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B GIO DC V O TO

B NNG NGHIP V PTNT

HC VIN NNG NGHIP VIT NAM

NGUYN TH PHNG

NH GI HIN TRNG QUN L MI TRNG


TI BI RC NAM SN, HUYN SC SN,
THNH PH H NI

LUN VN THC S

H NI 2015

B GIO DC V O TO

B NNG NGHIP V PTNT

HC VIN NNG NGHIP VIT NAM

NGUYN TH PHNG

NH GI HIN TRNG QUN L MI TRNG


TI BI RC NAM SN, HUYN SC SN,
THNH PH H NI

CHUYN NGNH : KHOA HC MI TRNG


M S

: 60.44.03.01

NGI HNG DN KHOA HC:


TS. INH TH HI VN

H NI 2015

LI CAM OAN
Ti xin cam oan rng: S liu v kt qu nghin cu trong lun vn ny
l trung thc v cha c s dng bo v mt hc v no.
Ti xin cam oan rng: mi s gip cho vic thc hin lun vn ny
c cm n v cc thng tin trch dn trong lun vn u c ch r
ngun gc.
H Ni, ngy

thng

nm 2015

Tc gi lun vn

Nguyn Th Phng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page i

LI CM N
Sau mt thi gian hc tp, nghin cu ti Khoa mi trng, Hc vin
Nng nghip Vit Nam n nay ti kt thc chng trnh o to cao hc v
hon thnh n tt nghip vi ti: "nh gi hin trng qun l mi
trng ti bi rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, thnh ph H Ni".
Ti xin gi li cm n ti Ban gim hiu Hc vin nng nghip Vit
Nam, cc thy c gio Khoa mi trng, c bit l TS. inh Th Hi Vn l
ngi trc tip hng dn khoa hc, tn tnh gip ti trong thi gian hc
tp cng nh trong qu trnh thc hin lun vn. Bn cnh s gip v to mi
iu kin ca cc anh ch l ng nghip ang lm vic ti X nghip qun l
cht thi Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, Thnh ph H Ni.
Nhn dp ny, ti cng xin by t lng bit n ti gia nh, ngi thn,
bn b gip ti rt nhiu trong sut thi gian ti thc hin ti.
Mc d lm vic vi tt c n lc ca bn thn nhng do thi gian hn
ch nn lun vn khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Rt mong nhn c
nhng kin ng gp qu bu ca cc nh khoa hc v ng nghip.
Cui cng ti xin knh chc qu Thy C di do sc khe v thnh cng
trong s nghip.
Ti xin chn thnh cm n!
H Ni, ngy

thng

nm 2015

Tc gi lun vn

Nguyn Th Phng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page ii

MC LC
LI CAM OAN ................................................................................................ i
LI CM N .................................................................................................... ii
MC LC ........................................................................................................ iii
DANH MC CH VIT TT .......................................................................... v
DANH MC BNG ......................................................................................... vi
DANH MC HNH ......................................................................................... vii
M U ........................................................................................................... 1
1. Tnh cp thit ca ti .................................................................................. 1
2. Mc tiu nghin cu ....................................................................................... 2
3. Yu cu nghin cu ........................................................................................ 2
Chng 1. TNG QUAN TI LIU.................................................................. 3
1.1. Tng quan v bi chn lp ........................................................................... 3
1.1.1. Cc khi nim chung v bi chn lp ................................................. 3
1.1.2. Phn loi bi chn lp ........................................................................ 4
1.2. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp trn Th gii v Vit Nam ......................... 9
1.2.1. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp trn Th gii........................................ 9
1.2.2. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp Vit Nam ....................................... 10
1.3. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng xung quanh ............................ 15
1.3.1. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng nc ............................ 15
1.3.2. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng t ................................ 17
1.3.3. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng khng kh ..................... 18
Chng 2. NI DUNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU ......................... 20
2.1. i tng nghin cu ................................................................................ 20
2.2. Phm vi nghin cu ................................................................................... 20
2.3. Ni dung nghin cu ................................................................................. 20
2.3.1. Hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, thnh
ph H Ni. ............................................................................................... 20
2.3.2. Hin trng mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn ...................................... 20
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page iii

2.3.3. Bin php qun l v mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn ...................... 20


2.3.4. Cc gii php ph hp cho vic qun l v mi trng ti bi rc Nam
Sn. ........................................................................................................... 20
2.4. Phng php nghin cu ........................................................................... 21
2.4.1. Phng php thu thp thng tin th cp ........................................... 22
2.4.2. Phng php thu thp ti liu s cp ................................................ 22
2.4.3. Phng php x l s liu ................................................................ 27
2.4.4. Phng php so snh vi tiu chun, quy chun mi trng. ........... 27
Chng 3. KT QU V THO LUN ......................................................... 28
3.1. Hin trng bi rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni ........................................... 28
3.1.1. Hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn.................................... 28
3.2. Hin trng mi trng ca bi chn rc Nam Sn...................................... 35
3.2.1. Hin trng mi trng khng kh ..................................................... 35
3.2.2. Hin trng mi trng nc ............................................................. 38
3.2.3. Hin trng mi trng t ................................................................ 43
3.3. nh hng ca bi rc ti mi trng ....................................................... 44
3.3.1. nh hng ca bi rc ti i sng x hi ....................................... 44
3.4. Hin trng cng tc qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn ..................... 50
3.4.1. Cng c php lut p dng trong qun l mi trng ....................... 50
3.4.2. Cng c k thut p dng vo cng ngh x l rc trong qun l mi
trng ........................................................................................................ 52
3.4.3. Qun l bng cng c kinh t ........................................................... 62
3.5. Cc gii php qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn .............................. 62
KT LUN V KIN NGH .......................................................................... 65
1. Kt lun ........................................................................................................ 65
2. Kin ngh ...................................................................................................... 66
TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................ 68
PH LC......................................................................................................... 70

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page iv

DANH MC CH VIT TT
APU

n v chng nhim ti Singapore

BCL HVS

Bi chn lp hp v sinh

BOD

Nhu cu oxy sinh hc

BTNMT

B ti nguyn mi trng

BYT

B y t

CBCNV

Cn b cng nhn vin

CO

Kh Cacbon monoxit

CO2

Kh Cacbonic

CTR

Cht thi rn

CTRSH

Cht thi rn sinh hot

TM

nh gi tc ng mi trng

EM

Ch phm sinh hc

GTCC

S giao thng cng chnh

HCl

Axit Clohidric

KT - XH

Kinh t - x hi

LHXLCT

Lin hp x l cht thi

NO

Kh Nito oxit

ODA

Ngun vn h tr chnh sch t bn ngoi

OECD

T chc hp tc v pht trin kinh t

pH

Ch s o hot ng ca cc ion hidro (H+) trong dung dch

TCVN

Tiu chun Vit Nam

TCXDVN

Tiu chun xy dng Vit Nam

TOC

Tng Cacbon hu c

UBND

y Ban Nhn Dn

URENCO
USD

Cng ty trch nhim hu hn mt thnh vin mi trng


Th H Ni
la M

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page v

DANH MC BNG
STT

Tn bng

Trang

Bng 1.1. Phn loi quy m bi chn lp ............................................................ 8


Bng 1.2. Cc phng php x l CTR ph bin khu vc ng Nam ........... 10
Bng 1.3. Thnh phn nc r r ca bi chn lp mi v hot ng
mt thi gian. ................................................................................... 15
Bng 1.4. T l thnh phn cc kh sinh ra ch yu t bi chn lp .................. 18
Bng 2.1. Bng k hiu v tn mu................................................................... 24
Bng 2.2. Phng php phn tch mu .............................................................. 26
Bng 3.1. Bng tng hp khi lng rc x l ti bi rc Nam Sn .................. 34
Bng 3.2. Khi lng rc x l ti bi rc Nam Sn (theo nm) ....................... 35
Bng 3.3. n trong v ngoi bi rc Nam Sn ............................................. 36
Bng 3.4. Cht lng khng kh ti khu vc chn lp ....................................... 37
Bng 3.5. Cht lng khng kh xung quanh chn lp ang hot ng .......... 38
Bng 3.6. Cht lng nc mt xung quanh bi rc.......................................... 40
Bng 3.7. Cht lng nc ngm xung quanh bi rc ...................................... 41
Bng 3.8. Kt qu phn tch mu t ................................................................ 44

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page vi

DANH MC HNH
STT

Tn hnh

Trang

Hnh 2.1. Khung phng php nghin cu ....................................................... 21


Hnh 2.2. S ly mu ti khu vc bi chn lp rc Nam Sn ....................... 23
Hnh 3.1. Ton cnh ca bi chn lp rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni .............. 28
Hnh 3.2. S bi chn lp rc Nam Sn ....................................................... 29
Hnh 3.3. S quy trnh vn hnh bi rc Nam Sn ....................................... 31
Hnh 3.4. Xe ch rc i ln chn lp (khu vc h sinh hc) ........................... 31
Hnh 3.5. Rc c t xe ch rc vo cc chn lp ................................... 32
Hnh 3.6. Rc c san i................................................................................. 32
Hnh 3.7. Rc ti chn lp c san i........................................................... 33
Hnh 3.8. Ph t v san i t ......................................................................... 33
Hnh 3.9. Hin trng nc do ngi dn nh gi ............................................. 42
Hnh 3.10. S h dn nhn c s h tr ca x nghip .................................. 46
Hnh 3.11. Rc nht c ngi dn phi trn lan trn ng .......................... 47
Hnh 3.12. Mt s cn bnh ngi dn mc phi. ............................................. 47
Hnh 3.13. Ao ni ngi dn lm sch ph liu. ............................................... 48
Hnh 3.14. xut ca ngi dn sng xung quanh gim thiu nh hng
ca bi rc ...................................................................................... 49
Hnh 3.15. kin ca ngi dn v vic ng ca bi rc................................ 50
Hnh 3.16. S cng ngh x l nc rc ti bi rc Nam Sn ca Cng ty
SEEN ............................................................................................. 55
Hnh 3.17. Nc rc c ln b sc vi t h sinh hc ................................... 56
Hnh 3.18. H thng b lng cn ....................................................................... 57
Hnh 3.19. H thng thp tch NH3 (Stripping)............................................... 59
Hnh 3.20. H thng 2 b m SBR v h thng Semultech, mng trn v b
lc ct ............................................................................................. 60

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page vii

M U
1. Tnh cp thit ca ti
Vn rc thi hin nay ang tr thnh mi quan tm ca nhn loi, c
c Th gii quan tm. gii quyt vn ny vic xut hin cc bi rc, cng
ngh x l rc l rt cn thit. Qua iu tra hin nay c nc c 98 bi chn lp
rc thi nhng ch c 16 trong s l bi chn lp hp v sinh. H Ni mt
trung tm pht trin ca c nc cng v ang tng bc gii quyt sao cho
pht trin kinh t nhng n nh v x hi & mi trng.
Vi lng cht thi rn sinh ra t sinh hot v hot ng sn xut ngy
cng tng v a dng c th: nm 2011 tng lng cht thi rn sinh hot pht
sinh 6.500 tn/ngy, trong khi nm 2007 mi ch l 2.600 tn/ngy (Bo co mi
trng quc gia, 2011). Khi lng cht thi rn tng ln nhanh chng th tnh
trng qu ti v nhim mi trng nng n l mt thch thc t ra i vi
cng tc bo v mi trng.
Hin nay, ton b lng rc ca thnh ph H Ni v mt s tnh ln cn
c em n bi rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, thnh ph H Ni, bi rc
ny c a vo hot ng t nm 1999, c din tch gn 85 hecta cng sut x
l 4.200 tn rc/ngy hot ng 24/24h. Sau 16 nm i vo hot ng th bi rc
Nam Sn ang b qu ti, cng tc qun l mi trng ang gp rt nhiu kh
khn. m bo lng rc vn c thu gom x l din ra y ban nhn dn
thnh ph H Ni ph duyt d n u t xy dng bi rc giai on II vi
tng din tch s dng khong 737.000 m2. Thnh ph H Ni v ang u t
mt s hng mc c th nh ng giao thng, trm y t, trng hc trm cp
nc sch phc v dn sinh cc x dnh t cho d n.
Nhm tm hiu thc trng qun l mi trng ti bi rc v xut mt s
gii php nng cao hiu qu qun l v x l mi trng ti bi rc. Cung cp c
s thc tin cho vic hoch nh chnh sch v la chn cc cng ngh x l ph
hp trong tng lai gp phn gii quyt cc vn mi trng pht sinh t bi
rc p ng mc tiu pht trin bn vng ti a phng. Trc cc vn trn
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 1

ti la chn v thc hin ti "nh gi hin trng qun l mi trng ti bi


rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, thnh ph H Ni"
2. Mc tiu nghin cu
Mc tiu chung: Tm hiu hin trng qun l mi trng t nh gi
cng tc qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, Thnh ph H
Ni.
Mc tiu c th:
- Tm hiu hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn
- nh gi hin trng mi trng ti a im nghin cu.
- Tm hiu cng tc qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn.
- xut bin php qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn.
3. Yu cu nghin cu
- Nm c hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn v cng ngh x
l rc ti y.
- Tm hiu c hin trng mi trng xung quanh, nhng nh hng ca
bi rc ti mi trng xung quanh.
- Bit c cng tc qun l mi trng ti bi rc t a ra cc
xut qun l v mi trng i vi bi rc.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 2

Chng 1. TNG QUAN TI LIU


1.1. Tng quan v bi chn lp
1.1.1. Cc khi nim chung v bi chn lp
Bi chn lp cht thi rn (CTR) nh ta hiu l mt din tch hoc mt
khu t c quy hoch, c la chn, thit k, xy dng chn lp CTR
nhm gim ti a cc tc ng tiu cc ca bi chn lp (BCL) ti mi trng
(Nguyn Th Ngc Tho, 2012).
bt k mt bi chn lp no cng thng bao gm cc chn lp cht
thi, vng m v cc cng trnh ph tr khc nhau nh trm x l nc, kh
thi, cung cp in, nc v vn phng iu hnh.
Trong chn lp cht thi chnh l phn th tch CTR c vo
BCL trong mt khong thi gian. chn lp bao gm CTR v vt liu che ph
xung quanh n.
Trong chn lp phn lp che ph chnh l lp vt liu che ph trn ton
b BCL trong khi vn hnh v khi ng BCL nhm ngn nga, gim thiu tc
ng t chn lp ti mi trng xung quanh v t bn ngoi vo chn lp
CTR.
Sau khi chn lp ny sinh ra vn nc r rc, chnh l phn nc pht
sinh trong qu trnh phn hy t nhin CTR c cha cc cht gy nhim.
Trong qu trnh chn lp rc th ngoi nc rc cn c kh t chn lp
CTR pht sinh chnh ngun kh ny l hn hp kh sinh ra t chn lp cht thi
do qu trnh t phn hy t nhin CTR.
Rc c vo cc chn lp sau khi c lt mt lp y bng
phng php tri ton b vt liu trn ton din tch y v thnh bao quanh
chn lp cht thi nhm ngn nga, gim thiu s ngm, thm thu nc rc vo
tng nc ngm. Ngoi ra cn c cc phn khc nh:
Vng m ta c th quan st v thy c bt k mt bi rc no bng
mt thng chnh l di t bao quanh BCL nhm mc ch ngn cch, gim
thiu tc ng xu ca BCL n mi trng.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 3

Hng ro bo v c b tr k tip cnh vng m chnh l h thng


tng, ro chn, vnh ai cy xanh hoc vt cn c chiu cao nht nh bao
quanh BCL nhm hn ch tc ng t cc hot ng chn lp CTR n mi
trng xung quanh.
Trong cc hot ng ca bi chn lp mt hot ng cng din ra thng
xuyn v quan trng chnh l hot ng quan trc mi trng l cc hot ng
gn lin vi vic phn tch o c cc s liu v cht lng khng kh, nc.
Mc ch l theo di s di chuyn ca kh v nc trong BCL.
Mt cng on khc trong chui cc cng on trong bi chn lp l vic
ngng hon ton hot ng chn lp CTR ti BCL c gi l cng on
ng bi chn lp sau mt thi gian hot ng ca BCL tnh t khi bt u chn
lp CTR n khi ng BCL (Nguyn Th Ngc Tho, 2012).
hn ch cc nhim mi trng trong bi chn lp cng c thit
k h thng thu gom kh thi chnh l h thng cc cng trnh, thit b thu gom
kh thi sinh ra t BCL nhm ngn nga, gim thiu nhim khng kh v nguy
c gy chy n.
H thng thu gom nc rc ti mi bi rc chnh l h thng cc cng
trnh bao gm tng thu gom, ng ng dn, mng dn thu gom nc rc v
h tp trung hoc ti trm x l.
H thng thot nc mt v nc ma cng rt cn thit ti y h thng
thu gom nc mt v nc ma dn v ni quy nh nhm ngn nga nc mt
t bn ngoi xm nhp v cc chn lp.
1.1.2. Phn loi bi chn lp
1.1.2.1. Phn loi theo cu trc
Bi h y l phng php x l cht thi r tin nht, ch tn chi ph
cho cng vic thu gom v vn chuyn rc t ni pht sinh n bi rc.
Thng gp cc vng nng thn, ni tp chung t dn c hay din tch t
d tha, cha c u t kinh ph cho vic qun l rc nn thng xut
hin nhng bi rc t pht ny.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 4

Bi rc h c nhiu nhc im nh:


- To cnh quan xu, gy cm gic kh chu.
- Khi thnh ng, rc thi s l mi trng thun li cho cc ng vt
gm nhm, cc loi cn trng, vector gy bnh sinh si, ny n gy nguy him
cho sc khe con ngi.
- Cc bi rc h lu ngy b phn hy s r nc v to nn vng ly li,
m t v t hnh thnh nhng dng nc r r chy thm vo cc tng t
bn di gy nhim ngun nc ngm, hoc to thnh dng chy trn gy
nhim ngun nc mt.
- Bi rc h s gy nhim khng kh do qu trnh phn hy rc to thnh
cc kh c mi hi thi, mt khc cc bi rc h cn c hin tng chy
ngm hay c th chy thnh ngn la v tt c cc qu trnh trn s dn n vn
nhim khng kh.
C th ni y l phng php x l r tin nht, ch tn chi ph cho cng
vic thu gom v vn chuyn rc t ni pht sinh n bi rc. Tuy nhin phng
php ny li i hi mt din tch bi rc ln. Do vy cc thnh ph ng dn
c v qu t ai khan him th phng php ny tr nn t tin cng vi nhiu
nhc im nh nu trn.
Bi chn di bin theo nhiu nghin cu ch ra rng vic chn rc di
bin cng c nhiu iu li. V d nh thnh ph New York, trc y cht
thi rn c ch n bn cng bng nhng on xe la ring, sau chng
c cc x lan ch em chn di bin su ti thiu 100 feets, nhm trnh
tnh trng li c b vng mc. Ngoi ra San Francisco, New York v mt s
thnh ph ven bin khc ca Hoa K, ngi ra cn xy dng nhng bi rc ngm
nhn to trn c s s dng cc khi gch, b tng ph v cc ta nh thi b.
iu ny va gii quyt c vn cht thi, ng thi to nn ni tr n cho
cc loi sinh vt bin. Bi chn lp di bin cha ph bin mt s ni c bit
Vit Nam khng c loi bi chn lp ny.
Bi chn lp hp v sinh chnh l bi chn lp c thit k cht
thi rn sao cho mc gy c hi n mi trng l nh nht. Ti y rc
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 5

c b bng cch tri rng trn mt t, sau c nn v bao ph mt lp


t dy 1,5cm (hay vt liu bao ph) cui mi ngy (Nguyn Vn Phc,
2009).
Khi bi chn lp v sinh s dng ht cng sut thit k ca n, mt lp
t (hay vt liu bao ph) sau cng dy khong 60cm c ph ln trn.
u im ca bi rc hp v sinh:
- nhng ni c t trng, bi rc v sinh thng l phng php kinh t
nht cho vic b cht thi rn.
- u t ban u v chi ph hot ng ca bi rc v sinh thp so vi cc
phng php khc (t, phn).
- Bi rc hp v sinh c th nhn tt c cc loi cht rn m khng cn
thit phi thu gom ring l hay phn loi tng loi.
- Bi rc hp v sinh rt linh hot trong khi s dng nh khi khi lng
rc gia tng c th tng cng thm cng nhn v thit b c gii, trong khi
cc phng php khc phi m rng nh my tng cng sut.
- Do b nn cht v ph t ln trn nn cc cn trng, chut b, rui mui
kh c th sinh si ny n.
- Cc hin tng chy ngm hay chy bng kh c th xy ra, ngoi ra
gim thiu c cc mi hi thi gy nhim khng kh.
- Gp phn lm gim nn nhim nc ngm v nc mt.
- Cc bi rc v sinh khi b chn lp y, chng ta c th xy dng chng
thnh cc cng vin, cc sn chi, sn vn ng, cng vin gio dc, sn golf,
hay cng trnh phc v ngh ngi gii tr.
Tuy nhin cng c mt s nhc im nh sau:
- Cc bi rc hp v sinh i hi din tch t ai ln, mt thnh ph ng
dn c s lng rc thi cng nhiu th din tch bi thi cng ln. Ngi ta c
tnh mt thnh ph c quy m 10.000 dn th trong mt nm thi ra mt lng
rc c th lp y din tch 1 hecta vi chiu su 3m.
- Cc lp t ph cc bi rc v sinh thng hay b gi thi mn v pht
tn i xa.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 6

- Cc bi rc v sinh thng to ra cc kh CH4 hoc kh H2S c hi c


kh nng gy chy n hay gy chy n gy ngt. Tuy nhin CH4 c th c thu
hi lm kh t.
Nu khng xy dng v qun l tt c th gy ra nhim nc ngm v
nhim khng kh.
1.1.2.2. Phn loi theo chc nng
Bi chn lp c phn loi theo chc nng th c phn lm 3 loi:
- Bi chn lp cht thi nguy hi: c chn cc cht thi nguy hi nh
cht bo v thc vt, v ng cc cht nguy hi.
- Bi chn lp cht thi ch nh: Ti y cc cht thi c ch nh c
chn ti y mi c chn.
- Bi chn lp cht thi rn th l bi cha ton b lng rc thi th
c vn chuyn ti bi chn lp.
1.1.2.3. Phn loi theo a hnh
Phng php o h/rnh l phng php l tng cho nhng khu vc c
su thch hp, vt liu che ph sn c v mc nc ngm khng gn b mt,
thch hp s dng cho nhng loi t ai bng phng hay nghing u v c
bit l nhng ni c chiu su lp t o ti bi bao ph lp rc nn.
Phng php chn lp trn khu vc t bng phng phng php ny
c s dng khi a hnh khng cho php o h hoc mng. Khu vc bi
chn lp c lt y v lp t h thng thu nc r r.
Phng php hm ni/li lm l cc hm ni, khe ni, h o, ni khai
thc m... c th c s dng lm bi chn lp. K thut v nn cht thi
trong khe ni, mm ni, m ph thuc vo a hnh, a cht v thy vn ca
bi , c im ca vt liu bao ph, thit b kim sot nc r r, kh thi rc
v ng vo khu vc bi chn lp.
1.1.2.4. Phn loi theo cht thi rn tip nhn
Bi chn lp cht thi rn kh l bi chn lp cc cht thi thng thng
(rc sinh hot, rc ng ph v rc cng nghip).

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 7

Bi chn lp cht thi rn t l bi chn lp dng chn lp cht thi


di dng bn nho.
Bi chn lp cht thi rn hn hp l ni dng chn lp cht thi thng
thng v c bn nho. i vi cc dnh chn lp t v hn hp bt buc
phi tng kh nng hp th nc rc ca h thng thu nc rc, khng cho rc
thm n nc ngm.
1.1.2.5. Phn loi theo kt cu
Bi chn lp ni c hiu l bi chn lp xy ni trn mt t nhng
ni c a hnh bng phng, khng dc lm (vng i g). Cht thi c cht
thnh ng cao n 15m. Trong trng hp ny xung quanh bi chn lp phi c
cc khng thm ngn chn nc rc xm nhp vo nc mt xung quanh
cng nh nc mt xung quanh xm nhp vo bi chn lp.
Bi chn lp chm khc vi bi chn lp ni l loi bi chm di mt t
hoc tn dng cc h t nhin, m khai thc c, ho, mng, rnh.
Bi chn lp kt hp c hiu l loi bi xy dng na chm na ni.
Cht thi khng ch c chn lp y h m sau tip tc c cht ng
ln trn.
Bi chn lp khe ni l loi bi c hnh thnh bng cch tn dng khe
ni cc vng ni, i cao.
1.1.2.6. Phn loi theo quy m
Quy m bi chn lp cht thi rn th ph thuc vo quy m ca th
nh dn s, lng cht thi rn pht sinh, c im cht thi rn.
Bng 1.1. Phn loi quy m bi chn lp
Dn s th hin ti

Loi bi

Nh

Va

100.000 - 300.000

65.000

10 30

Ln

300.000 1.000.000

200.000

30 50

Rt ln

100.000

1.000.000

Lng rc (tn/nm)

Din tch

STT

20.000

200.000

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

bi (ha)
10

50
Page 8

1.2. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp trn Th gii v Vit Nam


1.2.1. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp trn Th gii.
Chn lp vn l phng php thng dng nht v ang p dng cc
nc pht trin. Ngay nhng nc c trnh tin tin nh M, Anh, Thy in,
an Mch th x l cht thi rn bng phng php chn lp vn c s dng
nh l phng php chnh. Ton b lng cht thi rn th Hy Lp c x
l bng phng php chn lp. Anh lng CTR hng nm khong 18 triu tn
trong ch 6% c x l bng phng php thiu t, 92% c x l bng
phng php chn lp. c lng CTR hng nm khong 19.483 triu tn
trong 2% c sn xut phn Compost, 28% c x l bng thiu t, 69%
em chn lp (Vin cng ngh mi trng, 2007).
Singapore l mt nc ang pht trin nhng sm quan tm n vic
x l CTR. Tuy l mt nc nh din tch t khng nhiu v vy t nc ny
chn bin php x l rc thi ca mnh l t v chn lp. Nhng thnh phn
rc thi khng chy c chn lp ngoi bin. Bi chn lp rc Semakau c
xy dng bng cch p ngn nc bin mt hn o nh ngoi khi
Singapore. Rc c chia lm hai loi, loi chy c em t cn loi khng
chy c chuyn ti chn lp rc trn bin tit kim c din tch t trn t
lin v m rng t khi ng bi, mi trng nc th b thu hp li. Kh thi
c x l nghim ngt v trnh s dch chuyn cht nhim t dng lp sang
dng kh.
Ti Trung Quc mc pht sinh trung bnh lng CTR l 0,4kg/ngi/ngy,
cc thnh ph mc pht sinh cao hn l 0,9kg/ngi/ngy. S cht thi khng
thu gom c vo cc sng, t thnh ng, thnh ng hoc x l khng
theo quy nh. Tuy nhin my nm gn y hu ht cc thnh ph ln u chuyn
sang chn lp hp v sinh v s dng nhiu hn cng ngh thiu t. Hin nay,
660 thnh ph c khong 1000 bi chn lp ln, chim hn 50.000 ha t v c
tnh trong 30 nm ti Trung Quc s dnh 100.000 ha t xy dng cc bi
chn lp mi. Trong thp k qua, Trung Quc mi bt u xy dng cc bi chn

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 9

lp hp v sinh v phn ln cht thi vn ang gy ra cc vn nan gii v mi


trng nc ny.
Cc phng php x l cht thi rn thng dng ang c p dng cc
nc ang pht trin trnh by trong bng 1.2.
Bng 1.2. Cc phng php x l CTR ph bin khu vc ng Nam
Hnh thc x l (%)
Tn nc

Phn vi Chn lp

Chn lp

Khc

10

13

50

30

80

10

Philippines

10

75

10

Singapore

30

70

Thailand

10

35

35

15

Vit Nam

70

25

sinh

hp v sinh

Indonesia

15

60

Malaysia

10

Myanmar

(Ngun: Bo co cc cng ngh x l CTR WB, 2008)


1.2.2. Cng tc qun l bi chn lp Vit Nam
Vit Nam hin nay cht thi rn c x l bng nhiu cch khc nhau.
Mt phn rt nh c x l bng phng php lm phn vi sinh compost,
phng php b cht thi bng phng php chn lp l ph bin. Phng
php thiu t ang p dng cho cht thi nguy hi y t v mt phn cht thi
cng nghip. Nh vy c th ni nc ta k thut x l cht thi rn cn cha
cao. Phn ln rc thi sinh hot Vit Nam vn c x l bng hnh thc chn
lp. Nm 2000, B Khoa hc v Cng ngh v Mi trng ban hnh TCVN
6696-2000 cht thi rn bi chn lp hp v sinh yu cu chung v bo v
mi trng a ra cc yu cu v bo v mi trng khi la chn v tr BCL, khi
thit k BCL, khi xy dng BCL v yu cu bo v mi trng khi khai thc vn
hnh ng ca BCL. Khi khai thc vn hnh BCL cn phi c: Cc BCL cht
thi phi c quy trnh vn hnh, khai thc bi c c quan c thm quyn ph
duyt. i vi BCL ln v rt ln phi c h thng cn, phi c s theo di thi
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 10

gian, khi lng, tnh cht v ngun gc cht thi chn lp. Cht thi chn lp
thnh tng lp ring v ngn cch nhau bng cc lp t ph. Trc khi ph lp
t ngn cch cht thi phi c m, nn k. Chiu dy ln nht ca tng lp
t thi l 1m. Chiu dy ca lp t ph ngn cch sau khi m nn l 0,15
0,2 m. Khi lng cht thi trong tng chn lp y phi tin hnh ng bi
bng lp t che ph trn cng. Lp t ph trn cng c c im: Lp ph trc
tip trn b mt cht thi c chiu dy ln hn 0,5 m v c hm lng st > 30%.
Lp ph trc tip phi c m k v to dc thot nc > 3%. Hai l, lp
ph trng cy bng t th nhng. Trc khi ph lp t trng cy phi ph ln
b mt lp ph mt lp ct mng to thot nc b mt BCL. Chiu dy
ca lp trng cy ln hn 0,3 m.
Nm 2001, B Khoa hc v Cng ngh Mi trng B Xy Dng ban
hnh thng t lin tch 01/2001/TTLT BKHCNMT BXD - hng dn cc
quy nh v mi trng i vi vic la chn a im, xy dng v vn hnh
BCL. Quy nh khi vn hnh BCL gm: Cht thi c ch n BCL phi c
kim tra phn loi (qua trm cn) v tin hnh chn lp ngay, khng qu 24
gi. Cht thi phi c chn lp theo ng cc quy nh cho tng loi cht
thi tng ng. i vi cc BCL tip nhn trn 20.000 tn (hoc 50.000 m3) cht
thi/nm nht thit phi trang b h thng cn in t kim sot nh lng
cht thi. Ch vn hnh BCL phi xc nh ng cc loi cht thi c php
chn lp khi tip nhn vo BCL v phi lp s ng k theo di nh k hng
nm v c lu gi v bo qun ti Ban Qun l BCL trong thi gian vn hnh
v sau t nht l 5 nm k t ngy ng BCL. Cht thi phi c chn lp thnh
cc lp ring r v ngn cch nhau bng cc lp t ph hng ngy theo trnh t:
Mt l, cht thi c san u v m nn k (bng my m nn 6 8
ln) thnh nhng lp c chiu dy ti a 60 cm m bo t trng cht thi ti
thiu sau m nn 0,52 tn 0,8 tn/m3.
Hai l, phi tin hnh ph lp t trung gian trn b mt rc khi c
m cht (theo cc lp) c cao ti a t 2,0 2,2 m. Chiu dy lp t ph

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 11

phi t 20 cm. T l lp t ph chim khong 10 15% tng th tch rc thi


v t ph.
V ba l, t ph phi c thnh phn ht st > 30%, m d m nn.
Lp t ph phi c tri u khp v kn lp cht thi v sau khi m nn k
th c b dy khong 15 20 cm. Cc chn lp phi c phun thuc dit cn
trng (khng c dng dung dch). S ln phun s cn c vo mc pht
trin ca cc loi cn trng m phun cho thch hp nhm hn ch ti a s pht
trin ca cn trng. Cc phng tin vn chuyn CTR sau khi cht thi vo
BCL cn phi c ra sch trc khi ra khi phm vi BCL. H thng thu gom
v x l nc thi phi thng xuyn hot ng v c kim tra, duy tu, sa
cha v thau ra nh k m bo cng sut thit k. Cc h lng phi c no
vt bn v a bn n khu x l thch hp. Nc rc khng c php thi trc
tip ra mi trng nu hm lng cc cht nhim vt qu cc tiu chun quy
nh (QCVN). Cho php s dng tun hon nc rc nguyn cht t h thng thu
gom ca BCL, hoc bn st pht sinh ra t h thng x l nc rc tr li ti
ln BCL tng cng qu trnh phn hy cht thi trong nhng iu kin sau:
Chiu dy cc lp rc ang chn lp phi ln hn 4; phi p dng k thut ti
u trn b mt; khng p dng cho nhng vng ca chn lp khi tin hnh
ph lp cui cng.
Thng 12 nm 2001 B Xy Dng ban hnh TCXDVN 261:2001 Bi
chn lp cht thi rn tiu chun thit k. Tiu chun quy nh v cc hng mc
cng trnh phi c trong BCL, cc yu cu thit k v kt cu y thnh BCL,
yu cu v h thng thu gom nc r rc, h thng thu hi kh v cch b tr.
TCXDVN 261:2001 mi ch a ra cc tiu chun thit k cho bi chn
lp cht thi rn. V vy, nm 2004 B Xy Dng tip tc ban hnh TCXDVN
320:2004 Bi chn lp cht thi nguy hi Tiu chun thit k. Tiu chun quy
nh cc yu cu thit k, xy dng BCL cht thi nguy hi nh yu cu v khu
t xy dng, yu cu v khu tin x l (ni phn loi cht thi nguy hi v x l
cht thi nguy hi khng c php chn lp thnh cht thi nguy hi c php
chn lp), khu x l nc rc, khu ph tr v khu chn lp vi cc yu cu c th
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 12

hn TCXDVN 261:2001 nh yu cu v phi c h thng lp lt y v thnh


kp gm 5 lp do cht thi c tnh c v tnh n mn, yu cu h thng thu gom
nc rc.
Nc r rc sau x l trc y thng dng tiu chun nc thi cng
nghip. n nm 2009 B Ti nguyn v Mi trng ban hnh QCVN
25:2009/BTNMT QCKTQG v nc thi ca BCL CTR (thay th TCVN
5945:2005). Quy chun quy nh nng ti a cho php ca cc thng s
nhim trong nc thi ca bi chn lp cht thi rn khi x vo ngun tip nhn.
Nm 2009, B Khoa hc v Cng ngh ban hnh TCVN 6696 2009
thay th cho TCVN 6696 2000 trn, v c bn tiu chun khng c g thay
i nhiu.
Phng php x l CTR bng chn lp h, bi vn ph bin
Vit Nam.
Tuy nhin phng php ny li gy ra mt s nh hng ti mi trng
nh cnh quan kh coi, ny sinh cc cn trng v vi sinh vt gy bnh nguy him
ti sc khe con ngi, vn nc r rc khng c h thng thu gom x l trit
, mi hi thi, quan trng khng km l nguy c chy ngm.
C th coi y l phng php r tin nht, ch tiu tn chi ph cho cng
vic thu gom v vn chuyn rc t ni pht sinh n bi rc. Tuy nhin, phng
php ny li i hi mt din tch bi thi ln, do vy cc thnh ph ng dn
c v qu t khan him th n s tr thnh phng php t tin cng vi nhiu
nhc im nu trn.
Theo nh s liu iu tra c Vit Nam cng mi ch c 12 trong tng s
64 tnh, thnh ph c bi chn lp hp v sinh hoc ng k thut v ch c 16
trong s 98 bi chn lp hin c trong c nc l bi chn lp hp v sinh. Phn
ln cc bi chn lp hp v sinh u c xy dng bng ngun vn ODA,
ngun vn u t t ngn sch l ht sc kh khn v hn ch, cc bi chn lp
ny li lun trong tnh trng qu ti. Trc thc t chn lp cht thi din ra nh
trn, mt s tnh thnh ph trn c nc u t xy dng cc nh my ch
bin x l rc thi.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 13

Ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh vo thng 12 nm 2008 hon thnh nh my


x l rc trn din tch 70ha vi cng sut x l 1.200 tn/ngy. y l mt nh my
in hnh u tin ti Chu c xy dng da trn s kt hp gia cng ngh v
quy trnh x l rc ph hp vi cc iu kin rc thi ti a phng.
Trong khi mt s thnh ph ln u t xy dng cc nh my ln ti hng
trm t ng th ti Tha Thin Hu ch vi gn 37 t ng c mt nh my
x l theo cng ngh Vit Nam vi nhiu u im. Vi cng ngh ny c n
90% rc c ti ch, 10% rc cn li sp ti c nh my tn dng sn xut
i tr gch block. Theo phn tch ca ng Nguyn Huy Chng Gim c nh
my, cc nh my x l rc ca nc ngoi khng ph hp trong x l rc thi
Vit Nam do c thit k x l cc loi rc c phn loi ngay t u,
nh my ch tip nhn v ti ch. Cn ti nh my Thy Phng, hn hp rc
bc u c x nh, sau h thng gi ngang v gi dc lm ti ra v phn
thnh ba loi rc khc nhau: Rc dng t, nha plastic, cht hu c lm vi
sinh. Nh my Thy Phng cn tn dng lm phn hu c. i vi cc loi rc
plastic nh bao nilong, nha, c sn xut ng nc, cc h thng giao thng,
vn coppha dng trong xy dng. i vi 10% rc thi cn li s c t tn
thu lng nhit nhm ti s dng trong vic phn hy cht plastic v sy h
thng nh my, cht cn b ca loi rc ny c chn lp vi s lng khng
ng k.
Hay ti Qung Ninh sng ngy 03 thng 11 nm 2012 ti Ung B, Tnh
Qung Ninh, Cc qun l cht thi v ci thin mi trng (tng cc mi trng)
phi hp vi UBND tnh Qung Ninh v UBND thnh ph Ung B t chc l
khi cng cng trnh x l, ci to v phc hi mi trng bi chn lp khng
hp v sinh Lc Thanh. Va qua Chnh ph cng ph duyt chin lc bo v
mi trng quc gia n nm 2020, tm nhn n 2030 ti Quyt nh s
1216/Q TTG ngy 05 thng 09 nm 2012 ca th tng Chnh ph trong
xc nh r mc tiu: s lng bi chn lp cht thi p ng cc yu cu k
thut v hp v sinh l 50% n nm 2015 v 90% n nm 2020 v giao B Ti
Nguyn v Mi trng theo di thc hin.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 14

1.3. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng xung quanh


1.3.1. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng nc
Bin php x l cht thi rn bng bin php chn lp hp v sinh li
mi e da ln nht i vi mi trng ti bi chn lp l kh nng nhim mi
trng do nc r r. Nhn chung, nc r r t bi chn lp l nguyn nhn
chnh dn ti suy thoi cht lng mi trng nc mt, nc ngm v t nu
khng c kim sot.
Trong hu ht cc bi chn lp nc r r t bi chn lp bao gm cht lng
i vo bi chn lp rc t cc ngun bn ngoi, nh nc mt, nc ma, nc
ngm v cht lng to thnh trong qu trnh phn hy cc cht thi. Thnh phn ca
nc r r rc ph thuc vo thnh phn ca rc, ca cc giai on phn hy ang
din ra, m ca rc v cc phn ng l, sinh, ha xy ra trong bi chn lp cng
nh quy trnh vn hnh bi chn lp rc. Trong thnh phn nc r r t rc nng
cc cht l rt cao nh BOD, COD, Nit hu c, NO3-, NH3-N, kim, cao hn rt
nhiu so vi quy chun cho php (Nguyn Ngc Nng, 2011).
Bng 1.3. Thnh phn nc r r ca bi chn lp mi v hot ng mt
thi gian.
Thnh phn
BOD5
TOC
COD
TSS
N hu c
N ammoniac
NO3-(nitrat)
Photpho tng
Photpho Octo
kim
pH
cng
Ca
Mg
K
Na
ClSO42Fe tng

Gi tr, mg/l
Bi chn lp hot ng 2 nm
Khong
Gi tr in hnh
2.00020.000
10.000
1.55020.000
6.000
3.00060.000
18.000
2002.000
500
10800
200
10800
200
540
25
5100
30
480
20
1.00010.000
3.000
4,57,5
6
30010.000
3.500
2003.000
1.000
501.500
250
2001.000
300
2002.500
500
2003.000
500
501.000
300
501.200
60

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Bi chn lp hot
ng hn 10 nm
100200
80160
100500
100400
80120
2040
510
510
48
2001.000
6,67,5
200500
100400
50200
50400
100200
100400
2050
20200
Page 15

(Ngun: George Tchobangluos, Intergrated Soild Waste Management, 1993)


Nu nc r r t bi chn lp khng c thu gom li v x l th n s i
vo ngun nc ngm, nc mt v ngm vo t trong khu vc v vng ln cn.
Vic i vo mi trng xung quanh s gy ra hu qu cho sinh vt v ngi dn
thng qua nc ngm v nc mt. Ti bi rc Hn R, tnh Khnh Ha ngi
dn chn xe rc khng cho xe rc vo . Nguyn nhn do mi hi thi bc ra
t bi cng vi vic nc r rc t bi rc en ngm, hi thi chy theo knh lm
cht la, t v nhiu cy trng ca ngi dn a phng. Nc ging trong thn
thm nc r rc c ngu, c mi hi, dn khng gim s dng phi i ch nc
sch v n. Hu qu t bi rc khng c h thng thu gom v x l nc r rc
hp l lm cho ngi dn bc xc v kh s v mi v s nhim t bi rc
gy ra. Bi rc Hn R c tnh Khnh Ha quy hoch 20 ha cha rc cho
ton th x nhng hin mi s dng c 2 ha gy bc xc cho ngi dn do
khng c cng tc quy hoch v qun l tt (Hip hi mi trng th v khu
cng nghip Vit Nam, 2011).
- Tc ng n ngun nc mt: Nc ma, nc r r t bi rc nu
khng c kim sot cht ch, x l trit v bm thot ra ngoi khu x l
vo cc mng lch ri ra ngoi gy nhim ngun nc ngoi khu chn lp.
- Tc ng n ngun nc ngm: Nc thm t bi rc xung mch
nc ngm gy nhim ngun nc ngm. Cc cht trong nc thi thm t bi
chn lp c th phn ra thnh 4 loi sau: Cc ion v cc nguyn t thng thng
(Ca, Mg, Fe, Na,); cc kim loi nng c vt (Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd); cc hp cht
hu c thng o di dng TOC hoc COD v cht hu c ring bit nh
phenol; cc vi sinh vt.
nh hng ca cc cht hu c trong nc ngm s rt lu di do tc
oxy ha chm trong nc ngm (oxy ha tan thp v lng vi sinh vt hiu kh
thp). Ngoi ra cc kim loi nng v vi sinh vt c th thm qua y v thnh bi
xung nc ngm. Nc ngm s b nhim khng thch hp l ngun nc cp
sinh hot cho dn xung quanh. Mc d nc r r c thu gom v x l nhng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 16

vn b ngm xung nc ngm t bi rc v h thu gom. Vy nn, chng ta cn


phi xy dng nh my x l nc cp phc v cho dn xung quanh khu chn lp.
1.3.2. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng t
Trc tin vic s dng qu t lm bi chn lp chim rt nhiu din
tch t trong khu vc. t trong khu chn lp phi chu nh hng trc tip t
nc r r nu thm xung. Cc cht nhim nh kim loi nng di dng ion
linh ng, cc cht kh phn hy. Thm nhp vo t lm thay i trng thi ban
u ca t, cc mu t xt nghim phn ln cc bi rc cho thy mn rt
cao, mt s mu b nhim kim loi nng, vi sinh vt gy bnh v nhng cht
c hi khc. Theo kt qu iu tra ca vin y hc v v sinh mi trng xt
nghim vi 5 mu t ti bi rc Lng Sn th c 5 mu u b nhim k sinh
trng, mu thp nht l 5 trng/100g t v mu cao nht l 15 trng/100g t
(L Hunh Mai v Nguyn Mai Phong, 2009).
Khi tnh cht ca t thay i s nh hng xu n hot ng sn xut
nng nghip. Cc c t tch t trong t chuyn vo cy trng v sau l gia
sc gy tch t sinh hc nh hng n chn nui v sc khe cng ng. Nhng
ty thuc vo cu trc v thnh phn ca t khu vc xy dng bi chn lp
m mc nh hng ca nc r r t bi chn lp n mi trng l khc
nhau. Nu nh khu vc xy dng c t trn mt nn t tt c thnh phn st
chim ch yu th kh nng gy nhim mi trng c hn ch.
Bi chn lp lun c coi l mt b cha khng l cc cht gy nhim
cho mi trng, trong qu trnh chn lp cc loi cht thi ny tip tc phn hy
t nhin nh h thng vi sinh vt ho kh v ym kh. Vo ma ma cc tc nhn
gy nhim trong bi chn lp s tip tc c ha tan trong nc thm xung
t v ngun nc hoc chy trn trn b mt t v lan truyn ra ngoi khu bi
chn lp theo mt s ng nh: r r, thm qua cc khe nt ca bao, thm
vo mao qun t i xung nc ngm, hoc chy trn b mt theo rnh thot
nc. V vy, vic la chn cc cng ngh x l trong bi chn lp l vn
quan trng nhm hn ch ti a mi nguy hi v mc nh hng n mi trng
t l thp nht.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 17

1.3.3. nh hng ca bi chn lp ti mi trng khng kh


Trong bi chn lp cht thi chu ng thi cng mt lc nhng bin i
sinh hc, l hc, ha hc sinh ra cc kh bao gm: CH4, CO2, N2, O2, H2S v mt
lng nh cc cht kh bay hi khc. N cng chnh l ngun gy nhim khng
kh khi bi chn lp i vo hot ng v sinh ra t qu trnh phn hy cht hu
c trong cht thi rn.
Kh t bi chn lp c cu thnh t nhng thnh phn khc nhau gm
cc kh a lng v cc kh vi lng. T bng 1.4 ta thy kh mtan (CH4) v
dioxit cacbon (CO2) l cc kh sinh ra ch yu t qu trnh phn hy cht hu c
trong cht thi rn (phn hy sinh hc). Lng kh ny sinh ra nhiu m khng
c thu gom v x l trit s gp phn nh hng n s nng ln ca kh
hu ton cu v gy ra nhng hu qu ca bi rc nh chy ngm trong bi, n
bi rc. Ti bi rc thng xuyn xy ra hin tng chy rc ngm trong cc
chn lp do nng kh mtan rt cao. c bit l kh mtan l loi kh d chy,
n khi tn ti trong khng kh vi nng 5 15% s pht n v gy thit hi
ln (Cc qun l cht thi v bo v mi trng, 2008).
Bng 1.4. T l thnh phn cc kh sinh ra ch yu t bi chn lp
Thnh phn

% Theo th tch kh

CH4

4560

CO2

4060

N2

25

O2

0,11,0

Mecaptan, hp cht cha lu hunh


NH3

01,0
0,11,0

H2

00,2

CO

00,2

Cc kh khc
Tnh cht

0,010,6
Gi tr

Nhit (0F)

100120

T trng

1,021,06

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 18

( Ngun:Nguyn Vn Phc, 2010)


Hot ng din ra ti BCL s lm tng mt giao thng t lm tng
hm lng bi, kh thi, gim cht lng mi trng khng kh xung quanh. Bi
t gy nh hng n sc khe, sinh trng v pht trin ca thc vt, n cht
lng cuc sng con ngi, gy tc hi n ng h hp c bit l phi. Cc
ht bi c kch thc khong 0,5 5 m c th ri vo tn cung phi v mng
phi. Ngoi ra, bi kim loi sinh ra t phng tin giao thng cng gp phn nh
nh hng ti nhim mi trng khng kh c bit bi Pb. Ting n do hot
ng ca cc loi xe ch rc chy sut ngy m nh hng n ngi dn xung
quanh. Mt khc, BCL l ni thch hp cho cc loi rui nhng, chut, cc loi
sinh vt gy bnh c tr v pht trin. Cc loi sinh vt ny c th theo ngi
nht rc i ra ngoi khu vc BCL truyn bnh cho ngi dn xung quanh.
Sau khi tm hiu v bi chn lp, vic phn loi bi chn lp khc nhau,
trn Th gii hin nay s dng rt nhiu bi chn lp khc nhau: bi chn lp h,
bi chn lp di bin, bi chn lp hp v sinh hay phn loi theo quy m bi
rc. Ty vo iu kin kinh t, qu t, lng rc pht sinh v trnh khoa hc
m cc nc la chn cc phng php x l rc thch hp nhng phng php
ch yu vn l chn lp. Vic chn lp cc nc pht trin thng c phn
loi trc khi em chn lp v kt hp nhiu phng php khc nhau, tuy nhin
do lng cht thi pht sinh ngy mt tng, cng tc qun l vn gp nhiu kh
khn nn tnh trng cc bi chn lp b qu ti ang gy ra cc vn nan gii.
Vit Nam l mt nc ang pht trin v cng bt u tr trng vn
qun l rc thi nhng vn cn gp rt nhiu hn ch v cng gp phi cc vn
kh khn chung nh: trnh khoa hc cn yu km, u t cng ngh cha
ng b, lng rc pht sinh ngy mt tng, dn c tp chung v thnh th ngy
mt ng c nn vic bi chn lp b qu ti l iu hin nhin. Vn nh gi
hin trng, nhn nhn v xut cc bin php qun l hp l hn mt ln na
c khng nh l rt cn thit.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 19

Chng 2. NI DUNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU

2.1. i tng nghin cu


Hin trng mi trng v cng tc qun l v mi trng
2.2. Phm vi nghin cu
a im: Bi chn lp rc thi Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni (URENCO 8)
Phm vi thi gian: Thi gian thc hin nghin cu t thng 4 nm 2014
n thng 4 nm 2015.
2.3. Ni dung nghin cu
2.3.1. Hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn, huyn Sc Sn, thnh
ph H Ni.
2.3.2. Hin trng mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn
2.3.3. Bin php qun l v mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn
2.3.4. Cc gii php ph hp cho vic qun l v mi trng ti bi rc Nam
Sn.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 20

2.4. Phng php nghin cu


Phng php thu thp thng tin

Phng php thu thp

Phng php thu

s liu s cp

thp s liu th cp

Thu thp

Thu thp s

Thu thp

s liu t

liu t ti

s liu t

bo co

liu tham

ngun trn

quan trc

kho, bo

internet

MT, TM

co K. hc

Phng
php

Phng
php iu

iu tra

tra kho

bng

st thc

hi

Phng php x l s liu


Phng php thng k m t

Phng php so snh vi TC,


QC, TM

Hnh 2.1. Khung phng php nghin cu

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 21

2.4.1. Phng php thu thp thng tin th cp


+ Thu thp ti liu, k tha cc thng tin c lin quan n x Nam Sn,
huyn Sc Sn, Thnh ph H Ni.
+ Thu thp, k tha cc kt qu iu tra nghin cu ca s Ti nguyn &
Mi trng thnh ph H Ni.
+ S liu thng k ca UBND huyn Sc Sn (t ai, a hnh, mi
trng)
+ Bo co v s liu thng k ca ban qun l bi rc Nam Sn.
+ Bo co quy hoch s dng t ai huyn Sc Sn.
+ Bo co quy hoch tng th pht trin kinh t x hi huyn Sc Sn.
+ Thu thp ti liu, cc vn bn php lut c p dng ti huyn Sc Sn
ni ring v thnh ph H Ni ni chung.
+ Bo co TM
2.4.2. Phng php thu thp ti liu s cp
2.4.2.1. iu tra bng bng hi
- nh hng ca bi chn lp n mi trng
- Nhn thc ca cn b, nhn vin trong bi rc v cht thi rn
+ Phiu iu tra phng vn cho cn b, nhn vin trong bi rc v
ngi dn xung quanh bi rc
S phiu phng vn cn b x nghip: 5 phiu (trong c cn b hot
ng trong trm x l nc r rc: 02 phiu, cn b phng k hoch: 01 phiu,
cn b phng t chc hnh chnh: 01 phiu, ban gim c 01 phiu).
S phiu phng vn ngi dn: 30 phiu xung quanh bi rc Nam Sn,
huyn Sc Sn, thnh ph H Ni, s phiu c chn mt cch ngu nhin.
2.4.2.2. Kho st hin trng
- i kho st thc t ti bi rc, trc tip ghi chp li nhng thng tin lin
quan n qun l v x l rc thi ti bi rc Nam Sn.
- Quan st pht hin vn , kim tra cho v hiu chnh nhng thng tin
thu c qua phng vn v ti liu th cp nh gi mt cch tng quan v
hin trng qun l rc thi ti bi rc Nam Sn.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 22

2.4.2.3. Phng php ly mu


Phng php bn , kho st thc a: xc nh v tr ly mu: bao
gm 02 mu ting n, 02 mu khng kh, 01 mu bn, 02 mu nc mt, 08 mu
nc ngm, 02 mu t.

Hnh 2.2. S ly mu ti khu vc bi chn lp rc Nam Sn


Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 23

Bng 2.1. Bng k hiu v tn mu


K hiu

Tn mu

T1

Mu ting n 1

T2

Mu ting n 2

K1

Mu khng kh 01

K2

Mu khng kh 02

B1

Mu bn 01

NM1

Mu nc mt 01

NM2

Mu nc mt 02

NN1

Mu nc ngm 01

NN2

Mu nc ngm 02

NN4

Mu nc ngm 04

NN5

Mu nc ngm 05

NN6

Mu nc ngm 06

NN7

Mu nc ngm 07

NN8

Mu nc ngm 08

Mu t 01

Mu t 02

V tr o

Ta

Khu vc trong chn lp

X: 2327738
Y:0594999
Khu vc ngoi ng i xe rc
X: 2327745
Y:0594986
Mu khng kh trong khu chn X: 2327736
lp trc CD
Y:0594984
Mu khng kh cch trc CD X: 2327734
300m
Y:0594980
Mu bn ti h trc x l nc X: 2327731
rc
Y:0594983
im thng lu sng Cng
X: 2327733
Y:0594987
im h lu sng Cng
X: 2327728
Y:0594975
im ging gim st loi A
X: 2327724
Y:0594978
im ging gim st loi A
X: 2327727
Y:0594969
im gim st loi B
X: 2327729
Y:0594967
im gim st loi B
X: 2327730
Y:0594977
im gim st loi B
X: 2327733
Y:0594978
im gim st loi C
X: 2327728
Y:0594980
im gim st loi C
X: 2327726
Y:0594984
Mu t trong bi chn lp
X: 2327725
Y:0594987
Mu t ngoi bi chn lp
X: 2327724
Y:0594976

+ Cc thng s kh tng xc nh theo quy nh quan trc ca Tng cc


kh tng thy vn v theo hng dn s dng thit b quan trc.
+ Phng php ly mu bi, kh: Trc khi ly mu, chun b cc bm
ly mu, km theo cc cht hp th, hp ph thu mu.
i vi mu kh trong khu vc sn xut: Khi ly mu ta t cc u thu
mu cao 1,5m (v tr ngang tm th ca mnh). Khi ly mu cn ch
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 24

khng lm nh hng n ngi ang sn xut v mu c ly phi i din


c cho khu vc nghin cu.
Tc ht ca bm ly mu: tc ht ca bm i vi mu bi v kim
loi trong bi l 2,01lt/pht, c p dng theo tiu chun ca y ban an ton v
sinh ca Anh (HSE), cn i vi kh hu c, v c tc ht ca bm l 0,3
0,5 lt/pht.
Thi gian ly mu: Ly mu t 30 n 90 pht, ly mu vo ban ngy t
khong 9h n 10h sng v t 3h n 5h chiu.
Bo qun mu: mu sau khi c ly bo qun trong cc l ng mu
ring. Ring i vi bi v cc kim loi c bo qun trong hp kn.
+ Phng php ly mu nc
Vic ly mu nc thi tun th theo quy nh TCVN 5992:2010 (ISO
5667- 2:2006). Dng c dng ly mu l chai nha plastics, ly trc tip.
Trc khi ly mu chai nha c trng bng chnh nc mu nh ly. Mu
c ly y chai mc ch khng cn oxy khng kh lm thay i thnh phn
mu. i vi nc ngm s ln ly trong mt ngy l 01 ln, vo bui sng t
8h30 n 10h, tng s ln ly l 03 ngy. i vi nc mt ly 03 ln trong mt
ngy vo cc thi im: 9h sng, 12h tra v 4h chiu, ly trong 03 ngy.
Bo qun mu: cc mu sau khi ly c bo qun trong cc l ng mu
ring, duy tr nhit <40C.
Mu sau khi ly xong c em n phng phn tch mi trng ca
Vin cng ngh mi trng, Vin hn lm khoa hc Vit Nam phn tch.
+ Phng php phn tch
Cc thng s o nhanh ti hin trng bao gm: pH, m, nhit thc
hin theo hng dn ca thit b.
+ Phng php ly mu t
Mu t c ly l 02 mu ti hai v tr trong bi chn lp trn chn lp
s 6 v ti khu vc gn h Ph Thnh.
Cch ly: tin hnh ly theo phng php ly mu rnh ti hai v tr xc
nh o rnh rng 1cm v su 10cm, chiu di t ming h theo vch ct qua
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 25

y sang vch bn kia cng tin hnh nh vy ri tin hnh ly mu. Mu c


ly vo ban ngy, bui sng t 8h n 11h.
Mu sau khi c ly cho vo cc ti nilong hai lp buc cht dng giy
gi li v nh s ri em i phn tch mt s ch tiu nh: Cu, Fe, Zn,.. bng
phng php SMEWW 3125: 2012 v EPA 3051 : 2007.
Phng php phn tch cc thng s trong phng th nghim c lit k
trong bng sau:
Bng 2.2. Phng php phn tch mu
Mu khng kh
TT
Ch tiu
Phng php ly mu v phn tch mu
1
n
o nhanh ti hin trng bng my ORION NL 21, Nht Bn
2
Nhit My o nhit - YSI 63 USA
Bi l lng, Phng php khi lng xc nh hm lng bi, Giy lc c bit:
kch thc l 0,8 , ng knh 55mm,c kh nng ht tnh in v
3
giy lc si thy tinh c ng knh 55mm.TCVSL 3733/2002/Q
BYT
SO2,
CO, Yu t ha hc ti chn lp ang hot ng - phng php Kimoto
NO2, H2S
HS 7, Nht Bn
4
TCVSL 3733/2002/Q BYT, QCVN 05:2013 &
06:2009/BTNMT.
Mu nc thi
DO
S dng my YSI USA
5
TCVN 7325:2004, CVN 08:2008/BTNMT
BOD5
S dng u o YSI 52 M
6
T m BOD5, Lovibond Php
7
TSS
Phng php xc nh khi lng
8
COD
S dng Burret chun bng KMnO4
Kim loi Ni, S dng thit b phn tch AAS 6800 Shimazu, ICP MS Elan
9
Mn, Fe, 9000 Perkin Elmer bng cc phng php SMEWW 3111B, 2012
Cr,...
SMEWW - 3113B, 2012.
SMEWW 3125 - 2012
10
Coliform Mng lc Coliform 0,45mm, t m Binder, c
11
pH
Dng my o pH YSI 63 USA, TCVN 6492 1999
Du m Cn phn tch
12
khong
Phng php SMEWW 5520B 2012
13
NO3Quang ph/ o mu
Thit b s dng: Spectrophotometer DR/2000 v DR/2010 PO4314
HACH
Mu t
Hm lng phng php SMEWW 3125: 2012 v EPA 3051 : 2007.
15 mt s kim
loi
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 26

2.4.3. Phng php x l s liu


- Cc s liu thu thp c tng hp v x l bng phng php thng
k m t trn phn mm Microsoft Exel.
2.4.4. Phng php so snh vi tiu chun, quy chun mi trng.
Di y l mt s tiu chun v quy chun s dng so snh:
+ TCXDVN 261:2001 Quy nh tiu chun thit k bi chn lp cht thi rn.
+ QCVN 25: 2009/BTNMT, ct B1: Quy chun k thut quc gia v
nc thi ca bi chn lp cht thi rn.
+ QCVN 30: 2010/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v kh thi l
t cht thi cng nghip.
Ngh nh 59/2007/N-CP ngy 09-04-2007 ca Chnh ph v qun l
cht thi rn.
+ Tiu chun v sinh lao ng TC12 - 3733/2002/Q BYT, TC21 3733/2002/Q BYT : Tiu chun v sinh lao ng theo quyt nh ca B Y t
ban hnh ngy 10/10/2002. (Tiu chun ny quy nh hm lng ti a cho php
ca mt s ha cht trong khng kh vng lm vic).
+ QCVN 05: 2013/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng
khng kh xung quanh.
+ QCVN 06: 2009/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia ca mt s
cht c hi trong khng kh xung quanh.
+ QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT, ct B1: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht
lng nc mt.
+ QCVN 09: 2008/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng
nc ngm.
+ QCVN 40: 2011/BTNMT, ct B: Quy chun k thut quc gia v nc
thi cng nghip.
+ QCVN 26: 2010/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v ting n.
+ QCVN 50: 2013/BTNMT, ct hm lng tuyt i c s H (pmm):
Quy chun k thut quc gia v ngng cht thi nguy hi i vi bn thi.
+ QCVN 03:2008 BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v gii hn cho
php ca kim loi nng trong t
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 27

Chng 3. KT QU V THO LUN


3.1. Hin trng bi rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni
3.1.1. Hin trng tip nhn rc ti bi rc Nam Sn.
3.1.1.1. Gii thiu chung v bi rc
Bi rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni nm cch trung tm H Ni khong
45km v pha Bc, cch sn bay Ni Bi 15 km v pha ng Bc, cch ng
quc l 3A (i Thi Nguyn, Bc Cn) khong 3km v pha Ty v cch sng
Cng khong 2 km v pha ng.
Bi rc Nam Sn c xy dng vi nhim v chnh l tip nhn, x l
cht thi rn sinh hot ca thnh ph H Ni v ca mt s huyn ca cc tnh
ln cn xung quanh thnh ph H Ni, vn chuyn v bi v x l nc r rc
theo ng quy trnh cng ngh m bo v sinh mi trng. Bi rc Nam Sn
hin nay c tn l Cng ty TNHH mt thnh vin mi trng th H Ni Chi
nhnh Nam Sn. Bi rc Nam Sn c thnh lp t nm 1999 v i vo hot
ng vi tng din tch gn 85 ha, cng sut x l 4.200 tn rc/ngy m, hot
ng 24/24h. Nh vy theo cch phn loi cn c vo quy m bi rc th c th
xp bi rc Nam Sn vo loi bi rc rt ln. Cn c theo cu trc bi chn lp
rc thi Nam Sn thuc loi bi chn lp hp v sinh c thit k rc thi
vo sao cho mc gy c hi n mi trng l nh nht. Theo chc nng c
th bi rc Nam Sn c th c xp vo loi bi chn lp cht thi rn th vi
ton b lng rc thi th c vn chuyn ti bi x l.

Hnh 3.1. Ton cnh ca bi chn lp rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni


Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 28

H thng chn lp

Hnh 3.2. S bi chn lp rc Nam Sn


Khu vc chn lp cht thi rn sinh hot hp v sinh chim din tch
55,99 ha, h thng giao thng ni b, nh iu hnh.
Bi rc Nam Sn c tt c 10 chn lp, cc chn lp c thit k xy
dng v vn hnh theo ng quy trnh chn lp cht thi hp v sinh. Cc chn
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 29

lp rc c cao mt bao cao +15,0m, cao y bi trung bnh t cao


+4,0m n cao +6,0m. y bi c thit k phng c dc >=1%. m
bo ngn nc rc khng thm xung cc lp t pha di, xm nhp vo ngun
nc ngm th y chn lp c lt vi chng thm HPE d=1,5mm.
Hin ti cc chn lp 1,2,3,4,5,6 ng bi; cn hp nht 7,8,9 ang
vn hnh rc, s 10 ang c xy dng v sp a vo hot ng.
Cc ng bi c cao trung bnh t cao +33,0m n cao
+35,0m, theo thit k cc chn lp ny c th nng ln cao +39,0m.
Chi nhnh Nam Sn c nhim v:
- T vn, tip nhn qun l v thc hin x l cht thi rn sinh hot,
nc r r t bi chn lp.
- Thc hin cc dch v v sinh mi trng, bao gm: lm sch cc cng
trnh, c quan, nh ,.
- T vn, t chc thi cng v lm sch, p cc hng mc xy dng cng
trnh cng cng nh: h ng, bn hoa,
- T vn, thc hin quan trc mi trng thng xuyn v nh k.
- Kinh doanh dch v vn ti v my cng trnh.
- Ci to, sa cha: cc sn phm c kh, thit b chuyn dng v phng
tin c gii ng b.
3.1.1.2. Cc hot ng c th din ra trong bi rc
Cht thi rn sinh hot c x l theo quy trnh cng ngh duy tr v sinh
mi trng thnh ph H Ni c S Giao thng Cng chnh (nay l S Xy
dng H Ni) ban hnh theo quyt nh s 312/GTCC-GTT ngy 09/4/2007,
phn hng mc vn hnh bi chn lp cht thi hp v sinh cng sut trn 4.200
tn/ngy m. Di y l s cc cng on trong quy trnh tip nhn v x
l CTR sinh hot ti bi rc Nam Sn, c th hin di hnh 3.2
Quy trnh qun l v vn hnh bi.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 30

t ch rc

San ph t

Cn in t

m cht

rc

Rc Bokashi

San i

Phun dung dch


EM

Bm nc rc

X l nc thi

Trng cy xanh

X nc thi

ng bi

x l

cc b

ng bi ton

Lp t h thng

thot kh

Hnh 3.3. S quy trnh vn hnh bi rc Nam Sn

Hnh 3.4. Xe ch rc i ln chn lp (khu vc h sinh hc)


Rc thi c vn chuyn t cc qun, huyn ni ngoi thnh ln BCL
phi qua cn in t xc nh tng khi lng xe v cht thi. Sau rc
c chuyn n chn lp v theo s hng dn ca cng nhn iu hnh
bi. Sau khi rc, xe ch rc bt buc phi qua b ra gm v bnh xe, trm
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 31

ra thnh xe v quay tr li trm cn xc nh ti trng xe (qua xc nh c


khi lng rc thi= tng khi lng ti trng), kim tra xc nhn ht rc, qua
cht kim tra v sinh ri ri khi bi rc.

Hnh 3.5. Rc c t xe ch rc vo cc chn lp

Hnh 3.6. Rc c san i

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 32

Hnh 3.7. Rc ti chn lp c san i

Hnh 3.8. Ph t v san i t


Hin ti, mi ngy URENCO 8 tip nhn khong 400 n 434 xe rc
tng ng khong 4200 tn rc/ngy m, thi gian tip nhn rc 24/24 gi
trong ngy. Qua iu tra c th ti trm cn in t qua mt s ngy trong vng

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 33

07 thng ca nm 2014 ta c s liu v khi lng rc trong 1 ngy m v s


xe chuyn ch rc c th hin bng bng s liu di y:
Bng 3.1. Bng tng hp khi lng rc x l ti bi rc Nam Sn
Thng

Khi lng rc S lt ra xe Khi lng rc 1 chuyn


(Tn)

(Chuyn)

(Tn/chuyn)

4/2014

122.665,280

12.911

9,50

5/2014

124.049,280

13.158

9,43

6/2014

120.336,650

12.825

9,38

7/2014

122.967,670

13.057

9,42

8/2014

124.233,760

13.101

9,48

9/2014

117.756,660

12.734

9,25

10/2014

122.613,500

13.431

9,13

Tng

854.622.800

91.217

Qua theo di ti bi rc Nam Sn t thng thng 4 n thng 10 nm


2014 thu c bng s liu trn.
Khi lng rc qua cc thng trong nm 2014 tng dn u.
Lng rc trung bnh 01 thng l 122.613,500 tn tng ng vi 13.031
chuyn xe rc t tnh c khi lng rc trn mt chuyn 9,13 tn
rc/chuyn xe.
C th ni lng xe rc vn chuyn ln bi rc Nam Sn tng trong mi
ngy dn ti lng rc cng ngy cng tng.
Theo kt qu iu tra t 8 gi sng n 6 gi chiu th mi ngy trung
bnh khong 434 chuyn xe tr rc vo BCL v tt c cc xe u c ra xe
trc khi ra khi BCL. Lng nc ra xe c tnh trung bnh 0,1 m3/xe; nh
vy mi ngy lng nc thi pht sinh khu vc ny khong 40 47 m3/ngy.
Nc thi sau khi ra s theo h thng thu gom ring v dn n 1 b lng n
gin gm si, ct, than hot tnh c t gn sui, phn nc trong c thi
hi tr li sui, phn bn t lng cn c nh k xc, ht vn chuyn ln bi
chn lp rc.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 34

Bng 3.2. Khi lng rc x l ti bi rc Nam Sn (theo nm)


Khi lng trung

Tng khi

Cng dn

bnh 01 ngy (Tn)

lngrc (Tn)

(Tn)

2008

2.551

930.958

6.020.547

2009

2.985

1.089.493

7.110.040

2010

3.372

1.230.726

8.340.766

2011

3.792

1.384.017

9.724.783

2012

4.062

1.486.593

11.211.377

2013

3.996

1.458.569

12.669.945

Thng 4/2014

3.963

1.204.734

13.874.679

Nm

( Ngun URENCO, 2014)


T bng 3.2 c nhn xt lng rc tng u qua cc nm. Khi lng rc
trung bnh trong mt ngy c x l ti bi Nam Sn qua cc nm t nm 2008
n thng 4 nm 2014 ngy mt tng dn ti tng khi lng rc trong mt nm
cng ngy mt tng v cho n thng 4 nm 2014 tng khi lng rc tnh t
nm 2008 ln ti 13.874.679 tn (URENCO, 2014).
3.2. Hin trng mi trng ca bi chn rc Nam Sn
3.2.1. Hin trng mi trng khng kh
Sc Sn l mt huyn trc thuc thnh ph H Ni nhng c a hnh v
kh hu khc vi cc huyn khc ca H Ni (mang c trng a hnh v kh hu
ca vng ng bng Bc b), Sc Sn mang c trng ca mt vng chuyn tip
sang vng trung du v min ni (vng bn sn a). Do khng c trm kh tng
ti Sc Sn ni chung v 3 x lin quan n khu lin hp x l ni ring, ph
hp vi yu cu k thut v TM. Kh hu ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong
hot ng din ra trong bi rc.
Cng nh cc ni khc thuc Bc b, kh hu khu vc nghin cu mang
c im kh hu nhit i gi ma nng v m. C 2 ma phn bit l ma ma
v ma kh. Ma ma trng vi ma gi ng Nam ko di t thng V n
thng X. Ma kh (ma t ma) trng vi ma gi ng Bc, ko di t thng XI

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 35

n thng IV nm sau. Nhit trung bnh nm khong 23,30C, trung bnh thng
thp nht 16,30C (thng I) v trung bnh thng cao nht l 29,20C (thng VII).
Ma l ngun cung cp nc ch yu cho h Ph Thnh v cc ao h khc
trong vng . Ma ln gy ngp ng cho c vng. Lng ma trung bnh nm l
1568,3mm, lng ma trung bnh thng ln nht t 294,1mm (thng VIII) v
trung bnh thng thp nht l 20,1mm (thng XII).
Gi trong khu vc tng i n nh c v hng v tc . Hng gi
chnh l ng Bc v Ty Nam. Gi ng Bc thng xut hin t thng X n
thng III vi tn sut 12%. Gi ng Nam xut hin nhiu nht vo t thng IV
n thng IX vi tn sut 30%. Hng nm khu vc cn chu nh hng ca bo
v lc. Bo, lc km theo ma ln gy thit hi khng nh cho khu vc.
Kh sinh ra trong qu trnh phn hy rc thi v nc r r to nn mi
hi thi kh chu, nu khng c qun l s nh hng n sc khe cng ng
v m quan ca khu vc xung quanh. Kh thi t BCL ca bi rc Nam Sn c
thu gom li nh h thng ng dn trong lng BCL v a ln. T thng 11 nm
2010 d n thu hi kh theo chng trnh CDM do nc ngoi thc hin ang
tin hnh thu hi kh chn lp s 4,5,6 t. Lng kh thu hi thp khong
1500m3 kh/ngy.
Bng 3.3. n trong v ngoi bi rc Nam Sn
Tn

n v Kt Kt qu

mu

(dBA)

qu

TM

T1

dBA

78

55,3

85

T2

dBA

67

51,8

TT

TCVSL TC12

QCVN

3733/2002/Q - BYT 26:2010/BTNMT


70

Kt qu o n trong mi trng lao ng bng 3.3 t 78dBA trong


khi kt qu ca TM ch l 55,3 dBA nhng vn nm trong quy nh ca
TCVSL TC12 3733/2002/Q BYT y quy nh l 85dBA. y l tiu
chun th 12 ca tiu chun 3733/2002/Q BYT v quy nh hm lng ti a
cho php ca mt s ha cht trong khng kh ti vng lm vic v im thc
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 36

hin o y l im ti mi trng lao ng nn phi p dng tiu chun ny


so snh.
Ti mi trng xung quanh n ch c o ti mt im l im
cch trc chn lp theo hng gi ng bc 300m. Kt qu cho thy n ti
y l 67 dBA, kt qu ny cao hn kt qu trong TM l 51,8 dBA nhng vn
nm trong gii hn QCVN 26:2010/BTNMT quy nh l 70 dBA. Ti y n
li c so snh vi QCVN 26:2010/BTNMT v quy chun ny quy nh hm
lng ting n xung quanh mi trng lm vic.
Bng 3.4. Cht lng khng kh ti khu vc chn lp
TT

Thng s

n v

K1

TC21-3733/2002/Q - BYT

Bi l lng

mg/m3

0,075

CO

mg/m3

2,38

40

NOx

mg/m3

0,254

10

SO2

mg/m3

0,035

10

Cd

mg/m3

<0,0001

0,05

CH4

mg/m3

21

H2S

mg/m3

0,266

15

Bng 3.5 a ra mt s thng s trong mi trng khng kh ti khu vc


chn lp. Nhn vo ta thy kh c kh mtan (CH4) v kh cacbonoxit (CO) l
hai kh c hm lng cao nht, cc kh khc c hm lng rt t. Tuy nhin cc
thng s ny c em i chiu vi tiu chun th 21 ca 3733/2002/Q- BYT
th vn nm trong gii hn cho php.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 37

Bng 3.5. Cht lng khng kh xung quanh chn lp ang hot ng
TT

Thng s

n v

K2

QCVN 05:2013 &


06:2009/BTNMT

Bi l lng

mg/m3

0,054

0,3

CO

mg/m3

1,38

30

NOx

mg/m3

0,08

0,2

SO2

mg/m3

0,122

0,35

Cd

mg/m3

<0,0001

0,0004

SO2

mg/m3

0,001

CH4

mg/m3

19

H2S

mg/m3

0,031

0,042

T kt qu phn tch ca mt s thng s ca mi trng khng kh xung


quanh cc chn lp ang hot ng c a ra nh gi cht lng khng kh
xung quanh cc chn lp ang hot ng vn nm trong tm kim sot. Cng
nh ti khu vc chn lp th xung quanh chn lp hm lng cao nht vn l
CH4 v CO tip n l SO2. Tuy nhin cc thng s vn nm di QCVN quy nh
Cc xe c gii nng vn chuyn rc t ni thnh n hot ng thng
xuyn v ch yu vo ban m, iu ny cng c nh hng nht nh n cng
ng dn c hai bn ng. Bi v mi s u ca bi rc, cng nh cc vector gy
bnh nh chut, b,v.v... cng tc ng n kinh t - x hi cn c quan tm.
3.2.2. Hin trng mi trng nc
Bi rc Nam Sn nm vng i thp, phn ln l thung lng, c h nh
v sch chy qua tiu nc ma v cp nc sng cho cc h ao nh. V ma
kh hu ht cc h ao u kh cn. Mc nc ngm khu vc chn i l 2m v
trn i l 7m. Mc nc mt vo ma ma l t +8m n 11,5m. Hng ca
dng chy nc mt ch yu chy t ng Ty.
Ngun nc mt ti khu vc xung quanh bi chn lp rc Nam Sn l t
cc sng, sui, ao, h nh:
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 38

+ Sng Cng cch bi chn lp khong 2km v pha ng, l ngun cung
cp nc ch yu cho sn xut nng nghip ca vng v ma kh. Ngun nc
ca Sng Cng thi im cha c bi rc cn kh trong sch, cha b nh hng
bi cc ngun nc thi.
+ H Ph Thnh c din tch khong 4ha c chc nng iu ha: cha
nc ma v ma ma v cp nc cho sn xut nng nghip v dn dng v
ma kh.
+ Cc mng rch nhn to v t nhin dng tiu v cp nc.
Qua phn tch mt s ch tiu nh gi mi trng nc mt ti mt s
im ly mu v kt qu thu c c khng nh mt s ch tiu nh TSS, BOD5,
COD cng kh cao. Tuy nhin tt c cc ch tiu v nh gi cht lng nc
mt u nm trong gii hn cho php i vi ngun thi B.
Ngun nc ngm c xem nh rt him, ti khu vc bi chn lp nc
ngm nng, ch yu tn ti trong cc khe nt ca lp t phin st phong ha.
Cht lng nc ngm l rt tt, phn ln ch tiu u nm di gii hn cho
php trong tiu chun Vit Nam v cht lng nc ngm.
Ngun nhim ln nht v quan trng nht i vi mi trng nc (c
nc ngm ln nc mt) ca bi rc l nc r r t bi chn lp.
Trong thnh phn nc r r t rc thi nng cc cht l rt cao: BOD
(10.000mg/l), TOC (6.000 mg/l), COD (18.000mg/l), Nito hu c (200mg/l),
NO-3 (25mg/l), kim (3.000 mg/l).
+ Nc thi t cc nh iu hnh, khu vc vn phng, khu nh cng
c thi ra ngun nc mt sau khi qua x l.
Bn cnh mt nguyn nhn na nh hng n mi trng nc l do
hot ng ca kh ng nhng ngi nht ph liu c trong rc cng gp phn
ng k vo vic gy lan truyn ngun nhim. Do khng c kin thc v thc
bo v mi trng, nhng ngi nht ph liu ny nht tm trong rc nhng th
c th bn c, ra sch v phi khp ni khu vc xung quanh. H c th
b nc ra trn lan hoc ra trc tip trong cc mng lch gn ... Tt c

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 39

nhng hot ng ny tng chng khng ng k nhng c nh hng ln n


mi trng xung quanh.
Sau mt thi gian i vo hot ng ca bi chn lp Nam Sn hin ti
mi trng nc khu vc nh sau:
+ Ngun nc cp cho sn xut nng nghip t h Ph Thnh khng cn
na, v h ny tr thnh h sinh hc v nm trong khu vc x l cht thi.
+ Dng b cp cho nc ngm b thay i do khng gian bi chn lp v
khu x l chim ch.
Tuy nhin hin nay x nghip Nam Sn c h thng x nc rc, v
nc ma chy trn, kim sot cht ch v x l trit nn chng thm, tng
bao ngn cch khu x l cht thi vi khu bn ngoi, v vy m ngun nc
ngm v nc mt khu vc ny khng b nh hng nhiu nhim t bi rc.
Bng 3.6. Cht lng nc mt xung quanh bi rc
TT

Thng s

phn tch

NM 1

NM 2

TM

QCVN 08:2008
/BTNMT, ct B1

1 pH

7,02

7,25

6,8

5,5,-9

2 TSS

mg/l

33

21

17,04

50

3 DO

mg/l

5,12

5,05

4 COD

mg/l

18

22

9,51

30

5 BOD5

mg/l

8,5

10,5

3,3

15

mg/l

0,31

0,24

0,14

0,5

mg/l

0,66

0,59

0,145

1,5

mg/l

0,71

0,84

1,21

10

9 As

mg/l

0,002

0,002

<0,004

0,05

10 Cd

mg/l

0,0002

< 0,0002

< 0,00016

0,01

11 Pb

mg/l

0,003

0,003

< 0,002

0,05

12 Cu

mg/l

0,002

0,002

0,0047

0,5

13 Zn

mg/l

0,015

0,01

0,0124

1,5

14 Phenol

mg/l

< 0,001

< 0,001

0.00165

0,01

220

451

1.480

7.500

6 NH4 - N
-

7 F
8

NO-3

-N

15 Coloform

MPN/ 100ml

Kt qu ca bng 3.6 v 15 thng s nh gi cht lng nc mt xung


quanh bi chn lp cho thy:
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 40

Tt c 15 thng s c phn tch u vt qu kt qu trong bo co


ca TM.
Tuy nhin, kt qu cc thng s ny vn nm trong gii hn cho php ca
QCVN 08:2009/BTNMT, ct B: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng nc
mt. nh gi c cht lng nc mt xung quanh bi chn lp vn t chun.
Bng 3.7. Cht lng nc ngm xung quanh bi rc
TT

QCVN

Thng s

n v

phn tch

pH

NN 1

NN 2

NN 4

NN 5

NN 6

NN 7

NN 8

TM

09:2008
/BTNMT

7,32

7,01

7,02

7,34

7,24

6,88

7,65

7,01

5,5- 8,5

cng

mg/l

121

44

55

68

95

78

236

106

1.500

As

mg/l

0,001 0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,004

0,05

Hg

mg/l

0,002 0,0002 0,0002

0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 0,002

0,001

Pb

mg/l

0,002 0,001

0,001

0,01

Cd

mg/l

0,0002 0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 <0,0002 <0,001

Mn

mg/l

0,023 0,045

0,255

0,21

0,04

0,05

0,05

0,214

Fe

mg/l

1,48

0,88

1,08

1,05

0,8

0,65

1,31

<0,1

0,5

F-

mg/l

0,12

0,1

0,18

0,1

<0,1

<0,1

<0,1

0,43

KPH

KPH

KPH

KPH

0,001

10 E.Coli

MPN/100ml KPH KPH KPH

11 Coliform

MPN/100ml

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,03

Hu ht cc thng s nc mt v nc ngm sau khi c qua h


thng x l ca bi rc u t tiu chun, quy chun. Tuy nhin cn mt s
thng s mt vi im vn vt qu Quy chun quy nh nh thng s st
nc ngm h nh anh Nguyn Vn Trung. iu ny cho thy nc mt nh
hng ti nc ngm.
Cc thng s nc mt v nc ngm u vt qu so vi TM. Tuy
nhin vn khng ng lo ngi l nhng thng s u nm trong QCVN
quy nh.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

0,005

Page 41

Hnh 3.9. Hin trng nc do ngi dn nh gi


Qua iu tra phng vn kt qu thu c t ngi dn nh gi ngun
nc sinh hot y ch yu l dng nc ging khoan v ging khi. Nc
my ch chim c 17%.
77% cc h dn c phng vn u tr li nc khng mu, 19% c mu
nu vng v 4% c mu.
V mi ca nc sinh hot cng kh tt.
Vy theo nh gi ca ngi dn th cht lng nc dng cho sinh hot
ti khu vc ny khng c thay i nhiu so vi trc khi c bi rc.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 42

3.2.3. Hin trng mi trng t


t ti khu vc bi rc c tin hnh khoan kho st 5 h vi su gn
20m chia thnh cc lp t sau:
Lp s 1: Lp t lp: Thnh phn st pha mu nu, nu xm, nu .
Trng thi cng, do cng, kt cu xp. Lp ny gp ti tt c cc l khoan, b
dy thay i t 0,2-1,0m.
Lp s 2: St mu nu , nu vng, xm trng c ln dm sn. Trng
thi cng, na cng, trong lp ny xen kp di mng st pha. Lp ny gp tt c
cc h khoan, b dy ca lp thay i t 2,4 10,2m.
Lp s 3: St pha mu nu vng, xm trng, nu loang l ln dm sn.
Trng thi do cng n cng. Lp ny gp ti tt c cc h khoan, b dy thay
i t 3,5-10,4m.
Lp s 4: phin phong ha mu nu tm, nu vng, nu hng. Lp ny
gp ti hu ht cc l khoan, b dy ca lp cha xc nh, chiu su mt lp
thay i t 8,6-13,4m.
t cc chn lp y v ng li th c cao hn hn vng xung
quanh v c trng ph ln bng mt lp cy xanh.
Vi nhng c im trn c th kt lun mi trng t ti khu vc bi
chn lp sau mt thi gian bi chn lp i vo hot ng vn gi c l nhng
lp t tt, cha c bin dng, h s thm rt tt nn khng b nh hng ca
phn nc r rc r r.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 43

Bng 3.8. Kt qu phn tch mu t


Ch tiu phn tch

n v
tnh

QCVN 03:
2008/BTNMT

pH

4,01

4,82

Hm lng hu c

26749

40173

As

6,63

0,29

12

Cu

58,93

71,72

100

160,7

208,4

300

66,29

24,79

300

Cr

27,04

13,31

Hg

0,36

0,22

Fe

29029

7754

Zn

mg/Kg

Pb

Kt qu

T trng

g/mL

2,54

2,56

12,47

16,01

(Ngun: Bo co kt qu quan trc mi trng qu II, 2014)


Mu t c ly ti hai v tr trong v ngoi bi rc c em phn tch
kt qu nh trn cho c nhn xt cc ch tiu c phn tch so vi QCVN
03:2008/BTNMT quy chun k thut quc gia v gii hn cho php ca kim loi
nng trong t u t..
3.3. nh hng ca bi rc ti mi trng
3.3.1. nh hng ca bi rc ti i sng x hi
Hot ng bi rc ca ngi dn xung quanh bi rc Nam Sn mang li
ngun thu nhp ln cho ngi dn. Qua kt qu iu tra 30 phiu th thu nhp
trung bnh ca ngi dn l 900.000 VN/ngi/thng, y l ngun thu t mi
cng vic hng ngy. C 18 phiu l gia nh c ngi i nht bi cn 12 phiu
cn li th gia nh khng c ngi i nht bi. Thu nhp trung bnh thp nhng
thu nhp t vic i nht rc li cao. Tuy nhin s lng ngi tham gia nht rc
li khng nhiu. Trung bnh cc h iu tra c gia nh c 1 ngi i nht rc c
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 44

gia nh c tn 3 ngi i nht rc v thu nhp ca h t 100.000-400.000


VN/ngi/1m. Lng ph thi ngi dn thu lm c hin nay bnh qun
19 kg/ngi/ngy bao gm nilon, st thp, nha, chai l, giy.v trung bnh
mi thng h thu nhp c t vic nht rc l 4 5 triu ng/thng. Thi gian
nht ch vng 3-4 ting ng h thu nhp c th ln ti 400.000 VN/ngi/1
m nhng n li h qu v mi trng cho ngi dn trong vng. Trc y
khi cha c bi rc th i sng ngi dn rt kh khn, giao thng khng thun
li. Hin nay, mc sng ngi dn tng ln, mi sinh hot nh m cng c
ci thin, in, ng u c u t. Nh cng tc qun l v cc chnh sch
h tr ca chi nhnh n ngi dn xung quanh lm cho b mt cc x thay i.
Cc tuyn ng lin x c lm mi vi chiu rng mt ng l 9m, 2 bn
ng c h thng mng thot nc. Cc tuyn ng lin thn c b
tng v kin c li nh s u t ca thnh ph dnh cho m rng bi rc giai
on 2.
Vn vic lm ti khu vc xung quanh l vn cn c gii quyt
n tha khi ngi dn trong vng mt t canh tc, t c rung thnh khng
c rung lm cho ngi dn hoang mang lo lng khi khng c vic lm. Vic
ngi dn c php vo bi rc cng phn no gii quyt c vic lm cho
ngi dn xung quanh. Chnh chi nhnh to iu kin cho ngi dn i
nht rc gii quyt phn no vic lm v tng thu nhp nng cao i sng
nhn dn. Chi nhnh cng u tin tuyn nhn vin v cng nhn thuc 3 x
gii quyt vic lm cho ngi dn, trong s cn b, cng nhn vin c
tuyn ca 3 x l 96 ngi.
Nh c bi rc m ngi dn y c hng mt s li ch t vic xy
dng c s h tng nh vic m rng bi rc giai on 2 s em li b mt mi
cho thn Lai Sn thuc x Bc Sn khi cc tuyn ng phc v cho m rng
bi rc c b tng, tri nha v m rng thm cc tuyn ng. H thng
cp nc sch cho ngi dn thn Lai Sn i vo hot ng v ngi dn
c cp nc sch min ph khong 30 h dn. H thng cp nc sch c th
tch l 500m3 cung cp cho ngi dn v cho chi nhnh.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 45

Hnh 3.10. S h dn nhn c s h tr ca x nghip


Khi i nht rc ngi dn phi tip xc vi mi hi thi nhng c khong
80% ngi dn mang khu trang nhng ch yu l khu trang chng nng, 72%
s dng gang tay v a s s dng ng hoc giy. iu ny cho thy vic bo v
sc khe ca ngi dn cha hon ton tt do s ch quan ca mt s ngi dn
i nht rc.
Ph thi thu c h em lm sch ti sui Lai Sn v cc ao h v mang
v nh phi. Nhng nhiu ngi h xy b ngay ti nh mang v nh lm sch
phn no hn ch c vic lm sch sng sui ao h. Vic tip xc lin tc vi
rc thi ngay ti nh s lm gia tng cc cn trng c kh nng gy bnh truyn
nhim, nh hng n sc khe ca ngi nht rc. Chnh vic lm cho ngun
nc c nguy c e da, mang bnh dch v nh cho vt nui cho gia nh.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 46

Hnh 3.11. Rc nht c ngi dn phi trn lan trn ng


Theo kt qu phiu iu tra th ngun nc sinh hot ca ngi dn s
dng cho ngi dn l t nc my, ging khi, ging khoan. Khi ngi dn
mang ph liu v nh git v phi lm cho nc bn ngm xung ging.
Theo kt qu iu tra mt s cn bnh ngi dn mc phi c th hin
di hnh

Hnh 3.12. Mt s cn bnh ngi dn mc phi.

Theo s liu iu tra thu c th a phn ngi dn khng mc bnh g.


Bnh tiu ha chim 10% mc phi c th do thi quen n ung hay do ngun
thc n b nhim. Bnh ngoi da c s lng mc phi t hn bnh tiu ha m
nguyn nhn c th c ngi dn d on l do nhim mi trng, do ngun
nc hay c im mi trng khng kh.
Vic lm sch ph liu thu lm c ca ngi dn ang lm suy gim
mi trng nc mt khu vc mt thng cng c th thy c.

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

Page 47

Hnh 3.13. Ao ni ngi dn lm sch ph liu.


cc khu cha cht thi tuy khng c s sng ca con ngi nhng t
v nc vn c th b nhim mm bnh l sinh trng, do cc cht thi t thnh
ph a ti c sn mm bnh. Mt khc rui, nhng, gin v chut s mang
mm bnh t cc khu dn c xung quanh xm nhp vo bi cha cht thi. Mm
bnh k sinh trng c th t bi thi theo nc ma pht tn ra cc vng xung
quanh.
Khu LHXLCT c trm bin p 35 KV c cng ty mi trng th lp
t cung cp in nng cho ton b khu vc xung quanh. Vic u t nh vy
cng l iu kin ht sc thun li cho cng tc in kh ha nng thn v phc
v cho sn xut nng nghip ca a phng.

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Hnh 3.14. xut ca ngi dn sng xung quanh gim thiu nh hng
ca bi rc

Nhn hnh 3.14 l kt qu ca vic phng vn ngi dn xut cc bin


php cho vic gim thiu nh hng t bi rc. kin quan tm n cng tc
qun l ca x nghip i vi bi chn lp c ngi dn xut chim ti
50%, chim t l cao nht cho thy ngi dn rt mong mun n v phi quan
tm hn na trong vic qun l bi rc ti tt c cc khu vn chuyn, x l v
vic ngi dn vo nht rc. Do nh hng t ting n, mi ca cc xe rc chy
trn ng mc d c quy nh che chn, ra sch trc khi ra khi bi
nhng cng khng trnh khi nh hng nn cn phi x l nghim xe vi phm
nu c chim ti 27% kin ca ngi dn, cng tc phn loi rc ti ngun
chim 10% kin v ci tin cng ngh chim 13% kin.

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Hnh 3.15. kin ca ngi dn v vic ng ca bi rc


T kt qu thu c gia li ch v nh hng ca bi rc Nam Sn kt
qu phng vn ngi dn sng xung quanh khu vc c th hin trn biu
hnh 3.15 cho thy kin ca ngi dn cho vic ng ca bi rc ch chim c
33% trong khi kin cho rng khng ng ca bi rc chim ti 67%. Kt
qu ny cho thy mc d nhng nh hng ca bi rc l c nhng nhng li ch
t bi rc mang li khin cho ngi dn cng khng mun ng ca bi rc. Mt
vn rt kh cho cc nh qun l trong vic duy tr hot ng ca bi rc Nam
Sn vn gii quyt c vn rc thi m hn ch nh hng ti mi trng.
3.4. Hin trng cng tc qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn
3.4.1. Cng c php lut p dng trong qun l mi trng
Chi nhnh Nam Sn trc thuc cng ty TNHH mt thnh vin mi trng
th H Ni ang hot ng v thc thi theo mt s vn bn php lut hin
hnh v cc quy nh ca cng ty.
Lut bo v mi trng Vit Nam nm 2005 c quc hi ban hnh v
thng qua ngy 29/11/2005 gm 15 chng v 136 iu l quy nh php lut
cao nht ca nh nc v mi trng v c s i b sung ngy 23 thng
6 nm 2014 thng qua k hp th 7, Quc hi kha XIII gm 20 chng v
170 iu.

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u tin k n bo co nh gi tc ng mi trng (TM). nh gi


tc ng mi trng khng ch dng li vic phn tch d n, phn tch hin
trng mi trng ni thc hin d n m cn a ra cc d bo tc ng n mi
trng ca d n u t. Vic xy dng v vn hnh bi rc Nam Sn s gy ra
cc tc ng nh hng ti cuc sng ca sinh vt, ngi dn, mi trng ti khu
vc . Chnh v vy, trc khi xy dng bi rc cn nh gi tc ng n mi
trng ti khu vc bi rc v mi trng xung quanh. Bi rc Nam Sn c
nh gi tc ng mi trng t nm 1998 (Bo co nh gi tc ng mi
trng giai on 1 d n xy dng khu lin hp x l cht thi Nam Sn-Sc
Sn-H Ni, 1998). Bo co nh gi tc ng mi trng trn c hi ng
thm nh v ph duyt.
Cam kt bo v mi trng (CKBVMT): Trc khi bi rc i vo hot
ng cn ng k cam kt bo v mi trng trnh tnh trng gy nhim mi
trng. l vn bn php l to mi quan h rng buc gia nh qun l,
cng ng v ch th gy nhim. gii quyt cc vn pht sinh gy
nhim mi trng. Trc khi bi rc i vo hot ng phi ng k vi a
phng cam kt mi trng.
Quan trc mi trng: Ti bi rc Nam Sn c t chc quan trc nh k 3
thng 1 ln ti nhiu im trong bi rc v khu vc xung quanh nh gi mc
nh hng ca hot ng chn lp rc v hot ng khc n mi trng ti
khu vc nghin cu v xung quanh v cc thng s i vi mi trng t, nc,
khng kh xung quanh so snh vi kt qu TM, TC, QCVN.
Cht thi rn l vn ang c Chnh ph v ngi dn tm cch qun
l v x l mt cch hp l trnh lng ph v nhim mi trng. V vy
Chnh ph ban hnh Ngh nh 59/2007/N-CP ngy 09 thng 04 nm 2007
v qun l cht thi rn. Ngh nh ny quy nh v hot ng qun l cht thi
rn, quyn v ngha v ca cc ch th lin quan n cht thi.
Ngoi ra, cc vn bn php l khc nh tiu chun Vit Nam , quy chun
Vit Nam, ngh nh, thng t, ch th, quyt nh. Cc vn bn ny c c quan
thc hin theo ng cc quy nh c trong .
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+ TCXDVN 261:2001: Quy nh tiu chun thit k bi chn lp cht


thi rn.
+ QCVN 25: 2009/BTNMT, ct B1: Quy chun k thut quc gia v
nc thi ca bi chn lp cht thi rn.
+ Ngh nh 59/2007/N-CP ngy 09-04-2007 ca Chnh ph v qun l
cht thi rn.
+ Tiu chun v sinh lao ng TC12 - 3733/2002/Q BYT, TC21 3733/2002/Q BYT : Tiu chun v sinh lao ng theo quyt nh ca B Y t
ban hnh ngy 10/10/2002. (Tiu chun ny quy nh hm lng ti a cho php
ca mt s ha cht trong khng kh vng lm vic).
+ QCVN 05: 2013/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng
khng kh xung quanh.
+ QCVN 06: 2009/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia ca mt s
cht c hi trong khng kh xung quanh.
+ QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT, ct B1: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht
lng nc mt.
+ QCVN 09: 2008/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v cht lng
nc ngm.
+ QCVN 40: 2011/BTNMT, ct B: Quy chun k thut quc gia v nc
thi cng nghip.
+ QCVN 26: 2010/BTNMT: Quy chun k thut quc gia v ting n.
+ QCVN 50: 2013/BTNMT, ct hm lng tuyt i c s H (pmm):
Quy chun k thut quc gia v ngng cht thi nguy hi i vi bn thi.
i vi nhng xe tr rc vo bi m vi phm trong cc khu nh: che y
cha ng k thut, khng m bo v sinh sau khi ra, khng m bo an
ton khi chy s b lp bin bn v a v cc n v qun l xe .
3.4.2. Cng c k thut p dng vo cng ngh x l rc trong qun l mi trng
Sau cng tc tip nhn rc l n cng tc x l rc ti chn lp. Khi rc
thi mang n chn lp s c san gt m nn thnh tng lp; phun ch
phm Enchoice vi lu lng 0,6 lt Enchoice th cp/ 1 tn rc, rc Bokashi vi
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mt 0,15 kg/m2 kh mi, kim sot rui mui v cc loi cn trng nh.
Khi lp rc t chiu cao 2m th ph t ln trn, chiu cao lp t ph sau m
nn l 15cm, lp t trung gian ny c nhim v gim lng nc ma ngm vo
chn lp, gim mi v kh ca bi rc, trnh rc bay v cn trng tr ng
chn lp. Kt qu iu tra bng vic m s ln my m i m li rc cho thy
my m thc hin m 8 ln cho mt lp rc ng theo quy trnh vn hnh. V
chiu cao lp rc cng ng theo quy nh (2m) s ph lp t trung gian (t
khong 15cm sau m nn).
Cn trng mang bnh l ni lo ca ban lnh o v ngi dn sng xung
quanh. hn ch cc loi cn trng mang mm bnh ra ngoi bi rc th cn b
chi nhnh ch o cng nhn tin hnh phun thuc dit cn trng ICON (0.0045
lt/tn rc), rc vi bt (0.108 kg/tn rc) trn ton b din tch bi rc (thuc dit
cn trng ICON cn c phun nh k 1 tun/ln cho khu dn c 3 x Nam
Sn, Bc Sn, Hng K). Hng tun vi bt c rc quanh khu vc bi rc
ngn dch bnh v kh trng (nht l on ng xe rc i).
Rc c theo 3 giai on: giai on 1 n ct +15m; giai on 2
n ct 22m; cn giai on 3 n ct 29m. Khi n tng giai on trn chn
lp s ng bi tm thi v rc s c chuyn sang khc.
Vic ng bi tm thi c thc hin nh sau: San gt to phng v
dc thot nc trn ton b b mt bi ln hn 1,5% sau phun Enchoice
kh mi trn ton b din tch b mt rc, ph t vi chiu dy t 3040cm, sau
san gt v m nn bng xe i, ph lp chng thm bng nilon hoc vi bt
trn. Sau t, san gt th cng lp t trn cng t chiu dy khong
0,20,3cm.
Sau nc r r t bi rc c thu gom qua h thng thu nc rc ngm
t trong chn lp a n h sinh hc (h cung cp r ng v ch phm
EM). Nc r rc c x l ti trm x l s 1 v s 2 x l. Kh thi hin
ang c thu gom t theo chng trnh c ch pht trin sch (CDM).

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3.4.1.1. Cng on x l CTR ti bi rc Nam Sn


- H thng thu gom nc rc
H thng dn nc r rc t y v xung quanh cc chn lp vi
dc >=1%. Mng thu nc r rc c kch thc BxH =800mmx750mm. Tng
mng c xy gch. y v ging ng b b tng. Trn mng t tm an
bng b tng ct thp c c l 15mm, dy 200mm, chu ti xe 30 tn. Pha
trn tm n c l l lp si lc ngc c kch thc d9-d12mm, dy
700mm. Trong cc mng thu nc c t ng thu HDPE DN200 c l D15 v
xp xung quanh dn n cc ging thu gom tp trung ti im cui. Ging tp
trung c ng knh ti thiu 1,2m t bm thot nc trong trng hp khn
cp. Cc ging u c xy dng n cao +15m v c lp t nng dn
chiu cao mi t >=2m trong qu trnh chn lp. Mi chn lp c 2 ging tp
trung thu nc rc bm ln cng bao t chy. Phn y h thu v t bm c
kch thc hnh khi cao H=1,5m, axb=1,4x1,4m, vt liu bng b tng ct thp.
Phn trn c lp t bng cc ng b tng ct thp 1000, t cao ln n
cao mt bao +15,0m. Phn thn ging c nhiu l ngang 80 nhm thu gom
ti a lng nc rc pht sinh.
- H thng thu gom kh gas
Bao gm ng ng thu kh t trong lng BCL, ng ng dn kh t
BCL thot vo khng kh.
Hin nay ang c mt d n thu kh gas ang c trin khai ti bi rc
Nam Sn, d kin s hon thnh vo cui nm 2015. Khi d n hon thnh s c
kh nng cung cp in phc v sinh hot v cung cp kh t cho khu x l v
cc h dn quanh khu vc ng thi hn ch ti a lng mi hi thi pht tn ra
mi trng.
3.4.1.2 Khu x l nc rc tp trung
Nh my x l nc r rc Nam Sn gm 2 trm x l, u do Cng ty c
phn k thut SEEN thi cng lp t. Trm x l s 1 vi cng sut thit k
500m3/ngy m, c a vo vn hnh t thng 10/2005. Trm x l s 2 vi
cng sut thit k 1000m3/ngy m, c a vo vn hnh t thng 8/2009.
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Qua qu trnh x l h thng h c ci tin, hin ti nh my x l


t ti a khong 1.750m3/ngy m. Lng nc r rc pht sinh l 2.200
m3/ngy m, lng nc r rc tn ng l 600.000 m3/trong cc lu cha.

H sinh hc

B oxh - kh

Song chn rc
B lng 1

B lu p

B vi

Cn vi

H thu gom 1

B stripping1

B UASB (lu
nc

B Semultech

B stripping 2
B lc ct

H thu gom 2

B Selector

Bn

B SBR 1

B lc than
hot tnh
B SBR 2
B kh trng

Bn hi lu

B n nh
B lng 2

Mi trng

Hnh 3.16. S cng ngh x l nc rc ti bi rc Nam Sn ca


Cng ty SEEN

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Bc 1: Cng tc bm nc v pha vi cp nc u vo
- Nc Rc t h sinh hc c bm ht bng 3 bm v y qua SCR
(song chn rc) b tch rc loi b rc c kch thc ln hn 1-1.5mm sau
nc rc c dn vo h thng sc vi kt hp v lng lin hp. Ti y
nc c thm vi cc bng my xc np vi v c sc kh u bng my
thi kh.

Hnh 3.17. Nc rc c ln b sc vi t h sinh hc


- Nc sau b pha vi c tch ring chy trn ti ngn lng (, cn v
vi cha tan ht) v trn sang ngn sc kh 2
- Ti ngn sc kh 2, hn hp nc v vi (b vi) tip tc c khuy
trn hp cht bng my thi kh tng cng kh nng ha tan ng thi lu
gi cn bn bng dng chy ziczac to thun li cho vic v sinh b nh k cc
ngn b.

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- Nc rc c iu chnh pH (pH=12) sau khi qua 1 h thng b


lng cn s c 1 bm chm t trong lng b bm ln cc b k tip thu nc
cho cng on x l ti thp tch NH3 (Stripping).

Hnh 3.18. H thng b lng cn


- Lu lng nc thi c o t ng, tn hiu thu c sau s c
truyn v h thng iu khin PLC-SCADA. T iu khin li bm nc thi
vn hnh theo ng lu lng yu cu v c u o pH kp thi hiu chnh
cng ngh. Nc thi sau c dn n cc b thit b x l ha l, x l
sinh hc trc khi c x l cc bc tip theo.
- Cng tc x l bn cn vi
+ Bn cn vi ti b pha vi c mng xc ln xe ti 10 tn vn chuyn
ln khu x l cn vi

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+ Bn lng sau qu trnh sc vi ti h thng b sc v b lng vi c


bm ht nh k v b cha bn s 1. Sau c bm ht bn ln b lng bn
th cp, ti y bn lng c gi li trong b cn phn nc c tch chy v
h sinh hc.
+ Bn lng ti b lng th cp sau khi tch ht nc c xc sang sn
phi bn.
Bc 2: Loi b (N-NH3) bng h thng Stripping (thp tch NH3).
- Nc thi sau khi c nng pH (pH=12) lng N-NH4 chuyn
thnh N-NH3 nc thi s c x l bng thp tch NH3 (c kh nng loi b
N-NH3 t 360mg/lt n 10mg/lt) trc khi c cho qua b x l sinh hc
(SBR). Trc ti b thu nc NaOH c tip tc b sung vo b nng pH
ti khong ti u cho qu trnh x l ti thp tch NH3 bng 4 bm nh lng.
- Nc thi trong b s c bm t ng ln thp Stripping theo mc
nc o c trong b. Cc thit b ca thp tch NH3 hot ng hoc dng t
ng theo s hot ng hoc dng ca bm cp nc t b thu nc.
- Cng ngh x l nc rc c lp t 4 thp tch NH3 (chia thnh 2
cp) hot ng theo nguyn tc ni tip. Nc thi sau thp tch NH3 th 1 ca
cp 1 s c thu vo b thu nc ri c bm ln thp tch NH3 th 2 ca cp
1 (qu trnh tng t i vi thp tch NH3 ca cp 2).

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Hnh 3.19. H thng thp tch NH3 (Stripping)


Bc 3: X l sinh hc (B SBR)
- pH c iu chnh 8 8,2
- Cm b SBR c mc ch oxi ha COD, BOD ng thi vi qu
trnh Nitrification Denitrification
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- H thng b SBR gm c 2 b m, 4 b Aeroten v 2 b lng th cp.

Hnh 3.20. H thng 2 b m SBR v h thng Semultech, mng trn v


b lc ct
- Vic thit k b m nhm m bo n nh vi sinh vt sau x l loi NNH3, ng thi b sung thm cht dinh dng nh P, ngun C (r ng). Bn
sinh hc s c thu hi lu trc tip v b ny. H thng sc kh s cung cp O2
cho qu trnh oxi ha cn b m. T l t yu cu: BOD:P:N l: 100:5:1.
- Qu trnh kh cao ti b m s m bo cho s pht trin vi sinh vt c
ch cho qu trnh phn ng tip theo. Nc thi v bn sinh hc c cp kh
s tip tc chy sang b SBR thuc loi b kh Nito n.
- Cng ngh ca b SBR l loi b nguy c qua bc trung gian:
nitrification Denitrification, 2 qu trnh ny kt hp trong duy nht 1 b SBR,
qu trnh sc kh c chu k s m bo duy tr cc trng thi hiu kh v k kh
cho cc qu trnh oxi ha v kh Nito tng ng c xy ra.

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- Bn lng trong b SBR c nh k hi lu v b m, phn bn d


c nh k bm sang b cha bn. Vic thit k thm b mt lng th cp lm
tng cht lng nc lng v cng c th vn hnh c th vn hnh theo phng
php SBR lin tc nu hm lng N-NH3 cng ln.
Bc 4: X l ha l ( b Semultech)
- Nc thi c a vo b x l sinh hc ti b phn ng v c bm
ln thit b Semultech. Ti y ha cht s c t ng bm vo kt ta ht
cc cht nhim khng ha tan to thnh bn nh. Sau ngn lng, tm
nghing bn c lng xung y, nc trong chy qua mng trn.
- Nc ra khi mng trn v b lc ct. Bn lng c x v b cha bn,
ha sinh hc thnh phn COD d phn hy sinh hc.
- Ti bc ny cn l lng SS v 1 phn COD/BOD s c loi b. Hiu
sut loi b COD v S c th t n 80%. y l bc cui cng sau i vo
b lc ct.
Bc 5: X l cp 3 ( lng, lc v kh trng)
- Nc thi qua x l ti cc bc trn c dn n cc cng on x
l cui cng ln lt theo th t :
+ B lc ct: loi b cn l lng SS.
+ Thp lc than hot tnh: hp th cc cht nhim cui cng
+ B cha nc sau x l v kh trng (sau khi c b sung Clo) :
Nu nc thi t tiu chun: nc thi s t chy trn qua b hoc
c bm n h n nh cha nc sau x l (ti h n nh lun c cp kh
bng h thng thi kh trc khi x ra mi trng tip nhn theo quy nh).
Nu nc thi cha t tiu chun: Nc thi s c dn bm tun
hon tr li cng on tng ng x l bc 2.
Bc 6 : Cng tc x l bn: Bn t qu trnh x l ha l, sinh hc k
kh v sinh hc hiu kh/thiu kh (SBR) c bm vo b cha bn s 2. Bn t
b cha bn s c xe bn ht thu gom v vn chuyn bn sang Cng ty
URENCO 10 trong khu lin hp x l cht thi Nam Sn x l.

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3.4.3. Qun l bng cng c kinh t


- X l rc theo n t hng ca Thnh ph H Ni theo n gi quy
nh cn c vo vn bn s 2449/SCT BG ngy 08/6/2010 ca s ti chnh H
Ni v vic trin khai thc hin r sot nh mc kinh t k thut v xy dng
n gi sn phm dch v cng ch nm 2010.
- Qun l cng tc x l rc thi, nc thi da vo cc quyt nh thu ph
v sinh ca thnh ph H Ni s 44/2014/Q UBND ngy 20/8/2014 t quy
nh n gi x l rc thi. C th ph v sinh c thu 6.000 ng/01 ngi /01
thng i vi khu vc dn thuc cc qun ni thnh, 3.000 ng/01 ngi/01
thng i vi dn khu vc huyn ngoi thnh thnh ph H Ni. n gi x l
rc thi l hin nay c p dng l 92.000 ng/01 tn rc.
- Bn thn x nghip cng c bin php qun l v cc hnh thc rn e x
pht i vi nhng hnh vi ca ngi lao ng vo nht rc khng chp hnh
ng quy nh hn ch tnh trng khng may do ngi dn nht rc b st ln
t cc bi rc c th dn ti cht ngi.
- n b nhng thit hi do nh hng ri ro t bi rc.
3.5. Cc gii php qun l mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn
Bt k mt hnh thc qun l hay x l cht thi rn sinh hot no cng
c c mt thun li v kh khn. Bi rc Nam Sn cng khng nm ngoi nhng
vn . Sau mt thi gian i vo hot ng bi rc gp phi mt s kh khn
sau:
- Theo thit k BCL rc hp v sinh ca bi rc Nam Sn dng chn
lp CTR sinh hot nhng theo kt qu i iu tra thnh phn rc thi ti bi chn
lp cn cha mt s cht thi khng th phn hy c. Cng tc phn loi v
gim thiu ti ngun khng c thc hin nn cht thi khng phn hy c
c trong rc thi em chn lp. V vy hot ng vn hnh bi rc khng t hiu
qu ti u.
- Hin ti chi nhnh c 175 cn b cng nhn vin nhng vn thiu v cn
c nng cao trnh . Cng nhn k thut c chuyn mn gii cn thiu nn
cha tin hnh thu gom v x l kh thi m ch thc hin kh thi thot t
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nhin ra ngoi mi trng. Hin ti, d n thu hi kh CDM ang thc hin c
lp cho nn chi nhnh cn nng cao trnh chuyn mn c th tip nhn
c cng ngh x l kh trnh lng ph.
- C khong 1500 ngi dn ang tham gia hot ng thu nht ph liu.
Sau khi thu nht ph thi h mang ra sng sui, ngi, h ao v xy b ngay ti
nh lm sch ph thi. Vic ny ang lm nh hng xu n cht lng nc
mt, nc ngm ca khu vc xung quanh bi rc. S lng cn trng mang bnh
truyn nhim cc khu dn c tng ln, nn cn tng s ln phun enchoice ln 1
tun 2 ln phun.
- Thng xuyn tm hiu nhng my mc c hiu qu x l cao, nhng
cng ngh tt hin i ci tin nhng ci lc hu, qu c ph hp vi ngun
rc tng thi im. gii quyt c vn ny th cn ngun vn, ngoi
ngun vn thu t ph v sinh mi trng th cn xin thm ngun ti tr t cc t
chc mi trng.
- nng cao hiu qu cng tc qun l mi trng th cn phi c h
thng tuyn truyn di mi hnh thc ngi dn nng cao thc bo v mi
trng, nhn nhn mi trng nh mt th hng ha c bit m ngi hng
dch v phi tr tin.
- Mun cng tc x l t hiu qu th cn phi c cc hng dn t
cng tc ngi dn vo nht rc c thc trong vic gi gn mi trng: khng
vt rc ba bi, phi cc th nht c trn lan trong khu chn lp, khng ra
phn rc nht c xung cc ngun nc mt xung quanh bi rc.
- i vi CBCNV trong x nghip th phi c thc trong cng vic,
chp hnh ng cc quy nh v cng vic ang thc hin, tuyn truyn y
mnh cng tc phn loi rc ti ngun v bn thn x nghip cng thc hin tt
hn theo hng phn loi trnh tng chi ph x l m hiu qu li khng cao.
- Trong cng ngh x l nc r rc c cng on x l bng UASB
x l BOD vi ti lng cao, nhng vi thnh phn nc r rc v cc cng on
x l lm gim ti lng BOD v vy cng on UASB y l cha ph

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hp, chi ph tn km, cn nghin cu thay th bng cng on ph hp hn v k


thut, cht lng v kinh t.
Hot ng nht rc ca ngi dn mang li h qu xu cho ngi dn,
sinh vt v mi trng xung quanh. hn ch nh hng ca rc thi n sc
khe ngi dn nht l tr em nm 2002 UBND thnh ph H Ni c quyt
nh s 1130/Q-UB cm tr em di 16 tui vo nht rc ti bi chn lp Nam
Sn; nm 2006 UBND TP H Ni ban hnh Cng vn s 3029/UBND-XDT
quy nh rt c th cm mi ngi dn vo nht ph liu ti bi chn lp Nam
Sn. Nhng khng lu sau vic cm ngi vo nht rc khng thc hin c
do ngi dn phn i bi ngun thu nhp chnh nui sng h l nh ph thi
nht c t bi rc.
Ngoi hnh thc rn e bng cch lp bin bn i vi cc xe b vi phm
th x nghip nn c cc hnh thc mnh hn nh pht tin, mc pht ty theo
mc vi phm.
Nhanh chng hin thc v s dng d n nh my pht in ti khu vc
bi chn lp rc.
Trng thm nhiu cy xanh trn cc chn lp ng.

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KT LUN V KIN NGH


1. Kt lun
Bi rc Nam Sn tip nhn rc t cc Qun, huyn ni ngoi thnh
Thnh ph H Ni v mt s huyn ca cc tnh ln cn xung quanh thnh ph
H Ni. Vi din tch gn 85 ha, bao gm 10 chn lp hng ngy tip nhn
khong 400 434 xe rc tng ng khong 4.200 tn rc/ngy m, bi rc
hot ng 24/24h. Hin s lng cn b cng nhn vin ca n v l 175 ngi.
Trung bnh mt thng bi rc tip nhn 122.613,800 tn tng ng vi 13.031
chuyn xe, mi xe rc c khi lng khong 9,13 tn. Cc xe ch rc n x
nghip URENCO 8 s c qua cc quy trnh vn hnh ca bi rc rc ln
cc chn lp rc sau khi c chn lp rc s sinh ra phn nc r rc v c
x l tip bng cng ngh x l nc r rc ring.
V kt qu iu tra hin trng mi trng ti bi rc Nam Sn: Vi mi
trng khng kh, kh hu ng mt vai tr quan trng trong hot ng din ra ti
bi rc, kh hu ti y l kh hu nhit i gi ma nng v m, phn bit thnh
hai ma ma v kh r rt, gi cng tng i n nh, kh sinh ra qua qu trnh
phn hy rc thi v nc r rc c thu gom nh h thng ng dn, cc ch tiu
v cht lng khng kh ti khu vc chn lp v khu vc xung quanh u t
tiu chun. Vi mi trng nc th hin trng mi trng nc mt v nc
ngm cc ch tiu c em phn tch so vi bo co TM ban u c mt s ch
tiu vt qu, tuy nhin so vi cc tiu chun, quy chun quy nh th vn nm
trong gii hn. Vi mi trng t ti khu vc bi rc thnh phn, cu to khng
thay i so vi trc khi c bi rc, h s thm v cc ch tiu ca t u t
tiu chun quy nh.
Bi rc Nam Sn hin ti s dng cc cng c qun l mi trng nh
cng c php lut th p dng lut bo v mi trng 2005 c quc hi ban
hnh v sa i vo nm 2015, cc bo co TM, cc kt qu quan trc mi
trng nh k, cam kt bo v mi trng v cc vn bn php l nh tiu
chun Vit Nam, quy chun Vit Nam. i vi cng c k thut bi rc Nam
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Sn s dng cc cng c trong x l rc nh cng ngh chn lp, cng ngh x


l nc rc, kh thi, kt qu sau phn tch cc ch tiu v cht lng mi trng
u t. i vi cng c kinh t c n v p dng trong x l rc l p dng
theo n t hng ca thnh ph H Ni, cc vn bn, quyt nh v vic thu
gom v x l rc, cc hnh thc pht rn e bn cnh cng c nhng bin php
b nhng thit hi do nh hng ri ro t bi rc.
T nhng kt qu thu c nh trn tc gi cng a gia mt s gii php
trong cng tc qun l mi trng nh cn phn loi rc ti ngun, nng cao hiu
qu x l rc m bo cng rc vn hnh bi rc t hiu qu ti u. Tm hiu
nng cao cng ngh, my mc cng nh tuyn truyn di mi hnh thc
ngi dn thc bo v mi trng, cn c nhng quy nh c th v quyt lit
i vi vic ngi dn vo nht rc.
2. Kin ngh
phc v cho cng tc x l rc ti bi chn lp Nam Sn t kt qu
cao th yu cu Cng ty cn quan tm nhiu hn na n cc ch i ng cho
CBCNV lm vic trc tip ti khu chn lp. Yu cu cho qun l khu chn lp
lm vic vi tinh thn trch nhim cao hn trnh vic rc thi sai v tr.
B sung mt s cht dinh dng (theo nhu cu ca vi sinh vt) c th nh
b bia vo cc b SBR ci thin s lng vi sinh vt, ci thin qu trnh phn
gii tng hiu qu x l.
ngh B, Thnh ph, S u tin u t trc mt cho Cng ty mi
trng cc trang thit b b sung phng tin vn chuyn rc t ni thnh i Nam
Sn.
Cn thc hin tt vic phn loi rc t khu x thi n thu gom v cui
cng l x l.
n v ngoi t bo v cn thnh lp mt t gi l t cng an mi trng
gim st cht ch hn na trong cc khu vn chuyn ca xe rc ti bi chn
lp, cc khu x l: nhp v pha ha cht, cc bc x l c kim tra cht
lng nghim ngt. T ny gm 2 3 ngi nhng cn phi l nhng ngi
c chuyn mn v mi trng v c chng ch hun luyn ca ngnh cng an.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

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ngh x nghip Nam Sn c k hoch c th cho vic s dng cc


chn lp ng v k hoch c th sau khi ng ca bi rc Nam Sn nh: xy
dng cng vin sinh thi, sn golf, trung tm hun luyn th thao hay dng lm
ni t cc tm bin nng lng mt tri.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Hong Anh (2010). Xy nh my x l rc Vietsta ti thnh ph H Ch Minh.
Truy cp t ngy 02/02/2010 t http://vietbao.vn/xa - hoi/xaynha - may - xu ly rac vietstar tai tp HCM/45262293/157.
2. 123doc.org/document/702840 bai chon lap hop ve sinh.htm
3. Bo co (2003). Kh thi d n thu gas v x l nc r rc, Khu lin hp x l
rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni.
4. Bo co (2008). Tnh hnh qun l cht thi, Cc qun l cht thi v bo v
mi trng.
5. Bo co (2011). Kho st, nh gi cng ngh x l CTR v nc thi ti cc
th v khu cng nghip Vit Nam, Hip hi mi trng th v khu cng
nghip Vit Nam
6. Bo co nh gi tc ng mi trng (2011). D n nng cng sut chn lp
rc ti khu LHXLCT Nam Sn giai on I, S xy dng H Ni Ban qun l
d n h tng th.
7. Bo co (2014). Quan trc mi trng nh k khu x l cht thi sinh hot Nam
Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni, Vin hn lm khoa hc v cng ngh Vit Nam vin
cng ngh mi trng
8. Bo co nh gi tc ng mi trng (1998). Xy dng khu lin hp x l cht
thi Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni, S xy dng H Ni Ban qun l d n h
tng th.
9. Bo t Vit (2014). Vit Nam c nguy c bin thnh bi rc ca th gii , truy
cp t ngy 01/6/2014 t http://env.hcmuaf.edu.vn/print.php?ur = env & ids =
2189.
10. Hong Kim C (2001). K thut mi trng, NXB Khoa hc v k thut,
11. Dng Xun ip (2005). Bo co Hi tho gp sa i lut Bo v mi
trng.
12. Trn Th Hng (2009). nh gi hiu qu kinh t ca nh my x l nc r rc
thuc khu lin hp x l rc Nam Sn, Sc Sn, H Ni.
13. Nguyn Th Anh Hoa (2006). Mi trng v vic qun l cht thi rn, S khoa
hc cng ngh v mi trng Lm ng.
14. L Hunh Mai, Nguyn Mai Phong (2009). "X hi ha cng tc bo v mi
trng kinh nghim quc t v nhng xut vi Vit Nam", Tp tr Ti nguyn
& Mi trng, k I thng 3/2009
15. Trn Hiu Nhu, ng Quc Dng, Trn Th Kim Thi (1999). Qun l cht thi
rn, NXB Xy dng H Ni.
16. Trn Quang Ninh (2005). Tng lun v cng ngh x l cht thi rn ca mt s
nc v Vit Nam, NXB trung tm thng tin KH & CN quc gia.
17. Nguyn Ngc Nng (2011). Hin trng v gii php qun l, ti s dng rc thi
sinh hot khu vc th ti thnh ph Thi Nguyn, NXB Khoa hc v k thut,
H Ni.
18. Nguyn Vn Phc (2009). Qun l v x l cht thi rn, NXB H Quc gia
thnh ph H Ch Minh.
19. Nguyn Vn Phc (2010). Qun l v x l cht thi rn, NXB Khoa hc v k
thut, H Ni.
Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Nng nghip

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20. Nguyn Th Sen (2012). nh gi thc trng v xut cc bin php nng cao
hiu qu ca bi chn lp rc a Mai, Thnh ph Bc Giang, Tnh Bc Giang.
21. L Minh Ton (2002). Hin trng mi trng Vit Nam, B Ti nguyn & mi
trng, H Ni.
22. Nguyn Th Ngc Tho (2012). Bi chn lp cht thi hp v sinh, B Gio dc
v o to, trng i hc s phm k thut thnh ph H Ch Minh.
23. Tailieu.vn/doc/quan ly va xu ly chat thai ran chuong 8
924923.html
24. TCXDVN 261 2001 (2002). Bi chn lp cht thi rn Tiu chun thit k,
NXB Xy dng, H Ni.
25. Thng t lin tch s 01/2001/TTLT BXD ngy 18/01/2001. Hng dn cc
quy nh v bo v mi trng i vi vic la chn a im xy dng v vn
hnh bi chn lp cht thi rn.
26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1985). Guidelies for the land disposal of
Solid Wastes", Fededer.
27. Anonymous (2008). Giai phap xu ly chat thai ran/nhatbanbienrathai
thanhtainguyen.html, truy cp t ngy 08/10/2008 t http://www
hiendaihoc.com.
59/2007/N CP. Ngh nh v qun l cht thi rn
28. George Tchobangluos (1993). Intergrated Soild Waste Management,Fededer.

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PH LC

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