i tng nghin cu ca ti l mt s thng s chnh nh hng n qu
trnh ct ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 lin hp vi my p la.
2.1.1. Xc nh cc thng s chnh nh hng n qu trnh ct thi
Cc thng s nh hng n qu trnh ct rm ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
c phn loi nh sau:
Theo loi vt liu ct: ging la (loi rm); m.
Theo cu to b phn ct thi: bin dng cnh sc dao; gc trt ; gc kp
; khe h gia mt bn dao v mt bn cnh gt (hnh 1.14).
Theo nng sut: lng cung cp rm vo b phn ct thi q, vn tc ct v.
Cc thng s chnh nh hng n qu trnh ct l nhng thng s c vng
thay i gi tr rng, ng thi khi thay i cc gi tr ca thng s chnh theo cc
mc khc nhau lun to ra hiu ng nh hng n cc hm ch tiu.
Vi rm th nghim l rm c ly ngay sau khi qua b phn p ca my p
la, do rm thng l rm ti, c m thay i t 65 75%, so vi vng
m ca rm t 10 100% th vng m ca rm ti ti thi im th nghim l
nh, vy thng s v loi rm v m c nh hng nh n cc hm ch tiu, cc
thng s c nh hng nh n cc hm ch tiu gi l cc thng s ph.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 29

V cu to b phn ct thi, i vi ct cc vt liu th, si th thng sbin


dng cnh sc dao c la chn v xy dng trn c s cc tiu ch theo l
thuyt ct thi. C th ni, thng s bin dng cnh sc dao c nh hng ln n
cc hm ch tiu ca b phn ct thi, song do s nh hng ln ny m thng
scnh sc dao c nghin cu v la chn vi gi tr gn nh ti u cho tng
nguyn l ct, i vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nhca b phn ct
thiCTR-1 bin dng cnh sc dao c xy dng da trn 9 ng cong gi c
bn (, 1978).
Thng s v gc trt tc gi nghin cu c bn ti phng th nghim v
la chn vng gi tr ti u b phn ct thi CTR-1 c cng ct thi ring tng
i nh (mc 4.1).
V gc kp, vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh ca b phn ct thi
CTR-1 th gc kp ph thuc vo gc nghing ca cnh gt (hnh 1.14), v gc
kp quyt nh n kh nng nn p v y khi rm trt trn cnh sc dao, nn
thng s ny nh hng ln n cht lng ct v chi ph nng lng, do vy vi
nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nhca b phn ct thiCTR-1 gi tr gc kp cn
c nghin cu xc nh mc nh hng n cc hm ch tiu.
V thng s khe h, vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh th thng
sny c nh hng ln n qu trnh ct, lin quan n ma st ca khi rm
c ct vi mt bn ca dao, do vy thng s khe h cn c nghin cu v nh
gi.
Nng sut b phn ct thi CTR-1 ph thuc vo lng cung cp q, song
lng cung cp nh hng n mt rm trong vng ct do vy thng s v lng
cung cpcn c nghin cu v nh gi mc nh hng n cc hm ch tiu
ca b phn ct thi CTR-1.
Vn tc ct v l thng s c nh hng lnn cht lng ct (,
1975), ngoi vic nh hng n cht lng ct vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c
nh ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 (hnh 1.14) th vn tc ct cn nh hng n kh
nng tung phn rm c ct ra ngoi, do cn nghin cu n mc nh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 30

hng ca vn tc ct n cc hm ch tiu.
Qua phn tch cc thng s nh hng trn, c 4 thng s cn nghin cu
nh gi mc nh hng n qu trnh ct ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 v c
gi l 4 thng s nh hng chnh hay cc thng s chnh l: vn tc ct v, lng
cung cp q, gc kp v khe h .
xc nh gi tr cho mi mc nghin cu ca cc thng s chnh v nh
gi b phn ct thi CTR-1 thng qua cc hm ch tiu, cn da vo cch thc xc
nh cc thng s chnh v gi tr cc hm ch tiu.
2.1.2. Xc nh mc nghin cu cc thng s chnh v gi tr cc hm ch tiu
Da trn cc thng s chnh nh hng n qu trnh ct v s hm ch tiu,
b phn ct thi CTR-1 c nghin cu vi 4 thng s vo tng ng l 4 thng
s chnh: vn tc ct v; lng cung cp q; gc kp ; khe h v hai thng s ra
tng ng l hai hm ch tiu: cht lng ct Cx v chi ph nng lng ring Ne.
A

A-A

Trng ct
Cnh gt

Ca vo rm

Ca ra rm

R()
Q

G0

R0

Cc

Cnh sc dao

bcg

bd

Hnh 2.1. M hnh xc nh cc thng s chnh cho b phn ct thi CTR-1

Gi R0 l bn knh v tr t u cnh sc daoti G0 (R0 cng l bn knh u


cnh gt), cnh sc dao ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 c ch to sao cho gc trt
c gi tr khng i trong qu trnh ct. Cnh gt c ch to nghing so vi
phng hng knh ti chn cnh gt mt gc , vi > 0 tn ti hai gc v
c gi l hai gc cu to. Gc to bi phng tip tuyn t-t v phng cnh gt
gi l gc kp ti v tr giao im Q (hnh 2.1).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 31

Cc gi tr ti cc mc ca cc thng s chnh c xc nh da trn cc


khi nim v nghin cu l thuyt.
2.1.2.1. Phng php xc nh v thay i cc mc cho thng s vo
Cc mc nghin cu ca cc thng s chnh c nghin cu, phn tch v
la chn trnh by theo ti liu lin quan vi cc mc v cch thc thay i nh sau:
Vn tc ct v: l vn tc di ti v tr u cnh gt, m/s.

v
. n
. R ; m/
30
s
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
trong : n l tc quay ca trng ct, vg/ph; R0 l bn knh u cnh gt, m.
Trong nghin cu thc nghim n yu t vn tc ct c thay i 5 mc:
15; 20; 25; 30 v 35 m/s. T cc mc ca vn tc ct v bn knh u cnh gt c
tnh ton t kt qu nghin cu l thuyt R0 = 0,225 m, tc quay ca trng ct
ng vi cc mc ca vn tc ct ln lt l: 636; 845; 1061; 1273 v 1485 vg/ph.
B phn ct thi c h thng truyn ng t ng c n trc trng ct vi t
s truyn i = 2, tc nh mc ca ng c nm = 2800 vg/ph tn s 50Hz. Tc
ca trng ct c thay i bng cch thay i tc ng c nh thay i tn
s in vo ng c qua bin tn SV110 IP5-4NU c ri thay i tn s t 1 60
Hz. Vy tc ca trng ct ph thuc vo cc mc tn s fhz ca bin tn, quan h
thc nghim gia tc quay ca trng ct v tn s ca bin tnl:

n 27,96. f)* + 1,995; vg/ph


2. 1
T cng thc (2.2) v (2.1) lp bng xc nh cc mc vn tc ct theo mc

tn s ca bin tn (bng 2.1).


Bng 2.1. Xc nh cc mc vn tc ct v theo tn s bin tn
Tn s bin tn fhz; Hz

22

30

38

46

54

Tc quay trng ct n; vg/ph

636

845

1061

1273

1485

Vn tc ct v; m/s

15

20

25

30

35

Lng cung cp q:l khi lng rm c a vo b phn ct thi CTR-1


trn mt n v thi gian, kg/s.
Trong thc t rm c tung ra t ca ra ca my p la c trng thi ri

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 32

rc v khng u, thun li cho nghin cu l thuyt v nghin cu thc nghim


cn c gi thit c a ra.
Gi thit 1: Lng rm c tung ra t ca ra ca my p la vo b phn
ct thi CTR-1 l u v lin tc.
qu trnh nghin cu gn vi gi thit 1, lng cung cp q c xc nh
thng qua lng cung cp la vo my p ql (kg la/s) nh bng ti c vn tc di
vbt = 0,25 m/s.Trong nghin cu thc nghim n yu t, lng cung cp q vo b
phn ct thi c thay i 5 mc th nghim q = 0,3; 0,4; 0,5; 0,6 v 0,7 kg/s. Vi
kt qu nghin cu cho t l gia lng la vo my p v lng rm thot ra t
ca ra rm ca my p l 2:1 cng vi vn tc bng ti ta c khi lng la ml th
nghim cn thit trn 1 m chiu di bng ti c gi tr lng cung cp rm cn
thit c trnh by bng 2.2.
Bng 2.2. Xc nh lng cung cp q theo lng la trn mt di bng ti ml
La/m bng ti: ml ; kg

2,4

3,2

4,8

5,6

Lng cung cp la vo my p: ql; kg la/s

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,4

Lng cung cp rm vo b phn ct thi: q; kg/s

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

Gc kp : l gc to bi gia phng cnh gt v phng tip truyn vi


cnh sc dao ti v tr ct.T kt qu nghin cu l thuyt gi tr gc kp trong qu
trnh ct trong khong:

trong : = 650 l gc trt c la chn t th nghim xc nh cc tham s l


thuyt c cng ct ring Acr nh; l gc cu to ph thuc gc nghing .
Trong nghin cu thc nghim gi tr ca gc kp ti cc mc c xc
nh l gi tr trung bnh trong qu trnh ct, tng ng vi gi tr trung bnh ca hai
v tr gc kp u cnh sc dao v cui cnh sc dao v c xc nh t kt qu
nghin cu l thuyt nh sau:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 33

0
2

+
1
. 1 0
2
r3
arcsin 1 . sin 44 ; 2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
R
trong : rt = 0,135 m l bn knh trng ct.

Trong nghin cu thc nghim n yu t, gc kp c thay i 5 mc =


25; 35; 45; 55 v 650, t (2.3) cc mc gc kp c thay i bng cch thay i
gc nghing cnh gt,kt qu xc nh cc mc gc kp theo cc mc ca gc
nghing trnh by trn bng 2.3.
Bng 2.3. Thay i gc kp bng cch thay i gc nghing
Gc nghing :

52

39

26

13

Gc kp ;

25

35

45

55

65

Cch thay i gc nghing cnh gt c thc hin bng cch ch to cc


b cnh gt khc nhau cho mi mc th nghim.
Khe h :l khe h gia mt bn ca dao ct v mt bn ca cnh gt, mm.
Trong nghin cu thc nghim n yu t, khe h c thay i 5 mc =
1; 2; 3; 4 v 5 mm. T kt qu kho nghim, b phn ct thi CTR-1 ct rm c
chiu di on ct

10 cm chim t l trn 90%, khong cch gia hai mt bn ca

hai dao k nhau c chn bd = 30 mm, vy thay i cc mc khe h , ta thay


i b rng cnh gt vi cc mc tng ng l bcg = 28; 26; 24; 22 v 20 mm. Cc
b cnh gt i vi th nghim khe h c ch to c gc nghing c gi tr
ph hp t kt qu nghin cu nh hng ca gc kp.
2.1.2.2. Cch thc xc nh cc gi tr hm ch tiu ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
xc nh gi tr cc hm ch tiu ca b phn ct thi CTR-1, cn phn loi
c im ca khi rm sau khi qua b phn ct thi da trn mt s khi nim, t
lm c s ly mu xc nh gi tr kt qu thc nghim cho cc hm ch tiu.
Khi rm ct t l phn khi rm sau khi qua b phn ct thi c chiu di
cc cng rm

10 cm. Khi rm ct khng t l phn khi rm sau khi qua b

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 34

phn ct thi c chiu di ca cc cng rm > 10 cm. Khi rm qua b phn ct thi
l tng ca khi rm ct t v khi rm ct khng t.
Cht lng ct Cx ca ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 c nh gi thng qua t
l ct, xc nh bng phn trm khi lng ca khi rm ct t trn khi rm qua b
phn ct thi trong mt ln th nghim, v c xc nh theo cng thc:

Cx
m8
. 100; %
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ine
m9:
trong : mc l khi lng ca khi rm ct t, kg; mmr l tng khi lng ca
khi rm ct t v khi rm ct khng t, kg.
Cch thc ly mu v xc nh gi tr hm ch tiu cht lng ct Cx:
Khi rm sau khi ct c tung ra pha sau ca b phn ct thi v ri trn
mt nn c lt vi bt, ly khi rm ct ti 3 v tr: gn; xa v gia so vi b
phn ct thi, mi v tr ly 1 kg rm lm mu. Trong mi mu rm ny nht v
phn loi thnh hai phn khi rm: phn khi rm c di cc cng rm > 10 cm
gi l khi rm ct khng t v phn khi rm c di cc cng rm

10 cm

gi l khi rm ct t.
Sau khi phn loi xong em cn xc nh khi lng cc phn rm, gi mc
l khi lng khi rm ct t, mmr l tng khi lng ca hai khi rm ct t v
ct khng t (gi tr mmr< 1kg v sau khi phn loi xong m ca mu rm
gim i mt phn). Khi cht lng ct c xc nh theo cng thc (2.4). Ly
trung bnh cht lng ct Cx ti 3 v tr ly mu ta c cht lng ct Cx ca mt
ln th nghim.
Cch thc xc nh gi tr hm ch tiu chi ph nng lng ring Ne:
Chi ph nng lng ring Ne: l cng cn thit ct mt n v khi lng
rm, v c tnh theo cng thc:

Ne
N3=
; kW. s/
q
kg ;
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
trong : Ntb l cng sut trung bnh trn trc trng ct, kW.
2.1.2.3. Cc dng c v thit b o trong nghin cu thc nghim

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 35

m bo cc thng s vo c xc nh v nhn c gi tr ca thng


s ra, khi nghin cu thc nghim i vi b phn ct thi CTR-1 lin hp vi my
p la cn c cc thit b sau:
B phn cung cp la: Bng ti cao su tng hp di 5 m, chiu rng bng ti
0,5 m, truyn ng nh ngun ng lc l ng c ba pha c cng sut 3 kW, tc
ng c 1460 vg/ph, thng qua h thng b truyn ai v b truyn bnh rng.
Vn tc di ca bng ti c iu chnh thng qua tc ca ng c nh thit b
thay i tn s ca ng c l bin tn.
My p la tnh ti: My do Cng ty TNHH C kh Vit Nht ti Xun
Tin Xun Trng Nam nh c ng knh trng 0,4m, chiu di trng p 2,2
m v nng sut 4 t/h. Tc quay ca trng p 945 vg/ph tay ga iu chnh
khong 80% cho tt c cc ln th nghim.
B phn ct thi rm: c thit k vi cc thng s cu to da trn c s
nghin cu l thuyt, sao cho c th thay i c cc thng s cn nghin cu
nh: cnh gt c lin kt vi trng ct bng bu lng, vi lin kt kiu ny c th
thay i cc b cnh gt khc nhau lp trn trng ct nghin cu s nh hng
ca gc nghing cnh gt hay gc kp gia tm k v dao ct, nghin cu s nh
hng ca khe h gia dao ct v cnh gt (tm k). B phn ct thi rm nhn
chuyn ng t ng c thng qua b truyn ai v khp ni trc truyn m men,
ng c truyn ng c cng sut nh mc 4,8 kW, tc nh mc 2800 vg/ph.
H thng thit b o m men v cng sut (hnh 2.2): Cm bin quang
OMRON E3F-DS10C4; u o m men KSM SD1000QA, b thu thp x l s
liu DEWE-3010 v S Worksheet thu thp v x l hin th kt qu o.

OMRON E3F-DS10C4

KSM SD1000QA

DEWE-3010

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Lp t thit b o

Page 36

Hnh 2.2. H thng thit b o m men, cng sut v S Worksheet

Cm bin quang OMRON E3F-DS10C4c cp bo v IP66, thi gian p


ng ti a t 2,5 ms, cm bin quang c t i din c khong cch 10 cm vi
mt phn x (giy phn quang) dn trn trc trng ct. Khi trc trng ct quay, do
mt phn x u thu cm bin s nhn c mt thng lng nh sng bin iu v
pht tn hiu c tn s t l vi tc quay, tn hiu xung ny c thit bDEWE3010 thu thp v x lcho kt qu o tc quay n(vg/ph).
u o m men KSM SD1000QA c phm vi o 1000 Nm, cp chnh xc ca
thang o 0,2%, u om men s dng nguyn l mch cu Wheatstone bao gm 4
in tr bin dng c cp ngun t thit b DEWE-3010. Di tc dng ca m men
cn ct t trc trng ct qua trc o lm trc o bin dng, bin dng ny lm gi tr in
tr ca cc in tr cu thay i khi sinh ra mt gi tr in p t l thun vi
mmen,gi tr in p ny c thit b DEWE-3010 thu thp x l v cho ra kt qu o.
B thu thp x l s liu DEWE-3010 phn tch kt qu o bng cch thit
lp s Worksheet. Trong : Task DA: Modul chuyn i tn hiu tng t sang
s; Pulse Analysis: Tnh tn s; Average: Ly gi tr trung bnh; Formula: Tnh ton
theo cng thc; Digital Filter: B lc s; Scaling: Nhp phng trnh hi quy;
Recorder: Hin th th; Digital Meter: Hin th s v Write: Ghi s liu o.
Cc thit b khc: Cn ng h m 1,5 kg v m 30 kg vi cp chnh xc III.
Bin tn SV110 IP5-4NU c di tn s t 1 60 Hz dng thay i cc mc tc
quay ca trng ct.
La th nghim: Th nghim vi ging la BC15 c chiu di thn la sau khi
gt 50 60 cm; m ca rm sau khi qua my p la t 65 70%, t l gia
lng la trc khi a vo my p v lng rm sau khi thot ra t ca ra ca
my p l 2:1, h s ma st gia rm ti v st f' = 0,49 0,55.
n v o kt qu th nghim: Trung tm kho nghim my nng nghip
Quc gia. a ch: TT. Tru Qu - Gia Lm - H Ni.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 37

Kt lun: B phn ct thi CTR-1 c nghin cu vi 4 thng s chnh gi


l 4 thng s vo l: vn tc ct v, m/s; lng cung cp q, kg/s; gc kp , ; khe
h , mm v hai hm ch tiu hoc hai thng s ra l: cht lng ct Cx, % v chi
ph nng lng ring Ne, kW.s/kg. xc nh mc nh hng ca cc thng s
vo n cc hm ch tiu, cn c cc phng php nghin cu c th da trn hai
phng php nghin cu thng dng l phng php nghin cu l thuyt v
phng php nghin cu thc nghim.
2.2. Phng php nghin cu l thuyt
i vi b phn ct thi thi CTR-1, qu trnh xy dng m hnh tnh ton l
thuyt da trn c s nghin cu l thuyt v qu trnh ct thi bng li dao, cc
m hnh tnh ton ng lc hc, cc l thuyt c s v c hc v ng lc hc.
- C s l thuyt ca qu trnh ct thi bng li dao:
Cc yu t chnh nh hng n qu trnh ct thi bng li dao(,
1975;, 1978):
p lcct thi ring qct ca cnh sc dao ln vt thi :

q 83

P8
; N/
S. cos. 1 0 f B . tan
cm
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
trong : Pc l lc ct thi cn thit theo phng vn tc dao, N; f' l h s ma st
gia rm ti v thp; lgc trt vS l chiu di on dao ngp vo vt thi
(cn gi l chiu di on dao lm vic), cm.
Cng ct thi ring Acr ph thuc vo gc trt c xc nh theo cng
thc (, 1968; , 1985):

A8: 10DE . q 83 . F1 0 f B . tan G;


J/cm2
iu kin trt ca li dao trn vt thi:

2. 2

xc nh iu kin trt trong qu trnh ct thi gia dao v rm, xt trn


li dao cong AB ti 2 im M1 v M2 cch tm quay O mt on ln lt r1 v r2
(hnh 2.3a). Xt cc lc tc dng ca dao ln vt thi nh sau:
Khi dao tc dng vo vt thi ti v tr M1 vi lc Pct c phng vung gc
vi tip tuyn chung x-x. Phn tch lc Pct thnh hai thnh phn: Td thnh phn
theo x-x, Pc thnh phn vung gc vi bn knh quay r1.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 38

Td
M2

Td

sd

Fm

r1

M1

Pc

A
d

F ms

Rm

Td

Pct
Rm

r2

Pct

Pc

sd

nh
C

c
s

Fm S
k

o
da

Rk

a)

'1 Pct

/2

Tm k

Pk

V
tt

'2

/2

Sd
Fmsk K

Rd

B
Tk

b)

Hnh 2.3. S nh hng ca cung li dao v tm k ln vt thi


a) - xc nh iu kin ct c trt; b) - xc nh iu kin kp vt thi khi ct

Thnh phn lc Pc i su vo vt thi c tc dng ph v kt cu vt thi,


thnh phn Td lm cho vt thi c su hng trt trn li dao, trong qu trnh vt
thi c su hng trt trn li dao thi, ti v tr tip xc gia li dao v vt thi
sinh ra lc ma st Fmsd ngc chiu vi lc Td, thnh phn lc ma st Fmsd ny ph
thuc vo vt liu lm dao thi v vt cn thi. Khi vt thi khng b trt th lc Td
Fmsdhay '; ' - l gc ma st ph thuc vo vt liu lm dao thi v vt thi c
xc nh theo thc nghim.
c hin tng trt, tc ct thi c trt th Td> Fmsd. Xt dao thi vt ti
v tr M2 vi lc tc dng t dao vo vt thi c tr s nh khi dao thi vt ti v tr
M1, trong trng hp ny lc Pct vn vung gc vi tip tuyn chung x-x ti M2.
Tng t phn tch lc Pct thnh hai thnh phn Td v Pc. t lc ma st Fmsd vo v
tr M2 theo phng x-x c chiu ngc vi Td khi dng c gc ma st 'ti v
tr M2. T hnh 2.3a khi Td> Fmsd v >' hay Td Fmsd> 0 hiu tr s ny lm cho
vt thi chuyn ng trt trn li dao theo phng ca lc Td.
Vy iu kin ct thi c trt l: >', do iu kin ct thi c trt ph
thuc vo nn c gi l gc trt.
Theo Griatskin gc trt c hiu: gc hp bi phng ca bn knh quay
v phng ca tip tuyn cnh sc dao ti mt im no trn cnh sc dao l gc
trt ca cnh sc dao ti v tr (, 1940).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 39

Qua phn tch trn c kt lun: Khi ct thi vi dao chuyn ng quay quanh
mt tm quay c nh, trn cung AB lm dao thi ch c mt vng c >' l vng
ct thi c trt, vi c s ny c th xc nh c chiu di cung li dao. Ngc
li khi c mt li dao dng cong iu kin ct thi c trt cn ph thuc vo v tr
tm quay ca li dao.
iu kin kp trong qu trnh ct thi(hnh 2.3b):
Gc kp v iu kin kp vt thi gia cnh sc dao v cnh sc tm k l
mt thng s nh hng trong trng hp ct thi kiu ko ct, c mt cnh sc
na ( y l cnh sc tm k) cng phi hp kp v ct vt thi.

I hp bi cnh sc AB v cnh sc tm k AC gi l gc m .
Gc BAC

Khi gc m ln, hai cnh sc khng kp gi yn c vt thi m c tc


ng y n ra, kh ct thi c. Vi mt tr s gc m nh hn hai cnh
sc kp gi yn c vt thi ct c n th gc m c gi l gc kp .
Gi tr gc kp phi c bo m khi thit k b phn ct thi c tm k v l
iu kin dao v tm k kp c vt thi.
iu kin kp c xc nh nh sau: xt v tr cnh sc AB ca li dao v
cnh sc AC ca tm k nh hnh v (hnh 2.3b), vi cc lc tc ng vo khi rm
(c m phng c tit din trn tm O) nh sau:
Dao tc dng vo vt thi ti D vi lc Pct, tm k tc dng vo vt thi ti K
vi lc l Pk. Phn tch Pct v Pk thanh lc Sd v Sk c phng vung gc vi ng
phn gic Ax v Td v Tk c phng theo phng li dao AC v tm k AB.
Thnh phn cc lc Sd, Sk i vo vt thi, cc thnh phn lc Td, Tk lm cho vt thi
c su hng b y ra pha ngoi, lc ti mt tip xc D, K xut hin lc ma st
Fmsd, Fmsk. Vy hp lc do dao v tm k tc dng ln vt thi l Rd v Rk, vt thi
b trt ra pha ngoi gc m khi Td> Fmsd v Tk> Fmsk, ta c:

TK

F9NK

P83 . tan /2 ; TL

PL . tan /2

P83 . tan OP ; F9NL

PL . tan OE

trong : OP , OE ln lt l gc ma st gia dao, tm k vi vt thi.

Nu vt thi b trt khi OP , OE c gi tr cc i v tan (hm lng gic)

ca chng l h s ma st gia vt liu lm dao, tm k vi vt thi.


iu kin kp c tha mn l:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 40

TK 0 TL

F9NK 0 F9NL Q

OP 0 OE

Nu '1 = '2= ' tc dao v tm k c lm cng vt liu, khi iu kin


kp trong qu trnh ct l:

2. O;

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

trong : ' lgc ma st cc i gia vt liu lm dao v vt thi.

Bng thc nghim ca Griatskin gc kp thun li i vi dao kiu a =


40 500, i vi dao kiu trng = 24 300 (, 1940).
nh hng ca vn tc ct thi:
Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim

Act(J)

ca Reznhik i vi nguyn l ct dao

60

chuyn ng, tm k c nh trnh by

40

bng th hnh 2.4 (, 1978)

20

cho thy: khi vn tc ct tng th lc ct


thi Pc v cng ct thi Act u gim.

Pc (kN)
0,9

Act

0,7
Pc
10 12 14 16 18 20

0,5
v (m/s)

Hnh 2.4. th ph thuc Act, Pc theo v

Quan h gia lc nn v lc ct thi: i vi ct thi cc vt liu th si, qu


trnh ct thi c giai on nn vt liu v giai on ct. Nu gi Pntb l lc nn trung
bnh trong cng on nn v Pct l lc ct thi cn thit, kt qu th nghim bng
dng c con lc ca Reznhik cho quan h Pntb = (0,2 0,6).Pct (, 1964).
sc ca li dao sd: sc li dao c nh hng ti cht lng b mt
lt ct, nu dao cn qu b mt lt ct x x (khng nhn) v ngc li nu sc qu
th li dao s nhanh cn v ct km, thng thng sc sd = 20 40 m, i vi
cc my thi rau, c sd 100 m (, 1975).
- Nguyn l almbe v phng trnh tng qut ca ng lc hc:
Xt cht im M c khi lng m

chuyn ng vi gia tc ST di cc lc

VVVTE , , U
VVVT
tc dng: VVVT
UP , U
X (hnh 2.5).

Fqt

Phng trnh c bn ca ng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

F1
M

F2
Fn

Page 41

lc hc vit cho cht im:

m. VaT

VVVVTP 0 F
VVVVTE 0 Y 0 F
VVVVTZ
F

Hnh 2.5. Chuyn ng ca cht im M


Z

VVVT\ _ [ F
VVVT\ 0 +m. VaT
[F
]^P

]^P

VT
0

S hng +`. ST c th nguyn ca lc, bng tch s gia khi lng m vi

gia tc a, cng phng ngc chiu vi gia tc c gi l lc qun tnh ca cht

VVVVVT
im v k hiu l U
ab . Thay vo phng trnh trn ta c:
Z

VVVVVT
[ VVVT
F\ 0 F
c3
]^P

V0T
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
Cng thc (2.9) biu din nguyn l almbe cho cht im (cc lc ng
quy) v c pht biu nh sau: Khi cht im chuyn ng, cc lc thc s tc
dng ln cht im cng vi lc qun tnh ca n to thnh mt h lc cn
bng(, 1997; Phm Vn T v Lng Vn Vt, 2004).
Phng trnh Lagrang loi 2:
Phng trnh tng qut ca ng lc hcvit di dng ta suy rng c
gi l phng trnh Lagrang loi 2.
Gi T l ng nng ca c h, Qj l lc suy rng ng vi ta suy rng qj.
Khi phng trnh tng qut ca ng lc hc c vit di dng phng trnh
Lagrang loi 2nh sau (Tuc-Bin, 1963):

T
d T
d h+
q g
dt qf g
Qg;

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

T nghin cu l thuyt m hnh ton c xy dng dng phng trnh


nhiu bin v cc h phng trnh vi phn, song vic gii phng trnh v cc h
phng trnh vi phn ny ty thuc vo mc phc tp m s dng phng php gii
tch, phng php s hay phng php m hnh ha v m phng h thng k thut.
2.2.1. Phng php gii tch
Theo phng php gii tch, sau khi la chn cc m hnh ton v thng s
ca h thng, i vi cc m hnh ton dng tuyn tnh, vic gii phng trnh
bng gii tch c th tin hnh theo nhiu cch khc nhau, li gii nhn c c

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 42

chnh xc cao. ng thi phng php ny c u im ln trong vic phn tch,


tng hp cc kt qu nghin cu, ti u ha cc thng s tuyn tnh.
2.2.2. Phng php s
Do c tnh phi tuyn ca phn t n hi, kt qu m hnh ton cho h
truyn ng hai khi lng thng l h phng trnh vi phn phi tuyn ch c li
gii theo phng php gn ng. Mt trong nhng phng php gii gn ng c
s dng rng ri l phng php s. u im ca phng php ny l c th dng
cho nhiu dng bi ton khc nhau, vi cc iu kin gii hn khc nhau.
Hin nay, do s pht trin mnh m ca my tnh, tc gi s dng phng
php s c ng dng rng ri l phng php Rungen-Kutta (Trn Th Nh
Hng v ng Th Huy, 1987; Hoffman, 1994; John, 2005). Ni dung chnh ca
phng php ny nh sau:
Gii phng trnh vi phn bc nht: y' = f(t,y); vi y(to) = yo;
Khi cho thi gian s gia t v tk = to +k.t; (k = 0; 1; 2), th gi tr ca hm
s yk+1 thi im tk+1 c tnh theo yk thi im tk nh sau:

trong :

jklP

jk 0 . jP 0 2. jE 0 2. jo 0 jp ;
P
m

y1 = t.f(tk,yk);

y2 = t.f(tk+t/2, yk+ y1/2);

2. 3

y3 = t.f(f(tk+t/2, yk+ y2/2); y4 = t.f(tk+t, yk+y3).


Trng hp mt phng trnh vi phn bc cao n, bng cch t hm trung
gian ta s a phng trnh vi phn bc n thnh n phng trnh vi phn bc nht.
Trng hp h phng trnh gm m phng trnh vi phn bc n, khi chuyn
thnh h gm m x n phng trnh vi phn bc nht v c gii theo (2.11) vi cc
iu kin u tng ng.
2.2.3. Phng php m hnh ha v m phng h thng k thut
Phng php m hnh ha l phng php thay th mt phn hay ton b h
thng c xt bng mt m hnh c kh nng ti hin cc tnh cht cn c kho
st ca h thng c thay th. Khi m hnh s din ra cc qu trnh tng t
nh h thng thc, nhng c th d dng quan st, ghi li, kim tra... Nh vy m
hnh ha c th thay th mt phn cho nhng nghin cu l thuyt v thc nghim.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 43

C hai phng php c bn trong m hnh ha l: m hnh ha vt l l m hnh c


cng bn cht vt l vi h thng thc v m hnh ha ton hc l m hnh da vo
s ng nht gia cc phng trnh vi phn, tch phn din t cc hin tng xy ra
trong m hnh v trong h thng thc (Trn Th Nh Hng v ng Th Huy, 1987).
M phng h thng k thut vi mc ch m hnh ha tnh ton, phn tch
cc tnh cht tnh hc v ng lc hc ca mt h thng k thut.C th l, x l
dao ng, ti u ha qu trnh chuyn tip, kho st tc ng qua li gia cc thnh
phnin hoc c trong h thng nghin cu (Bi Hi Triu, 2009).
2.3. Phng php nghin cu thc nghim
2.3.1. Phng php nghin cu thc nghim n yu t
c im th nghim vi cc i tng th nghim c tnh ng nht nh:
khi la c gt t mt rung; thi gian th nghim cng mt thi im; a im
th nghim c thc hin trong mi trng kim sot c, do chn th nghim
n yu t theo kiu hon ton ngu nhin (CRD-1).
K hiu ccthng s vo th nghim l Xi (i = 1 nv, nv l s thng
svo),cc ch tiu nh gi l Yj (j = 1 nr, nr l s hm ch tiu), s mc thay i
cc thng s vo l r v s th nghim lp li mi mc l m.
Phng php thc nghim n yu t l xc nh nh hng c lp ca mt
thng s vo, nh gi nh hng ca thng s n cc hm ch tiu bng
cch: thng s th nghim c thay i s mc r (thng r = 5), trong khi thay i
cc mc th nghim ca mt thng s th cc thng s khc lun c gi tr mt
mc khng i (thng gi l mc 0).
nh gi nh hng ca mt thng s n cc hm ch tiu bng phng
php phn tch phng sai, phng php trc nghim phn hng v phng php
hi quy thc nghim, t nh gi v la chn c vng gi tr ca thng svo
cho gi tr gn ti u ca cc hm ch tiu.
Phng php phn tch phng sai nh gi s khc bit gia cc gi tr k
vng ton, kim tra tnh ng nht phng sai v phn tch hi quy(Nguyn Minh
Tuyn, 2005; Nguyn Don , 2009; Phm Vn Kiu, 2011) nh sau:

Tnh tr s F3 : F3
MSZ
;
MSt

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 44

trong : MSn v MSe l trung bnh bnh phng nghim thc v trung bnh bnh
phng sai bit.
Tra gi tr bng chun Fisher:

F=

F;uv /uw ;

trong : ft = r -1 l bc t do nghim thc; fe = r(m-1) gi l bc t do sai bit; l


mc ngha thng k.
Nu: Ft> Fb k vng ton hc khc bit, tc s khc bit gia cc nghim thc
c ngha, vi mc ngha .
kim tra tnh ng nht cho cc ln th nghim (trnh sai s do yu t ngoi
nh lc ma lc nng) bng cch kim tra tnh ng nht phng sai theo chun
thng k Kohren.

E
S9yz
G3
; G= G;}/~ ;
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
:|^P S|E
trong : S2max l phng sai ln nht trong r mc th nghim; S2ul Phng sai th

nghim mc th u trong r mc th nghim.


Gi tr thng k chun Gb c tnh sn theo mc ngha , bc t do 1/2,
trong : 1 = m -1; 2 = r.
Nu Gt< Gb khi phng sai cc mc th nghim l ng nht.
Phn tch tng quan hi quy:
Phn tch tng quan hi quy tm ra quan h nh hng ca thng s vo
n cc hm ch tiu c m t bi hm thc nghim, t xy dng th thc
nghim phn tch, nh gi v la chn vng thng s vo ph hp vi gi tr
gn ti u ca hm ch tiu.
Kt qu phn tch v kim tra tnh ng nht ca phng sai, ch cho bit
mc nh hng ca tng thng s vo n cc hm ch tiu m khng cho bit
vng gi tr ca thng s vo cho cc hm ch tiu t gi tr gn ti u. gii
quyt vn ny cn da vo kt qu trc nghim phn hng nh gi mc khc
bit gia cc gi tr trung bnh v thng lng c iu kin gia cc hm ch tiu,
t la chn vng nh hng ca thng s vo cho gi tr cc hm ch tiu t gn

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 45

ti u nghin cu thc nghim n yu t. Kt qu ny lm gi tr thng s vo


cho nghin cu thc nghim a yu t.
2.3.2. Phng php nghin cu thc nghim a yu t
Phng php nghin cu thc nghim a yu t l phng php xc nh
nh hng ca nhiu thng s vo cng mt lc n cc hm ch tiu, t xc
nh c mc nh hng ca tng thng s n hm ch tiu, lm c s la
chn gi tr thng s ti u cho cc thng s nghin cu, m bo cc hm ch tiu
t gi tr ti u.
nghin cu thc nghim a yu t, cn c k hoch thc nghim c th,
cc k hoch thc nghim hin nay thng l k hoch thc nghim bc 2.
2.3.2.1. L thuyt chung cho cc k hoch thc nghim bc 2
Thc nghim a yu t vi cc k hoch thc nghim bc 2 c trnh by
trn c s ti liu (, 1977; Phm Vn Lang v Bch Quc Khang, 1998),
theo cc bc sau:
a) Xy dng m hnh hi quy bc 2 v xc nh cc h s hi quy
Quy hoch thc nghim bc 2 l phng php xy dng quy trnh th nghim v
x l s liu nhn c m hnh hi quy dng a thc bc 2 , m t s ph thuc
ca hm ch tiu Y vo cc thng s nh hng Xdi dng phng trnh (2.14):

a 0 aP . XP 0 aE . X E 0 Y 0 aZ . X Z 0 aPE . XP . X E 0 Y 0
aZDP,Z . X ZDP . X Z 0 aPP XPE 0 Y 0
aZZ . X EZ ;

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong : Xi l cc gi tr th nghim thng s vo th i; Y l gi tr hm ch tiu; ai


,aijl h s phng trnh hi quy.
tin cho vic xc nh cc h s thc nghim ca m hnh hi quy v tin
hnh cc bc x l s liu khc, thay cc gi tr thc Xi bng cc gi tr m ha xi
c xc nh theo cng thc:

x]

X] + X ]
;i
X ]

1, 2, , n ;

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 46

trong : Xi0 l mc c s ca thng s vo th i; xi l gi tr m chun ha ca


thng s vo th i v l i lng khng th nguyn.
Ta thy gi tr m xi tng ng vi 3 gi tr ng vi 3 mc th nghim ca
thng s vo Xi nh sau:
Gi tr th nghim Xi mc trn, mc c s, mc di th gi tr m xi nhn
cc tr s ln lt l: xit = 1, xio = 0 v xid = -1.
Vi dng m cho thng s vo khi phng trnh hi quy thc nghim
c xy dng theo m hnh sau:

b 0 [ b] x ] 0
[

]^P

]^P

g^P

b]g x] xg ; 2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong : bo, bi, bij l cc c lng h s hi quy (gi tt l h s hi quy); nvl s


thng s vo nh hng xi.
nhn c m hnh hi quy bc 2, s mc bin i cc thng s vo t
nht l 3, s h s hi quy ktn c xc nh theo cng thc:

k3Z
n 0 1 n 0 2
;
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined
2
Trng mi k hoch thc nghim bc 2 s cc ln th nghim Ntn c xc

nh bi 3 phn c bn: Phn c s (phn ht nhn) l phn thc nghim mc1

vi s th nghim l 2Z hoc 2ZD (p h s rt gn); phn thc nghim cc im


sao c s th nghim l 2nv v phn thc nghim tm (mc 0) vi s th nghim

l No 1. Cc gi tr p, v Noc xc nh c th theo tng k hoch th nghim.


Vy s th nghim trong mt k hoch th nghim l:

N3Z 2ZD 0 2. n 0 N ;
2. 4
S bc t do trong mi k hoch c xc nh theo cng thc:
fP

N3Z k ; fE

N3Z m + 1 ;

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

2. 5

Page 47

trong : k* l s h s c ngha trong m hnh, i vi m hnh y phng


trnh hi quy bc 2 th k* = ktn; m l s ln lp li th nghim ti mi im (thng
chn s ln lp li ti mi im l nh nhau v m =3).
b) Kim tra tng thch ca m hnh v mc ngha cc h s hi quy
Tnh gi tr Ftv so snh vi gi tr tra bng chun Fb, m hnh tng thch
khi tho mn iu kin (2.18)

F3

m. S E

StE

F=
F;u}/~ ;
2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
2
trong : S lphng sai do s chnh lch gia cc gi tr hm tnh theo m hnh v
gi tr thc nghim; Se2lphng sai do nhiu to nn.
kim tra mc ngha ca cc h s hi quy ta i xc nh gi tr bin ca
khong tin cy b cho tng loi h s hi quy, so sng gi tr bi vi khong tin cy
tng ng. Nu gi tr ca h s hi quy nm khong ngoi hai gi tr bin tnh
th h s c coi l mc ngha.
Gi tr bin ca khong tin cy tnh cho tng h s hi quy nh sau:

b
b]

E
t S=

E
t S=]

2. 6
E
t S=]g

E
b]]
t S=]]

trong : tlgi tr tiu chun Student tra bng thng k theo bc t do f2 mc


b]g

ngha , f2 = Ntn (m-1) nu s th nghim lp li cc im l nh nhau.

E
E
E
E
Trong (2.19) cc gi tr S=
; S=]
; S=]g
v S=]]
c xc nh theo tng loi k

hoch thc nghim.

c) Dng t nhin v dng chnh tc ca m hnh thc nghim


chun ha ton b qu trnh x l s liu thc nghim, trong quy hoch
thc nghim quy nh s dng gi tr cc thng s vo dng m xi. xc nh gi
tr hm ch tiu ti mt im bt k vi thng s vo dng t nhin Xi ta phi
chuyn m hnh hi quy hm ch tiu t dng m v dng t nhin (dng thc).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 48

nh gi c tnh cht b mt ch tiu, xc nh nh hng ca cc


thng s vo quan h nghch bin hay ng bin vi hm ch tiu, khi cn
chuyn m hnh hi quy v dng chnh tc.
Dng t nhin ca m hnh c dng:

Y
a 0
Z

[ a] X] 0
]^P
Z

[ [ a]g X ] X g ;
]^P g^P

trong : ai, aijl cc h s hi quy dng thc.

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

M hnh hi quy chnh tc dng thc c dng:

Y + S
Z

[ A]] X E ;
]^P

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong : SYl ta cc tr hm ch tiu; Aiil h s phng trnh dng chnh tc,

Aiic xc nh l nghim ca phng trnh tr ring c xy dng t ma trn tr


ring vi cc phn t ly t h s phng trnh dng thc.
2.3.2.2. Phn tch tnh cht mt s k hoch thc nghim bc 2
Hin nay c nhiu dng khc nhau ca k hoch bc 2 c xy dng trn c
s s dng cc chun ti u, s mc bin i cc thng s vo khc nhau...
Cc k hoch bc 2 c chia thnh hai nhm i xng v khng i xng,
k hoch i xng v k hoch khng i xng c nhng khc bit sau (Phm Vn
Lang v Bch Quc Khang, 1998):
So vi k hoch khng i xng, k hoch i xng c trnh t sp xp cc
im th nghim cht ch hn, r rng hn.
Ma trn thng tin Fisher ca k hoch i xng c cu trc khi c o,
phn ln cc phn t bng 0, do cng thc tnh h s hi quy n gin hn.
K hoch khng i xng khc nhau v chng trnh thay i cc thng s,
cc php tnh h s hi quy v phng sai ca chng phc tp hn, song n nay
vi s tr gip ca my tnh vn ny c gii quyt hon ton.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 49

So vi k hoch i xng, k hoch khng i xng c tnh kinh t hn do


s th nghim trong cc k hoch nh hn, c th xy dng cc k hoch c s th
nghim cc nh, s th nghim bng s cc h s hi quy trong m hnh.
Do s a dng ca cc loi k hoch c trng bi min quy hoch vi mc
thay i thng s vo khc nhau v s th nghim khc nhau, do vic chn k
hoch thc nghim cn da vo min quy hoch, c 3 loi min quy hoch nh sau:
Min t nhin: c trng cho cc loi k hoch hp thnh c xy dng
trn c s b sung cho cc k hoch bc nht, trong cc im b sung cha cc

gi tr im sao ca cc thng s. Cc ta b sung c xc nh theo cc

chun ti u ny hay khc m ngi nghin cu s dng, chng thot khi min

quy hoch thc nghim bc 1 (cc mc 1) mt cch t nhin, tc l vt khi

phm vi siu khi vung, loi ny thng gi l siu cu. Min quy hoch ny cha

5 mc thay i ca thng s vo: 0, 1, .

Min siu khi vung: l min m cc thng s vo ch c thay i 3

mc: 0, 1. Trong mt s trng hp nh phng n hp thnh Hartly min siu


khi vung cng gi vai tr nh min t nhin, tc l ta b sung cho k hoch

bc 1 nhn bc 2 khng cha mc m vn l 1.

Min siu cu bn knh n v: l min trong c 5 mc thay i ca thng

s vo, iu kin ca min siu cu bn knh n v l ^P

1.

2.3.2.3. La chn k hoch thc nghim bc 2 cho b phn ct thi CTR-1


Nh phn tch trn kt hp vi vic xc nh s th nghim cho cc loi
k hoch thc nghim ta thy: Cc k hoch khng i xng mc d c hn ch do
s phc tp v s sp xp kt hp cc mc thay i thng s vo, nhng cc k
hoch khng i xng c quan tm nhiu trong thc t nh tnh kinh t hn so
vi k hoch i xng. n nay mt s k hoch khng i xng xy dng c
cng thc tnh cc h s hi quy, phng sai v nh gi c cc h s , trong
in hnh l k hoch khng i xng bc 2 hp thnh Hartly ang c ng
dng rng ri trong nng nghip.
Vi m hnh nghin cu l b phn ct thi CTR-1 lin hp vi my p la,
cc thng s vo l nhng thng s iu chnh c nh: vn tc ct v; lng cung

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 50

cp q; gc kp v khe h . Cc thng s ra c quan tm bi hai hm ch tiu l


cht lng ct Cx v chi ph nng lng ring Ne. i tng th nghim l la a
vo my p vi iu kin la mi ct khng qu 1 ngy trc khi th nghim,
do i hi phi th nghim nhanh tc l phi xc nh k hoch th nghim sao
cho s th nghim l t nht.
Vy vi m hnh ny chn k hoch th nghim theo phng n hp thnh
Hartly trong ma trn k hoch th nghim c trnh by ph lc 4.1.
2.3.2.4. Phng php nghin cu ti u tng qut
Khi m hnh nghin cu c nhiu hm ch tiu, cn phi tin hnh gii ti u
nhiu hm xc nh gi tr ca cc thng s vo, sao cho gi tr ca cc hm ch
tiut ti u. Ty theo cc loi hm ch tiu m vic gii ti u tng qut c tin
hnh bng cc phng php khc nhau (, 1993; Phm Vn Lang v Bch
Quc Khang, 1998).
Gii ti u tng qut bng phng php cc tr c iu kin:
Trong thc t cc hm ch tiu c xy dng thng chung mt phng n
thc nghim v cng b chi phi bi cc thng s vo Xi, do vy cc hm ch tiu
lun c s tng quan v c th nh gi theo cc chun thng k(L Cng Hunh,
1995). Tuy nhin quan h gia cc hm khng cho php dng mt hm thay th cc
hm khc khi tm cc tr chung. Trong bi ton ny ch phn bit hm chnh v hm
b sung theo ngha v s ng gp ca chng vo hiu qu kinh t k thut ca
i tng nghin cu (v d: khi nghin cu v my ct th hm cht lng ct l
hm chnh cn hm chi ph nng lng l hm ph v my ct th vic u tin phi
l cht lng ct). S thng lng gi tr cn t c ca chng vn din ra vi
s tham gia ca tt c cc hm ch tiu.
ngha thc tin ca bi ton thng lng l chp nhn gi tr no
khng phi l hon ho, nhng gn ti ti u ca hm ch tiu b tr, t tm
c gi tr tt nht ca hm ch tiu chnh.
Bi ton ny c khi qut nh sau: Tm cc tr ca hm y1 = f(x1, x2, ...,

xZ ) trong cc iu kin gii hn (chn) sau:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 51


E xP , xE , , x Z 0
yE + yE

o xP , xE , , xZ 0
yo + yo
2. 7

y + y
Z xP , xE , , xZ 0
Z
Z
trong : y1l hm c s (hm chnh); y2 yml cc hm iu kin (hm b tr);jE

jX l gi tr chn ca cc hm b tr, v xil cc thng s vo i = 1 nv.

Xy dng hm tng vi cc iu kin dng buc t (2.23) nh sau:

P xP , xE , x Z 0
Z

[ * . * xP , x E , , x Z ;
*^E

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong ; zl tha s Lagrange; z = 2 nr l s hm b tr.

Gi tr ti u tng qut l nghim ca h to bi cc o hm ring ca hm


tng (2.24) v h iu kin (2.23) cho ta h (2.25) nh sau:

0
xP

xE 0
..

2. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.


0
xZ
y + y
0
E
E

0
yo + yo

0
yZ + yZ

Gii h (2.25) bng phng php Gradient,xc nh c cc tha s


Lagrange z v cc gi tr ti u cho thng s vo theo mt s iu kin no ca
cc hm ch tiu b tr ( , 1982).
2.3.3. K hoch thc nghim cho m hnh nghin cu b phn ct thi CTR-1
T phng php nghin cu thc nghim n yu t v phng php nghin
cu thc nghim a yu t c chn theo phng n hp thnh Hartly,t c k
hoch nghin cu c th cho m hnh nghin cu b phn ct thi CTR-1.
S thng s vo, s thng s ra (s hm ch tiu) v phn tch, la chn vng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 52

nghin cu ban u ca cc thng s vo cho m hnh c trnh by theo ti liu


lin quan, c kt qu nh sau:
S thng s vo nv = 4, s mc th nghim n yu t l r = 5 mc, gi tr
cc mc c trnh by trn bng 2.4.
Bng 2.4. Gi tr cc mc th nghim n yu t ca cc thng s vo
Mc TN
Thng s

M c 1

Mc 2

Mc 3

M c 4

Mc 5

Vn tc ct: v (m/s)

15

20

25

30

35

Lng cung cp: q (kg/s)

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

Gc kp:

()

25

35

45

55

65

Khe h:

(mm)

S hm ch tiu nr = 2: hm cht lng ct Cx (%) vhm chi ph nng lng


ring Ne(kW.s/kg).
2.3.3.1. Lp k hoch thc nghim n yu t (th nghim thm d)
T s thng s vo, s hm ch tiu v s mc thay i cc gi tr ca thng
s vo nh trn. Lp bng m k hoch th nghim n yu t xc nh s th
nghim v cch b tr th nghim (bng 2.5).

TT

Bng 2.5. Bng k hiu m cho cc ln th nghim


M th nghim
M th nghim xc
M th nghim
M th nghim xc
xc nh vng
nh vng gc kp xc nh vng khe
nh vng vn tc
lng cung cp
ct vo(m/s) ti u
o() ti u
h o(mm) ti u
qo(kg/s) ti u

vo: v15-q05-35-2

qo: vo -q03-35-2

o: voqo- 25 - 2

o: voqo- o 1

vo: v20-q05-35-2

qo: vo -q04-35-2

o: voqo- 35 - 2

o: voqo- o 2

vo: v25-q05-35-2

qo: vo -q05-35-2

o: voqo- 45 - 2

o: voqo- o 3

vo: v30-q05-35-2

qo: vo -q06-35-2

o: voqo- 55 - 2

o: voqo- o 4

vo: v35-q05-35-2

qo: vo -q07-35-2

o: voqo- 65 - 2

o: voqo- o 5

Ch thch: M th nghim trn bng 2.5 cho bit mc ch ca th nghim v


cc thng s u vo khi th nghim: k hiu trc du : ng vi k hiu thng s
no l th nghim tm vng ti u cho thng s , cc s ng sau du : m ng
sau thng s no l gi tr th nghim vi thng s . V d, th nghim s 3 c m
th nghim l: vo: v25-q05-35-2 l th nghim xc nh vng vn tc ti u,

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 53

cc thng s th nghim v = 25m/s; q = 0,5kg/s; = 350 v khe h = 2mm.


Trong mi th nghim n yu t, mi th nghim c lp li 3 ln v kt
qu c trnh by theo mu trn bng 2.6.

Ln
TN
Ln 1
Ln 2
Ln 3
TB

Bng 2.6. Gi tr kt qu cc hm ch tiu Cx (%) v Ne (kW.s/kg)


Mc th nghim ca thng s vo Xi
M c 1
Mc 2
Mc 3
Mc 4
M c 5
Cx
Ne
Cx
Ne
Cx
Ne
Cx
Ne
Cx
Ne
Cx11 Ne11 Cx12 Ne12 Cx13 Ne13 Cx14 Ne14 Cx15 Ne15
Cx21 Ne21 Cx22 Ne22 Cx23 Ne23 Cx24 Ne24 Cx25 Ne25
Cx31 Ne31 Cx32 Ne32 Cx33 Ne33 Cx34 Ne34 Cx35 Ne35
Cx1

Ne1

Cx2

Ne2

Cx3

Ne3

Cx4

Ne4

Cx5

Ne5

Kt qu phn tch s liu thc nghim c so snh vi cc gi tr tra bng


chun, i vi thc nghim n yu t c s mc th nghim r = 5, s th nghim
lp li m = 3 ta c:
Tng s th nghim cho mt thng s: ntn = r.m= 5.3 = 15
Bc t do tng qut, nghim thc, sai bit v bc t do 1; 2 ln lt l:
f0= 14;

ft= 4;

fe= 10; 1 = m -1 = 2; 2 = r = 5.

Gi tr Fb tra bng chun Fisher mc ngha = 5% l:


Fb =F4/10/0,05 = 3,48
Gi tr Gb tra bng phn b G.Kohren:
Gb = G0,05/2/5 = 0,6838
Phn tch, nh gi kt qu th nghim c x l thng k bng phn mm
Statgraphics, da trn c s phn tch phng sai v tng quan hi quy, t cho
kt qu vng nghin cu thm d ca thng s vo hm ch tiu t c gi tr
mong mun.
2.3.3.2. Lp k hoch thc nghim a yu t tm cc gi tr ti u
thng nht k hiu cc thng s vo v ra gia cc bng sau khi s dng
phn mm thng k ng nht vi k hiu trnh by trong vn bn, cc thng s vo
v ra dng thc v dng m c k hiu ln lt nh sau:
Vn tc ct v:

k hiu dng thc l X1; dng m l x1

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 54

Lng cung cp q: k hiu dng thc l X2; dng m l x2


Gc kp :

k hiu dng thc l X3; dng m l x3

Khe h :

k hiu dng thc l X4; dng m l x4

Hm ch tiu cht lng ct Cx:

dng thc Y1; dng m y1

Hm ch tiu chi ph nng lng ring Ne:

dng thc Y2; dng m y2

K hoch thc nghim a yu t c la chn theo phng n hp thnh


Hartly c c im sau:

Phn ht nhn: s th nghim l 2ZD vi p = 1 l h s rt gn khi thay x4 =

x2.x3, do s th nghim phn ht nhn l: 24-1 = 8;


Phn im sao: s th nghim l 2.nv = 8;
S th nghim tm: No = 1
Vy tng s th nghim Ntn = 8+8+1 = 17.

Min th nghim l min siu khi vung, tc l cc thng s vo khi th

nghim c thay i theo 3 gi tr l: xi = 0 v 1.

S h s phng trnh hi quy c xc nh theo cng thc:

n 0 1 n 0 2
15
2
S th nghim lp li ti mi im th nghim: m = 3.
k3Z

Bc t do ca h: f1 = Ntn-k*; f2 = Ntn(m-1) = 34, trong k* l s h s c


ngha trong m hnh, nu ton b cc h s c ngha f1 = 2, nu c mt h s khng
c ngha th f1 = 3.
Gi tr Fb tra bng chun Fisher xc nh tnh c ngha ca m hnh c xc
nh thng qua hai h s f1; f2 v mc ngha . mc ngha = 0,05 vi f1 = 2 tra
bng chun Fb = F0,05/2/34 = 3,284, vi f1 = 3 tra bng chun Fb = F0,05/3/34 = 2,888.
Kt qu c trnh by theo ma trn k hoch th nghim ph lc 4.1.
Xy dng hm ch tiu dng m, kim tra tng thch ca m hnh, mc
ngha cc h s hi quy, xy dng hm ch tiu dng thc, dng chnh tcv gii bi
ton ti u tng qut tm gi tr ti u c thc hin nh phn mm x l s liu
thng k Statgraphics.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 55

Chng 3. KT QU NGHIN CU L THUYT


Nghin cu l thuyt nhm xy dng m hnh ton v kho st nh hng
ca cc thng s chnh n cc hm nng lng, lm c s thit k b phn ct thi
rm lin hp vi my p la phc v cho nghin cu thc nghim v ng dng
vo thc tin.
S tng qut m t qu trnh lm vic ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 c
trnh by trn hnh 3.1.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 56

Cnh gt 2

Thnh bao trn


Trng ct

120

Cnh gt 3

Vng vo rm

Lc g

hv

O
0
12

hd

Cc

Cch
ck

Cnh gt 1
c

c t

Thanh lp dao

Gc

Gk
cht

Gch

i
G ia

ch

R(

R( )
)

Ci

Q
Gi

ai

Gck

Gi

Cnh sc dao

rt

G0

C0

RO

csd

yk

G iai o n ch u yn t i p

Hnh 3.1. S tng qut qu trnh lm vic ca b phn ct thi CTR-1

Cu to b phn ct thi CTR-1 vi s hnh 3.1 bao gm: Trng ct c bn


knh rt, trn trng ct lp 3 hng cnh gt c chiu di Lcg cch u nhau 120o v
phng cnh gt nghing mt gc so vi phng hng knh trng ct ti chn
cnh gt. Dao ct c bin dng li dao (cnh sc dao) dng cong, u cnh sc dao
ti v tr G0 c phng hng knh hp vi phng ngang Ox mt gc o gi l gc
h u dao, khong cch t G0 n tm quay O l bn knh u dao hoc bn knh
u cnh gt k hiu lR0, im cui cnh sc dao ti v tr Cc nm trn phng thng
ng Oy t gn st vi mt ngoi trng ct, cc dao ct c lin kt cng vi
khung ca b phn ct nh cctm dn rm v lin kt dao (gi tt l thanh lp dao).
Rm c tung trc tip t my p la vo b phn ct vng vo rm c
gc bao vo v. Cnh gt 1 quay cng vi trng ct c vn tc gc v rm vo

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 57

vng ct c gc bao ct c thc hin ct rm, giai on thc hin ct rm trong


vng gc bao ct c gi l giai on ct (vng ct). Kt thc giai on ct khi rm
c ct ht v u cnh gt v tr Gc,lc ny khi rm c ct ht nhng
cha thot c ra ngoi b phn ct do nh hng ca thnh bn dao c gii hn
bi cnh CcGk ca thn dao v thanh lp dao, n khi u cnh gt v tr Gch, cnh
gt c phng thng ng CchGch, khi rm mi bt u trt trn b mt cnh gt
v c tung ra khi b phn ct, giai on t khi ct ht rm n khi khi rm bt
u c tung ra khi b phn ct ng vi u cnh gt i t Gc n Gch gi l giai
on chuyn tip (vng chuyn tip), gc bao giai on chuyn tip k hiu l ch.
Sau giai on chuyn tip, cnh gt thc hin tung khi rm ct ra khi b phn
ct vng gc bao ck, giai on cnh gt thc hin tung rm vng gc bao ch
gi l giai on chy khng (vng chy khng), gc ck gi l gc bao chy khng.
Tnh t v tr khi rm bt u vo vng ct u cnh gt v tr G0 n khi kt thc
giai on chy khng u cnh gt v tr Gck gi l mt qu trnh ct.
tnh chi ph nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1, ta tnh cho mt qu
trnh ct do mt hng cnh gt gy ra gm ba giai on: giai on ct; giai on
chuyn tip v giai on chy khng. Vic xc nh cc hm chi ph nng lng
giai on ct c tnh cho phn khi rm do mt cnh gt v vo vng ct thc
hin ct rm trn mt cnh sc dao, chi ph nng lng giai on chuyn tip v
chy khng c xc nh thng qua chi ph nng lng giai on ct theo mt t
l thc nghim trn c s l thuyt qu trnh ct thi bng cnh sc dao, chi ph
nng lng ca qu trnh ct c tnh bng bi s dao ct lp trn b phn ct ca
chi ph nng lng giai on ct, giai on chuyn tip v giai on chy khng.
B phn ct thi CTR-1 c thit k vi cc tiu ch ra da trn c s l
thuyt qu trnh ct thi bng cnh sc dao (, 1978) nh sau:
- Tiu ch 1: Gc kp 2= 57,62o v nh dn trong qu trnh ct.
- Tiu ch 2: Gc trt> = 28,81o v c gi tr sao cho cng ct thi ring
Ar c gi tr nh.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 58

- Tiu ch3: di cung thi S ( di on dao ngp vo vt thi) nghch


bin so vi bn knh cc R().iu kin ny m bo cho qu trnh ct c m
du, do lc tc dng ln trc trng u n hn trong qu trnh ct.
Trong thc t khi rm do hng cnh gt v vo vng ct c c im phn
b khng u trn b mt cnh gt. Song m hnh tnh ton l thuyt c thun
li v khng mt tnh tng qut nh: lng cung cp q khng i; cng ct thi
khng i do lng rm c ct ht sau mt qu trnh ct, v vy cn c cc gi
thit cho m hnh tnh ton l thuyt nh sau:
Gi thit 2: Gi thit khi rm c mt hng cnh gt v vo vng ct ban
u c c im: khi rm ri u, ph kn trn b mt hng cnh gt v c dng
khi hnh hp xin (hnh 3.7).
Gi thit 3: Trong tnh ton l thuyt tc quay ca trng ct n(vg/ph) l
u, tng ng c gi tr vn tc gc khng i (rad/s).
c kt qu nghin cu l thuyt lm c s thit k b phn ct thi rm
lin hp vi my p la cn thc hin cc ni dung nh: xc nh cc thng s cu
to, thng s ng hc; xy dng m hnh ton, kho st nh hng ca cc thng
s chnh n cc hm nng lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 v kho st ng lc
hc truyn ng cho b phn ct xc nh m men qun tnh ca b phn ct
m bo qu trnh lm vic ca h thng c n nh, lm c s xc nh vng
vn tc nghin cu thc nghim khng c hin tng cng hng trong qu trnh
th nghim cng nh trong sn xut thc tin sau ny.
3.1. Thng s cu to v thng s ng hc ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
T hnh 1.14 v s tng qut hnh 3.1, b phn ct thi CTR-1 c thit
k vi cc thng s cu to, thng s ng hc v thng s lm vic vi cc k
hiu, n v quy nh chung nh sau:
- Trng ct: bn knh rt, m; chiu di trng Lt, m; c vn tc gc , rad/s.
- Dao ct: b dy vt liu lm dao d, m; thn dao c ch to dng khuyt
(hnh 1.14) lm gim lc ma st do khi rm c ct vi mt bn thn dao,
chiu rng thn dao phn cnh sc dao htd1, m, chiu rng thn dao phn lin kt
vi thanh lp dao l htd2, m; s dao c nh kd; khong cch gia hai mt bn ca hai

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 59

dao k nhau l bd v bng b rng thanh lp dao, m; v tr t u dao ti G0 c bn


knh so vi tm quay O l R0, m.
- Cnh gt v hng cnh gt: chiu di cnh gt Lcg, m, chiu di cnh gt
c thit k sao cho bn knh u cnh gt lun bng bn knh v tr t u cnh
sc dao R0; chiu rng cnh gt bcg, m; phng ca mt cnh gt v rm theo chiu
di cnh gt lp nghing vi phng hng knh trng ct ti chn cnh gt mt gc
gi l gc nghing , rad (), khi to ra hai gc cu to v , rad (); trn
hng cnh gt c lp kd + 1 cnh gt ng phng nhau, khe h gia hai mt bn
hai cnh gt k nhau ph thuc vo b dy thn dao v khe h gia mt bn thn
dao v mt bn cnh gt, m (mm); chiu di hng cnh gt tnh theo v bng chiu
di mt cnh gt; chiu rng hng cnh gt tnh theo v bng chiu di chng ct.
- Xt vi thi im u cnh gt v tr C0G0, sau thi gian t trng ct quay
c mt gc quay , rad () cnh gt v cnh sc dao thc hin ct khi rm ti
dao im Q (hnh 3.1), lc ny khong cch t giao im ca phng hng tm
u cnh gt vi cnh sc dao ti tm quay O gi l bn knh quay R(), m; khong
cch t v tr ct trn cnh sc dao (giao im Q) ti tm quay O gi l bn knh cc
R(), m; gc to bi gia OG0 vi R() gi l gc cc , rad (); do gc nghing
ca cnh gt nn trong giai on ct to ra hai gc khc bit v , s sai khc gia
gc cc v gc quay gi l gc bin thin = - , rad ().
- Trong giai on ct (hnh 3.1) gc to bi phng tip tuyn t-t ti Q vi
phng cnh gt CiGi gi l gc kp , rad (); gc to bi phng tip tuyn t-t
ti Q trn cnh sc dao vi bn knh cc R() l gc trt , rad ().
Vi cc thng s cu to, th bin dng cnh sc dao l thng s nh hng
ln n mc phc tp khi tnh ton l thuyt ca qu trnh ct v ng thi nh
hng ln n mc chi ph nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1, do cn phn
tch v xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao ph hp cho b phn ct thi CTR-1.
3.1.1. Xy dng bin dng cnh sc daocho b phn ct thi CTR-1
Vi nguyn l ct truyn thng kiu dao a chuyn ng v tm k c nh,
bin dng cnh sc dao thng c ch to dng cung trn t lch tm so vi tm
quay O v c cnh sc dao hng v pha li ca cung cnh sc dao(,
1978), song vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh (hnh 1.14) nu s dng dao

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 60

ny th cnh sc dao li hng v pha lm ca cung cnh sc dao. Vy c bin


dng cnh sc dao ph hp cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 ta i phn tch v nh gi
tnh ph hp ca bin dng cnh sc dao dng cung trn, t lm c s xy dng
bin dng cnh sc dao ph hp cho b phn ct thi CTR-1.
3.1.1.1. Phn tch c im bin dng cnh sc dao dng cung trn lch tm cho b
phn ct thi CTR-1
Xt bin dng cnh sc dao vi on cung trn G0Ccc tm Od bn knh Rd
t lch tm quay O ca trc trng ct mt on e hp vi phng ngang 0x mt
gc 0trnh by trn hnh 3.2.
Xt ti thi im u khi cnh gt bt

e
0

mt thi gian t trng ct quay mt gc

R(
)

= .t, cnh gt ct khi rm giao


Rd

im Q, tng ng vi v tr cnh gt

Trng ct

l G1C1, khi vc t bn knh cc


C0

R() s quay c mt gc so vi
Pc

cc R l:

td

Fmsd
G1

Tld Td td
Cnh gt Cnh sc dao

Khung my

0 0 . Phng trnh bn knh

Cc

K
tam gic OQOd vi gc QOO

G0

C1

Pct

Bn knh cc R() c xc nh theo

thi im u l = + .

R0
Rm

R(
)

rt

u ct v tr cnh gt l G0C0, sau

Od

Hnh 3.2. Phn tch c im bin dng


cnh sc dao dng cung trn lch tm

REK + e2 . sinE 0 0 . 0 e. cos 0 0 . ;

3. 1

Xt ti Q dao tc dng vo khi rm lc Pct c phng vung gc vi phng


tip tuyn td -td ca cnh sc dao. Phn tch lc Pct theo hai phng: lc Pc theo phng
vung gc vi bn knh cc R() v lc Td theo phng tip tuyn td-td. Khi thnh
phn lc Td ln hn lc ma st Fmsd khi rm chu tc dng mt lc Tld = Td - Fmsd v
trt trn cnh sc dao, lc ny khi rm cng chu lc Pc c phng i su vo khi
rm lm nhim v ct rm. Tng hp ca hai thnh phn lc Pc v Tld l lc Rm, ta
thy lc Fmsd lun l hnh chiu ca lc Rm, do vy Rm lun hp vi phng php
tuyn ca cnh sc dao mt gc bng gc ma st '. Nu xt trong chuyn ng tng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 61

i coi dao chuyn ng v cnh gt ng vai tr l tm k c nh, khi gc to


bi phng Pc (phng vn tc tuyt i ca dao) v phng vn tc php tuyn vi
cnh sc dao gi l gc trt (, 1978).
Xc nh gi tr gc trt theo , xt tam gic OdOQ ta c:

cos
e
. sin 0 0
RK
;

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Trong cng thc (3.2) cc i lng: e, Rd, 0 v 0 l cc hng s ph thuc


vo kch thc ch to v v tr t tm cung dao Od, vy gc trt bin thin ch
ph thuc vo gc cc . Trong giai on ct bn knh cc R() gim dn v gc
cc tng dn. Gc trt gim dn khi 0 + 0 + 90o, giai on ct c thun
li do quan h gia R() v l ng bin. Song cui giai on ct li khng
thun li do tn ti gc 0 nn 0 + 0 + > 90o lc ny gc trt li tng dn lm
cho quan h gia R() v l nghch bin.
Vi gc kp th = - Q, trong c giai on ct tng v gc Q tng, giai
on u khi 0 + 0 + 90o gc trt gim dn do gc kp gim rt nhanh
giai on ny, giai on cui 0 + 0 + > 90o gc trt li tng dn do gc
kp vn gim nhng gim chm hn so vi giai on u.Vy c giai on ct gc
kp gim dn, quy lut bin i gc kp nh vy l thun li cho giai on ct.
Nhn xt:
- Vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh, cnh sc dao dng cung trn lch
tm hng v pha lm c tnh cht v gc trt khng thun li cui giai on
ct, v gc kp th thun li.
- tnh cng v chi ph nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 cn xc
nh c R() ph thuc vo gc cc . Song gc cc l gc c xc nh theo
gc quay ca trng ct v cc thng s cu to. xy dng bi ton mang tnh
tng qut cn xc nh c hm ph thuc ca gc cc theo gc quay v cc
thng s cu to,t (3.1) R() l hm ph thuc vo di dng hm cn thc v

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 62

lng gic do vy vic xy dng quan h = f() rt phc tp v gn nh khng


tm c. Vy nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh s dng dao c bin dng cnh
sc dao cong trn lch tm s gy kh khn cho vic tnh ton l thuyt xc nh
nng lng ct thi.
Qua phn tch mt s c im ca bin dng cnh sc dao dng cung trn
lch tm cho nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh nh trn, cho ra nh hng
xc nh bin dng cnh sc dao nh: cnh sc dao c dng cong v hng v pha
lm, bin dng cnh sc dao cong nhng khng phi l cung trn m c xy dng
sao cho vic nghin cu tnh ton thun li v p ng c cc tiu ch thit k.
3.1.1.2. Xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao cho b phn ct thi CTR-1
V bin dng cnh sc dao c vin s Gritskin nghin cu vi 9
ng cong ton hc: ng hypecbon; ng xon lgarit; ng xon csimet;
ng trn lch tm; ng trn khai trin; ng khai trin nghch o ca ng
trn; ng thng; ng = Cte v ng R.cos(-) = Cte (, 1975; Trn
Minh Vng v Nguyn Th Minh Thun, 1999). Trn c s ny, thun li trong
tnh ton l thuyt v m bo mt s cc tiu ch thit k, tc gi xy dng bin
dng cnh sc dao c dng ng xon c lgarit vi gc trt khng i trong
giai on ct cho b phn ct thi CTR-1.
t

Cc

dR()
E

Gi cnh sc dao c qu

Trng ct

ta t nhin (hnh 3.3).

y Bin dng cnh sc dao

d
)
R(
+

)
R(

C1

cnh gt CG c phng theo

o theo ng cong G0Cc,

G1
Q

vt

vn

M hnh c xy dng theo

rt

vn tc gc khng i .

phng hng knh trng ct


(gc nghing = 0) quay vi

C0

R0

G0

Hnh 3.3. Xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao

Xt ti thi im u cnh gt v tr C0G0 c bn knh quay RO, tip tuyn


ca cnh sc dao ti G0 hp vi OG0 mt gc . Sau thi gian t cnh gt CG quay
c mt gc ct li dao ti v tr Q, cnh gt v tr C1G1, tip tuyn ca li

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 63

dao ti Q c phng t-t.Xt trong chuyn ng tng i ti v tr Q, coi dao quay


cnh gt c nh, khi vn tc tuyt i ca dao c phng vn tc v vung gc
vi bn knh cc R(), phn tch thnh phn vn tc v theo hai phng: phng vn
vung gc vi tip tuyn li dao ti Q, phng vt theo phng tip tuyn t-t. Theo
nh ngha v gc trt ca vin s Griatskin trong ti liu (1978)
"gc hp bi thnh phn vn tc tuyt i v vi thnh phn vn tc php tuyn vn
gi l gc trt ". Vy t hnh 3.2vi on C1G1 l cnh gt, ng cong G0C0 l
cnh sc daohng v pha lm ta c khi nim: gc nhn to bi phng ca bn
knh cc R() vi phng ca tip tuyn li dao ti giao im Q gi l gc trt .
xc nh R() theo , ti gc cho mt s gia d khi cnh gt s quay
thm mt gc d v ct cnh sc dao ti v tr F, tng ng bn knh cc s c s
gia ca hm s l:

dR )

R 0d R

OF OE0 ;

3. 2

Xt tam gic QFE:Cnh QF l ct tuyn ca cnh sc dao trong trng hp


0 khi F s tin dn ti Q v lc ny ct tuyn QF tin ti tip

d ln, cho d

tuyn vi cnh sc dao ti Q tng ng phng ca QF tin ti phng ca tip


tuyn t-t, tc l gc FQO tin ti . Mt khc vi d v cng b, cung QE coi l
on thng vung gc vi OQ ti Q v c ln l:

QE

I
Gc FQE

R .d;

+ , gc QFE = khi d

0.

3. 3

Theo nh l hm s cosin trong tam gic QFE ta c:

dR

sin

R d
dR
hay
sin
R

cotg . d;
3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
Theo cng thc (3.3) c dR() < 0, song trong cng thc (3.5) l tnh v mt
tr s ln, khng k n s bin thin ca quan h gia bin s v hm s R()
l nghch bin.Vy cng thc (3.5) c vit c k n quan h bin thin l:

dR
cotg .d
R
Tch phn hai v ta (3,4) c:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

3. 4

Page 64

dR
R

+cotg . d ;

R
R . eD.83 ; m

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

Phng trnh (3.7) cho bit qu o cnh sc dao c phng tip tuyn lun

hp vi phng ca vc t bn knh cc R() mt gc khng i, th ca


phng trnh (3.7)trong h ta t nhin c dng ng xon c lgaritm t bin
dng cnh sc dao.
Phng trnh ng i ca cnh sc dao c xc nh nh sau:
ds = R()d; tch phn hai v ta c:
N

ds
s

R d

R
. 1 +
cotg
eD.83 G; m

R
+
eD.83 . dF+. cotg G ;
cotg

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

3.1.2. Xc nh mt s thng s cu to c bn ca b phn ct thi CTR-1


Cc thng s cu to c bn ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 bao gm: bn knh
trng ct rt; chiu di cnh gt Lcg; gc nghing cnh gt ; bin dng cnh sc dao
xc nh theo phng trnh (3.7) vi R()max = R0 v R()min = rt. Cc thng s cu
to ny cn xc nh sao cho trong qu trnh ct tha mn iu kin ct c trt v
iu kin kp vt thi, ng thi cc giai on ca qu trnh ct c thun li.
Mt s thng s cu to c la chn trn c s kch thc b phn ct thi
nh gn d lin hp vi my p la v cht lng ct Cx c gi tr cao nh:bn
knh trng ct rt nh hng n kch thc bao b phn ct, do kt hp vi vic
ch to thun li, chn bn knh trng ct theo tiu chun v thp hnh TCVN 61131996 l rt = 0,135 m; dao ct c lm t vt liu CT45 c b dy d = 0,005 m,
khong cch gia hai mt bn phn thn dao ca hai dao k nhau bd c xc nh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 65

t m hnh kho nghim cho cht lng ct Cx t trn 90% l bd = 0,03 m; khe h
gia mt bn thn dao v mt bn cnh gt c nghin cu vi cc mc =
0,001, 0,002, 0,003, 0,004 v 0,005 m, do ty theo mc nghin cu m chiu
rng cnh gt c xc nh l: bcg = bd 2.; (m); vi chiu rng ca ra rm ca
my p la bng 0,2 m, m bo rm c tung hon ton vo b phn ct thi
CTR-1, chiu di trng ct c chn l Lt = 0,25 m; t b dy vt liu lm dao,
khong cch gia hai mt bn ca hai dao k nhau v chiu di trng ct xc nh
c s dao c nh cn lp cho b phn ct l kd = 7, khi s cnh gt lp trn
mt hng cnh gt l kd + 1 = 8.
Xc nh gc trt hp l:
Gc nghing nh hng trc tip n iu kin kp trong qu trnh ct, xt
ti thi im cnh gt bt u ct khi rm ti v tr G0, ti gc kp c xc
nh theo cng thc (hnh 3.1):

+ ;

3. 5

Khi tn ti gc nghing th gc cu to > 0. Mt khc theo cng thc (2.8)


iu kin kp c tha mn khi

2., t (3.7) ta c:

+ 0 hay ;

3. 6

Theo nghin cu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt(mc 4.1), h s


ma st ca rm ti v thp c f = 0,55 tng ng vi gc ma st = 28,81o v

gc trt ph hp trong khong 43

67 , ta c2.

57,62 . T cng

thc (3.8), gc ct trt lun ln hn gc kp th 2.'. Do vykt hp cc


iu kin trnchn gc trt

1,134 rad

65 .

Tnh ton xc nh bn knh R0 v chiu di cnh gt Lcg.


Bn knh v v tr t u dao R0 quyt nh trc tip chiu di cnh gt v nh
hng n kh nng thot ht khi rm c ct ra khi b phn ct giai on
chy khng (hnh 3.1). phn tch nh hng ca thng s R0n kh nng thot
rm, xt m hnh trong trng hp gc nghing cnh gt = 0 (hnh 3.3).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 66

V tr khi rm mrc c th b tung vo mng bao trn khi khi


rm cha thot ht chiu di cnh gt, tham gia ct ln 2

ck

Cck

R(

Trng ct

Ca ra rm

ax

rt
Lc

k) =

F qtc
s
Fms

cr

Pr

Khi rm
R0

F cori

Cnh gt
Gc Gk

w0

Gck

Cnh sc dao

R(

Cc1

Cc

Qt

E
t

Pr

Pr

F qn
Gc1

Gia

ck y
ch
on

kh

ng

Hnh 3.4. M hnh xc nh bn knh u dao R0v chiu di cnh gt Lcg

Gi khi rm do mt cnh gt v vo vng ct c khi lng l mr. Kt thc


giai on ct khi rm ct chuyn lun sang giai on chy khng v bt u
c cnh gt tung v trt trn b mt cnh gt ng vi v tr ban u ca cnh gt
giai on chy khng l CcGc. Xt phn khi rm ti v tr chn cnh gt c khi
lng mrc v chiu di theo phng cnh gt l cr.
Tnh t lc bt u ct ht khi rm mr, sau khi cnh gt quay thm mt gc
rmax = /2, khi phn khi rm mrc c th b cnh gt tung theo phng thng
ng vo mng bao trn a li rm ct vo ca vo rm tham gia qu trnh ct
ln 2. Vy m bo iu kin thot rm c hon ton, cn chn chiu di cnh
gt Lcg sao cho sau khi cnh gt quay thm mt gc = ck<ckmaxphn khi rm
mrcphi i ht chiu di cnh gt, t xc nh c bn knh R0 = rt + Lcg.
Xtti thi im u phn khi rm mrc v tr chn cnh gt Cc, sau mt
khong thi gian t cnh gt quay c mt gc quay, khi rm s trt trn b
mt cnh gt hng ra pha ngoi n v tr E trn b mt cnh gt, v di bn
knh ca v tr khi rm mrc lc ny l OE = R() (hnh 3.4).
Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln khi rm c khi lng mrcti v tr E bao
gm: lc qun tnh ly tm trong chuyn ng ko theo Fqn; trng lng ca khi

rm Pr c phn tch thnh hai thnh phn P:3 v P:Z ;Lc cn ca khng kh W0;lc
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 67

ma st gia rm v b mt cnh gt Fmss; lc qun tnh trong chuyn ng tng i


do phn khi rm chuyn ng thng theo phng cnh gt Fqtc;lc qun tnh do
thnh phn gia tc krilit Fcoriv phn lc cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm Qt.
Coi khi rm chuyn ng theo phng cnh gt ra pha ngoi l chuyn
ng thng nhanh dnu, theo nguyn l almbephng trnh ng lc hc ca
khi rm chiu ln phng cnh gt l:

FcZ 0 P:3 + F9NN + Fc38 0;


3. 7
Cc thnh phn trong cng thc (3.11) c xc nh nh sau:
FcZ
P:3

F9NN

m:8 . R . E ; (N)

P: . cos

m:8 . g. cos ; (N), trong : g = 9,81m/s2

P:Z 0 W 0 F8:] . f B

Fqtc = mrc.atd; (N)

Fm:8 . g. sin 0 w . D: 0 m:8 . 2. v3K . G. fO;

trong : f l h s ma st; w0 l p lc gi; Dr= bd.crl din tch cn khng kh ca


phn khi rm trn b mt cnh gt; vtd v atd l vn tc v gia tc trong chuyn
ng tng i do khi rm trt trn b mt cnh gt ra pha ngoi.
p lc gi wotnh theo cng thc (B xy dng, 1996):

0,0613. vE ; daN/mE

0,613. E . RE ; N/mE ;

3. 8

trong :vgl vn tc gi, y coi vn tc di ca phn khi rm tnh theo tc


quay ca cnh gt l vn tc gi, ta c: vg = .R() ,m/s.
Vi khong thi gian t = /cnh gt quay mt gc v khi rm trt
trn bn mt cnh gt c mt on l R() - rt, vy vn tc vtd v gia tc atdl:
E

FR + r3 G. ; m/s ; a3K

v3K

2. FR + r3 G. ; m/s E ;

Thay cc thng s tnh ton trn vo cng thc (3.11) v bin i ta c:

trong :

aP . RE 0 bP . R 0 cP

0;

cP

aP

bP

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

0,613. f B . bK . c: . E

m:8 . E .

E.u

+ 1

m:8 . g. Ff B . sin + cos G + 2. m:8 . r3 . E .

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

0
u

Page 68

Cc gi tr h s trong (3.13) xc nh da vo thng s ng hc, lng


cung cp cho b phn ct thi rm v iu kin thot rm. Chn lng cung cp
rm vo b phn ct thi q = 0,6kg/s, tc quay ca trng ct n = 1273 vg/ph khi
xc nh c mrc = 0,0012 kg v chn cr= 0,01 m, chn iu kin khi rm
c thot ht chiu di cnh gt khi gc quay = ck = /3.Khi xc nh c
cc h s: al = 1,1092; bl= 17,7224; cl = -4,1675, thay vo phng trnh (3.13) xc
nh c nghim dng: R() = R(ck) = 0,2318 m.
Vy m bo iu kin tung rm ra ngoi c thun li bn knh u
cnh gt R0 R(ck) = 0,2318 m, kt hp vi la chn chiu di cnh gt sao cho
kch thc b phn ct thi nh gn, chn bn knh u cnh gt R0= 0,225 m.
Trn hnh 3.4 l trng hp cnh gt c gc nghing cnh gt = 00 lm
c s tnh bn knh R0. Trong trng hp gc nghing cnh gt > 00 (hnh 3.1),
cng thc tng qut tnh chiu di cnh gt l:

L8

RE + r3E . sinE + r3 . cos ; m

3. 9

Khi bit gc nghing v chiu di cnh gt Lcg, t hnh 3.1 ta xc nh


c hai gc cu to v nh sau:

arcsin

:v

. sin ;

+ ; (rad)

Vi bn knh u cnh sc daoR0 = 0,225 m, bn knh cui cnh sc dao


chn bng bn knh trng ct rt = 0,135 m v t cng thc (3.7)vi gc trt =
1,134 rad = 65otnh c gc bao cnh sc daocsd. Vi s hnh 3.1 khi = 0 th
R() = R() = R0; khi = csd - th = csdv R() = rt. Vy ta c:

r3

8NK

R . eD .83

tan . ln

:v

tan 1,134 . ln

,EE
,Po

1,095 rad = 62,77o

Trn hnh 3.4 xc nh c bn knh R0 khi cnh c phng hng knh vi


iu kin gc bao vng chy khng ck = 600 v xc nh c gc bao cnh sc
dao csd = 62,770, tc l mt qu trnh ct c gc bao qtc = 122,77o. Ngc li vi
R0 bit, khi cnh gt nghing mt gc kh nng thot rm s nhanh hn hay
gc ck< 600, do trong tnh ton l thuyt c th ly gc bao ca mt qu trnh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 69

ct l qtc = 120o. Vy gc h u dao 0 v cc gc bao tng ng vi cc giai


on trong mt qu trnh ct (hnh 3.1) c xc nh nh sau:

+ 8NK ; 8

8NK + ; 8)3

2. ; 8L

E
o

+ 8 + 8)3 ; 3. 10

Vic tnh ton cc thng s ng hc t s t hnh 3.1,khi cnh gt

nghing mt gc to ra hai loi gc: gc cc xc nh bn knh cc R() v gc


quay xc nh v tr u cnh gt. Vy mt bi ton mang tnh tng qut vi thng
s u vo l ngun ng lc cung cp cho trng ct quay vi vn tc gc l
thng s kim sot c ngay t u, do cc thng s khc cn c xc nh
theo theo gc quay .
3.1.3. Xc nh gc cc theo gc quay v tnhgc kp trong giai on ct
3.1.3.1. Xc nh quan h gia gc cc theo gc quay
Xt m hnh bin dng cnh sc dao c xy dng theo cng thc (3.7) v
cnh gt nghing mt gc trnh by trn hnh 3.5.
Cnh gt
G

rt

Trng ct

C0

G0

R(
)
R(

R0

C1

Cnh sc dao

tQ
tE

Cc

V tr cnh gt
ct ht rm

G1

ax

Gc

max
Hnh 3.5. M hnh xc nh hm vc t bn knh cc R() theo gc quay

Ti thi im u to = 0 ng vi gc quay bng gc cc v bng 0 cnh


gt v tr C0G0, sau mt thi gian t cnh gt quay c mt gc , vc t bn knh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 70

cc quay c mt gc cc ng vi v tr cnh gt ti C1G1 ct cnh sc dao ti Q,


gi tr vc t bn knh cc ti thi im t l R() bng di on OQ (hnh 3.5).
Gc l gc bin thin gia gc cc v gc quay ta c:

;
3. 11
Trong giai on ct gc thay i trong khong t 0 n gi tr gc cu to
(thng gc 18o). T cng thc (3.16) xc nh gc cc = + , cn
xc nh gc theo gc quay .
Theo cng thc(3.7) ta c: R() = RO.e-.cotg()

R . eD.83

R . eD l .83

R . eD .83 ; 3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Xt tam gic OQG1:

R
R . sin
;
sin 0
T (3.17) v (3.18) ta c:

R . eD l .83

R . sin
sin 0
_
sin 0
sin . e.83

cotg . sin 0 cos


e.83

e.83 ;

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined


e.83

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

tm quan h theo t phng trnh (3.19) vi gc l bin s ca

hm lng gic v hm m, vy bng bin i ton hc thng thng rt kh


thchin. Songgc thng khng ln v < 18o,do c th dng phng
php hi quy xc nh hm s ca theo f() nh sau:
sin() = 0,000744567 + 0,98859.; vi h s tng quan R2 = 99,997%
cos() =0,999964 0,496334.2;

vi h s tng quan R2 = 99,9995%

Khai trin Taylor vi gc 18o,thnh phn bc 3 trong khai trin coi nh


v cng b, vy trong khai trin Taylor ly gn ng n bc 2 ta c:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 71

e.83

1 0 . cotg 0

E . cotg E
2

Thay cc biu thc hi quy vo v tri ca (3.19) v c:

cotg . sin 0 cos


e.83

2. FCotg . 0,000744567 0 0,98859. 0 0,999964 0,496334. E G


; 3. Error! Bookmark not
2 0 2. . cotg 0 E . cotg E

Thay (3.20) vo (3.19) v bin i ta c:

trong :

a . E 0 2. b . 0 c

b
c

0;

cotg E . e.83 0 0,992668

cotg . e.83 + 0,98859. cotg

(3. 12)

2. e.83 + 0,001489. cotg + 1,999928

Do m hnh lun tn ti gi tr mang gi tr dng vy phng trnh


(3.21) lun c nghim, ly gi tr nghim m v b< 0 c hm ca theo l:

E + a .c + b
+b

; rad
a

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

Phng trnh (3.22) l hm bin thin ca gc theo gc quay , gi tr


bin thin t 0 max = (hnh 3.1 hoc hnh 3.5).
T (3.16) v (3.22) quan h ph thuc ca gc cc theo gc quay l:

E + a .c + b
+b

;
a

rad 3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Nh cnh sc dao c bin dng ng xon c lgarit xc nh theo cng


thc (3.7) xc nh c quan h gia gc cc v gc quay theo cng thc
(3.23), t xc nh c gi tr gc kp v cc thng s ng lc hc v ng
lc hc ti bt k thi im no ca gc quay trong qu trnh ct. Kt qu ny l
mt im mi v ni bt, gip cho qu trnh tnh ton l thuyt xc nh chi ph

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 72

nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1 n gin hn so vi cnh sc dao c bin
dng cung trn lch tm.
3.1.3.2. Xc nh gc kp trong qu trnh ct
T hnh 3.5 gc kp c xc nh nh sau:

+ C
P QO

+ 0 ;

3. 13

Nhn vo biu thc (3.24) gc v l cc hng s do gc kp bin thin


ch ph thuc vo v c quan h nghch bin, mt khc gc tng dn trong giai
on ct, do vy gc kp s gim dn trong qu trnh ct, iu ny tha mn 1
trongcc ch tiu thit k. Gc kp t gi tr ln nht khi = 0 v nh nht khi
= , do trong giai on ct gi tr gc kp nm trong khong: -

- .

Cc mc gc kp trong nghin cu thc nghim c xc nh l gi tr


trung bnh ca hai gi tr gc kp ti u v cui ca cnh sc dao v c tnh theo
cng thc sau:

0
2

1
r3
+ . 1 0 arcsin 1 . sin 44 ;
R
2

Vi kt qu xy dng c bin dng canh sc dao v cc thng s cu to


ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 lm c s xc nh cc thng s ng hc v ng
lc hc khi khi rm trt trn cnh sc dao trong giai on ct.
3.1.4. Cc thng s ng hc c bn ca b phn ct thi rm
Khi cnh gt quay vi vn tc gc , giao im Q lc ny c coi l cht
im chuyn ng trt trn cnh sc dao (hnh 3.5). Trong giai on ct rm, khi
rm s b ct dn ti giao im Q, do thng s ng hc ca phn khi rm cha
c ct xc nh theo thng s ng hc ca giao im Q trong giai on ct.
Theo cng thc (3.7) phng trnh vc t bn knh cc R() ca cht im Q
trt trn cnh sc dao l:

R . eD.83 ; m

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Theo (3.8) on ng s sau thi gian t ng vi gc cc ca cht im Q l:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 73

R
. 1 +
cotg

eD .83 G; m

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Vn tc theo phng tip tuyn vi cnh sc dao ti v tr Q l:

v3

sf ;

ds
dt
m/

Gia tc tip tuyn ca cht im Q l:

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

dv3
dE s
a3
s ; m/s E 3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
E
dt
dt
Gia tc hng tm c xc nh theo cng thc:
aZ

vbE
; m/s E

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong l bn knh cong ti v tr ln cn vi giao im Q, m.

Bn knh cong c xc nh theo cng thc: = 1/C, trong C l


cong ti vng ln cn v tr ang xt :
cong C c xc nh theo cng thc vi R = R() nh sau:

RE 0 2RfE + R. R
RE

RfE ~

RE 0 RfE ~
; m
RE 0 2RfE + R. R

0
Vi cc thng s ng hc xc nh theo cng thc t (3.26) (3.29) lm c
s cho vic phn tch ng lc hc ca khi rm di tc dng ca cnh gt v
cnh sc dao.
nh gi quy lut chuyn ng ca phn khi rm cha c ct trt
theo giao im Q trn cnh sc dao trong giai on ct, t cc thng s cu to v
chn tc quay trng ct n = 1350 vg/ph, p dng cc biu thc tnh ton trn, ta
c th m t cc thng s ng hc ca giao im Q c trng cho phn khi
rm cha c ct trt trn cnh sc dao (hnh 3.6).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 74

Hnh 3.6.
th
th ng hc phn t rm trt theo giao im Q

T kt qu kho st ng hc (hnh 3.6) ta c: gia tcc php an theo phng


vung gc vi qu o cnh
c
sc dao gim dn v gia tc at theo phng
ph tip tuyn
vi qu o cnh scc dao tng dn nhng mang gi tr m. Ktt qu ny ng dng
cho vic xc nh phng
ng v chi
chiu ca lc qun tnh khi xt phn
n kh
khi rm chuyn
ng trt trn cnh sc dao khi gi
gii quyt bi ton ng lc hc ca
a giai on ct.
3.2. Xy dng m hnh ton v kho stnh hngca cc thng ss chnh n
cc hm nng lng
ng trong qu trnh ct
Chi ph nng lng
ng ca
c qu trnh ct rm c tnh ton da
a tr
trn c s xc
nh m men cn trn trc
tr trng ct cc giai on:giai on ct
t Mct; giai on
chuyn tip Mcht v giai on

chy khng Mck.i vi qu trnh ct


t thi bbng cnh
sc dao m men cn giai on chy khng c th tnh gn ng
ng theo m men ccn
trung bnh Mcttb trong giai on ct vi t l Mcttb/Mck = 3/1 (
, 1978).
xc nh Mctcn xc nhcc
nh
phn lc cnh gt cn thit Qcttc dng
ng ln
l khi rm
trong giai on ct.
Lc Qct ph thuc
c vvo cc lc nh: lc cn nn v lc cn
n ct do dao tc
dng ln khi rm, trng
ng lng
l
khi rm, lc qun tnh caa khi rrm, lc cn
khng kh ln khi rm,
m, lc ma st gia khi rm vi cnh gt v gia khi rm
vicnh sc dao trong giai on ct.
Trong giai on ctkhi
c
rm lun tn ti hai phn l phn khi rm cha
c ct v phn khi rm
m c ct, do vy mt giai on ct
c chia lm hai
cng on nh sau:cng
ng on

cnh gt nn v ct phn khi rm


m cha c ct nm
pha trn cnh scc dao g
gi l cng on nn ct v cng on yy phn
ph khi rm

c ct nm pha di cnh sc dao trong vng ct ra khi vng ct gi l cng


on y rm.
Vic xc nh cc hm nng lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 giai on ct,
c tnh trn c s mt cnh gt v khi rm c khi lng mr vo vng ct v thc
hin ct trn mt cnh sc dao. Trong giai on ct lc cn ln mt cnh gt thc
hin cng on nn ct k hiu l Qnc, thc hin cng on y rm k hiu l Qdr.
xc nh cc thnh phn phn lc Qnc v Qdrcn xc nh: chiu di
oncnh sc dao lm vic S xt ti mt thi im gm: chiu di on cnh sc
dao nn khi rm Sn v chiu di on cnh sc dao ct rm Sc; khi lng phn
khi rm cha c ct (cha ct) mrt; khi lngphn khi rm c ct ( ct)
mrs v lc cn do ma st ca phn khi rm ct vi mt bn thn dao.
3.2.1. Xc nh di on cnh sc dao lm vicS, khi lngcc phn rm
cha ct mrtv ct mrs
3.2.1.1. Xc nh di on cnh sc dao lm vic S
di ondao lm vic S c xc nh thng qua kch thc khi rm
c ct trong giai on ct. Kch thc khi rm ph thuc vo lng cung cp q,
s cnh gt lp trn trng ct, kch thc cnh gt v chiu rng hng cnh gt
bhcgly bng chiu di trng ct (hnh 3.7).
Khi lng rm c mt
hng cnh gt v a vo b phn

Cnh gt

ct thi l:

L cg

m8

20. q
;
n

kg

hc

trng thi t nhin dng xp ng


cng gt v vo vng ct l:

m8
:

20. q
;
105. n

Cc

h r hn

(cha c nn) do mt hng

hc
g

Th tch ca khi rm

V:

Tr
n
g

A
Khi rm

Cnh sc dao

Hnh 3.7. Hng cnh gt v rm vo vng ct

mo

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 76

trong : = 105 kg/m3 l khi lng ring ca khi rm ti dng xp ng.


T gi thit 2 khi rm c cnh gt v a vo vng ct dng hnh hp
xin, mt y hnh ch nht to bi hai cnh Lcg v bhcg, mt ng dng hnh bnh
hnh CGAB c ng cao hr,do chiu cao khi rm trng thi t nhin cha b
nn hr(hnh 3.7) c xc nh theo cng thc:

h:

V:
L8 . b)8

20. q
; m
105. n. L8 . b)8

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Khi rm trng thi t nhin c chiu cao hr trong giai on nn ct khi


rm c nn p n mt p lc ct cn thit v chiu cao ca khi rm lc ny l
hc gi l chiu cao ct, gim chiu cao do khi rm b nn t cao hr xung
cao hc l hn = hr hc gi l chiu cao nn (hnh 3.7).
Gin = hn/hrl t s nn p tng i ca khi rm trng thi chu p lc
nn qn, N/cm2; t kt qu nghin cu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l
thuyt(mc 4.1) mi quan h thc nghim gia qn v n l:
n = 0,1644.ln(qn) 0,1335;
Gi Pntb l lc nn trung bnh trong cng on nn rm n trng thi ct v
Pct l lc ct thi cn thit, theo kt qu nghin cu th nghim xc nh cc tham s
l thuyt(bng 4.3) th: Pntb = 0,425.Pct.
p lc ct thi ring qctph thuc vo gc trt xc nh theo cng thc (4.5)
mc 4.1 vi n v gc trt y l radian ta c:

q 83

87,65 + 46,09. ;(N/cm),

Vi on cnh sc dao ct l Sc, khi lc ct thi cn thit l:

P83

100. S8 . q 83

100. S8 . 87,65 + 46,09. ; (N)

Lc nn trung bnh trong cng on nn n trng thi bt u ct l:

PZ3=

0,425. P83

42,5. S8 . 87,65 + 46,09. ; (N)

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 77

p lc nn qn tnh bng t s ca lc nn trung bnh Pntb trn din tch khi


rm chu nn Dnr.Qua quan st th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt (mc 4.1)
trc cng on ct th vng khi rm chu nn bao gm: trn cnh sc dao, hai mt
vt ca dao v khe h , song phn khi rm chu p lc nn ln nht tp trung
hai mt vt ca dao v nh cnh sc dao, cn trong vng khe h cc cng rm
ch yu chu lc cng. Do vy ly dy dao d l vng din tch chu nn v tnh
gn ng theo trng hp ct dng cht b c Sn = Sc, khi din tch khi rm

chu nn l:DZ:

S8 . K ; (m2)

p lc nn l:

PZ3=
42,5. S8 . 87,65 + 46,09.
;
DZ:
10p . S8 . K
Thay vo cng thc tnh n ta c:
qZ

N/cmE

hZ
42,5. 87,65 + 46,09.
h 0,1335;
0,1644. ln d
10p . K
h:
Vy chiu cao nn hnl:
Z

hZ

Z .

20. q
;
105. n. L8 . b)8

Chiu cao ct l:

h8

h : + hZ ; m

Xc nh di on cnh sc dao lm vic S

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ine


3. 14

Trong giai on ct, cnh sc dao ng thi thc hin nn p v ct rm, do


vy on lm vic ca cnh sc dao ti mt thi im no gm hai on lin nhau:
on dao thc hin nn pSn v on dao thc hin ct thiSc, di on dao lm
vic ti mt thi im l on cung li dao QQ = S = Sn + Sc (hnh 3.8).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 78

Trong thc t dy khi rm

Cnh gt

R0

I
n

hc h

hr

thng.

G0

Sc

E
B

vung gc vi bn knh quay

cnh sc dao nn Sn l ng

R()
R(
Q K

Trng ct

phng nn khi rm c phng

cnh sc dao ct Sc v on

c kch thc nh, mt khc

R(),do vy c th coi on

rt

sau khi c nn n p lc ct

Q'
Sn

Cc

Cnh sc dao

Hnh 3.8. Xc nh di on dao Sc vSn

Khi rm c nn n trng thi ct c kch thc din tch dng hnh bnh
hnh CGFE vi cnh di Lcg v ng cao hc (hnh 3.8).
Xt ti thi im t bt k khi dao quay c mt gc , ng vi vc t bn knh
cc R() quay c mt gc cc l . Do cao khi rm ban u hr nh c th coi
cung QI v IQ l on thng c phng theo phng tip tuyn vi cnh sc dao
ti Q, cung QI l di on cnh sc dao ct Sc, cung IQ l di on cnh sc
dao nnSn. Xt tam gic QIK v tam gic IQN ta c:

S8

SZ

QI

IQB

IK
sin
QB N
sin

h8
;
sin
; m 3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
hZ
;
sin

Nh phn tch trong giai on ct gc kp v bn knh R() gim dn,

theo cng thc (3.33) gi tr Sc v Sntng dn trong giai on ct, ng thi do


gc trt khng i nn p lc ct thi ring qct cng khng i do vy lc tc dng
ca dao vo khi rm bin i ch ph thuc vo di Sc v Sn.Vy lc nn v
lc ct trong giai on ct s tng dn, song bn knh R() li gim dn vy m men
trong giai on ct i vi tm quay O c phn m bo iu kin n nh trong
cng onnn ct. Vi c im ny p ng gn vi tiu chthit k v la chn
bin dng cnh sc dao ( di S nghch bin so vi bn knh cc R()).
3.2.1.2. Xc nh cc phn khi lng rm trong giai on ct
Khi lng rm do mt cnh gt v vo vng ct l:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 79

m:

m8
kK 0 1

20. q
; kg
n kK 0 1

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

Vi gi thuyt 2 l khi lng rm mrri u v ph kn trn b mt cnh gt,

t hnh 3.8 phn khi lng rm cha ct mrt nm trn on cnh gt c chiu di
bng on QC v phn khi lng rm ct mrs nm trn on cnh gt c chiu
di bng on Lcg - QC. Vy xc nh phn khi lng rm cha ct v phn
khi lng rm ct ta i xc nh di on QC.

Xt tam gic OQC gc COQ

+ ,theo nh l hm s cosin ta c:

QC
sin +
.R ; m
sin
Phn khi lng rm cha c ct c khi lng l:
QC
.m
L8 :
sin +
20. q
.
. R ; kg
L8 . sin n k K 0 1
Phn khi rm c ct c khi lng l:
m:3

m:N

m: + m:3 ;

kg

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.


3. 15

Thnh phn khi rm c ct c khi lng mrs sau khi thot khi cnh
sc dao c trng thi n hi tr li do trc khi ct b nn, do vy phn khi
rm ny s n hi v to ma st vi thnh bn ca thn dao gy ra mt lc cn cn
thit cnh gt y khi rm ny ra khi vng ct. Trong giai on ct thnh phn
ny tng dn do khi rm mi lc li c ct nhiu hn.
3.2.2. Lc cncnh gt do ma st gia khi rm ct vi mt bn ca thn dao
Theo nghin cu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt cng thc (4.8),
phn khi rm sau khi c ct tc dng vo 2 mt bn ca thn dao vi mt p lc
qnbph thuc vo khe h c xc nh theo cng thc:

q Z=

146,38 + 18,915.10o . ; N/cm2

trong : l khe h gia mt bn dao v thnh bn cnh gt, m.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

3. 16

Page 80

Lc ma st do khi rm c ct vi hai mt bn ca dao l:

T9N=

bL . q Z= . D8: . f;

trong o: f' l h s ma st gia rm ti v thp, Dcr l din tch mt ct ngang ca


phn khi rm c ct ti thi im cnh gt quay c mt gc quay , bk l
h s k n phn din tch khuyt ca b mt thn dao.
Phn din tch Dcr c xc nh bng phn din tch hnh bnh hnh QGFI
(hnh 3.8). Ta c:

D8:

10p . L8 + QC. h8 ; (cm2)

Dao ct c ch to vi phn thn dao dng khuyt gim ma st t khi


rm c ct vi mt bn thn dao theo hnh 1.14,cc phn thn dao c thit
k vi chiu rng l: htd1 = htd2 = 0,03 m. T hnh 3.1 vng din tch G0CcGk l din
bao b mt thn dao cha tr i phn din tch mt vt cnh sc dao v phn din
tch khuyn trn b mt thn dao. Vi cc thng s cu to ca dao v gc mi cnh
sc dao bng 15o xc nh c phn din tch thc b mt thn dao gy ma st vi
khi rm ct bng khong 1/3 vng din tch bao thn dao G0C0Gk, do vy chn
h s k n phn din tch khuyt b mt thn dao l bk = 0,3.
Lc ma st do khi rm c ct vi hai mt bn ca dao c phng theo
phng chuyn ng ca cnh gt l:

T9N=

3. 10o . f B . 146,38 + 18915. . L8 + QC. h8 ; N

3. 17

Gi tr lc ma st bn Tmsb c lp khng tc dng vo khi rm cha c


ct, song thnh phn ny c nh hng n lc cn ca cnh gt trong giai on ct,
nu thnh phn lc ny ln qu, cng ngha vi vic lng cung cp qu nhiu hoc
khe h nh, khi p lc ca khi rm c ct ln mt bn thn dao rt ln,
lm cho giai on ct c hin tng kt mc cho khi rm c ct gn ht m
cnh gt khng th y khi rm ra khi vng ct.
3.2.3. Xc nh phn lc cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm trong giai on ct
Nh phn tch, giai on ct c chia thnh hai cng on: cng on
nn ct v cng on y rm. Do vy lc do mt cnh gt cn thit tc dng vo

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 81

khi rm trong giai on ct bng tng lc cnh gt cn thit trong cng on nn


ct v cng on y rm.
3.2.3.1. Xc nh phn lc cnh gttrong cng on nn ct
Phn lc cnh gt l lc thc hin cng on nn v ct phn khi rm
cha ct mrt. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln phn khi lng rm cha c ct
mrt trnh by trn hnh 3.9.

R(

Cc
td

Fqt

st

Fm

/2

Fmsd

C1

Prt

G1

td

Pntb

G0

/2
(
)

Pct
R0

Trng ct

rt

nc

Cnh sc dao

C0

nd

nR

Cnh gt

Fqn

Qnc

nR

nc

nd

Hnh 3.9. Phn tch cc thnh phn lc trong cng on nn ct

Nh trnh by phn trn, b phn ct thi c thit k vi bn knh u


dao ct R0 hp vi phng ngang x-x mt gc h 0 = 0,475 rad = 27,23o.
Xt ti thi im u cnh gt v tr C0G0, sau mt thi gian t trng ct
quay vi vn tc gc c mt gc l , khi bn knh cc R() quay c mt
gc l ct cnh sc dao ti v tr Q.
Theo gi thit 2, phn khi rm cha ct mrtriu v ph kn trn on QC1
ca cnh gt.Song tnh ton ng lc hc cho phn khi rm cha ct ta quy
phn khi lng rm cha ct tp trung ti giao im Q v trong vng ct do nh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 82

hng ca cnh sc dao nn phn khi rm cha ct khng chuyn ng trt trn
b mt cnh gt. khi cc lc tc dng ln phn khi rm mrt nh sau:
Xt theo phng nd-ndvung gc vi tip tuyn cnh sc dao:
Pct l lc do cnh sc dao ct khi rm, gi l lc ct thi.
Pntb l lc nn p trung bnh ca dao vo khi rm.
Fqnl lc qun tnh ly tm do khi rm chuyn ng theo qu o cnh sc dao.
Xt theo phng td-td tip tuyn vi cnh sc dao ti Q:
Fqtl lc qun tnh theo phng tip tuyndo khi rm chuyn ng theo qu
o cnh sc dao.
Fmsd l lc ma st do phn khi rm ang ct trt trn hai mt vt v cnh sc dao.
Xt theo phng nR-nR vung gc vi bn knh cc R():
W0 l lc cn khng kh do p lc gi tc dng vo phn khi rm cha
c ct trn b mt cnh gt.
Xt theo phng thng ng y-y:
Prt l trng lng do khi lng mrt gy ra trong cng on nn ct.
Cc thnh phn lc trn l cc lc tc dng vo khi rm (gi l cc lc tc
dng), t khi rm tc dng vo cnh gt to ra phn lc t cnh gt tc dng li
khi rm v c phn theo hai phng: phn lc Qnc theo phng php tuyn nc-nc
v phn lc Fmst theo phng cnh gt C1G1. Do vy m men cn trn trc trng ct
l do hai thnh phnQnc v Fmst gy nn.
Cc lc tc dng c xc nh nh sau:
- Lc cn khng kh: W0 = w0.Drt; (N)

trong : w0 = 0,613. E . RE ;(N/m2); Drt l din tch cn khng kh ca phn

khi rm cha ct chiu ln phng R().

D:3

bK . QCP . cos +

Vy lc cn khng kh l:

bK . QC. cos + ; (m2)

sin +
. Ro . cos +
sin
3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

0,613. E . bK .
; N

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 83

- Lc qun tnh Fqt v Fqn:


Fqt = mrt.at; Fqn = mrt.an; (N)

(3. 18)

trong : at, an ln lt l gia tc tip tuyn, php tuyn vi qu o cnh sc dao


c xc nh cng thc (3.28), (3.29).
- Lc ct thi Pct v lc nn p Pntb v trng lng khi rm Prt:

P83 q 83 . S8
87,65 +
46,09. . 10E . S8 ; N
3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
T cu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt (mc 4.1) ta c:
PZ3=

0,425. P83 ; N

Trng lng khi rm l:

Prt

mrt.g; N , trong : g

- Lc ma st Fmsd:

9,81 m/s2.

3. 19

3. 20

Lc ma st trn cnh sc dao Fmsd do lc nn p Pntb nn khi rm vo cnh


sc v hai mt vt ca dao, ng thi do cnh gt quay lm khi rm b trt trn
cnh sc dao v b ct t bi lc Pct. Do vy lc Fmsd ch b nh hng bi hai
thnh phn l lc Pn v lc Pct vy ta c:

F9NK

PZ 0 P83 . f B

1,425. P83 . fO; N

3. 21

Xc nh cc thnh phn phn lc Fmst v Qnc:

Do cc lc tc dng ln khi rm ng quy, s dng nguyn l almbe cho


cht im bng cch chiu tt c cc lc tc dng v phn lc ln hai phng: nc-nc
v phng cnh gt C1G1 c hai phng trnh cn bng, t xc nh c
phn lc Fmst v phn lc Qncdo cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm nh sau:
Fmst = (Pct + Pntb Prt).sin(0 + - + ) + (Fqt Fmsd) .cos()
W0.sin( - ) - Fqn.sin(); (N)

(3. 22)

Qnc = (Pct + Pntb Prt).cos(0 + - + ) + (Fmst Fqt) .sin() +


W0.cos( - ) - Fqn.cos(); (N)

3. 23

Trong cng thc (3.46) v phi l cc i lng c xc nh, tnh ton trn
phn mm Matlab(ph lc 3.1) cho kt qu gi tr ca lc ma st Fmstl dng vi

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 84

mi thi im trong giai on ct. Vy chiu chn ca lc Fmstnh trn hnh 3.9 l
ng chiu.S dng cng thc (3.46) v (3.47) lm c s tnh m men cn trn
trc trng ct do cng on nn trong giai on ct gy ra.
3.2.3.2. Xc inh phn lc cnh gt trong cng on y rm
Phn khi rm c ct mrs trong cng on y rm nm on G1Q
trn b mt cnh gt pha di cnh sc dao, do phn khi rm ny khng ph
thuc vo cnh sc dao v c qu o chuyn ng dng cung trn xt theo trung
im T ca on cnh gt G1Q i qua cnh sc dao. Coi khi lng phn rm
ct mrs tp trung ti im T. Do nh hng ma st ca khi rm vi mt bn thn
dao v thanh lp dao nn phn khi rm ct khng b trt hay chuyn ng trn
b mt cnh gt, khi cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln phn khi rm ct ng
quy ti trung im T c trnh by trn hnh 3.10.

C0

R(

R
0
R
ms
td

ss
Fm

Th

Fq

hd
an

ns

m G1
Prs
v
lp
y
da
o

td - td

/20

td

ms
b

nc

nr

0s

Trng ct

C1

G0

nc

nR

Cnh sc dao

rt

Cnh gt

nc

Q dr

nR

Hnh 3.10. Phn tch cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln phn khi rm ct mrs

Gi khong cch t T n tm quay O c bn knh cc l Rt. Do khng nh


hng n cnh sc dao nn phn khi rm ct xt ti mt thi im nht nh
c qu o chuyn ng theo cung trn tm O bn knh Rt.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 85

Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln phn khi rm ct mrs trnh by trn hnh


3.10 nh sau:
Xt theo phng nR-nR vung gc vi bn knh cc Rt:
W0sl lc cn khng kh, do p lc gi tc dng vo b mt khi rm ct
nm trn b mt cnh gt.
Tmsb l lc m st gia khi rm c ct ln hai mt bn ca thn dao.
Fmstd l lc ma st do khi rm trt trn thanh dn v lp dao v tr u
cnh gt G1, y tnh gn ng v coi c t giao im T.
Xt theo phng hng knh Rt:
Fqnsllc qun tnh ly tm do khi rm ct chuyn ng theo qu o trn
bn knh Rt ti thi im ang xt.
Ftd l phn lc t thanh lp dao ln khi rm v tr u cnh gt G1, y
tnh gn ng coi nh t giao im T.
Xt theo phng thng ng y-y:Prs Trng lng khi rm ct.
Cc thnh phn lc trn l cc lc tc dng vo phn khi rm ct, khi
khi rm tc dng vo cnh gt v to ra cc phn lc t cnh gt tc dng vo khi
rm, cc phn lc cnh gt ny gm c hai thnh phn v c phn theo hai
phng: phn lc Qdr theo phng nc-nc vung gc vi phng cnh gt v Fmss
theo phng cnh gt C1G1. Vy m men cn trn trc trng ct do cng on y
rm do hai thnh phn phn lc Qdr v Fmss gy nn.
Xc nh bn knh cc Rt v cc gc chiu i:
T hnh 3.10 bn knh cc Rt v cc gc chiu 0, 1, 2 tnh c nh sau:

TQ

R3

}
E

D}
E

D
E

P
E

L8 +

N]Z D
N]Z

.R ;

RE 0 TQE 0 2. R . TQ. cos + ; m

arcsin

. sin + ;

0 0 + ;

rad

3. 24

0 P ;

trong : on QC c xc nh theo cng thc (3.35).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 86

Xc nh cc lc tc dng vo khi rm (khng tnh phn lc cnh gt):


- Lc cn khng kh W0s v Tmsb:W

w . D:N ; (N)

trong : wo = 0,613. E . REb lp lc gi,N/m2; Drsl din tch cn khng kh ca

phn khi rm c ct chiu ln phng Rt(hnh 3.10).

D:N

bK . QGP . cos

bK . L8 + QC. cos ; m2

0,613. E . RE3 . bK . L8 + QC. cos ; N ,

3. 25

Thnh phn lc ma st Tmsb vi hai mt bn thn dao xc nh t (3.39):

T9N=

3. 10o . f B . 146,38 + 18,915.10o . . L8 + QC. h8 ;(N);

- Trng lng Prs v lc qun tnh ly tm Fqns:

Prs = mrs.g; Fqns = mrs.Rt.2; (N), trong : g = 9,81 m/s2.

(3. 26)

- Phn lc v lc ma st do thanh dn rm v lp dao tc dng vo khi rm


Ftd v Fmstd c xc nh do nh hng ca lc qun tnh ly tm Fqns v trng
lng phn khi rm Prs gy ra, do ta c:

Ftd

Fqns 0 Prs.sin 2 ; Fmstd

Ftd.f'; N

3. 27

Xc nh cc thnh phn phn lc ca cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm:

Do cc lc tc dng ln khi rm ct ng quy, s dng nguyn l


almbe cho cht im bng cch chiu tt c cc lc tc dng v phn lc ln hai
phng: nc-nc v phng cnh gt C1G1 c hai phng trnh cn bng, t xc
nh c phn lc Fmss v phn lc Qdr do cnh gt tc dng vo khi rm nh sau:
Fmss = (W0s + Tmsb + Fmstd).sin(0) + (Fqns Ftd).cos(0) + Prs.sin(1); 3. 28

Qdr = (W0s + Tmsb + Fmstd).cos(0) - (Fqns Ftd).sin(0) + Prs.cos(1); (3. 29)

S dng cng thc (3.52) v (3.53) lm c s tnh m men cn trn trc


trng ct do cng on y rm trong giai on ct gy ra.
3.2.4. M hnh ton m t nh hng ca mt s thng s chnh ncc hm
nng lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
Chi ph nng lng cho b phn ct c tnh bng chi ph nng lng cho
mt qu trnh ct ca b phn ct do mt hng cnh gt thc hin gm: chi ph nng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 87

lng cho giai on ct, chi ph nng lng cho giai on chuyn tip vchi ph
nng lng cho giai onchy khng.
3.2.4.1. Xc nh m men cn trn trc trng ct trong mt qu trnh ct
Xt trn s tng qut hnh 3.1. Gi tqtc l khong thi gian ca mt qu
trnh ct ng vi u cnh gt bt u vo vng ct ti v tr G0 n khi tung ht
rm ra khi b phn ct ti v tr Gck. Do cnh gt nghing mt gc nn khi rm
c ct ht khi cnh gt n v tr CcGc ht mt khong thi gian l tct, m men cn
trn trc trng ct trong khong thi gian tctc k hiu ph thuc vo thi gian l
Mct1(t); sau thi gian tct cnh gt tip tc quay v y khi rm c ct ra khi
vng chuyn tip, khi rm hon ton thot khi vng chuyn tip khi u cnh gt
v tr Gch, gi khong thi gian cnh gt y khi rm ct t v tr u giai on
chuyn tip (u cnh gt v tr Gc) n khi kt thc giai on chuyn tip (u
cnh gt v tr Gch) l tcht, m men cn trn trc trng ct trong khong thi gian
tcht ng vi giai on chuyn tipc k hiu ph thuc vo thi gian l Mcht(t);
khi u cnh gt v tr Gch bt u giai on chy khng, khi rm ct lc ny
bt u trt trn b mt cnh gt v thot ra khi b phn ct, khong thi gian ca
giai on chy khng l tck = tqtc tct tcht, m men cn trn trc trng ct giai
on chy khng k hiu l Mck.
Vy trong mt qu trnh ct m men cn trn trc trng ct c xc nh
theo 3 mc: Mct(t); Mcht(t) v Mck, cc i lngMct(t), Mcht(t), Mck c tnh do
mt hng cnh gt v rm vo vng ct v c ct bi ton b s dao c nh lp
trn b phn ct.
Xc nh m men cn Mct(t):
M men cn Mct(t) l m men cn trong giai on ct. Song trn mc 3.2.3 l
tnh ton cc lc tc dng v phn lc do mt dao ct v mt cnh gtthc hin ct
v y khi rm trong giai on ct. B phn ct thi rm c ch tovi s dao
ct c nh l kd, do ly kd ln m men do cc phn lc Qnc, Fmst, Qdr v Fmss vi
tm quay O (hnh 3.9; hnh 3.10) c m men cn trn trc trng ct Mct(t) do kd
dao thc hin ct trong giai on ct gy ra.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 88

M men cn trn trc trng ct do cng on nn ct trong giai on ct l:

MZ8

k K . FQ Z8 . cos + + F9N3 . sin + G. R ; N.m

3. 30

M men cn trn trc trng ct do cng on y rm trong giai on ct l:

MK:

kK . FQ K: . cos 0 F9NN . sin G. R 3 ; N.m

Do Mnc v Mdr cng chiu, vy m men cn Mct(t)l:

Mct t

Mnc 0 Mdr; N.m

Xc nh m men cn chy khng Mck:

3. 31

3. 32

M men cn Mck trn trc trng ct l do hng cnh gt 1 thc hin tung rm
vng thot rm, hng cnh gt 2 v rm vng vo rm v hng cnh gt 3 chy
khng giai on chy khng. Trong giai on chy khng c 3 hng cnh gt u
chu lc cn khng kh, ngoi ra hng cnh gt 1 v 2 cn chu nh hng ca trng
lng khi rm; lc cn ma st; cc lc qun tnh ca khi rm khi tung rm ra v
v rm vo. Khi hng cnh gt 1 tung rm, khi lng rm gim dn; hng cnh
gt 2 v rm khi lng rm tng dn. Do vy n gin cho vic tnh Mck ta coi
Mck c gi tr khng i trong giai on chy khng v c xc nh theo quan h
t l vi m men cn trung bnh Mnctbdo cng on nn ct gy ra trn trc trng ct
l Mck = Mnctb/3 (, 1978).
T hnh 3.1, khi trng ct quay vi vn tc gc , ta xc nh c cc
khong thi gian trong cc giai on ca qu trnh ct l:

t 83

8
;t
8)3

8)3
; t 8L

8L
;t
c38

2.
;
3.

Chia cc khong thi gian trong mt qu trnh ct tct, tcht v tck theo bc chia
t, khi s im chia tng khong thi gian ln lt l: nct, ncht v nck.
M men cn trung bnh trn trc trng ct giai on ct do cng on nn
ct gy ra l:

MZ83=

Zv

1
. [ MZ8] ; N. m
n83
]^P

trong Mnci l m men cn do cng on nn ct xt ti v ch th i giai on ct.


Vy m men cn chy khng l:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 89

M8L

Zv

1
. [ MZ8] ; N. m
3. n83

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

]^P

Xc nh m men cn Mcht:

M men cn Mcht l m men cn giai on chuyn tip khi dao ct ct


ht rm nhng rm cha ra khi vng nh hng ca mt bn thn dao v thanh lp
dao, do gi tr ban u ca Mcht bng gi tr m men cn do cng on y rm
xc nh ti thi im t = tct l Mdr(tct), tip theo khi rm thot dn ra khi vng
nh hng ca mt bn thn dao v thanh lp dao v tr cnh gt l CchGchbt u
khi rm c tung ra giai on chy khng (hnh 3.1), do Mcht gim dn t
Mdr(tct) n gi tr Mck ti thi im t = tc = tct + tcht.Coi m men cn Mchtgim tuyn
tnh ta c:

M8)3 t

MK: t 83 + M8L
. t 83 + t 0
t 8 + t 83

MK: t 83 ; N. m

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

T cc biu thc trn ta c cng thc tng qut xc nh m men cn trn


trc trng ct trong mt qu trnh ct ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 l:

M8 t

M83 t ; khi t
M8)3 t ; khi t
M8L ;
khi t

0 t 83
t 83 t 8 ; N. m
t 8 t c38

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

3.2.4.2. Xc nh cc gi tr c trng v chi ph nng lng ca b phn ct thi


CTR-1 trong qu trnh ct
M men cn trn trc trng ct Mc trong giai on ct v giai on chuyn
tip ti tng thi im tcti v tchtj trong cc khong thi gian tct v tcht ln lt l:
Mc(tc1i) = Mct(tcti);

Mc(tchtj) = Mcht(tchtj)

M men cn trung bnh trn trc trng ct trong qu trnh ct l:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 90

M83=
Zv
v
Z]^P
M83 t83] 0 g^P
M8)3 t 8)3g 0 n8L . M8L
n83 0 n8)3 0 n8L

; N. m

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ine

Cng sut trung bnh Nctbtrn trc trng cttrong qu trnh ct ca b phn
ct thi CTR-1 l:

N83=

10Do . M83= . ; kW

Chi ph nng lng ring Ne ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 l:

Ne

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

N83=
; kW. s/kg 3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
q

Xc nh cng sut ngun ng lc Nc(kW):

gim tn hao v chi ph nng lng v gi thnh cho ngun ng lc, kt


hp nh hng ca m men qun tnh khi lng b phn ct cho m hnh nghin
cu thc nghim, i vi cc my ct thi cc vt liu th si s dng nguyn l ct
truyn thng (dao dng a chuyn ng, tm k c nh) c b phn cp l cun p
cung cp vt thi vo b phn ct th cng sut ngun ng lc c chn l Nc =
5.Nctb/3 (, 1978).
i vi b phn ct thi CTR-1 khng cn trang b b phn cp l cun p
cung cp rm do tn dng c nng lng tung rm t my p la vo b
phn ct, do cng sut ngun ng lc c th xc nh t l vi cng sut trung
bnh ca qu trnh ct theo cng thc:

N8
4
. N ; kW
3 83=

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

3.2.5. Kho st nh hng ca mt s thng s chnh n gi tr cc hm nng


lngcab phn ct thi CTR-1
3.2.5.1. Lu ton v kt qu kho st xc nh mc nh hng ca cc thng
s chnh n gi tr cc hm nng lng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 91

Da trn cc biu thc v cc m hnh ton xc nh t cng thc (3.7)


(3.63) lp lu ton xc nh cc gi tr ca cc hm nng lng cho mi mc
nghin cu ca cc thng s chnh, lu ton trnh by trn hnh 3.11.
c cc mc nghin cu v vn tc ct v v khe h , thay cho nhp cc
mc vn tc v = 15; 20; 25; 30; 35 m/s ta nhp cc mc ca tc quay trng ct l
n = 636; 845; 1061; 1273 v 1485 vg/ph, thay cho nhp cc mc gc kp = 25;
35; 45; 55 v 65o ta nhp cc mc ca gc nghing cnh gt l = 52o; 39o; 26o;
13o v 0o (khi tnh ton theo lu ton gc c i ra n v radian).
Bc la chn cc mc nghin cu trong lu ton c xc nh da trn
cc mc nghin cu ca cc thng s chnh. Trong phn nghin cu l thuyt ny,
tc gi nghin cu nh hng ca tng thng s n gi tr cc hm nng lng, do
khi nghin cu nh hng ca thng s no th gi tr ca thng s trong mc
nghin cu c thay i, cn cc gi tr ca cc thng s khc c chn theo cc
gi tr mc c s l: vo = 30 m/s hay n = 1273 vg/ph; qo = 0,6 kg/s; o = 45o hay
= 0,453 rad = 26o v = 0,003 m. Vy vi 4 thng s chnh c nghin cu 5
mc, ta c 20 mc nghin cu c la chn, tng ng l 20 ln tnh ton theo lu
ton (hnh 3.11).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 92

Khai bo cc thng s cu to c gi tr khng i:


Nhp mc nghin cu:

f' = 0,55; r = 105 kg/m3; d = 0,005 m; bd = 0,03 m


kd = 7; rt = 0,135 m; R0 = 0,225 m; = 1,134 rad

n = 636; 845; 1061; 1273 v


1485 vg/ph
La chn cc mc
nghin cu

q = 0,3; 0,4; 0,5; 0,6; 0,7; kg/s


: 52o; 39o; 26o; 13o; 00
:: 0,001; 0,002; 0,003; 0,004;
0,005; m

Kt qu nghin cu l
thuyt xc nh gi tr cc

Tnh cc thng s cu to, ng hc (ng dng cng


thc t (3.7) n (3.29)):
R(); Lcg; bcg; bhcg; ; ; ; c; s; vt; at; an

Tnh cc i lng v rm v dao bin thin


n trong qu
trnh ct (ng dng cng thc t (3.30) nn (3.39)):
hr; hn; hc; Sn; Sc; mr; mrt; mrs; Tmsb.

hm nng lng (ng


dng t cng thc (3.59)
n (3.63)):
Mci; Mctb; Nctb; Ne; Nc.

Tnh Lc cnh gt cn thit trong cng onn nn c


ct v
cng on y rm (ng dng cng thc t (3.40)
n
(3.58)):
Qnc; Fmst; Qdr; Fmss; Mct(t); Mcht(t) v Mck.

Hnh 3.11. Lu ton xc nh gi tr ca cc hm nng lng m


mi mc nghin
cu ca cc thng s chnh

ng dng phn
n m
mm Matlab lp
thut gii theo lu (hn
hnh 3.11) c
trnh by ph lcc 3.1, vi
v kt qu l
gi tr cc hm nng
ng l
lng cc thi
im khc nhau trong mt
m qu trnh ct
ca b phn ctt thi CTR-1.
CTR
m t quy lut
t thay i gi tr
m men trn trc trng
ng ct
c cho mt qu
trnh ct theo thii gian t, vvi cc thng
s u vo c nh v cc thng schnh
s

Hnh 3.12.. M men trn tr


trc trng ct
trong mt qu trnh cct

c chn mc c s:
: v = 30 m/s; q = 0,6
0, kg/s; = /4; = 0,003 m, nhp cc
thng s ny vo thut ton ph
ph lc 3.1 cho kt qu trnh by bng th
th (hnh 3.12).
trong : Mct l m men
en cn trn trc trng ct tronggiai on ct
ng vi khong
thi gian tct; Mchtl m men cn trn trc trng ct trong giai on chuy
chuyn tipng vi

khong thi gian tcht v Mck l m men cn trn trc trng ct giai o
on chy khng
ng vi khong thii gian tck; Mctb l gi tr m men trung bnh
nh trn tr
trc trng ct
trong mt qu trnh ct ca b phn ct thi CTR-1.
Trn hnh 3.12 l kkt qu cc gi tr hm m men ti cc thi
i im trong qu
trnh ct mt mc nghin ccu c s c chn. Song m t m
c nhhng
ca tng thng s n gi tr
tr cc hm nng lng, ta thc hinn chy
ch chng trnh
thut ton ph lcc 3.1 cho tng
t
mc ring bit, kt qu ca mi ln
n ch
chy ta cc gi tr
c trng v chi ph nng
ng llng ca cc hm nng lng nh:: m men cn trung bnh
Mctb; cng sut trung bnh
nh Nctbv chi ph nng lng ring Ne trong m
mt qu trnh ct
ca b phn ctt thi CTR-1.
CTR Xy dng mi quan h gia cc mc
c nghi
nghin cu ca
mt thng s no vi
i cc kt
k qu c trng ca cc hm nng l
ng tng ng,
cho kt qu dng th m t mc nh hng ca thng s
n gi tr c
trng v chi ph nng l
ng ca cc hm nng lng, cc kt qu ny
n c trnh
by bng th hnh 3.13
3.

Hnh 3.13. nh hng


h
ca ccthng s chnh n cc hm nng
ng lng
l

3.2.5.2. Phn tch nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n gi tr cc hm nng


lng t kt qu kho st m hnh ton
i vi mt giai on ct c th, m men trn trc trng ct cng on nn
ct gim dn do lng rm gim dn v bn knh cc R() gim dn trong giai on
ct, cn m men cng on tung rm li tng dn do khi rm c ct mi lc
mt tng lm cho lc ma st gia rm c ct vi thnh bn ca dao tng dn,
song tng m men ct thi trn trc trng ct do hai cng on nn ct v tung rm
gy ra li tng dn trong giai on ct th hin bng ng Mct (hnh 3.13).
nh hng ca cc thng s nghin cu n gi tr cc hm nng lngc
trnh by kt qu dng th hnh 3.13, c nhn xt v phn tch nh sau:
nh hng ca vn tc ct v:
T m hnh phn tch cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln khi rm cha ct v
ct hnh 3.9 v hnh 3.10 ta thy, cc thnh phn lc khi chiu ln phng gy
m men nR-nR ph thuc vo vn tc ct (tc quay trng ct n, vg/ph) l cc
thnh phn lc qun tnh v lc cn khng kh, cc thnh phn lc ny s tng khi
vn tc ct tng, mt khc do c im bin dng cnh sc dao khi ct khi rm
trt trn cnh sc dao c gia tc tip tuyn rt ln (hnh 3.6) ng thi gia tc php
tuyn li t l bnh phng vi vn tc, do vy khi vn tc ct tng th cc thnh
phn lc qun tnh c tng gp nhiu ln so vi tng ca lc cn khng kh,
m cc thnh phn lc qun tnh ny v cc thnhphn phnlc cnh gt Qnc, Qdr li
cng phng khi chiu ln phng nR-nR. Do khi vn tc ct tng, nh hng
ca cc thnh phn lc qun tnh m khi rm c ct vi phn lc ca cnh gt
Qnc v Qdr gim, lm cho m men trung bnh trn trc trng ct giai on ct
gim, kt qu ny ph hp vi kt qu thc nghim ca Reznhik (hnh 2.4).Cn i
vi cng sut trn trc trng ct, d m men ct gim, song vn tc gc li tng
theo cc mc tng ca vn tc, lm cho cng sut Ntb tng, cng vi n khi lng
cung cp q khng i th chi ph nng lng ring Ne cng tng (hnh 3.13).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 95

nh hng ca lng cung cp q:


Khi lng cung cp tng (hnh 3.13), khi rm trong vng ct tng lm cho
cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln khi rm (hnh 3.9, hnh 3.10) tng v c th xy ra
hin tng khi rm b nm vo khe h khi lng cung cp qu ln, do m
men trn trc trng ct tng, v vn tc gc cc mc nghin cu ny khng i
nn cc thnh phn cng sut Ntb v Nc cng tng theo t l tng ca m men, song
mc d cng sut tng nhng chi ph nng lng ring Ne li gim l do theo cng
thc (2.5) chi ph nng lng ring t l nghch vi lng cung cp q.
nh hng ca gc kp v khe h :
T nghin cu l thuyt c bn ca giai on ct thi bng li dao (,
1975; , 1978)v kt qu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt ta c:
Khi gc kp tng lm tng kh nng trt ca vt thi trn cnh sc dao v ng
thi lm gim kh nng cnh gt nn p khi rm ln cnh sc dao, do gi tr ca
cc hm nng lng u gim. Khi khe h tng lm lc ma st gia rm ct v
mt bn ca cc dao gim, ng thi lm gim hin tng rm b nm vo khe h
trong giai on ct, kt qu lm cho gi tr ca cc hm nng lng u gim khi
cc mc khe h tng ln (hnh 3.13).
Kt lun: Qua kho st nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n gi tr cc hm
nng lng bng nghin cu l thuyt, cho bit quy lut thay i gi tr ca cc hm
nng lng theo cc mc thay i ca cc thng s nghin cu chnh.Kt qu kho st
nghin cu l thuyt cho thy, khi nghin cu nh hng c lp ca tng thng s,
chi ph nng lng ring thay i trong khong ph hp Ne = 3,8 5,4 kW.s/kg.
Vi kt qu nghin cu l thuyt cho kt qu cc thng s cu to, ng hc
v nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n cc hm nng lng trong giai on ct,
lm c s ch to b phn ct thi CTR-1 phc v cho nghin cu thc nghim. Song
c kt qu nghin cu thc nghim m bo tin cy, ngoi cc thng s cu to
v thng s ng hc th m men qun tnh khi lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1
c nh hng ln n qu trnh ct n nh ca b phn ct thi CTR-1, do vy cn
nghin cu ng lc hc h truyn ng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 96

3.3. ng lc hc h truyn ng
Khi kho st qu trnh ct thi rm ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 trong nghin
cu l thuyt u da trn gi thit s vng quay khng i v c gi tr n nh
nhng ch xc lp, kh nng lm vic v duy tr nhng ch trong nhng
iu kin lm vic c th ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: m men qun tnh ca b
phn ct; c tnh ca ti trng ngoi; tnh cht ca b truyn ng v kh nng p
ng ca ngun ng lc. Vi mt ti trng c th s gy ra mt mc dao ng
vn tc gc ca trng ct v ngun ng lc, chnh iu s nh hng n cht
lng lm vic ca h thng. Trong phn ny s xy dng m hnh m phng s
ca h thng: ngun ng lc (ng c in); b truyn ai thang v b phn ct
thi CTR-1, t kho st mt s qu trnh nhm la chn m men qun tnh cho
b phn ct thi CTR-1.
S h truyn ng biu din
theo h thng truyn cng sut th

Me

hin trn hnh 3.14 a bao gm:


- Ngun ng lc l ng c in

TL

C
1

Me(t,1) J1
1

b
kd

Md2
2

CTR-1

Mc a)

J2q M (t, )
qc
2q
2q

b)

(C) nhn dng nng lng Q to ra


cng sut c hc c trng bi m
men quay Me c tc gc 1.

Hnh 3.14. S h truyn ng


a) - H truyn ng; b)- H hai khi lng thay th

T kt qu kho st hnh 3.13ta thy cng sut cntrung bnh Nctb mc


nghin cu khe h = 1 mm c gi tr ln nht Nctb = 3,4 kW hay cng sut ngun
ng lc l Nc 4,53 kW. m bo qu trnh kho nghim cho cc mc nghin cu
khc, chn ngun ng lc l ng c inkiu AOC2-32-2 c cc thng s: cng
sut nh mc Nm = 4,8 kW; m men nh mc Mm = 16,37 N.m; m men cc i
Mmax = 39,288; tc nh mc nm = 2800 vg/ph v m men v lng ca roto Jrt =
0,041 kg.m2 (Nguyn Trng Hip v Nguyn Vn Lm, 2002; , 1966).
- B phn truyn lc (TL) truyn dng cng sut n trc b phn ct thi
CTR-1 vi m men quay Md2 v vn tc gc 2 c s tn hao nng lng. B phn
truyn lc c chn l b truyn ng ai thang c cc thng s v cc tnh cht
c tnh ton da trn cc tiu chun thit k v kt qu thc nghim nh sau:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 97

+ Bn knh danh ngha bnh ai ch ng lp trn trc ng c r1 = 50 mm;


m men qun tnh khi lng Jplc = 0,002548 kg.m2. Bn knh danh ngha bnh ai
b ng lp trn trc trng ct r2 = 100 mm; m men qun tnh khi lng Jplc =
0,0246 kg.m2 (Greenville, 2006; Nguyn Hu Lc, 2008).
+ ai truyn l ai thang loi A c c im: m un n hi E = 250 Mpa;
din tch mt ct ngang D = 81 mm2; h s ma st gia ai v bnh ai = 0,43
(, 1966; Nguyn Hu Lc, 2008).
+ Cc thng s b truyn ai:t s truyn i = r2/r1 = 2; s ai truyn z = 2;
khong cch trc A = 0,3675 m; chiu di danh ngha dy ai L = 1213; gc m
bnh dn 1 = 164,5o; gc m bnh b dn 2 = 195,5o; chiu di on ai c bin
dng do nh hng ca yu t trt n hi Lbd = 0,67 m (Nguyn Hu Lc, 2008).
- Chuyn ng quay ca trng ct trong b phn ct thi CTR-1 (CTR-1) ph
thuc vo m men cn ct Mc.
M hnh kho st h truyn ng hnh 3.14a c thay th bng m hnh
truyn ng ng trc hnh 3.14b c k n yu t trt n hi, cng ca truyn
ng ai v h s cn dao ng ca b truyn (Stephan, 1984).
Th nng bin dng ca ai , ng nng ca h truyn ng T v hm hao
tn c k n h s trt n hi ln lt c xc nh theo cc biu thc sau
(Franz and Hans, 2001; Sanh, 2004):

1
E
. kZ . rP . P . 1 + + rE . E
2

1
1
. JP . fPE 0 JE . fEE
2
2

1
E
. b. fP + fEc ;
2

E
1
. k . P + Ec ;
2

1
1
. JP . fPE 0 JEc . fEEc ;
2
2

trong : l h s trt n hi; 1, 2 l gc quay ca bnh ai ch ng v b


ng; 2q = 2.i/(1-) l gc quay bnh b ng quy i ng trc; kn l cng ca
nhnh ai; k = kn.r12.(1-)2l cng quy i ng trc ca truyn ng ai; J1, J2l
m men qun tnh khi lng quy dn ca ng c v b phn ct thi CTR-1 v
bnh ai ch ng v b ng; J2q = (1-)2.J2/i2 l m men qun tnh khi lng quy
i ng trc; b l h s cn dao ng ca h truyn ng.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 98

S dng phng trnh Lagrange loi II c phng trnh chuyn ng ca h


truyn ng quy i ng trc vit di dng h phng trnh vi phn (3.64).

JP . P 0 bfP + fEc 0 k . . P + Ec

JEc . Ec + bfP + fEc + k . P + Ec

Mt t, fP

;
M8c t, Ec

3. Error! Bookmark

trong : Mt t, fP l m men hiu dng ca ng c (m men pht ng);

M8c t, Ec = Mc.(1-)/i l m men cn ct quy i; Mc l m men cn ct thi.

kho st qu trnh ng lc hc thng quan h phng trnh vi phn

(3.64) cn xc nh cc c tuyn ng lc v cc i lng lin quan nh sau:


- M men pht ng ca ng c: Theo cng thc chnh xc ca Klossa
(Haminton and Fred, 1963) m men pht ng ca ng c 3 pha c c tuyn l:

Mt t, f P

2. M9yz 1 0 a. L
;
L . DP 0 DP
L . 0 2. a. L

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

i vi nhng ng c c cng sut trung bnh v ln (Nm> 4,5kW), th t

s tr khng a rt nh v c th coi a 0 (Bi Quc Khnh v cs., 1996;

, 1977), khi cng thc (3.65) c dng:

Mt t, f P

2. M9yz

Df}

Df}
.

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.

trong : L = 0,307 l h s trt ng vi m men cc i; 0 = 100. l vn tc


gc ca t trng quay;

trng quay.

Df}

l h s trt ng vi tc nh hn tc t

- Xc nh c tuyn ca m men cn Mc:


xc nh c tuyn ca m men cn t kt qu nghin cu l thuyt hnh
3.12, ta c biu m men cn trong mt vng quay ca trng ct hnh 3.15.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 99

Mc
Mct

Mcmax

Mcht

S
Mck

(Mcmax + Mck)/2
Mck

2
6

3
6

4
6

5
6

6
6

7
6

8
6

9
6

10
6

11
6

Hnh 3.15. Biu m men cn trong mt vng quay ca trng ct

ng cong Mct, Mcht, Mck l biu m men cn trn trc trng ct trong cc
giai onca mt qu trnh ct. Vi 3 hng cnh gt thc hin ct rm, do mt
vng quay ca trng ct 2 = 2 c 3 qu trnh ct,tng ngm men cn Mc lp li
3 ln gi tr cc i Mcmax v 3 ln gi tr cc tiu Mck (hnh 3.15), khi chu k
ca m men cn l TMc =

o.Z

, s ; tn s dao ng ca m men cn l f8

P
N

Gn ng c tuyn ca m men cnc dng hm sin c th hin bng


ng S (hnh 3.15). Khi m men cn c dng ph thuc gc quay 2 l:

M8 E

M89yz + M8L
. Fsin 3. E 0 1G 0
2
M8L ;
3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
trong : Mcmax, Mck l m men cn cc i v m men chy khng trong qu trnh
ct ca m phn ct c xc nh theo cc mc nghin cu l thuyt tng ng
cho tng mc theo hnh 3.12.
- Xc nh m men qun tnh khi lng J2, J2qtheo thi gian m my:
Phng trnh c bn ca truyn ng in(ng Vn o v L Vn Doanh,
1995) c dng:

M P ; f P +M8 E

J3 .

K
K3

trong : Jtg l m men qun tnh khi lng ca h thu gn v khu ra trn trc ca
ng c.
Trong qu trnh m my Mc(2) = 0, thay vo phng trnh trn v tch phn
hai v ta c:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 100

J3

L . . ln

2. M9yz . t 9

E. .

. 2. . 9 + E9

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined

Chn thi gian m my tm = 5 s, thay cc thng s c xc nh cng

vi thi gian m my tmvo cng thc (3.68) xc nh c m men qun tnh khi
lng thu gn: Jtg= 0,12975 kg.m2.
T biu thc tnh ng nng xc nh c biu thc tnh Jtg nh sau:

J3

JP 0

~
]~

1+

Q JE

J3 + JP .

]~

PD ~

0,345 kg. mE

trong : J1 = Jrt + Jplc = 0,0435 kg.m2; J2q = Jtg - J1 = 0,08625 kg.m2.

- cng ca truyn ng ai k: xc nh da trn ti liu (Franz and Hans,


2001; Sanh, 2004) c k n sc cng ai ban u nh sau:

E. D . z E
. rP 1 + E
L=K
trong : j = 2 l bi s c k n sc cng ban u ca ai.
k

kZ . rPE . 1 +

+ H s cn dao ng: b

. k
2. . :

j.

300,64 N. m

trong : = 0,7 l h s thc nghim xc nh bng t s gia cng hao tn v

cng phc hi dy ai; :

k .

}l~
}.~

l tn s dao ng ring ca h hai khi

lng (Nguyn Vn Hu, 2000; Xanh, 2004).


3.3.1. Kho st ng lc hc qu trnh m my v bnh n ca h truyn ng
T h phng trnh vi phn (3.64), qu trnh m my v bnh n ln lt
c kho st bi h phng trnh vi phn (3.69) v (3.70) l:

JP . P 0 bfP + fEc 0 k . P + Ec Mt t, f P

;
JEc . Ec + bfP + fEc + k . P + Ec 0
JP . P 0 bfP + fEc 0 k . P + Ec

Mt t, f P ;

M8 E
JEc . Ec + bfP + fEc + k . P + Ec
. 1 +

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

3. Error! Bookmark

DP

3. Error! Bookmark

Page 101

H phng trnh
nh (3.69)
(3.
v (3.70) l cc h phng trnh
nh vi phn phi tuyn,
tuy
ch c th kho st bng
ng phng
ph
php s hoc phng php m hnh
nh ha m phng
ph
h thng k thut, y s
s dng phng php gn ng Rungen-Kutta
Kutta (Hoffman,
1994; John, 2005). Bi
i ton c gii trn my tnh bng
ng ngn ng Matlab trnh
by ph lcc 3.2 cho qu trnh
tr
m my vi iu kin u:
u: t = 0; 10 =2q0 =
v ph lc
l 3.3 cho qu trnh bnh n vi iu kin
n
u: t = 0; 10
=2q0 = 0;

Kt qu khoo st trnh
tr
by bng th hnh 3.16th hin m men pht ng
ca ng c Me, m men cn
c Mc v m men nhn Md1v truyn Md2trn ai.
M men quay trn ai
nhn bnh ch ng c xc nh
nh bi
b biu thc:
M men trn ai truyn
truy ln bnh b ng cn bng vi lc
c cn
c Mc:

Hnh 3.16
16. ng lc hc qu trnh m my v bnh n

Kt qu khoo st ng
lc hc h truyn ng vii hai qu tr
trnh m my v
bnh n (hnh 3.16)) cho bit
bi phn ng u ra ca h di nh hng
ng cca m men
qun tnh khi lng J2 (J2q) ca b phn ct thi CTR-1v nh h
ng ca lc tc
ng ngoi m y l m men cn
c M c.
Kt qu khoo st qu tr
trnh m my cho thy:M men pht ng
ng cca ng c
n nh v c gi tr t n
gi tr m men cc i ca ng c; c
ccu truyn ng
(ai) nhn m men t
ngu
ngun ng lc, ban u c dao ngg khng lln sau n

nh cng vi m men pht ng ca ng c. Kt qu ny cho thy qu trnh m


my thun li v khng b qu ti di nh hng ca m men qun tnh J2.
Qu trnh bnh n xt n nh hng ca lc kch thch tc ng ngoi vo
h, trong qu trnh ny c chia lm hai giai on: giai on chuyn tip ng vi
khong thi gian t = 0 tcl giai on c trng cho kh nng h t n im cn
bng mi khi c nhng kch thch dng xung tc ng vo h v giai on bnh n
ng vi khi t > tcl giai on h lm vic trng thi cn bng ng (hnh 3.16).
nh gi mc n nh ca h cn xt n cc thng s ca giai on
chuyn tip: thi gian chuyn tip tc; s dao ng ca phn ng u ra khi h t
n v tr cn bng mi mc, vi my nng nghip c th ly mc = 1 3 (
, 1977) v tc quay khng u ca ph phn ct thi CTR-1 ct,
gi tr ny phi nm trong gii hn cho php [] = 0,03 0,07 (, 1978).
Kho st qu trnh bnh n (hnh 3.16) cho kt qu: tc = 0,14 s; s dao ng
ca ng c l mc1 = 2; ca ai truyn cho b phn ct l mc2 = 2.
Tc quay khng u ca trc trng ct c xc nh theo cng thc
(, 1978; Trn Minh Vng v Nguyn Th Minh Thun, 1999):

9yz + 9]Z
;
3=

3. Error! Bookmark not de"ine

trong : max, min v tb ln lt l vn tc gc cc i, cc tiu v trung bnh ca


b phn ct.
Kt qu kho st qu trnh bnh n giai on chuyn tip cho thy: max =

149,54 rad/s; min = 141,62 rad/s v tb = 146,17 rad/s, thay vo (3.71) c =


0,054, gi tr ny nm trong gi tr cho php [].
Vi mi gi tr m men qun tnh J2 cho ta cc gi tr tc v mc khc nhau,
song y h c kho st vi J2 = 0,345 kg.m2 cho kt qu tc tng i nh, s
dao ng mc v tc quay khng u cng c gi tr ph hp, do vy vi J2
chn h lm vic m bo iu kin m my v h thng lm vic n nh.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 103

3.3.2. Kho st ng
ng cong bin-tn ca h truyn ng
Kho st ng
ng cong bin-tnnhm xc nh vng lm vic
c c ccng hng,
ti c hin tng tng
ng bin
bi cc i ca m men truyn ng. T
T tm ra
cch thc v vng lm vic
vi hp l ca h truyn ng khng c hi
hin tng cng
hng.
Hin tng cng
ng hng
h
xy ra khi tn s caa m men kch
ng fk bng tn
s dao ng ring caa h truyn
truy ng fr. i vi h hai khi lng,
ng, t
tn s dao ng
ring ca h c xc nh nh
nh sau (Nguyn Vn Khang, 2005; Sanh, 2004):

Do tnh phi tuyn


n cca h truyn ng, c th xc nhh vng ttn s lm vic
c cng hng bng ph
ng php d tm. t vo h phng trnh
nh vi ph
phn (3.70)
mt m men cn c dng
ng bin
bi i theo chu k:

trong : z = 2f , vi
i f ll tn s dao ng ca m men cn Mc.
Tng dn tn s f v tnh ton phn ng ca h vi mt lot
t qu tr
trnh lp, sau
mi bc thay i ca
a f xc nh c gi tr bin dao ng cc
c
i ca m men
ng c Me v m men truy
truyn ca b truyn ai ln bnh b ng Md2, cc gi tr ny
c c trng bii gi tr cc i Memax v Md2max mt qu trnh ng vi
v mt mc
tn s f, thutt ton xy d
dng ng cong bin-tn trnh by ph lc
c 3.4.
Kt qu kho st ng
ng cong binbi
tn th hin mii quan h gia Memax
v Md2max vi tn s f ca
c m men
cn Mcbng th (hnh
nh 3.1
3.17).
T th nhn thy tn s
s f = fch =
13,5 Hz, bin dao ng ca
c Me v
Md2 l c gi tr cc
c i
ln nht
trong cc gi tr cc i cc mc

Hnh 3.17. ng cong bin-tn ca h

tn s f.

Ta thy gi tr tn s fch = 13,5 Hz< fr = 16,21 Hz, s khc bit ny l do tn


s ca lc kch ng ngoi khng ch l tn s f ca m men cn Mc(t,2) m cn

nh hng ca m men pht ng ca ng cMt t, fP trong giai on chuyn

tip. Vy vng tn s f c gi tr ln cn vi fch l vng tn s ca m men cn c


cng hng. T kt qu kho st, gi tr tc quay ca trng ct n2 c cng hng
khi tn s ca m men cn Mc bng tn s fch, ta c:

z.t = 3.2 = 3.2.t _z = 3.2_ 2..fch = 3..nch/30, vy nch = 270 v/ph.

Kt qu kho st (hnh 3.17)cho thyvng tn s f = 6 20 Hz l vng tn s


ln cn vi tn s cng hng fch, do vy tc quay ca trng ct m bo trnh
hin tng cng hng l:

2. . f. 30
20. f 20.20
3.
400 vg/
ph;
3. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
Kt lun: Kt qu kho st cc qu trnh ng lc hc ca h truyn ng
n

xc nh m men qun tnh khi lng ca cc b phn ct thi CTR-1 l J2 = 0,345


kg.m2, vng tc quay ca trng ct m bo khng c hin tng cng hng l:
n >400 vg/ph. Kt qu ny lm c s ch to b phn ct thi CTR-1 phc v cho
nghin cu thc nghim m bo tin cy v gim c cc sai s h thng, ng
thi lm c s la chn cc mc ca vn tc ct trong nghin cu thc nghim
khng c hin tng cng hng.
Kt lun chng 3
1. Kt qu xy dng bin dng cnh sc dao, c c im l gc trt
khng i trong giai on ct, t xy dng c m hnh tnh ton nng lng
b phn ct thi v kho st nh hng ca cc thng s nghin cu n cc hm
nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1. y l mt c im ni bt vi phng
php tnh mi khc vi cc phng php tnh nng lng ct thi cho cc b phn
ct dng dao trng v dao a.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 105

2. Kt qu kho st mc nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n chi ph


nng lng ring ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 cho bit quy lut thay i hm chi
ph nng lng ring Ne nh: chi ph nng lng ring tng khi tng vn tc ct
tng, chi ph nng lng ring gim khi cc mc thng s lng cung cp q; gc
kp v khe h tng.
3. Kt qu phn tch ng lc hc truyn ng cho b phn ct thi,xc nh
c m men qun tnh khi lng ca cc phn t trong h truyn ng, m bo
qu trnh lm vic n nh, ng thi xc nh vng tc quay ca trng ct ph
hp khng pht sinh ch cng hng khi nghin cu thc nghim. Kt qu ny
va m bo cho qu trnh kho nghim my trnh sai s h thng v va nh
hng cho thit k b phn ct CTR-1 ng dng vo sn xut thc tin.

Chng 4. KT QU NGHIN CU THC NGHIM


Nh t vn chng 3, trong nghin cu l thuyt cn s dng cc h
s hay cc quan h gia cc thng s no , m vn ny thng phi xc nh ti
phng th nghim. Do vy ni dung chng 4 ngoi cp n vn chnh l phn
tch, nh gi kt qu nghin cu thc nghim t tm ra cc gi tr thng s ti u
chob phn ct thi, cn cp n cc kt qu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l
thuyt c thc hin ti phng th nghim nhm phc v cho tnh ton xc nh cc
kt qu nghin cu l thuyt.
Ghi ch: tin theo di trong chng 4 n v ca cc gc c tnh theo
"" v khe h l thng s nghin cu c n v "mm".
4.1. Kt qu th nghim xc nh cc tham s l thuyt ca m hnh ton
4.1.1. c im ca khi rm trc v sau khi qua b phn p la
Kt qu nghin cu i vi ging la BC15 c th nghim trn my p
la do Cng ty TNHH C kh Vit Nht ti Xun Tin Xun Trng Nam nh

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 106

c ng knh trng
ng 0,4 m, chiu
chi di trng p 2,2 m v nng
ng su
sut 4 t/h, tc
quay ca trng pp 945 vg/ph tay ga iu chnh khong
ng 80%. Khi la c thc
nghim nghin cu
u sau khi ggt khng qu mt ngy c cc c im
m sau: cchiu cao
cy la sau khi gt
t 50 60 cm; t l gia lng la a vo my p vi lng
rm thot ra t caa ra ca my p l 2:1 v m khi rm
m sau khi thot ra tt ca
ra ca my p 65 75%.
c im kch th
c ca rm trc khi vo b phn p v sau khi ra khi
b phn p trnh
nh by trn hnh 4.1.

Hnh 4.1.. Kch thc


th
rm trc v sau khi qua b phn
n
p
a) - kch thc rm trc
c khi qua b
b phn p; b)- kch thc rm
m sau khi qua bb phn p.

Trong qu trnh p
la, do nh hng ca rng trng p ngo
ngoi vic p
tch ht th rng ca trng
ng p cn lm t mt s cng rm
m trong bung
bu
p, do
khi rm
m sau khi thot ra tt ca ra ca my p b ct (ko t) th
thnh cc on
ngn hn c chiu di
i khc nhau v c phn loi kch thc (hnh
nh 44.1b).
Chiu di cc on
n rm
r
sau khi qua b phn p c nh gi bbng phn
trm khi lng caa cc phn
ph rm c di cc on rm
m phn theo kch th
thc
(hnh 4.1b), ly khi lng
ng cc phn
ph rm c khong chiu di c
c phn lo
loi chia
cho tng khi lng rm
m ly
l mu nhn vi 100 c phn trm khi
i llng rm c
chiu di tng ng
ng trong khi
kh lng ca khi rm ly mu. Ktt qu nh gi chiu
di cc cng rm
m sau khi qua b
b phn p c nghin cu tii khoa C
C in - Hc
vin Nng nghip Vit
t Nam trnh
tr
by trn bng 4.1.
Bng 4.1. Gi tr khi
kh lng phn khi rm theo cc khong
ng chi
chiu di rm
Khong
ng chiu
chi di on rm lcr ca khi rm ly mu
T
Tng
n v
S mu TN
(30 - 50]
(50 - 60]
10
(10 30]
Mu 1
36,1
113,2
247,3
581,4
978,0
g
Mu 2
28,2
110,4
259,7
572,5
970,8
g

Mu 2
TB
Phn trm

32,8
32,4
3,3

95,4
106,3
10,9

245,7
250,9
25,8

599,3
584,4
60,0

973,2
974,0
100,0

g
g
%

Sau khi qua b phn p cc phn rm b ct t c chiu di cc cng


rm khng u (bng 4.1), trong cc phn rm c chiu di lcr

10 cm chim

3,3%; lcr = 10 30 cm chim 10,9%; lcr = 30 50 cm chim 25,8%v cc cng rm


khng b t trong qu trnh p chim t l ln khong 60%.
Khi phn loi chiu di khi rm sau khi qua b phn p c c im: phn
rm c chiu di cc on

10 cm chim t l rt nh v a s l cc l a; phn

rm c chiu di t 10 30 cm ch yu l cc u bng rm (bng rm l phn

bng la sau khi c tch ht) v cc a rm; phn rm c chiu di t 30 50 cm


ch yu l a rm v nhng cng rm sau khi b t phn bng rm; phn rm c
chiu di 50 60 cm l nhng cng rm trong qu trnh p khng b ct t m
ch b tc l a v b b gp thnh cc nht gp trn thn cng rm do vy phn
rm ny c khi lng ln hn nhiu so vi cc phn rm khc.
Vi kt qu trn cho bin cc c im v kch thc ca khi rm trc khi
vo b phn ct thi CTR-1, lm c s nh gi c cht lng ct Cx thc t m
b phn ct thi thc hin.
4.1.2. Kt qu v mt s c tnh c, l ca rm ti
Trn c s l thuyt v ct thi, cc quan h ph thuc vo c tnh c, l
ca rm ti cn c xc nh nh: nh hng ca gc trt n p lc ct thi
ring v cng ct ring; nh hng ca khe h gia thnh bn ca dao v cnh bn
ca cnh gt (tm k) n p lc p ca khi rm c ct vo thnh bn ca
dao; nh hng ca p lc p n bit dng ca khi rm trong qu trnh p; h
s ma st ca rm ti vi thp v khi lng ring ca rm ti. Vi cc quan h
v c im trn ca rm ti lm c s nghin cu tnh ton b phn ct thi
rm ng thi l kt qu ng dng gip cho cc cng trnh nghin cu khc lin
quan n rm ti.
tnh nng lng ct thi, mt thng s quan trng cn c xc nh l p
lc ct thi ring qct tnh theo cng thc (2.6) nh sau:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 108

q 83

P8
; N/
S. cos 1 0 f B . tan
cm
4. Error! Bookmark not de"ined.
T (4.1) p lc ct thi ring qct ph thuc vo gc trt v h s ma st f'
do vy ta cn nghin cu nh hng ca gc trt n p lc ct thi ring qct v
xc nh h s ma st f'. thun li khi phn tch cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln
dao, xt s qu trnh ct trong trng hp gc trt = 00 (hnh 4.2).
Cnh sc l i dao
Cnh gt

Khi rm

Pt

A-A

T1 T1

N1
N2

Tms

Fms
2

Nf

N1
N2

Tms
Pc

Fms
Nf

Hnh 4.2. S qu trnh ct thi bng li dao

Khi ct thi cc vt n hi, qu trnh ct c hai giai on: u tin l li


dao nn p vt thi, ri n ct t vt thi. Trong qu trnh li dao i vo vt thi
cn phi khc phc cc lc ma st do p lc n hi N2 ca phn khi rm c
ct tc ng vo mt bn ca dao v lc N1 do vt thi dch chuyn b nn p tc
ng vo mt vt ca cnh sc dao. Gi Pt l lc cn ct thi th lc ct thi cn
thit Pc l:

P8

P3 0 2. T9N 0 2. TP cos9K 0 2. NP . cos9K; N

trong : mdl gc mi dao, i vi ct rm chn md = 150.

4. 1

T (4.2) lc ma st Tms do khi rm c ct tc dng vo mt bn ca


dao c nh hng n lc ct thi cn thit Pc . Song i vi nguyn lca b phn
ct thiCTR-1 lc ma st Tms ph thuc vo khe h , vi phn tch ny cn nghin
cu nh hng ca khe h n p lc do khi rm c ct tc ng vo mt
bn ca dao.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 109

xc nh p lc N2 hay tnh cng ct ring cn bit din tch mt ct


ngang ca khi rm sau khi c nn n trng thi ct, vi l do ny cn nghin
cu quan h gia p lc nn v bin dng tng i ca khi rm khi nn:
Gi p lc nn rm l qn; N/cm2, hrl chiu cao ban u ca khi rm trng
thi t nhin; hnon gim chiu cao khi rm khi nn, khi t s nn tng i
c nh ngha theo cng thc: n

hn
hr

Gi Sn l din tch nn phn khi rm, xc nh c chiu cao khi rm


ban u hrcn bit c khi lng ring ca rm ti r. Vi phn tch ny cn
xc nh c quan h gia p lc nn qn v t s nn tng i n hoc khi lng
ring ca rm ti.
4.1.2.1. Vt liu v phng php nghin cu
Vt liu th nghim l rm ti ly ti thi im sau khi gt mt ngy t
ging la BC15. Kt qu nghin cu ban u v c tnh ca rm ti c thc
hin ti phng Sc bn vt liu Khoa C in Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam.
cc th nghim c mu rm th nghim nh nhau, mi loi th nghim
mu rm u c chn theo n v khi lng trn chiu di mu rm. i vi th
nghim xc nh nh hng ca gc trt n p lc ct thi ring qct, mi mu
rm c khi lng bng 10g v chiu di mu rm 20cm. i vi mu rm th
nghim xc nh quan h gia t s nn n v p lc nn qn, mi mu rm c khi
lng 50g v chiu di mu rm 20cm.
Xc nh mu rm nh cn in t METTLER TOLEDO ti phng Cng
ngh t bo thc vt Khoa Cng ngh sinh hc Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam.
o v ghi nhn kt qu cc thng s th nghim trn, cc thit b v dng
c cn thit c trnh by trong ti liu lin quan.
4.1.2.2. Kt qu tho lun
a) Kt qu gi tr cc thng s c tnh ca rm ti
T mu rm th nghim trng thi t nhin dng xp ng (khi rm th
nghim cha b nn). Kt qu o m, khi lng ring r, h s ma st f gia rm
ti v thp vi s ln th nghim lp li 5 ln cho cc kt qu bng 4.2.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 110

Bng 4.2.. Kt
K qu o cc thng s c tnh ca rm ti
i
S ln o
Thng s o
Trung bnh
Ln 1
Ln 2 Ln 3 Ln 4 Ln 5
m (%)

67

73

75

72

65

70.4

r((kg)/m3)

105

95

120

115

90

105

H s ma st: f'

0,53

0,49

0,58

0,55

0,59

0,55

b) Quan h gia
a t s p tng i n v p lc p qn i vii rrm ti
Kt qu th nghim quan hh gia p
lc nn qn (N/cm2) v t
s nn tng i
n trn th hnh 4.3.
T s liu
u th nghi
nghim qua phn tch
hi quy, hm hii quy m t
t quan h gia t
s nn tng i n v p lc
l nn qn vi h
2

s tng quan R = 0,9693 nh


nh sau:

Hnh 4.3. th thc


c ng
nghim v th
hm hi quy m t quan h
h n - qn

n 0,1644.ln qn 0,1335;
4. 2
c) nh hng ca
a gc trt n cc thng s trong qu trnh
nh cct

Nh phn tch trn,


tr qu trnh ct c hai giai on: giai on
n nn n p lc
ct cn thit, khi rm s c

ct, trong giai on khi rm ang


c ct gi l giai
on ct. Cc thnh phn
n lc
l nh hng trong giai on ct gm
m c cc thnh
th
phn:
Lc ct tc dng trc tip
p ln
l cnh sc dao Pt, p lc cn nn ln mt
t vt ca
c cnh sc
dao N1 v lc cn
n ma st ca
c phn khi rm c ct ln mt bn
n cca dao Tms,
thnh phn lc Tms c
c th
th hin khi dao ct ht khi rm
m v dao ti
tip tc i
xung, gi tr ghi nhn
c t mn hnh ca my ko nn.
Kt qu th nghim c xc nh nh thit b o lc ct v dch chuyn
ca dao trong qu trnh
nh ct
c bng my ko nn vn nng, cc gi tr
tr lc ct theo
phng vn tc dao Pc ti tng v tr ca dao, qua thu c bng
ng gi tr
tr lc Pc
cho tng trng hp gc trt,
tr
t kt qu gi tr lc Pc v dch
ch chuyn
chuy ca dao
vo khi rm
m trong qu trnh
tr
ct, xy dng c th hnh 4.4 cho cc m
mc gc
trt = 00; 150; 300; 450; 600 v 750.

Hnh 4.4. th quan h gia lc ct v chuyn v ca dao cc m


c gc trt

Trong mi trng
ng hhp trn ng vi cc gc trt khc nhau, u m t c
cc giai on ca qu trnh
nh ct
c v c bit m t c lc ma st Tms khi khi rm
c ct ht ln mt
t bn
b ca dao (hnh 4.4):
on OA m t qu trnh
tr
nn khi rm, ly gi tr trung bnh
nh cc gi tr
tr lc
Pc giai on ny c
c gi tr
tr lc nn trung bnh Pntb, phn din
n tch tto bi vng
th OAE l cng chi ph cho giai on nn.
on th AB m t
t giai on ct, lc giai on ny gi l lc
l ct, gi tr
trung bnh lc giai on ny
n gi l lc ct thi cn thit Pct, vng di
din tch ABDE
trn th l cng ct i vi
v mu khi rm th nghim.
on t B n u
ca ng ngang C m t lc ca phn
n kh
khi rm va
c ct xong tc dng
ng ln
l hai mt vt cnh sc dao, qu trnh ny
c th hin r
nt khi th nghim vi
i khe h
h nh = 1 mm. (cc trng hpp khe h ln hu nh
on ny khng th hin).
n).
ng ngang C l ng

m t lc ma st Tms tc dng ln
n m
mt bn ca dao
khi khi rm cc ct hon
ho ton. Gi tr lc Tms ph thuc vo
o khe hh , khe h

cng nh gi tr lc Tms cnh ln, song vi khe h > 5 th gn nh gi tr lc Tms


ny khc nhau khng nhiu, ni dung ny c trnh by phn di.
xy dng quan h nh hng ca gc trt n p lc ct thi ring
qctv tm ra gi tr gc trt sao cho cng ct thi ring l nh nht ta i tnh trung
bnh lc v cng cc giai on nn v giai on ct cho tng trng hp gc
trt khc nhau.
Xt cc thng s trong giai on nn c ch s l i, trong giai on ct c ch
s l j, lc nn v tr i k hiu l Pni, lc giai on ct ti v tr j l Pcj khi lc
trung bnh v cng giai on nn v ct c tnh theo cng thc (4.4).
PZ3=

P83

]^P
PZ] ; AZ

Z
P
9
g^P P8g ;
9

]^P
PZ] . d

9
4. 3
g^P P8g . d ;

A
AZ 0 A8

trong : nd, md ln lt l s v tr li dao trong qu trnh nn v ct;d = 0,5 mm

A8

l s gia ca on dch chuyn dao trong qu trnh nn v ct.


T kt qu th nghimcho kt qu trnh by trn bng 4.3.
Bng 4.3. Lc trung bnh v cng trong giai on nn v ct
= 00
Pntb (N)
Pct(N)

=300

A(J)

A(J)

63,333

0,38

58,571

0,41

44,24

156,15 1,015 129,44 1,165 103,48

Tng Cng A
% (nn/Ct)

=150

1,395
40,56

1,575
45,25

A(J)

=450
P

0,355 33,077 0,215 25,882


1,19

76,552

1,545
42,75

A(J)

=600

1,11

60

1,325
43,21

43,14

A(J)

=750
P

A(J)

0,22

19,524 0,205

1,14

46,825 1,475

1,36

1,68
41,69

i vi lc ct Pctgc trt cng ln th lc ct cng gim, song cng ct cho


c qu trnh c bit l trng hp ct dng cht b (gc trt = 00) mc d lc ct
Pct ln, song do qung ng ct s li nh lm cho cng ct cng khng ln. i
vi trng hp gc trt = 750 cho gi tr lc ct rt nh, song qung ng ct
ct ht khi rm li ln lm cho cng ct ln (bng 4.3).
Tnh t s gia lc nn trung bnh v lc ct xc nh phn trm gi tr lc
nn so vi lc ct, gi tr tnh ton trong cc trng hp gc trt u nm trong
khong t 40 45%, tc l lc cho qu trnh nn bng khong t 40 45% lc ct
thi ( bng 4.3).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 113

Vy c c gi tr lc ct v cng ct ph hp t bng 4.3 v cng thc


(4.1) lp bng nh hng ca gc trt n gi tr p lc ct thi ring qctv cng
ct thi ring Acr; J/cm2.
tnh cng ct thi ring ta cn xc nh din tch mt ct ngang khi rm
sau khi c nn n trng thi ct (tc l din tch khi rm c ct bi cnh sc
dao xt trng hp ct thi vi gc trt = 00):
Chiu di on dao lm vic S xc nh theo b rng rnh t rm ca tm
k l 14 mm, do qu trnh nn p nn khi rm mt phn b phnh ra theo chiu dc
li dao nn on S c o trc tip khi dao trong qu trnh ct bng cch cho
dao dng li giai on ct v nhn c kt qu S = 16 mm.
Din tch khi rm c ct c th tnh t cng thc (4.3), song th nghim
ct rm vi gc trt = 00 ta nn p hai u nn ti v tr cnh sc daobt u chm
vo khi rm th khi rm c nn mt phn, do vy chiu dy khi rm
c nn n trng thi ct c th ly bng on t E n D trn th cng ng
vi gc trt = 00. Qua th chiu dy khi rm c nn n trng thi ct
bng 6 mm, vi b rng khi rm bng S=16 mm ta c din tch khi rm cn
ct ht l Fr = 96 mm2.
n y t cng thc (4.1), bng 4.3 v Fr = 0,96 cm2 c bng gi tr p lc
ct thi ring qctv cng ct thi ring cc trng hp gc trt khc nhau trnh
by trn bng 4.4.
Bng 4.4. Gi tr p lc ct thi ring v cng ring theo gc trt
Gc trt
Thng s

()
0

15

30

45

60

75

qct (N/cm)

97,60

72,83

56,43

43,37

38,07

36,594

Acr(J/cm2)

1,453

1,641

1,609

1,380

1,417

1,75

Bng kt qu p lc ct thi ring v cng ct thi ring i vi rm ti ng


vi cc trng hp gc trt thay i t 0 750 (bng 4.4). Gi tr p lc ct thi
ring qct v cng ct thi ring Ar l hai thng s c trng cho c tnh ca rm
ti. thun tin cho vic tnh ton sau ny gc trt bt k v c bit l xc

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 114

nh cng ring cc tiu


u ta llp phng trnh hi quy gia p lc c
ct thi ring v
cng ring ph thucc vo gc trt c trnh by theo cng thcc (4.5),
(
(4.6).
th quan h gia p lc ct
c thi ring v cng ring ph thuc vo gc tr
trt c
trnh by trn hnh 4.5.

Hnh 4.5.
4. S ph thuc ca qct v Ar vi

4. 4

T phng trnh (4.6)


(
quan h gia cng ct ring v gc tr
trt c m t
bng hm s bcc ba, gi tr
tr gc trt lm cho Acrmin t cc tiuu ti
t o = 56,30 .
thay 0 = 56,30 vo (3.6) c cng ring cc tiu
T kt qu oo trn v phng
ph
trnh (4.6) c th thit k dao thi sao cho qu
trnh ct c cng ring nh
nh nht hoc tng i nh, theo (Trnn Minh V
Vng v
Nguyn Th Minh Thun,
n, 1999) gi tr gc trt c lyy sao cho cng cct thi
ring Acr nm trong khong t Acrmin n

vi Acr = 1,45 J/cm2 thay vo phng


ph
trnh (4.6) c hai gi tr gc tr
trtmin = 430
v max = 670. Trn th
th hnh 3.5 khong t min max l vng gi tr
tr gc trt hp
l cho cng ctt ring c gi tr
tr tng i nh.
Vy trong thitt kk b phn ct thi theo nguyn l ct kiuu nhiu
nhi dao c
nhgc trt hp l
c thit k trong khong = 430 670.
d) nh hng ca
a khe h
h n p lc khi rm ct ln mt bn ca dao
Nh phn tch trn hnh 4.2, khe h c nh hng lnn n lc ma st
cn Tms ca phn khii rm
r c ct ln mt bn ca dao v nh
nh hng
h
n lc

cn N1 ln mt vt ca cnh sc dao. xc nh c nh hng ca khe h n


lc ma st Tms v lc N1 ta lm th nghim vi cc trng hpp thay i khe h =
1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 10; 20 mm,, kt
k qu th nghim cho thy i vi cc tr
ng hp c khe
h = 1 5 mm th thnh ph
phn lc Tms v N1 gim dn.
Song i vii cc trng
tr
hp khe h > 5 mm th thnh phnn llc N1 gn nh
khng xut hin,
n, cn thnh phn
ph lc T2 c gi tr nh v gn nh
khng i cc
mc khe h khc nhau, lc ny ta coi p lc
l do lc N1 vo mtt vt cnh sc dao
bng p lc do lc N2 vo mt
m bn ca dao.
rt ngn
n cho vi
vic trnh by, kt qu th nghim cc m tt bng hai qu
trnh ct i dinn cho hai vng: = 1 mm i din cho vng khe h t 1 5 mm v
= 10 mm i dinn cho vng > 5 mm, trnh by trn hnh 4.6.

a)

b)

Hnh 4.6. nh h
ng khe h n lc ma st ln hai mtt bn cca dao

Vi khe h = 1 mm lc ct rt ln, lc ct ly trung bnh giai on ct t


A n B l Pct = 173 N,, trong trng
tr
hp ny khi phn rm cui cng c ct ti
v tr B, sau khi ctt xong lc
l Pc khng chuyn lun v ng
ng ngang C m ph
phi qua
on BB, on
n BB chnh l nh hng do thnh phn lc N1 v llc ma st T1
(hnh 4.2), ng
ng ngang C l ng biu din gi tr ca lcc ma st Tms ln mt bn
ca dao khi khi rm c ct v thot khi hon ton mt vt ccnh sc dao do
lc N2 gy ra. Vii khe hh = 10 mm, khi phn rm cui cng cc cct xong ti v
tr B, lc Pc gim
m ngay xung
xu
ng ngang C m khng c onn BB, ttc l nh
hng ca khi rm
m trong qu trnh
tr
ct ln mt vt ca snh sc lii dao khng lln
v coi nh bng p lcc ma st ln mt
m bn ca dao, trong trng hpp ny ta coi m
mt
vt ca dao nh mtt bn ca
c dao. Kt qu th nghim cho thy khe h
cng ln th

lc ma st ca khi rm
m
c ct ln mt bn ca dao cng nh,, song khi khe hh
> 5 mm th cc gi tr l
c Tms biu din bng ng
ng ngang C thay i khng nhiu
trong khong t 20 25N.
mang tnh tng
ng qut coi thnh phn
ph lc N1 v lcc ma st T1 tc dng ln
mt vt caa dao c trong thnh phn
ph lc ct cn thit Pct, vy ta ch xt v trnh by
nh hng ca khe h = 1 5 mm n thnh phn lc N2 l thnh ph
phn gy ra lc
ma st Tms (hnh 4.2)
c c trng bi p lc qnb ca khi rm
c ct ln hai
mt bn ca dao, p lcc qnb c tnh l:

trong : Fr = 0,96 cm2 l din tch ct; f = 0,55 l h s ma st cca rm ti v


thp. Kt qu nh hng
ng ca
c khe h n p lc ca khi rm c
ct ln hai
mt bn ca dao cc trnh by trong bng
b
4.5.
Bng 4.5. Gitr p l
c qnb tc dng ln thnh bn ca dao cc m
mc khe h

qnb
Ln 1 (N/cm2)

1 mm

2 mm

3 mm

4 mm

5 mm

132,5455
5455

113,6364

94,54545

75,63636

56,90909

Ln 2 (N/cm2)

113,6364
6364

113,6364

75,63636

56,90909

56,90909

132,5455
5455

113,6364

94,54545

56,90909

56,90909

126,2424
2424

113,6364

88,24242

63,15152

56,90909

Ln 3 (N/cm )
2

TB (N/cm )

T kt qu bng
ng 4.5xy
4.5
dng
th v hm hi quy m t quan h gia
p lc ca khi rm c
ct ln hai
thnh bn ca dao cc m
mc khe h
trnh by trn hnh 4.7 v phng trnh
hm hi quy thc nghim (4.8).
N/cm2 vi 5 mm; 4. 5

Hnh 4.7. nh hng caa khe h


h n qnb

trong : khe h c n vv; mm.

Nhn xt: Vii cc kkt qu nghin cu trn, xc nh c


c m
mt s c im
lin quan v c tnh ca
a rrm nh hng n qu trnh ct rm: quan h gia gc trt

vi p lc ct thi ring v cng ct ring; quan h gia khe h ca dao v tm k vi


lc ma st ca khi rm c ct tc dng ln thnh bn ca dao. Kt qu nghin
cu cho thy, vi nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nh, cnh gt chuyn ng gt v
nn khi rm trt trn cnh sc dao, gc trt = 430 670 l vng gc trt hp l
cho cng ct ring Acr tng i nh. Do nh hng ca lc ma st vo thnh bn ca
dao, khi ch to b phn ct thi rm theo nguyn l ny khng nn chn khe h < 1
mm, khe h c th chn v nghin cu trong vng = 1 5 mm.
4.2. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim
T phng php nghin cu thc nghim, cc trang thit b phc v cho
nghin cu thc nghim v b phn ct thi CTR-1 c ch to da trn kt qu
nghin cu l thuyt,ta c m hnh th nghim b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi
my p la trong cc qu trnh thc nghim trnh by trn hnh 4.8.

Hnh 4.8.M hnh th nghimb phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la

K hoch thc nghim v cc gi tr so snh tra bng chun c trnh by


trong chng 2. trnh cc yu t nhiu, mi mc th nghim lp li 3 ln.
Cc thng s nghin cu nh hng n qu trnh ct v cc ch tiu nh gi
ca b phn ct thi c phn tch v la chn theo ti liu lin quan nh sau:
Thng s vo l 4 thng s nh hng chnh: vn tc ct v, m/s; lng cung
cp q, kg/s; gc kp , v khe h , mm.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 118

Thng s ra l 2 hm ch tiu: hm cht lng ct Cx, %; hm chi ph nng


lng ring Ne, kW.s/kg. Trong chn hm cht lng ct Cx l hm ch tiu
nh gi chnh.
Sau qu trnh th nghim, kt qu gi tr ca hm ch tiu chi ph nng lng
ring Ne c xc nh thng qua gi tr cng sut trung bnh trn trc trng ct t
kt qu o c dng tn hiu nh phn mm Dasylab. Mt s kt qu o dng qu
trnh tn hiu trnh by ph lc 4.5.
4.2.1. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim n yu t
4.2.1.1. nh hng ca vn tc ct v(m/s) n cc hm ch tiu
Cc thc nghim v vn tc ct c tin hnh vi cc iu kin: lng cung
cp q = 0,5kg/s; gc kp = 350; khe h gia dao v cnh gt = 2 mm. Thng s
nghin cu l vn tc ct c thay i theo 5 mc nghin cu (bng 4.6) v = 15 35
m/s. Thng s ra l cht lng ct Cx v chi ph nng lng ring Ne. Kt qu th
nghim c trnh by trn bng4.6.
Bng 4.6. Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghimca v
Mc th nghim ca vn tc ct v(m/s)
TT

15

20

25

30

35

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Ln 1

61

2,30

71

3,50

89

4,94

91

6,72

95

8,25

Ln 2

58

2,56

69

3,60

91

5,22

96

6,53

96

8,35

Ln 3

62

2,45

76

3,72

92

5,35

93

6,50

93

8,45

TB

60,3

2,44

72,0

3,61

90,7

5,17

93,3

6,58

94,7

8,35

T kt qu th nghim bng 4.6, x l s liu thng k c kt qu nh sau:


i vi hm ch tiu l cht lng ct Cx:
lch Sk = -1,046 v nhn Ku = -1,082 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do
cc kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 123,52 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit
Gi tr Gt = 0,573 < Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht
Kt qu trc nghim phn hng: mc v3, v4 v v5 khng c s khc bit v gi
tr trung trnh, trong v5 cho gi tr trung bnh ln nht.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 119

i vi hm ch tiu l chi ph nng lng ring Ne:


lch Sk = 0,25 v nhn Ku = -1,03 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 848,18 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit.
Gi tr Gt = 0,175< Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht.
Phng trnh hi quy m t quan h thng s vo vn tc v n thng s ra
Cx v Ne c nh gi thng qua h s tng quan R2.
Cx

Ne

v
;
0,00514. v 0 0,1696

2,165 00,296.v;

RE

95,5%.

R2

99,5%.

th thc nghim m t kt qu th nghim ca cc thng s ra Cx, Ne theo


cc mc th nghim ca thng s vn tc v (hnh 4.9).
Phn tch kt qu nghin cu v la
chn vng nghin cu ti u cho vn tc ct:

100
90

i vi kt qu th nghim vn tc

80

ct theo bng 4.6, khi tng vn tc ct th

70

cht lng ct tng, ng thi chi ph nng

60

lng ring cng tng.Song khi tng vn tc


ct t 30 35 m/s th cht lng ct

Cx(%)

Ne(kW.s/kg)
Ne

Cx

15

20

25

30

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

35

v(m/s)
Hnh 4.9. nh hng vn Cx v Ne

tng khng ng k trong khi chi ph nng lng ring vn tng v c gi tr rt


ln Ne = 8,35kW.s/kg. Ta thy khi vn tc ct t 2530 m/scho cht lng ct t
90,1 94%, chi ph nng lng ring t 5,1 6,5 kW.s/kg, y l vng ph hp
cho cht lng ct v chi ph nng lng ring. Do vy ta xc nh vng lm vic
ti u ca vn tc ct vt 25 30 m/s.
4.2.1.2. nh hng ca lng cung cp q(kg/s) n cc hm ch tiu
Vi kt qu th nghim n yu t xc nh vng vn tc ti u, chn gi tr
vn tc vo = 27,5 m/s lm gi tr u vo cho th nghim lng cung cp. Cc th
nghim v lng cung cp c tin hnh vi cc iu kin: vn tc ct v =
27,5m/s; gc kp = 350; khe h gia dao v cnh gt = 2 mm. Lng cung cp

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 120

c thay i theo 5 mc (bng 4.7). Thng s ra l cht lng ct Cx v chi ph


nng lng ring Ne. Kt qu th nghim c trnh by trn bng 4.7.
Bng 4.7. Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghim q
Mc th nghim lng cung cp q(kg/s)
TT

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Ln 1

68,2

6,92

84,1

5,85

91,5

5,62

93,4

4,82

86,9

4,17

Ln 2

72,1

7,17

80,2

6,12

93,2

5,86

95,5

5,10

87,3

4,57

Ln 3

73,7

7,34

82,2

6,13

92,5

5,70

93,7

5,10

87

4,42

TB

71,3

7,14

82,2

6,03

92,4

5,73

94,2

5,01

87,1

4,39

T kt qu th nghim bng 4.7, x l s liu thng k c kt qu nh sau:


i vi hm ch tiu l cht lng ct Cx:
lch Sk = -1,24 v nhn Ku = -0,37 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do
cc kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 92,17 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit
Gi tr Gt = 0,573 < Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht
Kt qu trc nghim phn hng: mc q3 v q4 khng c s khc bit v gi tr
trung trnh, trong q4 cho gi tr trung bnh ln nht.
i vi hm ch tiu l chi ph nng lng ring Ne:
lch Sk = 0,41 v nhn Ku = -0,61 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 108,53> Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit
Gi tr Gt = 0,294 < Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht.
Phng trnh hi quy m t quan h thng s vo qn thng s ra Cxv
Nec nh gi thng qua h s tng quan R2.
Cx = -9,28+360,7.q317,15.q2; vi h s tng quan R2 = 97,5%.
Ne = 8,92 6,52.q;

vi h s tng quan R2 = 97,3%.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 121

th thc nghim
m m t
t kt qu th
nghim caa cc thng s ra Cx, Netheo cc
mc ca thng s vo q (hnh 4.10
4.10).

100

Cx(%)

Ne(kW.s/kg)
Cx

90
80

Phn tch kt qu nghin


nghi cu v la

70

chn vng nghin cu


u ti
t u cho lng

60

cung cp q nh sau: Qu trnh ct


c khi rm
xy ra khi khi rm
c nn p n mt
p lc ct cn thit trn
n cnh
c
sc dao, mt

Ne

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

0,7

q(kg/s)
Hnh 4.10. nh hng ca
a q
qn Cxv Ne

khi rm gia vng


ng khe hh nh hng n lc ma st gia rm
m vvi cnh gt v
mt vt ca dao, ng
ng th
thi nh hng n kh nng mt s cng
ng rrm trong qu
trnh ct b cnh gtt rt trt
tr
theo phng ngang trn cnh sc dao(hnh
(hnh 4.11).
4.11
Nu lng
ng cung cp
c nh, mt
rm vng khe h nh
nh lm cho
cc cng rm d dng
ng trt
tr
ngang
trn cnh sc dao theo phng
ph ngang
do lc ma st gia rm
m vi
v cnh gt
v mt vt ca dao cha
a ln,
l
lm cho
cht lng ctt khng cao, ng thi
khi lng cung cp nh
th
th cc cng
rm khi vo b phn ct
t c

Hnh 4.11. nh hng ca q n kh nng


ct rm ca b phn
n c
ct thi

s cng rm c phng
ng dc
d theo phng cnh sc dao nhiu hn
n lm cho ch
cht
lng ct gim.
Trong trng hp
p lng
l
cung cp ln, mt khi rm vng
ng khe hh ln
lm gim kh nng tr
t cc cng rm theo phng ngang, ng
ng thi
th cnh gt
pkhi rm ln cnh sc
c dao,
dao to p lc ct cn thit cnh scc dao ln khi rm,
qu trnh ct c thc
c hin.
hi Nhng nu lng cung cp qu ln,
n, mt
m khi rm
vngkhe h khng
ng th
th tng thm lm cho khi rm khng th nn c na s
b kt li gia vng
ng khe h
h khi qu trnh ct b kt. Vii phn tch tr
trn ta thy
lng cung cp ch c th trong mt vng ph hp no cho ta cht
ch lng ct tt
v chi ph nng lng ring
ng ph hhp.

T kt qu th nghim (bng 4.7) chi ph nng lng ring nh nht ng vi


mc q= 0,7kg/s v ln nht ng vi mc q=0,3kg/s. Kt qu ny ta thy mc d khi
tng lng cung cp th cng sut trn trc b phn ct thi tng ln, song do thnh
phn lng cung cp li t l thun vi momen m chi ph nng lng ring li t l
nghch vi lng cung cp do khi tng lng cung cp chi ph nng lng ring
li gim. T th (hnh 4.11) lng cung cp q= 0,5 0,7 kg/s cho cht lng ct
tt Cx = 88 91,7% v chi ph nng lng ring ph hp Ne = 4,35 5,66
kW.s/kg. Do vy c th nh gi vng lm vic ti u ca lng cung cp q = 0,5 0,7
kg/s.
4.2.1.3. nh hng ca gc kp () n cc hm ch tiu
T kt qu th nghim n yu t cho hai thng s cho vn tc ct v lng
cung cp, chn gi tr vn tc ct v = 27,5 m/s v lng cung cp q = 0,6kg/s lm
thng s u vo nghin cu cho gc kp.Cc thc nghim v gc kp c tin
hnh vi cc iu kin: vn tc ct v = 27,5m/s; lng cung cp q = 0,6kg/s; khe h
gia dao v cnh gt = 2 mm. Thng s nghin cu l gc kp c thay i theo
5 mc nghin cu (bng 4.8) = 25 65o . Thng s ra l cht lng ct Cxv chi
ph nng lng ring Ne. Kt qu th nghim c trnh by trn bng 4.8.
Bng 4.8. Kt qu Cx(%) v Ne(kW.s/kg) cc mc th nghim gc kp
Mc th nghim gc kp ()
25o

TT

35o

45o

55o

65o

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Cx

Ne

Ln 1

81,5

6,51

92,8

5,45

94,5

4,41

83,2

2,91

55,6

1,96

Ln 2

84,6

6,78

94,7

5,23

95,7

4,03

82,1

3,12

59,7

2,13

Ln 3

86,9

6,53

93,3

5,30

93,5

4,21

84

2,94

60,1

2,08

TB

84,3

6,61

93,6

5,33

94,6

4,22

83,5

2,99

58,5

2,06

T kt qu th nghim bng 4.8, x l s liu thng k c kt qu nh sau:


i vi cht lng ct Cx:
lch Sk = -1,84 v nhn Ku = -0,1 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 123

Gi tr Ft = 92,17 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit


Gi tr Gt = 0,44< Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht
i vi chi ph nng lng ring Ne:
lch Sk = 0,41 v nhn Ku = -0,61 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 534,8 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit.
Gi tr Gt = 0,246< Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht.
Phng trnh hi quy m t quan h
thng s vo n thng s ra Cx v Nenh

100

80

Cx = -45,11+5,69.-0,057.2; R2 = 99,68%.

70

Ne = 9.39 0,1144.; R2 = 99,7%.

60

nghim ca cc thng s ra Cx, Netheo cc


mc ca thng s vo (hnh 4.12).

Ne(kW.s/kg)
Cx

90

gi thng qua h s tng quan R2.

th thc nghim m t kt qu th

Cx(%)

Ne

25

35

45

()

55

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

65

Hnh 4.12. nh hng ca n


Cx v Ne

Phn tch kt qu nghin cu v la chn vng nghin cu ti u:


Bng nghin cu l thuyt gc kp ln s khng c kh nng gi vt thi
trn li dao lm cho vt thi khng c nn p trong qu trnh ct thi. Trng
hp gc kp qu nh, qu trnh ct lm gim kh nng trt ca vt thi trn li
dao to ra cht lng ct khng tt cho qu trnh ct thi. Do vy gc kp ch c th
nm trong mt vng ph hp cho cht lng ct cao v chi ph nng lng ph hp.
T kt qu th nghim bng 4.8 khi gc kp nh = 25o iu kin trt ca
khi rm trn li dao khng thun li lm cho cht lng ct khng cao trong khi
chi ph nng lng ring li rt ln, khi tng gc kp ln t 35 45o kt qu cht
lng ct t gi tr cao v chi ph nng lng ring ph hp. Song ta thy tip tc
tng gc kp th cht lng ct li gim ng thi chi ph nng lng ring cng
gim do khi rm khng c nn p ln ln li dao v trt trn li dao, qu
trnh ct c thc hin khng tt, nhng ti gc kp = 55o cht lng ct cha

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 124

c cao Cx = 83,5% nhng li cho chi ph nng lng ring nh Ne = 2,99 kW.s/kg.
Qua phn tch v thng lng vng nh hng ca gc kp cho cht lng ct v
chi ph nng lng ring ph hp, ng thi m rng hn cho vng nghin cu thc
nghim a yu t, ta xc nh vng lm vic ti u ca gc kp t 35 55o.
4.2.1.4. nh hng ca khe h (mm) n cc hm ch tiu
Cc thc nghim xc nh vng ti u cho vn tc ct, lng cung cp v
gc kp lm c s xc nh cc thng s th nghim cho khe h . Thc nghim vi
khe h c th nghim vi cc iu kin: vn tc ct v = 27,5m/s, lng cung
cp q = 0,6 kg/s v gc kp = 45o. Thng s nghin cu khe h c thay i
theo 5 mc nghin cu (bng 4.9) = 1 5 mm. Thng s ra l cht lng ct Cx
v chi ph nng lng ring Ne. Kt qu th nghim c trnh by trn bng 4.9.
Bng 4.9.Kt qu Cx v Ne cc mc th nghim khe h
Mc th nghim khe h (mm)
TT

1 mm
Cx
Ne

2 mm
Cx
Ne

3 mm
Cx
Ne

4 mm
Cx
Ne

5 mm
Cx
Ne

Ln 1

83,1

6,89

90

4,12

92

3,67

86

2,95

62,00

2,30

Ln 2

86,4

6,60

92

4,31

93

3,09

84

3,20

65

2,46

Ln 3

86,45

6,90

93

4,20

95

3,52

87

3,10

60

2,4

TB

85,32

6,80

91,67

4,21

93,33

3,43

85,67

3,08

61

2,39

T kt qu th nghim bng 4.9, x l s liu thng k c kt qu nh sau:


i vi cht lng ct Cx(%):
lch Sk = -1,98 v nhn Ku = 0,35 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 134,34 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit
Gi tr Gt = 0,208 < Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht
i vi chi ph nng lng ring Ne(kW.s/kg):
lch Sk = 1,70 v nhn Ku = -0,04 u nm trong on [-2; 2] do cc
kt qu th nghim c phn b chun vi tin cy 95%.
Gi tr Ft = 288,7 > Fb = 3,48, k vng ton khc bit.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 125

Gi tr Gt = 0,192 < Gb = 0,6838, phng sai ng nht.


Phng trnh hi quy m t quan h
thng s vo n thng s ra Cx v Nenh
gi thng qua h s tng quan R2.
2

Cx

90

70

P, p. l ,Eoop

Ne(kW.s/kg)

80

Cx = 64,12 + 24,8. -5. ; R = 96,15%.


Ne=

Cx(%)

100

; R2 = 99,08%.

Ne

60

th thc nghim m t kt qu th
nghim ca cc thng s ra Cx, Ne theo cc
mc ca thng s vo (hnh 4.13).

(mm)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Hnh 4.13. nh hng ca n


Cx v Ne

Kt qu trc nghim phn hng cho Cx v Nenhsau:


Bng phn hng cho Cx(%)

Bng phn hng cho Ne(kW.s/kg)

Method: 95.0 percent LSD

Method: 95.0 percent LSD

S th Trung
Nhm ng nht
nghim bnh
X
3
62,0
5
3
85,3167 X
1

S th Trung
Nhm ng nht
nghim bnh
3
2,38667 X
5
3
3,08333 X
4

85,6667 X

3,42667 X

91,6667 X

4,21

93,3333 X

6,79667 X

Phn tch kt qu, chn vng nghin cu ti u cho khe h :


nh hng ca khe h n kh nng ct v chi ph nng lng ca b phn
ct thi c trnh by trn hnh 4.14.
Trong qu trnh ct, hai

Cng rm

cnh gt hai bn dao p khi


rm trt trn cnh sc ca li

Dao ct

dao t ca vo n ca ra ca
vng ct. Gc nghing ca cnh

a)

Cnh gt

b)

Cnh gt

gt cng vi bin dng cnh sc

Khi rm b kt
Cnh gt

ca dao ct c thit k sao


cho hin tng ct xy ra l ct

c)

Hnh 4.14. nh hng ca khe h n Cx v Ne

c trt, gc kp nm trong gii hn hp l theo l thuyt ct c tm k.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 126

Khi khe h ln gc ln lm cho khi rm d trt ngang trn cnh sc


dao, to ra hin tng mt s cng rm b vut ngang v khng c ct khi
cht lng ct khng cao (hnh 4.14a). Khi khe h nh khi rm t b trt ngang
trn li dao lm cho cht lng ct tt hn (hnh 4.14b), song nu khe h qu
nh khi rm sau khi c ct i ht chiu di li dao n hi tr li lm cho hai
phn rm c ct nm trn hai cnh gt b kt vo nhau ti v tr khong trng
gia hai cnh gt (hnh 4.14c) gy hin tng phn rm c ct nhng khng
c thot ra ngoi ca thot liu m li a vo ca cp liu (tham gia qu trnh
ct ln hai gy ma st) lm cho chi ph nng lng tng ln.
T kt qu th nghim,khe h gia dao ct v cnh gt trong khong t 23
mm, cht lng ct t t 90 95% ng thi chi ph nng lng ring Ne trong
khong 3,09 4,31 kW.s/kgl mc chi ph ph hp. Song theo trc nghim phn
hng hai mc 2 v 3 khng c s khc bit v gi tr trung bnh, vi mc 4 nhn
c gi tr chi ph Ne nh ng thi cho s khc bit v gi tr trung bnh vi hai
mc 2 v 3.T cc kt qu nghin cu v phn tch trn cho thy thng s k
thut hp l ca khe h nm trong khong t 24 mm.
Kt lun:T kt qu thc nghim n yu t trnh by trn cc th (hnh
4.9, hnh 4.10, hnh 4.12, hnh 4.13) so snh vi kt qu nghin cu l thuyt hnh
3.13 cc mc thay i ca cc thng s chnh ta thy:
V gi tr chi ph nng lng ring Ne: trong nghin cu l thuyt Ne thay
i trong khong 3.574,7 kW.s/kg cn trong nghin cu thc nghim trong
khong 2 8,35 kW.s/kg, s khc bit ny l do trong nghin cu l thuyt s
dng mt s gi thit nh: rm vo u v lin tc, trng ct quay u vi vn tc
gc l hng s. Song quy lut bin thin ca Ne cc mc nghin cu gia l
thuyt v thc nghim hon ton ging nhau: vn tc ct tng th Ne tng, cn 3
thng s q, , m tng th Ne u gim.
V m men trn trc trng ct: so snh gi tr m men nghin cu l thuyt
(hnh 3.13) v nghin cu thc nghim (ph lc 4.5) ta thy gi tr m men Mtb
hai kt qu nghin cu gia l thuyt v thc nghim ch yu nm trong khong
Mtb = 12 34 N.m v tp trung ch yu trong khong 16 25 N.m.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 127

Vy gia kt qu nghin cu l thuyt v thc nghim c s tng ng v


logic, nh gi c tin cy trong nghin cu l thuyt v thc nghim.
4.2.2.Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim a yu t
T thc nghim n yu t xc nh c vng nh hng ca cc thng
s vo n cc thng s ra cho cc vng nh hng ti u nh sau:
Vn tc ct:

v = 25 30 m/s.

Lng cung cp:

q = 0,5 0,7 kg/s.

Gc kp:

= 35 550;

Khe h:

= 2 4 mm.

Cc ch tiu quan st gm: cht lng ct Cx v chi ph nng lng ring Ne,
trong ch tiu cht lng ct Cx c xem l ch tiu nh gi chnh. Mi th
nghim c thc hin lp li ba ln.
Tin hnh thc nghim theo phng n Hartly, cc k hiu dng thc, dng
m c trnh by trongchng 2.
Cc mc v bc thay i ca cc thng s cho bng 4.10.
Bng 4.10. Cc mc v bc thay i ca cc thng s
Cc mc

Gi tr m xi

X1
v(m/s)

X2
q(kg/s)

X3
()

X4
(mm)

Mc trn

30

0,7

55

M c c s

27.5

0,6

45

Mc di

-1

25

0,5

35

Bc

2,5

0,1

10

Ma trn k hoch thc nghim v kt qu thc nghim c trnh by trn


ph lc 4.1 v ph lc 4.2.
Qu trnh x l kt qu thc nghim: xy dng hm ch tiudng m; kim
tra tng thch ca m hnh; mc ngha cc h s hi quy; xy dng hm ch
tiudng thc v gii bi ton ti u tng qut tm gi tr ti u, c thc hin nh
phn mm x l s liu thng k Statgraphics.
Nhp kt qu thc nghim (ph lc 4.2) vo phn mmx l thng k
Statgraphics,kt qu phn tch v nh gi c trnh by vi cc ni dung sau:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 128

4.2.2.1. Kt qu nh hng ca cc thng s chnh n hm ch tiu Cx


+ Xy dng phng trnh hi quy dng m
c lng h s hi quy v mc ngha ca cc h s hi quy c trnh by
trn bng 4.11.
Bng 4.11. Bng c lng xc nh gi tr v tnh c ngha ca h s hi quy

Yu t nh
hng

c lng

Khong tin
cy

Yu t nh
hng

c lng

Khong tin
cy

average

95,1539

+/- 0,250602

AD

-0,65

+/- 0,405452

A:X1

2,28

+/- 0,362648

BB

-2,49251

+/- 0,724276

B:X2

-1,16667

+/- 0,810905

BC

-1,66667

+/- 0,906619

C:X3

-3,93333

+/- 0,810905

BD

2,28333

+/- 0,906619

D:X4

-4,63333

+/- 0,810905

CC

-1,79251

+/- 0,724276

AA

-2,52584

+/- 0,724276

CD

0,516667

+/- 0,906619

AB

0,9

+/- 0,405452

DD

-2,69251

+/- 0,724276

AC

-1,0

+/- 0,405452

ct c lng: hng Average l gi tr c lng h s hi quy t do (bo),


cn cc gi tr khc trong ct bng hai ln gi tr c lng h s hi quy tng
ng. T gi tr trong ct c lngs xy dng c hm ch tiu dng m.
Ct khong tin cy: Cc gi tr trong ct m t gi tr bin ca khong tin cy
tnh cho tng h s hi quy theo chun Student. Nu tr tuyt i gi tr no trong
ct c lng nh hn tr tuyt i gi tr trong ct khong tin cy th h s
khng c ngha trong m hnh hi quy.
T bng 4.11 h s ca tng tc cp CD tc l cp X3 v X4 khng c
ngha, do vy c th loi b tng tc cp CD, khi y mt s h s cn li ca m
hnh cn tnh li. Ngoi cp tng tc CD trong m hnh th tt c cc h s khc
u c ngha mc ngha = 0,05.
Do tng tc cp CD tc h s ca tng tc cp x3x4 khng c ngha, do
vy loi b tng cc cp CD khi m hnh, kh ton b m hnh c tnh li
v cho kt qu c lng gi tr h s hi quy v tnh c ngha ca cc h s hi
quy trnh by trn bng 4.12.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 129

Bng 4.12. Bng c lng h s hi quy sau khi loi b tng tc cp CD

Yu t nh
hng

Khong tin
cy

Yu t nh
hng

95,1539

+/- 0,250602

AC

-1,0

+/- 0,405452

A:X1

2,28

+/- 0,362648

AD

-0,65

+/- 0,405452

B:X2

-0,753333

+/- 0,362648

BB

-2,49251

+/- 0,724276

C:X3

-3,93333

+/- 0,810905

BC

-1,66667

+/- 0,906619

D:X4

-4,63333

+/- 0,810905

BD

2,28333

+/- 0,906619

AA

-2,52584

+/- 0,724276

CC

-1,79251

+/- 0,724276

AB

0,9

+/- 0,405452

DD

-2,69251

+/- 0,724276

average

c lng

Khong tin
cy

c lng

T bng 4.12 cc gi tr c lng h s hi quy u c ngha, t ct c


lng ta c phng trnh hi quy dng m cho ch tiu cht lng ct y1 nh sau:

y1 95,154 0 1,140.x1 0,377.x2 1,967.x3 2,317.x4 1,263.x12 0


0,45.x1x2 0,500.x1x3 0,325.x1x4 1,246.x22 0,833.x2x3 0
1,142.x2x4 0,896.x32 1,346.x42;
4. 6

- Kim tra tng thch ca m hnh:

Kim tra tng thch ca m hnh bng phn tch phng sai (bng 4.13).
Source

SS

Bng 4.13. Bng phn tch phng sai


Df
MS
Ft
P-Value F3/34;0,05 = 2,888

A:X1

38,988

38,988

163,25 0,0000

R-squared = 98.3816 percent

B:X2

4,25633

4,25633

17,82

0,0002

Ch thch cc ct trong bng:

C:X3

23,2067

23,2067

97,17

0,0000

Source ngun tc ng

D:X4

32,2017

32,2017

134,83 0,0000

SS Tng bnh phng lch

AA

11,996

11,996

50,23

0,0000

Df Bc t do

AB

4,86

4,86

20,35

0,0001

MS Trung bnh bnh phng

AC

6,0

6,0

25,12

0,0000

Ft Gi tr F tnh ton.

AD

2,535

2,535

10,61

0,0025

P Ct nh gi quy i gia gi

BB

11,6814

11,6814

48,91

0,0000

tr Ft v gi tr Fb tra bng chun

BC

3,33333

3,33333

13,96

0,0007

BD

6,25633

6,25633

26,20

0,0000

CC

6,04151

6,04151

25,30

0,0000

DD

13,6313

13,6313

57,08

0,0000

Lack-of-fit

0,83812

0,279373

1,17

0,3356

Pure error

8,12

34

0,238824

Total (corr.) 553,504

50

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 130

Trn bng 4.13 cho bit hiu ng khi thay i cc mc ca thng s vo c nh


hng ti thng s ra hay khng thng qua gi tr Ftc th hin trong ct gi tr Ft.
Gi tr Ft hng Lack-of-fit l gi tr Ft quan trng nht so snh vi gi tr
Fb tra bng chun. T kt qu phn tch phng sai bng 4.13, m hnh c gi tr Ft
= 1,17 < Fb = 2,888vy m hnh tng thch vi tin cy 95%..
- Hm ch tiu dng thc v ta im c bit
Phng trnh hi quy dng thc c trnh by theo cng thc (4.13):

Cx

134,995 0 11,7797.v 0 99,5339.q 0 1,65996. 0 2,48586.


0,202067.v2

1,8.v.q

0,02.v.

0,13.v.

124,625.q2

0,833333.q.0 11,4167.q. 0,00896255.2 1,34625.2;

4. 7

nh gi b mt hm ch tiu dng thc, ta i xc nh to im cc tr


nu c v xy dng hm ch tiu dng chnh tc. To im c bit v h s ca
phng trnh chnh tc c tnh ton bng phn mm Matlab c trnh by ph
lc 4.3 v cho ta cc tr nh sau:
SX1 = 29,6012; SX2 = 0,6008; SX3 = 31,6461; SX4 = 2,0416
SY1 = 98,0552.
H s ca phng trnh chnh tc dng thc l cc nghim ca phng trnh
tr ring, kt qu cho nghim ca phng trnh tr ring ln lt l:
-124,8888; -1,0825; -0,2026 v -0,0084. Cn c vo cc h s bc hai ca cc thng
s vo ta c th gn cc h s dng chnh tc nh sau:
B11 = -0,2026; B22 = -124,8888; B33 = -0,0084 v B44 = -1,0825
Vy phng trnh chnh tc cho dng thc l:

Cx - 98,0552 = -0,2026.v E - 124,8888.qE - 0,0084. E - 1,0825. ;

(4. 8)

T (4.11) cc h s bc hai u c gi tr m, vy mt hm ch tiu l mt c

cc tr v im cc tr l ta im cc i. Song ta thy ta im cc i c
SX3 = 31,6461 nm ngoi vng quy hoch [35; 55], vy ta cc i ny khng
phi l gi tr ti u cho hm ch tiu Y1. Bi ton t ra l tm ta im c bit
nm trong vng quy hoch sao cho gi tr hm ch tiu Y1 t gi tr Max.
Phn mm Statgraphisc cho ta xc nh gi tr ti u nm trong min quy
hoch thng qua bng 4.14. Chn gi tr Max trong bng 4.14 c kt qu ta

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 131

im c bit. th mt
t ch
ch tiu cho hm cht lng ct Y1 trnh by trn hnh 4.15
4.15.
Bng 4.14. To im
m ti
t u cho hm ch
tiu Y1 t
t gi tr
tr Max

Hnh 4.15. th mt
t ch tiu hm Y1

4.2.2.2. Kt qu nh hng
ng ca
c cc thng s chnh n hmch tiu Ne
+Xy dng phng
ng tr
trnh hi quy dng m:
c lng h s hi quy v
v mc ngha ca cc h s hii quy c trnh by
trn bng 4.15hoc th hnh 4.16.
Bng 4.15. Bng c
c lng
l
h s hi quy sau khi loi b tng
ng tc ccp X3X4
Yu t nh
Khong tin
Yu t nh
Khong tin
c lng
ng
c lng
hng
cy
hng
cy
average
5,10315
0,00588063 AD
0,0383333
0,00951435
A:X1

0,0926667

0,00850989

BB

-0,0973408

0,0169959

B:X2

-0,15

0,0190287

BC

-0,0483333

0,0212747

C:X3

-0,41

0,0190287

BD

0,0983333

0,0212747

D:X4

-0,29

0,0190287

CC

-0,197341

0,0169959

AA

0,222659

0,0169959

CD

0,103333

0,0212747

AB

-0,0233333
0233333

0,00951435

DD

0,0426592

0,0169959

AC

-0,0383333
0383333

0,00951435

Cc gi tr c lng h s hi quy trong ct


c lng u c tr tuyt
tuy i ln hn gi tr
ct khong tin cy do vy
v tt c cc h s
hi quy u c ngha
a vi
v tin cy 95%
(bng 4.15). Cc h s
c ngha
ngh c m t
bng th hnh 4.16khi
khi cc thanh u vt
qua ng chun t.

Hnh 4.16. th Pareto Chart

T ct c lng bng 4.15 phng trnh hi quy dng m cho hm ch tiu


chi ph nng lng ring y2 nh sau:
y2
5,10315 00,046333.x1 0,075.x2 0,205.x3 0,145.x4 0
0,11133.x12 0,01167.x1x2 0,01917.x1x3 0 0,019167.x1x4
0,04867.x22 0,02417.x2x3 0 0,049167.x2x4 0,09867.x32 0
0,051667.x3x4 0 0,02133.x42;
4.9
- Kim tra tng thch v kh nng lm vic ca m hnh:
tng thch ca m hnh nh gi bng phn tch phng sai (bng 4.16).
Bng 4.16. Bng phn tch phng sai
Df MS
Ft
P-Value R-squared = 98.8778 percent

Source

SS

A:X1

0,0644033 1

0,0644033

118,58 0,0000

Ch thch cc ct trong bng:

B:X2

0,03375

0,03375

62,14 0,0000

Source ngun tc ng

C:X3

0,25215

0,25215

464,25 0,0000

SS Tng bnh phng lch

D:X4

0,12615

0,12615

232,26 0,0000

Df Bc t do

AA

0,0932189 1

0,0932189

171,63 0,0000

AB

0,00326667 1

0,00326667

6,01

AC

0,00881667 1

0,00881667

16,23 0,0003

AD

0,00881667 1

0,00881667

16,23 0,0003

BB

0,0178161 1

0,0178161

32,80 0,0000

BC

0,00280333 1

0,00280333

5,16

BD

0,0116033 1

0,0116033

21,36 0,0001

CC

0,0732246 1

0,0732246

134,82 0,0000

CD

0,0128133 1

0,0128133

23,59 0,0000

DD

0,00342175 1

0,00342175

6,30

0,0170

Lack-of-fit 0,00345004 2

0,00172502

3,18

0,0544

Pure error

0,0195

MS Trung bnh bnh phng


Ft Gi tr F tnh ton.
P Ct nh gi quy i gia gi
tr Ft v gi tr Fb tra bng chun.

0,0295

0,0184667 34 0,000543137

Total (corr.) 1,95306

50

T phn tch phng sai (bng 4.16) gi tr Ft hng Lack-of-fit c Ft = 3,18


< Fb = 3,284, vy m hnh tng thch vi tin cy 95%.
- Hm ch tiu dng thc v ta im c bit
Phng trnh hi quy dng thc c trnh by theo cng thc (4.13):

Ne

16,1574 0.921667.v 0 5,98628.q 0 0,0883867. 1,01131.0


0,0178127.v2

0,0466667.v.q

0,000766667.v.
0
0,00766667.v. 4,86704.q2 0,0241667.q.0 0,491667.q.
0,000986704.2 0 0,00516667..0 0,0213296.2; 4. 10

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 133

nh gi b mt
m hm ch tiu dng thc, ta i xc nh ta im cc tr
nu c v xy dng hm
m ch tiu dng chnh tc. To im c bi
bit v h s ca
phng trnh chnh tc
c tnh ton bng phn mm Matlab c
c tr
trnh by ph
lc 4.4 v cho kt qu nh
nh sau:
SX1 = 26,3825; SX2 = 0,6870; SX3 = 41,7951; SX4 = 5,9849;

SY2 = 4,8766.

H s ca phng
ng tr
trnh chnh tc dng thc l cc nghim
m c
ca phng trnh
tr ring, kt qu cho nghi
nghim ca phng trnh tr ring ln lt l:
-4,8794; 0,0337; 0,0178 v -0,0010. Cn c vo cc h s bcc hai c
ca cc thng s
vo, c th gn cc h s dng chnh tc nh sau:
B11 = 0,0178; B22 = -4,8794; B33 = -0,0010 v B44 = 0,0337
Vy phng trnh
nh chnh ttc cho dng thc l:
- 4,8766 = 0,0178.

- 4,8794.

- 0,001.

+ 0,0337. ; (4. 11)

T (4.14) cc h s bc hai mang c gi tr dng v m, vy mt hm ch


tiu l mt c dng yn
n nga,
ng
ta im cc tr c th l cc i hoc
ho cc tiu.
Song ta thy ta im
m ccc tr c SX4 = 5,9849 l im nm ngoi
i vng quy hoch
[2; 4], vy ta cc tr ny khng th ly lm gi tr ti uu cho hm ch tiu Y2.
Bi ton t ra l tm ta
t im c bit nm trong vng
ng quy ho
hoch cho gi
tr hm ch tiu Y2 t
t gi tr
tr Min. Phn mm Statgraphisc xc nh gi tr
tr ti u
nm trong min
n quy hoch
ho thng qua bng 4.17. Chn mc Min trong bng
b
4.17
c kt qu ta im
m c bit. th mt ch tiu cho hm chi ph nnng lng
ring Y2 trnh by trn hnh 4.17.
4.1
Bng 4.17. Ta im
m ti
t u cho hm ch
tiu Y2 t
t gi tr
tr Min

Hnh 4.17. th mt
t ch tiuhm Y2

4.2.3. Kt qu nghin c
u ti u tng qut
Vic ti u ha tng qut da vo hai hm ch tiu dng
ng thc,
th v phng
php ti u l ti uu ha cc
c tr c iu kin.
Chn iu kin
n m hnh
h
th nghim cho cht lng ct c gi tr
tr cao Cx
92% v chi ph nng lng
ng ring
ri
nh (ph hp). Phn mm
m Statgraphics phn tch
tm gi tr ti u tng
ng qut cho kt qu c trnh by trn bng 4.
4.18, trong bng
4.18 hm ch tiu cht l
ng ct Y1 chn iu kin Max trong vng
ng iu

kin Cx =
Y1

92%, i vi hm
m ch tiu chi ph nng lng ring Y2 chn
n iu

kin Min

trong ton min quy hoch.


ch. th mt ch tiu tng qut trn hnh 4.1
4.18.
Bng 4.18. Ta im ti
t u tng qut

Hnh 4.18. th mt
m ch tiu tng
qut

Kt qu ti uu ha tng
t
qut cho gi tr ti u caa cc thng s vo p ng
cc hm ch tiu cht l
ng ct c gi tr cao Cx = 95,18% v chi ph nng
n
lng
ringc gi tr ph hp
p Ne = 5,08 kW.s/kg vi tin cy 95% l: v = 27,91 m/s
m/s; q =
0,58 kg/s; = 49,62o v = 2,51 mm.
mm

Kt lun chng 4
1. Kt qu th nghim
nghi xc nh cc tham s l thuyt nu ln m
mt s c
tnh c l ca rm ti
i v cc quan h
h gia cc tham s cnn xc nh
khi nghin
cu v l thuyt ctt thi rm,
r
kt qu ny va l c s ng dng
ng cho m hhnh tnh
ton l thuyt vaa c th l
l ti liu tham kho cho cc cng trnh
nh khc lin quan n
rm ti hay cc vt liu
u ttng t.

2. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim n yu t xc inh c mc nh


hng ca cc thng s chnh n cc hm ch tiu, tm ra c vng gi tr ca cc
thng s chnh: v = 25 30 m/s; q = 0,5 0,7 m/s; = 35 55o; = 2 4 mm cho
gi tr hm ch tiu Cx cao v Ne c gi tr ph hp. Kt qu nghin cu ny cn
lm u vo cho nghin cu thc nghim a yu t.
3. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim a yu t, nh gi mc tng tc
gia cc cp thng s chnh nh hng n gi tr cc hm ch tiu, kt qu xy
dng c hm hi quy thc nghim m t nh hng ng thi ca cc thng s
chnh n gi tr cc hm ch tiu. Qua , bng phng php ti u tng qut
xc nh c gi tr ti u ca 4 thng s chnh,cho cht lng ct c gi tr cao
Cx = 95,183% v chi ph nng lng ring c gi tr ph hp Ne = 5,08 kW.s/kg l:
v = 27,91 m/s; q = 0,58 kg/s; = 49,620v = 2,51 mm. Kt qu ny lm c s ch
to b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la c th ng dng vo thc tin.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 136

KT LUN V KIN NGH


1. Kt lun
1) Nghin cu b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi b phn p ca my p
la lm tng kh nng khai thc v x l rm, r sau thu hoch, gp phn trong
cng cuc cng nghip ha, hin i ha nng nghip nng thn.
2)Kt qu th nghim xc nh cc c tnh c l ca rm ti v mi quan
h gia cc tham s nh hng n qu trnh ct thi bng li dao lm c s ng
dng cho m hnh tnh ton l thuyt v l ti liu tham kho cho cc cng trnh
khc lin quan n rm ti hay cc vt liu tng t.
3)Nguyn l ct kiu nhiu dao c nhl mt nguyn l mi, vi cnh
gtchuyn ng thc hin v rm, nn p v y khi rm trt trn cnh sc dao
n trng thi c ct ng thi tung khi rm c ct ra ngoi.Do nng
cao c nng sut v gim chi ph nng lng cho qu trnh ct thi rm,d dng
lin hp vi my p la p dng vo thc tin sn xut.
4)Kt qu nghin cu l thuyt xy dng c bin dng cnh sc dao c
c im l gc trt khng i trong qu trnh ct, t xy dng c m hnh
ton tnh ton nng lng b phn ct thi v kho st nh hng ca cc thng s
nghin cu n cc hm nng lng cho b phn ct thi CTR-1. y l mt c
im ni bt vi phng php tnh mi,c th xc nh c mi thng s bt k
v tr no trn cnh sc dao hay ti mi thi im trong qu trnh ct.
5) Kt qu nghin cu ng lc hc h thng truyn ng xc nh c m
men qun tnh khi lng ca b phn ct thi CTR-1 l J2 = 0,345 kg.m2 v tc
quay n > 400 vg/ph, gip cho vic ch to b phn ct thi lm vic c n nh v
khng c hin tng cng hng khi nghin cu thc nghim.
6) Bng nghin cu thc nghim n yu t m t c mi quan h n
l gia cc thng s vo v cc thng s ra. Qua xc nh vng gi tr ca
ccthng s chnh nh: v = 25 30 m/s; q = 0,5 0,7 m/s; = 35 55o; = 2 4
mm cho gi tr hm ch tiu Cx cao v Ne c gi tr ph hp, kt qu ny lm gi tr
u votrong nghin cu thc nghim a yu t.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 137

7) Bng nghin cu thc nghim a yu t xy dng c hm hi quy


thc nghim biu din mi quan h gia cc thng schnhv cc hm ch tiu. Qua
, bng phng php ti u tng qut xc nh c gi tr ti u ca 4 thng
s chnh, cho cht lng ct c gi tr cao Cx = 95,183% v chi ph nng lng
ring c gi tr ph hp Ne = 5,08 kW.s/kg l: v = 27,91 m/s; q = 0,58 kg/s; =
49,620 v = 2,51 mm. Kt qu ny cng vi cc thng s cu to c xc nh
trong nghin cu l thuyt lm c s ch to b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my
p la ng dng vo thc tin sn xut.
2. Kin ngh
Do hn ch v thi gian v kinh ph nn ti lun n cn nhiu vic cha lm
c. Do vy tc gi lun n ngh tip tc nghin cu vi cc ni dung sau:
1) Tip tc nghin cu, ch to b phn ct thi rm lp sau b phn p ca
my p la, s dng chung mt ngun ng lc, bng cch ci tin vng thot rm
ca my p la thnh vng va ct rm v va tung rm ra ngoi.
2) Tip tc nghin cu, ch to b phn ct thi rm lp lin hp theo sau
my gt p lin hp c va v nh.
3) Tip tc nghin cu qu trnh ng lc hc, cn bng h thng sau khi lin
hp b phn ct thi rm vi my p la hoc my GLH.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 138

DANH MC CC CNG TRNH LIN QUAN N LUN N


C CNG B
1. L Minh L, Nguyn Xun Thit v Nguyn Vn Tam (2011). Mt s xut ci tin
b phn p trong my thu hoch la theo hng p tch ht ng thi bm rm

khai thc hiu qu rm sau thu hoch Vit Nam, Tp ch Khoa hc v Pht
trin, 9(4): 642 - 649.
2. Nguyn Vn Tam, L Minh L v Nguyn Xun Thit (2013). Mt s kt qu nghin cu
bc u v b phn bm thi rm trong my thu hoch la theo hng p tch ht

ng thi bm rm nhm khai thc hiu qu rm sau thu hoch vit nam, K yu
Hi ngh Khoa hc v Cng ngh ton quc v C kh ln th III, Tng hi C kh
Vit Nam, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut, tr. 1004 - 1012.
3. Nguyn Vn Tam, L Minh L v Nguyn Xun Thit (2013). Kt qu th nghim n
yu t ca mt s thng s ca b phn ct thi rm lin hp vi my p la, Tp
ch Khoa hc v Pht trin, 11(5): 735 - 744.
4. Nguyn Vn Tam, L Minh L v Nguyn Xun Thit (2014). Kt qu th nghim xc

nh mt s thng s ph thuc vo c tnh c l ca rm ti trong qu trnh ct,


Tp ch Cng nghip nng thn, (12): 27-35.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 139

TI LIU THAM KHO

1. Ting Vit
1. B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn (2012). Quyt nh s 824/Q-BNN-TT ngy
16/4/2012 ca B trng B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn v vic ph
duyt n pht trin ngnh trng trt n nm 2020, tm nhn n nm 2030.
2. B Xy dng (1996). TCVN -2737-1995 - Ti trng v tc ng - Tiu chun thit k, Nh
xut bn Xy dng, H Ni.
3. Nguyn Vit Chin (2012). Bo co kt qu thc hin k hoch 6 thng u nm 2012
ngnh Nng nghip v Pht trin Nng thn, Trung tm tin hc v Thng k - B
Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn.
4. Nguyn Vit Chin (2013). Bo co "thc trng CGH trong sn xut la vng BSCL,
nh hng v gii php trong thi gian ti", Cng thng tin in t - B Nng
nghip v Pht trin nng thn, truy cp ngy 7/6/2013, ti trang web
http://www.agroviet.gov.vn/Pages/news_detail.aspx?NewsId=29106.
5. Chnh ph (2012). Ngh nh s 42/2012/N-CP (11/5/2012), Qun l s dng t
trng la.
6. Cng ty C phn nghin cu v pht trin cng ngh sch (2013). Cng ngh sn xut
g nhn to t rm, r, Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Vit Nam, truy cp ngy
28/05/2013, ti trang web http://tchdkh.org.vn/tin-tuc-su-kien/cong-nghe-moi-sanpham-moi/3309-cong-nghe-san-xuat-go-nhan-tao-tu-rom-ra.html.
7. Trn c Dng, V Thanh Bnh v Hong Bc Quc (1995). Vn c gii ha p
la nc ta, kt qu nghin cu c in nng nghip v ch bin nng sn
1991-1995, Vin C in nng nghip v ch bin nng sn, Nh xut bn Nng
nghip, H Ni.
8. Nguyn Mu Dng (2012). c tnh lng kh thi t t rm, r ngoi ng rung
vng ng bng sng Hng, Tp ch Khoa hc v Pht trin, 10 (1): 190 - 198.
9. Nguyn Hong i (2007). Nghin cu thit k, ch to v kho nghim my bm thi
rm trong c kh ha cc khu sn xut nm v m thm, Lun vn thc s k thut,
Trng i hc Nng nghip I, 85 tr.
10. ng Vn o v L Vn Doanh (1995). K thut in, Nh xut bn Gio dc.
11. Franz, H. and Hans, D. (2001). ng lc hc my. V Lim Chnh v Phan Nguyn
Di dch, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut.
12. Nguyn Trng Hip v Nguyn Vn Lm (2002). Thit k chi tit my, Nh xut bn
Gio dc.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 140

13. Nguyn Ngc Huyn (2012). Nghin cu cc phng php nc thi sau Bioga vi
rm, r lm phn bn nhm gim thiu nhim mi trng, Lun vn thc s khoa
hc, Trng i hc Khoa hc t nhin, H Ni.
14. L Cng Hunh (1995). Phng php nghin cu khoa hc thc nghim, Nh xut
bn Nng nghip, H Ni.
15. Trn Th Nh Hng v ng Th Huy (1987). Mt s phng php ton hc trong c
hc nng nghip, Nh xut bn Nng nghip, H Ni.
16. Nguyn Vn Hu (2000). Nghin cu mt s thng s c bn ca b phn p la dc
trc c nh loi rng bn, Lun n tin s k thut, Trng i hc Nng nghip I,
140 tr.
17. Nguyn Vn Khang (2005). Dao ng k thut, Nh xut bn Khoa hc k thut.
18. Bi Quc Khnh, Nguyn Vn Lin v Nguyn Th Hin (1996). Truyn ng in,
Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut.
19. Khuyt danh (2009). ng dng vi sinh vt trong sn xut phn bn vi sinh, Bo co
chuyn vi sinh mi trng, Nhm 2.1 DH08DL, Khoa Mi trng v ti
nguyn, Trng i hc Nng lm TP.HCM.
20. Phm Vn Kiu (2011). Xc sut v thng k, Nh xut bn Gio dc.
21. Phm Vn Lang v Bch Quc Khang (1998). C s l thuyt quy hoch thc nghim
v ng dng trong nng nghip, Nh xut bn Nng nghip, H Ni.
22. Nguyn c Long (2004). Nghin cu thit k ch to my ng bnh rm, c kh
nng sut 10 kin/gi, Bo co khoa hc, Vin C in v Cng ngh sau thu
hoch.
23. Nguyn Hu Lc (2008). C s thit k my, Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia
Tp.HCM.
24. Nguyn Hng Ngn (2010). Nghin cu thit k my ct x, si lm ct liu cho cc
loi vt liu Com posit, Tp ch Pht trin Khoa hc v Cng ngh, 13(k3): 37-48.
25. u Th Nhu v Cao ng ng (2010). Nghin cu cng ngh v thit b thu gom,
bo qun v ch bin rm, r s dng c hiu qu, Bo co chuyn nghin cu
thit k ch to my bm rm v gc r trn ng, Vin C - in v Cng ngh
sau thu hoch, B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn.
26. Nguyn Nng Nhng (2013). Nghin cu cng ngh v h thng thit b ch bin
thc n vin cho tru, b t rm, r nng sut 800 1000 kg/h, Bo co tng kt
khoa hc k thut, Vin C in nng nghip v Cng ngh sau thu hoch.
27. Sanh (2004), ng lc hc my, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut.
28. Nguyn c Tht (2010). Nghin cu mt s thng s lm vic ca my bm rm l
kin, Lun vn thc s k thut, Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni, 83 tr.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 141

29. Dng Ngc Th, Nguyn Tng Vn, Vn Hip v u Trung Kin(1980). Mt
vi kt qu nghin cu b phn p my thu hoch lin hp treo G-2,0MTZ,
Nghin cu my Nng nghip, Vin thit k my Nng nghip, H Ni, tr. 8-9.
30. Tng cc Thng k (2013). Nin gim thng k, Nh xut bn Thng k, H Ni.
31. Phm Vn T v Lng Vn Vt (2004). C hc l thuyt, Nh xut bn Nng
nghip, H Ni.
32. Nguyn Xun Trch (2004). S dng ph phm nui gia sc nhai li, Nh xut bn
Nng nghip.
33. Nguyn Xun Trch, Bi Quang Tun, Mai Th Thm v Nguyn Th T (2006). X
l v bo qun rm ti lm thc n cho tru b, Tp ch Chn nui(9): 27-32.
34. Bi Hi Triu (2009). M hnh ha v m phng h thng k thut, Bi ging cao hc,
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni.
35. Trung tm Khuyn nng Quc gia (2012). Hin trng c gii ha trong sn xut la
vng ng bng sng Hng, Trung tm khuyn nng Quc Gia, truy cp ngy
16/11/2012, ti trang web http://www.khuyennongvn.gov.vn/hien-trang-co-gioihoa-trong-san-xuat-lua-vung-dong-bang-song-hong_t77c614n30187tn.aspx.
36. Nguyn Trng (2012). Cn gii php hn 1 triu tn rm, r mi nm em li li
ch kinh t, truy cp ngy 31/10/2012, ti trang wed http://www.hoinongdan.
org.vn/moi-truong/tai-nguyen/2883-nam-t%E1%BA%BF.html.
37. Tuc-Bin, B.I. (1963). C hc l thuyt. Nguyn Trng Nhun dch, Nh xut bn
Nng thn, H ni.
38. Nguyn Minh Tuyn (2005). Quy hoch thc nghim, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K
thut.
39. Vin Cng ngh v Khoa hc Nng nghip (2011). Trng nm bng rm, r, truy cp
ngy
26/09/2011,
ti
trang
webhttp://www.bannhanong.vietnetnam.net/home.php?cat_id=27&id=1073&kh=.
40. Trn Minh Vng v Nguyn Th Minh Thun (1999). My phc v chn nui, Nh
xut bn Gio dc.
41. Phm Xun Vng (2000). L thuyt tnh ton my thu hoch nng nghip, Nh xut
bn Gio dc.
42. Nguyn Don (2009). X l s liu thc nghim trong k thut, Nh xut bn Khoa hc

v K thut.

2. Ting Nga
1. , .O. (2011). , truy cp ngy 15/09/2011, ti trang web
http://136824.ru.all.biz/izmelchitel-solomy-solomorezkag1549440#!prettyPhoto.
2. , .. , .. (1985). .
.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 142

3. , .. (1994). - o -
- -
( ), ,
, .
4. , . , .. (1978).
, ,
/ ", - -
5. , .N. (1977). ,
.
6. , .. (1968). . . . . . . 2-.
. 3. . , . 26-133
7. , ..(1979).
, ,
--
8. , .. (1991).
, , .
9. , .. (1958). ,
.
10. , .. (1940). . ,
.
11. , .. (1966). K uume,
.
12. , .. (1997). 1, 2. ,
13. , . (2012). .
14. , . .. (1982). , .
15. , .. (1978). ,
,
16. , .. (1977). .
- - .
17. , .. (1993).
- .
18. , .. (1964). . , .
19. , .. (1975).
. , .
20. , .. , A.A. (1977). , . .

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 143

3. Ting Anh
1. Class Group (2011). Straw ChopperLEXION 670 / 650, retrieved22 June
2012fromhttp://www.vietnam.claas.com/products/combine-harvesters/lexion670650/threshing-systems/straw-management.
2. Franz, S. (2009). Straw-cutting machine for the chopping of stalks, IFI CLAIMS Patent
Services,
retrieved11
March
2012
from
http://www.google.com/patents/US6354938?printsec=drawing&hl=vi#v=onege&q
&f=false.
3. Greenville, S.C. (2006). Mechanical Theory, CenTec, Inc. P.O.Box5127
4. Haminton, H.M. and Fred, W.O. (1963). Mechanism and Dynamics of Machinery,
Second Edition.
5. Hoffman, J.D. (1994). Numerical methods for engineers and scientists, Mc Graw-Hill,
Inc, New York St. Louis San Fancico.
6. John, B. (2005). RungeKutta Methods For differential equations, COE Workshop on
Numerical Analysis, The University Of Auckland New Zealand.
7. Nutawan,Y.(2010).Bioethanol
Journal,1(1): 26-31.

Production from

Rice

Straw,

Energy Research

8. Palitha,R. (2011).New cultivation technology for paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella


volvacea), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mushroom Biology
and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP7).
9. Patz Corporation (2011). The Patz Model 9427 Chopper can chop straw, hay,
newspaper, and many other materials, retrieved05 November 2012from
http://www.patzag.com/products/ag-line/bale-beddingchoppers/9427/stationary/.
10. Qinglin, W. (2005). Using Engineered Composites from Rice Straw As Wood
Alternatives, Louisiana Agriculture, 5(2): 23-28.
11. Shanghai Jiajing Machinery Company (2011). Rice Straw Baler Machine, retrieved 26
March 2012 from http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Rice-Straw-BalerMachine_504017661.html?s=p.
12. Shen, W., Zhou, S. and Ye, Y. (2004). The Design of 9RSZ-2 Straw cut and Breaking
Machine, Journal of agricultural mechanization research, (2): 143-152.
13. Stephan, E. (1984). Untersuchungen zum Betriebsverhalten von Riemengetrieben unter
Berucksichtigung des elastischen Materialverhaltens, Dissertation, T. H. Aachen.
14. Sunita, D.,Sharma, C.R. and Kamlesh, S. (2012).Microbiological biodiversity in
poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems, Brazilian Journal of
Microbiology, 43(1): 288-296.
15. Zhengzhou Shuliy Machinery Company (2011). Grass cutting and grinding
machine/straw cutting and grinding machine/grass cutting machine/straw cutting
mahcine, Henan, China (Mainland), retrieved28 May 2012 from

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 144

http://shuli.en.alibaba.com/product/597708436213296157/new_corn_straw_crusher
_machine_grass_straw_cutting_machine_0086_15838059105.html.

PH LC
Ph lc 3.1. Tnh ton l thuyt xc nh nng lng ca b phn ct thi
clc
% Khai bao gia tri cac thong so vao:
n = 1273; q = 0.6; anpha = 26*pi/180; denta = 0.003; dentadao = 0.005;f = 0.55; ro = 105;
lbd = 0.03; kd =7; rt = 0.135; R0 = 0.225; to = 65*pi/180;
% Tinh toan cac thong so cau tao
Lcg = sqrt(R0^2-rt^2*(sin(anpha))^2)-rt*cos(anpha);bcg = lbd - 2*denta;
br = (kd+1)*bcg + kd*dentadao + 2*kd*denta; % chieu rong hang canh gat
gama = asin(rt*sin(anpha)/R0);lamda = anpha - gama;phic = tan(to)*log(R0/rt);
phir = 2*pi/3 - phic;phi0 = pi/2 - phic;
% Tinh toan dong hoc
syms t
omega = pi*n/30;phi = omega*t;
aphi = (cot(to))^2*exp(phi*cot(to)) + 0.992668;
bphi = cot(to)*exp(phi*cot(to)) - 0.98859*cot(gama);
cphi = 2*exp(phi*cot(to)) - 0.001489134*cot(gama) - 1.999928;
dphi = (-sqrt(bphi^2-aphi*cphi)-bphi)/aphi;
khi = to - gama - dphi; theta = phi + dphi;

% Gc cuc theta

% Dong hoc qua trinh cat:


R = R0*exp(-theta*cot(to));
s = R0*(1-exp(-theta*cot(to)))/cot(to);
v =diff(s,t);
at = diff(s,t,2);

R1 = diff(R,t);

R2 = diff(R,t,2);

rho =((R^2 + R1^2)^(3/2))/abs(R^2 +2*R1^2 - R*R2); an = v^2/rho;% Gia toc phap tuyen
% Xac dinh kich thuoc va khoi luong rom
mcg = 20*q/n;
Vr = mcg/ro;
hr = Vr/(Lcg*br);

% Khoi luong hang canh gat vo rom


% The tich khoi r?m chua nen
% Chieu cao khoi r?m chua nen

qn = 42.5*(87.65-0.8045*(to*180/pi))/(10^4*(dentadao/2)); % Ap luc nen (N/cm2)


epsilon = 0.1644*log(qn)-0.1335;
hn = epsilon*hr;

hc = hr -hn;

% Chieu cao nn v cat

% Chieu dai doan cung dao cat va cung dao nen


Sc = hc/sin(khi);Sn = hn/sin(khi);
% Khoi luong rom va khoi luong cac phan rom

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 145

mr = mcg/(kd+1);

% (kg) Khoi luong do mot canh gat vo rom

Vrcg = Lcg*hc*lbd;
roc = mr/Vrcg;

% (m3) The tich khoi rom da nen tren mot canh gat
% (kg/m3) khoi luong rieng khoi rom da nen

QC = sin(lamda-dphi)*R/sin(anpha);
Vcgt = QC*hc*lbd;

% The tich khoi r?m chua dc cat

mrt = Vcgt*roc;

% (kg) Khoi luong phan rom chua cat

mrs = mr - mrt;
% Xac dinh luc ma sat len thanh ben dao
Tmsb = 10^4*f*(146.38-18.915*10^3*denta)*(Lcg-QC)*hc*0.3;
% XAC DINH CAC PHAN LUC CANH GAT
W0 = 0.613*omega^2*lbd*QC*R^2*cos(to-khi); % (N) Luc can khong khi
Fqt = mrt*at;

% Luc quan tinh tiep tuyen luoi dao

Fqn = mrt*an;

% Luc quan tinh ly tam, phap tuyen voi luoi dao

Pct = (87.65-46.09*to)*100*Sc;
Pntb = 0.425*Pct;
Fmsd = 1.425*Pct*f;
Prt = mrt*9.81;
Fmst = (Pct +Pntb -Prt)*sin(phi0+theta-to+khi)-Fqn*sin(khi)...
-W0*sin(to-khi)+(Fqt-Fmsd)*cos(khi);
Qnc = (Pct +Pntb -Prt)*cos(phi0+theta-to+khi)-Fqn*cos(khi)...
+ W0*sin(to-khi)-(Fqt-Fmsd)*sin(khi);
% Tinh toan Luc trong cong doan Tung rom
TQ = (Lcg-QC)/2;
Rt =sqrt(R^2+TQ^2+2*R*TQ*cos(to-khi));
beta0 = asin(R*sin(to-khi)/Rt);
beta1 = phi0+lamda+phi-anpha;
beta2 = beta0+beta1;
W0s = 0.613*omega^2*Rt^2*lbd*(Lcg -QC)*cos(beta0);
Prs = mrs*9.81;
Fqns = mrs*Rt*omega^2;
Ftd = Fqns+Prs*sin(beta2);
Fmstd = Ftd*f;
Fmss = (W0s+Tmsb+Fmstd)*sin(beta0) + (Fqns-Ftd)*cos(beta0) +Prs*sin(beta1);
Qt = (W0s+Tmsb+Fmstd)*cos(beta0) - (Fqns-Ftd)*sin(beta0) +Prs*cos(beta1);
% XAC DINH CAC MO MEN CAN TRONG QUA TRINH CAT:

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 146

tc1 = (phic-lamda)/omega; tc2 = 2*lamda/omega; tc = tc1 + tc2;


tck = (phir-lamda)/omega; tqtc = tc+tck;
Mnc = kd*(Qnc*cos(to-khi) - Fmst*sin(to-khi))*R;
gMnc = subs(Mnc,[0:0.0005:tc1]);
nc1 = length(gMnc);
Mnctb = sum(gMnc)/nc1;
Mdr = kd*(Qt*cos(beta0)+Fmss*sin(beta0))*Rt;
gMdr = subs(Mdr,[0:0.0005:tc1]);
Mdrtc1 = gMdr(nc1)
Mct = Mnc + Mdr;
gMct = subs(Mct,[0:0.0005:tc1]);
Mcttb = sum(gMct)/nc1;
Mck = Mnctb/3; % Xac dinh mo men can chay khong
Mcht = (Mdrtc1-Mck)*(tc1-t)/(tc-tc1) + Mdrtc1; % Mo men can o giai doan chuyen tiep
gMcht = subs(Mcht,[tc1:0.0005:tc]);
nc2 = length(gMcht);
nck = round(tck/0.0005);
% XAC DINH CAC GIA TRI DAC TRUNG VE CHI PHI NANG LUONG
Mctb = (sum(gMct)+sum(gMcht) +nck*Mck)/(nc1 +nc2+nck); % Mo men can trung binh
Nctb = 10^-3*Mctb*omega; % Cong suat trung binh cua qua trinh cat
Ne = Nctb/q;

% Chi phi nang lng rieng

Ndc = 4*Nctb/3;

% Cong suat can thiet cua nguon dong luc

disp('------------------ HIEN THI KET QUA --------------------');


fprintf('Mo men can trung binh: Mctb = %5.2f',Mctb); disp(' (N.m)');
fprintf('Cong suat trung binh: Nctb = %5.2f',Nctb); disp(' (kW)');
fprintf('Chi phi nang luong rieng: Ne = %5.2f',Ne); disp(' (kW.s/kg)');
fprintf('Cong suat Dong co: Ndc = %5.2f',Ndc); disp(' (kW)');
% DO THI MO MEM CAN TREN TRUC TRONG CAT
plot([0:0.0005:tc1],gMct,'b', [tc1:0.0005: tc],gMcht,'b', [tc tqtc],[Mck Mck],'b');
% Kiem tra chieu cua phan luc Fmst
gFmst = subs(Fmst,[0:0.001:tc]);disp(phan luc Fmst la:');disp(gFmst);

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 147

Ph lc 3.2. Gii h phng trnh vi phn (3.69)


clc
J1 = 0.0435; J2q = 0.08625; kd = 300; Mk = 39.288; sk = 0.307; omega0 = 100*pi;
omegadm =293.2; omegar = sqrt(kd*(J1+J2q)/(J1*J2q)); b = 0.7*kd/(2*pi*omegar);
% CHUEN HE BAC HAI THANH HE BAC 1 CO 4 PHUONG TRINH
% TRONG DO: y1 = phi1; y2 = d(phi1); y3 = phi2; y4 = d(phi2)
t0 = 0; tc = 3; h = 0.01; y10 = 0; y20 = 0; y30 = 0; y40 =0; t = t0:h:tc; n = length(t);
y1 = zeros(n,1); y2 = zeros(n,1); y3 = zeros(n,1); y4 = zeros(n,1);
y1(1) = y10; y2(1) = y20; y3(1) = y30; y4(1) = y40;
dy1 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y2;
dy2 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J1)*(y3-y1) + (b/J1)*(y4 - y2)...
+ 2*Mk/((sk*omega0/(omega0-y2)+(omega0-y2)/(sk*omega0))*J1);
dy3 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y4;
dy4 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J2q)*(y1-y3) +(b/J2q)*(y2-y4);
for i = 1:n-1
% Gan cac sai phan cho cac bien k-y1; l-y2; m-y3; p-y4
k1 = h*dy1(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i)); l1 = h*dy2(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
m1 = h*dy3(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i)); p1 = h*dy4(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
k2 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
l2 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
m2 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
p2 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
k3 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
l3 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
m3 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
p3 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
k4 = h*dy1(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
l4 = h*dy2(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
m4 = h*dy3(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
p4 = h*dy4(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
y1(i+1) = y1(i) + (k1 + 2*(k2+k3) + k4)/6;
y2(i+1) = y2(i) + (l1 + 2*(l2+l3) + l4)/6;
y3(i+1) = y3(i) + (m1 + 2*(m2+m3) + m4)/6;
y4(i+1) = y4(i) + (p1 + 2*(p2+p3) + p4)/6;
Mpd(i+1) = 2*Mk/(sk*omega0/(omega0-y2(i+1))+(omega0-y2(i+1))/(sk*omega0));
end
disp('Mo men phat dong cua dong co l Mpd = '); Mdc = Mpd;
disp(' Mo men tren dai nhan o banh chu dong Md1 ='); Md1 = kd*(y1-y3)+ b*(y2-y4);
Mtdmax = max(Md1)

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 148

plot([t0:h:tc],Mdc,'k',[t0:h:tc],Md1,'r');

Ph lc 3.3. Gii h phng trnh vi phn (3.70)


clc
J1 = 0.0435; J2q = 0.08625; kd = 302; Mk = 39.288; sk = 0.307; omega0 = 100*pi;
omegadm =293.2; nuy = 0.0015; tst = 2; omegar = sqrt(kd*(J1+J2q)/(J1*J2q));
b = 0.7*kd/(2*pi*omegar); Mcmax = 35; Mck = 7;
% CHUEN HE BAC HAI THANH HE BAC 1 CO 4 PHUONG TRINH
% Trong do: y1 = phi1; y2 = d(phi1); y3 = phi2; y4 = d(phi2)
tsddr = omegar;
t0 = 0; tc = 1; h = 0.01; y10 = 0; y20 = omegadm; y30 = 0; y40 = omegadm; t = t0:h:tc;
n = length(t);
y1 = zeros(n,1); y2 = zeros(n,1); y3 = zeros(n,1); y4 = zeros(n,1);
y1(1) = y10;y2(1) = y20;y3(1) = y30;y4(1) = y40;
dy1 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y2;
dy2 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J1)*(y3-y1) + (b/J1)*(y4 - y2)...
+ 2*Mk/((sk*omega0/(omega0-y2)+(omega0-y2)/(sk*omega0))*J1);
dy3 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y4;
dy4 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J2q)*(y1-y3) +(b/J2q)*(y2-y4)...
-((Mcmax-Mck)*(sin(3*(1-nuy)*y3/tst)+1)/2 +Mck)*(1-nuy)/(tst*J2q);
for i = 1:n-1
% Gan cac sai phan cho cac bien k-y1; l-y2; m-y3; p-y4
k1 = h*dy1(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i)); l1 = h*dy2(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
m1 = h*dy3(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i)); p1 = h*dy4(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
k2 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
l2 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
m2 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
p2 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
k3 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
l3 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
m3 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
p3 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
k4 = h*dy1(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 149

l4 = h*dy2(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);


m4 = h*dy3(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
p4 = h*dy4(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
y1(i+1) = y1(i) + (k1 + 2*(k2+k3) + k4)/6;
y2(i+1) = y2(i) + (l1 + 2*(l2+l3) + l4)/6;
y3(i+1) = y3(i) + (m1 + 2*(m2+m3) + m4)/6;
y4(i+1) = y4(i) + (p1 + 2*(p2+p3) + p4)/6;
Mpd(i+1) = 2*Mk/(sk*omega0/(omega0-y2(i+1))+(omega0-y2(i+1))/(sk*omega0));
end
disp('Mo men phat dong cua dong co l Mpd = '); Me = Mpd;
disp('Mo men tren co cau truyen dai truyen cho banh bi dong Md2 =');
Md2 = tst*(kd*(y1-y3)+ b*(y2-y4))/(1-nuy);
Md2max = max(Md2);
disp('Mo men can cat Mc ='); Mc = (Mcmax-Mck)*(sin(3*(1-nuy)*y3/tst)+1)/2 +Mck;
omega2 =(1-nuy)*y4/tst;
nomega2 = length(omega2); omega2tb = sum(omega2)/nomega2
omega2max = max(omega2); omega2min = min(omega2)
dentaomega = (omega2max - omega2min)/omega2tb; omega2tyle = omega2/5;
plot([t0:h:tc],Me,'k',[t0:h:tc],Md2,'r',[t0:h:tc],Mc,'c',[t0:h:tc],omega2tyle,'g');

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 150

Ph lc 3.4. Xy dng ng cong bin-tn ca h truyn ng


clc
J1 = 0.0435; J2q = 0.08625; kd = 300; Mk = 39.288; sk = 0.307; omega0 = 100*pi;
omegadm =293.2; nuy = 0.0015; tst = 2;
omegar = sqrt(kd*(J1+J2q)/(J1*J2q)); b = 0.7*kd/(2*pi*omegar);
Mcmax = 35; Mck = 5;
% CHUEN HE BAC HAI THANH HE BAC 1 CO 4 PHUONG TRINH
% TRONG DO: y1 = phi1; y2 = d(phi1); y3 = phi2; y4 = d(phi2)
hf = 0.5;
f = [0:hf:70];
m = length(f);
for j = 1:m;
t0 = 0; tc = 1; h = 0.01;
y10 = 0; y20 = omegadm; y30 = 0; y40 =omegadm;
t = t0:h:tc;
n = length(t);
y1 = zeros(n,1);
y2 = zeros(n,1);
y3 = zeros(n,1);
y4 = zeros(n,1);
y1(1) = y10;
y2(1) = y20;
y3(1) = y30;
y4(1) = y40;
dy1 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y2;
dy2 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J1)*(y3-y1) + (b/J1)*(y4 - y2)...
+ 2*Mk/((sk*omega0/(omega0-y2)+(omega0-y2)/(sk*omega0))*J1);
dy3 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)y4;
dy4 =@(y1,y2,y3,y4,t)(kd/J2q)*(y1-y3) +(b/J2q)*(y2-y4)...
-((Mcmax-Mck)*(sin(2*pi*f(j)*t)+1)/2 +Mck)*(1-nuy)/(tst*J2q);
for i = 1:n-1
% Gan cac sai phan cho cac bien k-y1; l-y2; m-y3; p-y4
k1 = h*dy1(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
l1 = h*dy2(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
m1 = h*dy3(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));
p1 = h*dy4(y1(i),y2(i),y3(i),y4(i),t(i));

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 151

k2 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);


l2 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
m2 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
p2 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k1/2,y2(i)+l1/2,y3(i)+m1/2,y4(i)+p1/2, t(i) + h/2);
k3 = h*dy1(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
l3 = h*dy2(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
m3 = h*dy3(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
p3 = h*dy4(y1(i) + k2/2,y2(i)+l2/2,y3(i)+m2/2,y4(i)+p2/2, t(i) + h/2);
k4 = h*dy1(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
l4 = h*dy2(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
m4 = h*dy3(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
p4 = h*dy4(y1(i)+ k3,y2(i) + l3,y3(i) + m3,y4(i) + p3, t(i) + h);
y1(i+1) = y1(i) + (k1 + 2*(k2+k3) + k4)/6;
y2(i+1) = y2(i) + (l1 + 2*(l2+l3) + l4)/6;
y3(i+1) = y3(i) + (m1 + 2*(m2+m3) + m4)/6;
y4(i+1) = y4(i) + (p1 + 2*(p2+p3) + p4)/6;
Mpd(i+1) = 2*Mk/(sk*omega0/(omega0-y2(i+1))+(omega0-y2(i+1))/(sk*omega0));
Md2(i+1) = tst*(kd*(y1(i+1)-y3(i+1))+ b*(y2(i+1)-y4(i+1)))/(1-nuy);
end
Memax(j) = max(Mpd);
Md2max(j) = max(Md2);
end
M = max(Md2max)
z =find(Md2max == M);
fx = (z-1)*hf
% Tan so cong huong
plot([0:hf:70],Memax,'b',[0:hf:70],Md2max,'r', [fx fx], [0 M], 'g');

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 152

Ph lc 4.1. Ma trn k hoch nghin cu thc nghim a yu t theo phng n


Hp thnh Hartly
x1

x2

x3

x4

-1

-1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

-1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

-1

10

+1

11

-1

12

+1

13

-1

14

+1

15

-1

16

+1

17

TT

Y11 Y12 Y13


YP
%

Y21

Y22

Y23

E
Y

kW.s/kg kW.s/kg kW.s/kg kW.s/kg

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 153

Ph lc 4.2. Kt qu nghin cu thc nghim a yu t


X1

X2

X3

X4

Y11

Y12

Y13

m/s

kg/s

mm

25

0,5

35

87,00

88,00

30

0,5

35

89,00

25

0,6

35

30

0,6

35

25

0,5

30

YP

E
Y

Y21

Y22

Y23

kW.s/kg

kW.s/kg

kW.s/kg

87,80

87,60

5,01

5,03

4,95

5,00

90,00

88,60

89,20

5,21

5,18

5,21

5,20

91,50

92,00

91,60

91,70

5,35

5,32

5,38

5,35

96,40

96,80

96,00

96,40

5,40

5,45

5,44

5,43

55

92,50

93,00

92,30

92,60

5,12

5,08

5,10

5,10

0,5

55

94,00

93,20

93,30

93,50

5,13

5,15

5,17

5,15

25

0,6

55

85,60

85,10

85,50

85,40

4,72

4,67

4,71

4,70

30

0,6

55

87,00

86,90

86,50

86,80

4,75

4,79

4,80

4,78

25

0,55

45

92,50

93,00

92,00

92,50

5,20

5,17

5,20

5,19

30

0,55

45

95,60

95,10

95,20

95,30

5,25

5,23

5,24

5,24

27,5

0,5

45

94,10

95,00

94,40

94,50

5,13

5,15

5,11

5,13

27,5

0,6

45

94,00

92,00

94,00

93,33

5,00

4,97

4,97

4,98

27,5

0,55

35

96,60

96,00

96,10

96,23

5,22

5,19

5,22

5,21

27,5

0,55

55

92,60

92,00

92,30

92,30

4,78

4,81

4,81

4,80

27,5

0,55

45

96,60

95,80

96,00

96,13

5,26

5,28

5,27

5,27

27,5

0,55

45

92,00

91,60

90,90

91,50

4,95

5,02

4,97

4,98

27,5

0,55

45

95,00

95,30

95,00

95,10

5,11

5,08

5,11

5,10

Block

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

kW.s/kg

Page 154

Ph lc 4.3. Xc nh ta cc tr v h s dng chnh tc cho hm ch tiuCx


clc
%

NHAP CAC HE SO TU PHUONG TRINH DANG MA

b0 = -134.995; b1 = 11.7797; b2 = 99.5339; b3 = 1.65996; b4 = 2.48586;


b11 = -0.202067; b12 = 1.8; b13 = -0.02; b14 = -0.13;
b22 = -124.625; b23 = -0.833333; b24 = 11.4167; b33 = -0.00896255; b34 = 0;
b44 = -1.34625;
% PHAN TINH TOAN TIM TOA DO DIEM DAC BIET
Bx = [2*b11 b12 b13 b14; b12 2*b22 b23 b24; b13 b23 2*b33 b34; b14 b24 b34 2*b44];
By = [-b1 -b2 -b3 -b4]; xS = By/Bx;
disp('Nghiem cua he la:'); disp(xS);
x1S = xS(1); x2S = xS(2); x3S = xS(3); x4S = xS(4);
yS = b0 + b1*x1S + b2*x2S +b3*x3S + b4*x4S + b11*x1S^2 + b12*x1S*x2S + b13*x1S*x3S +
b14*x1S*x4S...
+b22*x2S^2 + b23*x2S*x3S + b24*x2S*x4S + b33*x3S^2 + b34*x3S*x4S + b44*x4S^2;
disp('Hoanh do diem dac biet lan luot la: x1S x2S x3S x4S ='); disp(x1S); disp(x2S);
disp(x3S); disp(x4S); disp('Tung do diem dac biet la: yS = '); disp(yS);
%CAC HE SO CUA PHUONG TRINH TRI RIENG LAMDA
I4 = 1; I3 = -(b11 + b22 + b33 + b44);
I2 = b11*b22 + b33*b44 +(b11+b22)*(b33+b44) - (b24/2)^2 - (b13/2)^2;
I1 = (b11+b33)*(b24/2)^2 + (b22+b44)*(b13/2)^2 - b11*b22*(b33 + b44) - b33*b44*(b11+b22);
I0 = b12*b14*b23*b34/8 +((b13*b24)^2 - (b14*b23)^2 - (b12*b34)^2)/16 + b11*b22*b33*b44 b11*b33*(b24/2)^2 - b22*b44*(b13/2)^2;
disp(' He so cua phuong trinh tri rieng Lamda l');
fprintf('He so I0 = %5.2f',I0);disp(' '); fprintf('He so I1 = %5.2f',I1);disp(' ');
fprintf('He so I2 = %5.2f',I2);disp(' '); fprintf('He so I3 = %5.2f',I3);disp(' ');
fprintf('He so I4 = %5.2f',I4);disp(' ');
I = [I4 I3 I2 I1 I0]; Lamda = roots(I); disp('Nghiem cac tri rieng Lamda la:'); disp(Lamda);

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 155

Ph lc 4.4. Xc nh ta cc tr v h s dng chnh tc cho hm ch tiu Ne


clc
%

NHAP CAC HE SO TU PHUONG TRINH DANG MA

b0 = 16.1574; b1 = -0.921667; b2 = 5.98628; b3 = 0.0883867; b4 = -1.01131;


b11 = 0.0178127; b12 = -0.0466667; b13 = -0.000766667; b14 = 0.00766667;
b22 = -4.86704; b23 = -0.0241667; b24 = 0.491667;
b33 = -0.000986704; b34 = 0.00516667; b44 = 0.0213296;
% PHAN TINH TOAN TIM TOA DO DIEM DAC BIET
Bx = [2*b11 b12 b13 b14; b12 2*b22 b23 b24; b13 b23 2*b33 b34; b14 b24 b34 2*b44];
By = [-b1 -b2 -b3 -b4]; xS = By/Bx; disp('Nghiem cua he la:'); disp(xS); x1S = xS(1);
x2S = xS(2); x3S = xS(3); x4S = xS(4);
yS = b0 + b1*x1S + b2*x2S +b3*x3S + b4*x4S + b11*x1S^2 + b12*x1S*x2S + b13*x1S*x3S +
b14*x1S*x4S...
+b22*x2S^2 + b23*x2S*x3S + b24*x2S*x4S + b33*x3S^2 + b34*x3S*x4S + b44*x4S^2;
disp('Hoanh do diem dac biet lan luot la: x1S x2S x3S x4S ='); disp(x1S); disp(x2S);
disp(x3S); disp(x4S); disp('Tung do diem dac biet la: yS = '); disp(yS);
%CAC HE SO CUA PHUONG TRINH TRI RIENG LAMDA
I4 = 1; I3 = -(b11 + b22 + b33 + b44);
I2 = b11*b22 + b33*b44 +(b11+b22)*(b33+b44) - (b24/2)^2 - (b13/2)^2;
I1 = (b11+b33)*(b24/2)^2 + (b22+b44)*(b13/2)^2 - b11*b22*(b33 + b44) - b33*b44*(b11+b22);
I0 = b12*b14*b23*b34/8 +((b13*b24)^2 - (b14*b23)^2 - (b12*b34)^2)/16 + b11*b22*b33*b44 b11*b33*(b24/2)^2 - b22*b44*(b13/2)^2;
disp(' He so cua phuong trinh tri rieng Lamda l');
fprintf('He so I0 = %5.2f',I0);disp(' '); fprintf('He so I1 = %5.2f',I1);disp(' ');
fprintf('He so I2 = %5.2f',I2);disp(' '); fprintf('He so I3 = %5.2f',I3);disp(' ');
fprintf('He so I4 = %5.2f',I4);disp(' ');
I = [I4 I3 I2 I1 I0] Lamda = roots(I); disp('Nghiem cac tri rieng Lamda la:'); disp(Lamda);

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 156

Ph lc 4.5. Mt s kt qu dng qu trnh tn hiu khi th nghim n yu t v a


yu t

- Mc TN n yu t
- Kt qu

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng sut v tc


quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm Dasylap

2000

- Mc 3 th nghim v:
v = 25 m/s
q = 0,5 kg/s
= 350
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1064 vg/ph
Mtb = 22,62 N.m
Ntb = 2,58 kW

1500
1000
500
0
10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
0.0
50
40
30
20
10
0
23:45:20
Toc do quay, (Vg/ph)

23:45:25
Cong suat, (kW)

23:45:30
Mo men, Nm

23:45:35
h:min:s

2000

- Mc 4 th nghim v:
v = 30 m/s
q = 0,5 kg/s
= 350
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1285 vg/ph
Mtb = 24,5 N.m
Ntb = 3,29 kW

1500
1000
500
0
10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
0.0
50
40
30
20
10
0
00:57:30
Toc do quay, (Vg/ph)

00:57:35
Cong suat, (kW)

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

00:57:40
Mo men, Nm

00:57:45
h:min:s

Page 157

Tip ph lc 4.5

- Mc TN n yu t
- Kt qu

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng sut v tc


quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm Dasylap

- Mc 3 th nghim q:
q = 0,5 kg/s
v = 27,5 m/s
= 350
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1170 vg/ph
Mtb = 23,41 N.m
Ntb = 2,86 kW

- Mc 5 th nghim q:
q = 0,7 kg/s
v = 27,5 m/s
= 350
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1150 vg/ph
Mtb = 25,5 N.m
Ntb = 3,07 kW

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 158

Tip ph lc 4.5

- Mc TN n yu t
- Kt qu

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng sut v tc


quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm Dasylap

- Mc 2 th nghim :
= 350
v = 27,5 m/s
q = 0,6 kg/s
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1160 vg/ph
Mtb = 24,2 N.m
Ntb = 2,93 kW

- Mc 4 th nghim :
= 550
v = 27,5 m/s
q = 0,6kg/s
= 2 mm
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1180 vg/ph
Mtb = 13,65 N.m
Ntb = 1,65 kW

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 159

Tip ph lc 4.5

- Mc TN n yu t
- Kt qu

- Mc 1 th nghim :
= 1 mm
v = 27,5 m/s
q = 0,6 kg/s
= 450
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1150 vg/ph
Mtb = 34,4 N.m
Ntb = 4,134 kW

- Mc 5 th nghim :
= 5 mm
v = 27,5 m/s
q = 0,6 kg/s
= 550
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1161 vg/ph
Mtb = 10,85 N.m
Ntb = 1,32 kW

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng su
sut v tc
quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm
m Dasylap

Tip ph lc 4.5

- Mc TN a yu t
- Kt qu

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng sut v tc


quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm Dasylap

Mc a yu t:
0-0-0-0
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1180 vg/ph
Mtb = 22,46 N.m
Ntb = 2,81 kW

Mc a yu t:
-1+1-1-1
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1061 vg/ph
Mtb = 33,71 N.m
Ntb = 3,75 kW

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 161

Tip ph lc 4.5

- Mc TN a yu t
- Kt qu

th m t kt qu gi tr m men, cng sut v tc


quay trn trc trng ct nhn t phn mm Dasylap

Mc a yu t:
-1-1-1+1
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1072 vg/ph
Mtb = 22,5 N.m
Ntb = 2,5 kW

Mc a yu t:
+1+1+1+1
- Kt qu trung bnh:
ntb = 1272 vg/ph
Mtb = 21,42 N.m
Ntb = 2,85 kW

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun n Tin s Khoa hc K thut

Page 162