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I HC QUC GIA H NI

TRNG I HC CNG NGH


MNH HI

CNG NGH WIMAX V NG DNG

Ngnh: Cng ngh in T - Vin thng


Chuyn ngnh: K thut in t
M s: 60.52.70

LUN VN THC S

NGI HNG DN KHOA HC: TS. TRN MINH TUN

H Ni 2009

LI NI U
S ra i ca WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 khi u mt thi i mi ca truy nhp
khng dy bng rng. WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 cung cp truy nhp khng dy v di ng
bng rng cho cc dch v da trn IP. N cho php chuyn giao gia cc mng c
cc cng ngh khc nhau ca cc nh qun l khc nhau v cung cp bng thng rng
trong cc vng xa xi.
Mc tiu ca n ny l nghin cu cc tiu chun 802.16 ca cng ngh
WiMAX trong tp trung ln WiMAX di ng. l nhng ni dung cn bn nht
ca cng ngh Wimax.
n bao gm 5 chng.
Chng 1: Tng quan v h tiu chun IEEE 802.16 v WiMAX Forum.
Ni dung chng ny gii thiu v h tiu chun IEEE 802.16 gm 802.16c
nh ngha cc h s cho cc ng dng in hnh, 802.16a, bao gm cc tng cng
cho iu khin, a ra ch li v h tr cc tn s b sung. ng thi cc sa i
b sung ny a vo truyn dn trong di 2 GHz n 10 GHz, truyn dn khng trc
x v cc dch v cp php v min php. Sa i chnh c cng b vo nm 2004
dng tiu chun IEEE 802.16d hay IEEE 802.16-2004. Chun ny kt hp v hon
thin chun 802.16, sa i b sung 802.16c v IEE.16a. Mt b sung cho IEEE
802.16d c khi tho vi tn gi l 802.16e (hon thnh vo cui nm 2005)
WiMAX Forum nh ngha cc h s trn c s s dng cc ty chn kh dng
ca 802.16 cp pht chng nhn cho cc sn phm v nh ngha cc c ch b
sung cho vic kt ni mng
Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn cho cc h thng khng dy bng rng c
nh ca WiMAX.
Ni dung chng ny trnh by ton b phn giao din v tuyn ca Wimax c
nh.
Chng 3: Lp MAC ca WiMAX di ng.
Ni dung chng ny trnh by v lp MAC. Nhim v chnh ca lp MAC
(Medium Access Control) l qun l cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca giao din v tuyn
mt cch hiu qu.

Chng 4: M hnh lp vt l ca WiMAX di ng v cc tnh nng tin tin


ca n.
Ni dung chng ny trnh by v lp vt l ca Wimax, gm lp vt l
s dng:
n sng mang
OFDM
OFDMA
Chng 5: Mt s ng dng ca Wimax
Ni dung chng ny trnh by mt s ng dng c bn ca Wimax.
Ti xin c gi li cm n chn thnh n TS Trn Minh Tun gip
ti hon thnh n ny.

MC LC

Chng 1
TNG QUAN H TIU CHUN IEEE 802.16 V WIMAX FORUM ........................... 14
1.1. TNG QUAN H TIU CHUN IEEE 802.16 ............................................................. 14
1.2. WiMAX FORUM ........................................................................................................... 16
1.3. WiMAX DI NG ......................................................................................................... 17
1.4. L TRNH PHT TRIN SN PHM WiMAX ........................................................... 19
1.5. KT LUN .................................................................................................................... 20
Chng 2
GIAO DIN V TUYN CHO CC H THNG KHNG DY BNG RNG C
NH CA WIMAX ........................................................................................................... 21
2.1. M U ........................................................................................................................ 21
2.2. M HNH THAM KHO .............................................................................................. 21
2.3. TNG QUAN CC TNH NNG LP MAC ................................................................ 21
2.4. TNG QUAN CC TNH NNG LP VT L, PHY ................................................. 23
2.4.1. Bng tn ................................................................................................................... 23
2.4.1.1. Bng tn cp php 10-66 MHz ........................................................................... 23
2.4.1.2. Cc tn s thp hn 11 MHz .............................................................................. 23
2.4.1.3. Cc tn s min php di 11 MHz (ch yu l 5-6MHz) .................................. 23
2.4.2. K thut ghp song cng .......................................................................................... 23
2.4.2.1. Ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s, FDD ...................................................... 24
2.4.2.2. Ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian, TDD ................................................. 24
2.5. CC TY CHN ........................................................................................................... 25
2.5.1. H thng anten thch ng, AAS ................................................................................ 25
2.5.2. M ha khng gian thi gian, STC ........................................................................... 28
2.5.3. Pht li t ng, ARQ .............................................................................................. 28
2.5.4. Cu hnh im a im v li ................................................................................. 28
2.6. TNG KT CC C T GIAO DIN V TUYN KHC NHAU TRONG IEEE
802.16e 2005 CHO TRUY NHP C NH...................................................................... 29
2.7. WIRELESSMAN OFDM ................................................................................................ 30
2.7.1. Tng quan cc tnh nng ca WirelessMAN OFDM ................................................. 30
2.7.2. Cu trc khung ......................................................................................................... 32
2.7.3. Cu trc lp vt l WirelessMAN OFDM ................................................................. 34
2.7.3.1. Cc thng s WirelessMAN OFDM................................................................... 34

2.7.3.2. S khi my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM ..................................... 35


2.7. 4. M t cc khi ......................................................................................................... 38
2.7.4.1. Ngu nhin ha, PBRS ...................................................................................... 38
2.7.4.2. Khi m ha knh .............................................................................................. 38
2.7.4.3. B an xen/ gii an xen .................................................................................... 40
2.7.4.4. iu ch/ gii iu ch ....................................................................................... 40
2.7.4.5. IFFT v FFT ...................................................................................................... 42
2.7.4.6. B c tnh knh v cn bng ............................................................................ 43
2.8. WirelessMAN OFDMA .................................................................................................. 45
2.8.1. M t k hiu OFDMA, cc thng s k hiu v tn hiu pht .................................. 45
2.8.2. Sp xp knh con v khe OFDMA ............................................................................ 47
2.8.3. n nh cc sng mang con OFDMA ....................................................................... 48
2.8.4. Sp xp knh con ng xung ................................................................................ 49
2.8.4.1. Cu trc k hiu cho FUSC ............................................................................... 49
2.8.4.2. Cu trc k hiu ng xung PUSC ................................................................. 50
2.8.4.3. Cu trc k hiu ng xung TUSC1 v TUSC2 ............................................. 52
2.8.5. Cu trc k hiu ng ln PUSC ............................................................................ 52
2.8.6. Khe OFDMA v vng s liu ................................................................................... 53
2.8.7. Sp xp s liu OFDMA ........................................................................................... 54
2.8.8. Cu trc khung PMP ................................................................................................ 57
2.9. TNG KT .................................................................................................................... 58
Chng 3
LP MAC CA WIMAX DI DNG .................................................................................. 60
3.1. M U ........................................................................................................................ 60
3.2. CU TRC LP MAC .................................................................................................. 61
3.3. LP CON PHN CHUNG CA MAC (MAC CPS) ...................................................... 63
3.3.1. Khun dng MACPDU............................................................................................. 63
3.3.2. Cc dch v MAC ..................................................................................................... 65
3.3.2.1. H tr cht lng dch v (QOS) ....................................................................... 65
3.3.2.2. Dch v lp biu MAC ....................................................................................... 67
3.3.2.3. C ch yu cu v n nh bng thng ............................................................... 69
3.3.3. Qun l cng sut v di ng .................................................................................... 71
3.3.3.1. Qun l cng sut .............................................................................................. 71
3.3.3.2. Chuyn giao....................................................................................................... 71
3.3.4. An ninh .................................................................................................................... 73
3.4. TNG KT .................................................................................................................... 74

Chng 4
M HNH LP VT L V CC TNH NNG TIN TIN CA WIMAX DI DNG76
4.1. M U ........................................................................................................................ 76
4.2. OFDMA KH NH C................................................................................................ 78
4.3. CU TRC K HIU OFDM........................................................................................ 81
4.4. SP XP KNH CON.................................................................................................... 81
4.4.1. Sp xp knh con s dng ton b ng xung (FUSC: Down Link Fully Used
Channelization) .................................................................................................................. 83
4.4.2. Sp xp knh con s dng mt phn (PUSC: Partially Used Subchannelization)....... 84
4.4.3. Sp xp AMC ........................................................................................................... 85
4.5. IU CH V M HA ............................................................................................... 86
4.6. CC CNG NGH ANTEN THNG MINH................................................................. 89
4.7. CU TRC KHUNG TDD............................................................................................. 92
4.8. CC TNH NNG TNG CNG KHC CA LP VT L ................................... 96
4.9. CC TNH NNG TIN TIN CA WiMAX .............................................................. 96
4.9.1. Ti s dng tn s mt phn ..................................................................................... 96
4.9.2. Dch v a phng v qung b (MBS) .................................................................... 98
4.10. QU NG TRUYN CA H THNG WiMAX DI NG ................................ 99
4.10.1. Cc thng s ca h thng WiMAX di ng ........................................................... 99
4.10.2. Qu ng truyn WiMAX .................................................................................. 102
4.11. THNG TIN B SUNG V TIN CY MAP CA WiMAX DI NG ............. 106
4.12. PH TN CA WiMAX ........................................................................................... 108
4.13. TNG KT................................................................................................................. 109
Chng 5
NG DNG CA WIMAX........................................................................................... 110
5.1 GII THIU .................................................................................................................. 110
5.1.1 ng dng cho mng khng dy ............................................................................... 110
5.1.2 ng dng trong y hc .............................................................................................. 111
5.1.3 H thng bo mt .................................................................................................... 111
5.1.4 Kt ni mng ngn hng .......................................................................................... 112
5.1.5 VoIP........................................................................................................................ 113
5.1.6 Truy nhp ti nh .................................................................................................... 114
5.1.7 Kt lun ................................................................................................................... 116

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1. Cu hnh topo ca WMAN ................................................................................. 14
Hnh 1.2. L trnh pht trin cng ngh WiMAX ............................................................... 20
Hnh 2.1. M hnh tham kho ngn xp giao thc ca 802.16. ............................................ 22
Hnh 2.3. Cu trc khung TDD........................................................................................... 25
Hnh 2.4. Vng AAS, FDD ................................................................................................ 26
Hnh 2.5. Vng AAS, TDD ................................................................................................ 27
Hnh 2.6. Nguyn l STC. .................................................................................................. 28
Hnh 2.7. iu ch thch ng trong lp vt l ..................................................................... 32
Hnh 2.8. Cu trc khung OFDM ng xung .................................................................. 33
Hnh 2.9. Cu trc khung OFDM ng ln ....................................................................... 34
Hnh 2.10. Tin t di ng xung ................................................................................... 34
Hnh 2.11. S khi my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM .................................... 36
Hnh 2.12. S khi bng gc ca my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM .............. 37
Hnh 2.13. B ngu nhin ha ............................................................................................ 38
Hnh 2.14. B m ha xon ................................................................................................ 39
Hnh 2.15. Cc chm tn hiu iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM ........................... 42
Hnh 2.16. Cu trc thi gian ca k hiu OFDM ............................................................... 46
Hnh 2.17. M t min tn s OFDMA (ba knh) ............................................................... 47
Hnh 2.18. Cu trc truyn dn c s ng xung ............................................................ 49
Hnh 2.19. Cu trc k hiu ng xung cho on 0 trn k hiu s 1 s dng FUSC ...... 50
Hnh 2.20. Cu trc cm .................................................................................................... 51
Hnh 2.21. M t lt ng ln ........................................................................................... 53
Hnh 2.22. Th d v vng s liu trong n nh OFDM ..................................................... 54
Hnh 2.23. Th d v sp xp cc khe OFDMA vo cc knh con v cc k hiu trn ng
xung (trong ch PUSC)................................................................................................ 55
Hnh 2.24. Th d v sp xp cc khe OFDMA vo cc knh con v cc k hiu cho ng
ln ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Hnh 2.25. Th d v cu trc khung theo thi gian TDD (vng bt buc) .......................... 58
Hnh 2.26. Khung OFDM c nhiu vng. ........................................................................... 58
Hnh 3.1. Ch PMP trong cc mng 802.16 ................................................................... 60
Hnh 3.2. Ch mng 802.16 h hp ............................................................................... 61
Hnh 3.3. Cu trc lp MAC ca WiMAX ......................................................................... 62
Hnh 3.4. Khun dng MACPDU ....................................................................................... 64
Hnh 3.5. H tr QoS ca WiMAX di ng ........................................................................ 66
Hnh 3.6. Qu trnh chuyn giao ......................................................................................... 73
Hnh 4.1. Cu trc lp vt l ca S-OFDMA ca WiMAX ................................................. 80
Hnh 4.2. Cu trc sng mang con OFDMA ....................................................................... 81

Hnh 4.3 Cu hnh sng mang con cho 1024-FFT OFDMA DL FUSC ............................... 83
Hnh 4.4. Cc cu trc DL PUSC v UL PUSC .................................................................. 85
Hnh 4.5. Cc cu hnh knh con c t chc theo BIN trong AMC ................................. 86
Hnh 4.6. Chuyn mch thch ng cho cc ch MIMO ................................................... 91
Hnh 4.7. Cu trc khung OFDMA TDD (ch cho vng bt buc) ...................................... 93
Hnh 4.8. Cu trc khung a vng ...................................................................................... 97
Hnh 4.9. Ti s dng tn s mt phn ............................................................................... 98
Hnh 4.10. H tr MBS nhng bng cc vng MBS ........................................................... 99
Hnh 4.11. Kt qu m phng hiu nng knh iu khin cho knh m hnh truyn sng TU
(thnh ph in hnh) [7,8] ............................................................................................... 107
Hnh 4.12. Cm MAP con. ............................................................................................... 107
Hnh 5.1 Kin trc mng di ng s dng T1 nh l lung truyn dn gia cc MSC....... 110
Hnh 5.2 ng dng y t .................................................................................................... 111
Hnh 5.3 Kin trc Wimax cho ng dng bo mt ............................................................ 112
Hnh 5.4 Kin trc Wimax cho hot ng gim st. .......................................................... 112
Hnh 5.5 Kt ni Wimax cho h thng ngn hng ............................................................. 113
Hnh 5.6 Kin trc h thng VoIP n gin ...................................................................... 114
Hnh 5.7 Mch vng ni ht trong mng PSTN ................................................................ 115

DANH MC BNG

Bng 1.2. Cc loi ng dng cho h thng da trn 802.16e ............................................... 18


Bng 2.1. Cc c t giao din v tuyn ............................................................................. 29
Bng 2.2. Cc tnh nng ca WirelessMAN OFDM............................................................ 31
Bng 2.3 Cc thng s chnh WirelessMAN OFDM ........................................................... 35
Bng 2.4. Th d v t knh cho cc bng cp php .......................................................... 45
Bng 2.5. Cc thng s ca mt k hiu ............................................................................. 49
Bng 2.6. n nh sng mang con ng xung OFDM-PUSC.......................................... 50
Bng 2.7. Cc thng s ca mt k hiu ............................................................................. 52
Bng 3.1. Cc trng trong tiu MAC PDU ................................................................... 64
Bng 3.2. QoS v cc ng dng ca WiMAX ..................................................................... 66
Bng 3.3. Cc ty chn lp biu dch v ............................................................................. 68
Bng 4.1. Cc ng dng ca WiMAX ................................................................................ 77
Bng 4.2. Cc thng s cu S-OFDMA .............................................................................. 79
Bng 4.3. Cc cu hnh knh FUSC c s .......................................................................... 83
Bng 4.4. Cc dng iu ch v m ha c s dng lp vt l ..................................... 87
Bng 4.5. Tc s liu vt l cho cc knh con PUSC ..................................................... 87
Bng 4.6. Cc tnh nng ty chn anten tin tin ................................................................ 90
Bng 4.7. Cc tc s liu cho cc cu hnh SIMO/MIMO khc nhau (cho knh 10 MHz,
khung 5ms, knh con PUSC, 44 k hiu OFDM s liu) .................................................... 91
Bng 4.8. Cc thng s h thng WiMAX di ng ........................................................... 101
Bng 4.9. Cc thng s OFDMA ...................................................................................... 101
Bng 4.10. M hnh truyn sng ....................................................................................... 102
Bng 4.11. Qu ng truyn DL cho Mibile WiMAX .................................................... 103
Bng 4.12. Qu ng truyn UL cho WiMAX di ng ................................................... 104

THUT NG V T VIT TT
A
A AS

Adaptive Atenna System

H thng anten thch ng

ACK

Acknowledge

Cng nhn

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard

Chun mt m tin tin

AG

Absolute Grant

Cho php tuyt i

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Codding

iu ch v m ho thch ng

A-MIMO

Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple


Output

a u vo a u ra thch ng

AMS

Adaptive MIMO Switching

Chuyn mch MIMO thch ng

ARQ

Automatic Repeat reQuest

Yu cu pht lp t ng

ASP

Application Service Network

Mng dch v ng dng

BE

Best Effort

N lc nht

BRAN

Broadband Radio Access Network

Mng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng

CCI

Co-Channel Interference

Nhiu ng knh

CINR

Carrier to Interference +Noise Ratio

T s sng mang trn nhiu cng tp


m

CP

Cyclic Prefix

Tin t chu trnh

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

Ch th cht lng knh

CSN

Connectivity Service Network

Mng dch v kt ni

CSTD

Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity

Phn tp pht dch tun hon

CTC

Convolutional Turbo Code

M turbo xon

DL

Downlink

ng xung

DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Service Interface

c t giao din dch v d liu qua

Specification

cp

DSL

Digital Subcriber Line

ng thu bao s

DVB

Digital Video Broadcast

Qung b video s

Extensible Authentication Protocol

Giao thc nhn thc kh

E
EAP

m rng
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power

Cng sut bc x ng hng tng


ng

FBSS

Fast Base Station Switching

Chuyn mch trm gc nhanh

FCH

Frame Control Header

Tiu iu khin khung

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

Ghp song cng phn chia theo tn


s

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

Bin i Fourier nhanh

FUSC

Fully Used Sub-Channel

Knh con s dng ton b

GKEK

Group Key Encryption Key

Kha mt m ca kha nhm

GMH

Generic MAC Header

Tiu MAC chung

GTEK

Group Traffic Encryption Key

Kha mt m lu lng nhm

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest

Yu cu pht li t ng ai ghp

HiperMAN

High Performance Metropolitan


Area Network

Mng vng th hiu nng cao

HO

Hand-off

Chuyn giao

HTTP

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Giao thc truyn siu vn bn

IE

Information Element

Phn t thng tin

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

Lc lng c trch k thut Internet

IFFT

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

Bin i Fourier nhanh ngc

IR

Incremental Redundancy

Tch lu tng dn

EIRP

10

Inter-Symbol Interference

Nhiu gia cc k hiu

LDPC

Low-Density-Parity-Check

Kim tra chn l mt thp

LOS

Line of Sight

Trc x (Tm nhn thng)

MAC

Media Access Control

iu khin truy nhp mi trng

MAI

Multiple Access Interference

Nhiu a truy nhp

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network

Mng vng th

MBS

Multicast and Broadcast Service

Dch v a phng v qung b

MDHO

Macro Diversity Hand Over

Chuyn giao phn tp v m

MIMO

Multiple Input Multiple Output

a u vo a u ra

MMS

Multimedia Message Service

Dch v bn tin a phng tin

MPLS

Multi-Protocol Label Switching

Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc

MS

Mobile Station

Trm di ng

NACK

Not Acknowledge

Khng cng nhn nhn

NAP

Network Access Provider

Nh cung cp truy nhp mng

NLOS

Non Line of Sight

Khng trc x (Tm nhn khng


thng)

NRM

Network Reference Model

M hnh tham kho mng

nrtPS

Non-Real-Time Polling Service

Dch v tham d phi thi gian thc

NSP

Network Service Provider

Nh cung cp dch v mng

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplex

Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s


trc giao

OFDMA

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplex Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s


trc giao

Packet Error Rate

T l li gi

ISI
L

P
PER

11

PKM

Public Key Management

Qun l kho cng cng

PUSC

Partially Used Sub-Channel

Knh con s dng mt phn

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

iu ch bin vung gc

QoS

Quality of Service

Cht lng dch v

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

Kho dch pha vung gc

RG

Relative Grant

Cho php tng i

RTG

Receiver/Transmit Transition Gap

Khong trng chuyn thu sang


pht

rtPS

Real-time Polling Service

Dch v thm d thi gian thc

SDMA

Space Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo khng


gian

SF

Spreading Factor

H s tri ph

SFN

Single Frequency Network

Mng tn s n

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Node h tr dch v GPRS

SHO

Soft Hand-Off

Chuyn giao mm

SIM

Subscriber Indentify Module

Phn nhn dng thu bao

SIMO

Single Input Multiple Output

Mt u vo nhiu u ra

SNIR

Signal to Noise+Interference Ratio

T s tn hiu trn nhiu+tp m

SLA

Service Level Agreement

Tho thun mc dch v

SM

Spatial Multiplexing

Ghp knh khng gian

SMS

Short Message Service

Dch v bn tin ngn

SNR

Signal to Noise Ratio

T s tn hiu trn tp m

S-OFDMA

Scalable Orthogonal Frequency


Division Multiplex Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s


trc giao kh nh c

SS

Subscriber Station

Trm thu bao

SSRTG

SS Receive /Transmit Transit Gap

Khong thi gian chuyn i

12

SSTRG

SS Transmit/Receive Transit Gap

Khong thi gian chuyn i mt


sang thu ca SS

STC

SpaceTime Coding

M ho thi gian khng gian

TDD

Time Division Duplex

Ghp song cng phn chia theo thi


gian

TEK

Traffic Encription Key

Kho mt m lu lng

TTG

Transmit/receive Transition Gap

Khong trng chuyn pht sang thu

TTI

Transmission Time Interval

Khong thi gian truyn dn

TU

Typical Urban

Thnh ph in hnh

UE

User Equipment

Thit b ngi s dng

UGS

Unsolicited Grant Service

Dch v cho php khng khn ni

UL

Uplink

ng ln

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telephone System

H thng vin thng di ng ton


cu

Voice over Internet Protocol

Thoi qua giao thc IP

V
VoIP
W
WiFi

Wireless Fideliry

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol

Giao thc ng dng khng dy

WiBro

Wireless Broadband

Khng dy bng rng

WiMAX

Worldwide Interoperability for


Microwave Access

Kh nng tng hp ton cu i


vi truy nhp vi ba

13

Chng 1
TNG QUAN H TIU CHUN IEEE 802.16 V WIMAX FORUM

1.1. TNG QUAN H TIU CHUN IEEE 802.16


H tiu chun IEEE 802.16 (giao din v tuyn mng vng th khng dy)
cho truy nhp bng rng (BWA: Broadband Wireless Access) cung cp cng ngh truy
nhp "km cui cng" cho cc im nng vi dch v s liu, video, v thoi tc
cao. u im ni bt nht ca BWA l gi thnh lp t v bo dng thp so vi truy
nhp mng cp ng v cp quang nht l i vi vng xa xi ni kh lp t mng
truy nhp hu tuyn. BWA c th m rng mng cp quang v cung cp dung lng
cao hn mng cp ng hay ng dy thu bao s (DSL: Digital Subsscriber Line).
Mng khng dy ny c lp t rt nhanh bng cch t trm gc (BS: Base Station)
trn ta nh cao tng hoc trn cc ct to nn h thng truy nhp khng dy tc
cao. Hnh 1.1 cho thy cu hnh ca mng WMAN.

Vn phng
nh

Trm gc

Bit th

Chung
c
Mng
li
B lp

Cng xng

Trm gc

Hnh 1.1. Cu hnh topo ca WMAN


Thnh vin u tin ca h BWA l chun IEEE 802.16. Chun ny c d
tho u tin vo 12/2001 v phin bn cui cng c cng b 8/ 4/2002. Bng tn

14

cng tc ca chun ny l 10-66 GHz, vi truyn sng trc x. Cu hnh topo ca


chun ny da trn mng im a im trong lu lng c truyn gia mt trm
gc BS (Base Station) v nhiu trm thu bao SS (Subscriber Station). Tiu chun
IEEE 802.16 c cng b vo 9/2001, vi tiu "ng tn ti vi cc h thng truy
nhp bng rng khng dy c nh" cng bao ph 10-66GHz. Tiu chun 802.16.c
"Cc h s chi tit cho 10-66 GHz" c d tho u tin vo 24/5/2002 v phin bn
cui cng c pht hnh vo 15/1/2003.
Vic sa i b sung ny cp nht v m m rng iu khon 12 ca tiu
chun IEEE 802.16 2001 lin quan n h s v tp tnh nng v chc nng p dng
cho cc trng hp thc hin trin khai in hnh. Tuy nhin, do BWA ngy cng
c s dng nhiu cho cc vng dn c, nn truyn trc x khng con thch hp do
a hnh v cy ci. Ngoi ra, nhiu a ng truyn v gi thnh lp t anten ngoi
tri cao. V th, cn sa i b sung cho chun 802.16 hin hu. y l l do ra i
tiu chun 802.16a c ban hnh vo 1/4/2003. Chun ny bao hm sa i lp
MAC (Media Access Control) v nhiu c t lp vt l cho c bng tn cp php v
min php. Mt sa i ng k ca lp MAC l cc ch li ty chn. im khc
bit gia ch im a im (PMP) v li l: trong ch PMP lu lng ch xy
ra gia BS v cc SS, cn trong ch li lu lng c th nh tuyn qua cc SS
khc v c th trc tip gia cc SS. u im ca ch ny l hot ng vn c
m bo ngay c khi c chng ngi ln nh ni i chn ng truyn trc x gia
SS v BS. Cc SS b chn ny c th kt ni gin tip n BS thng qua cc SS khc.
Mt thay i ng k na ca lp MAC l h tr nhiu c t lp vt l, trong mi
c t ph hp cho mt mi trng khai thc c th. Trong chun 802.16a ba cu trc
lp vt l (PHY) c nh ngha: SC (Single Carrier: n sng mang), 256-OFDM v
2048-OFDMA.
Chun IEEE 802.16-2004 c cng b vo nm 2004 hp nht v sa i
cc chun 802.16- 2001, 802.16c v 802.16a thnh b chun chung. Trong 802.162001 cho hot ng trong di tn t 10- 66 GHz trc x trc y c tn mi trong
chun ny l WirelessMAN 802.16-SC, cn 802.16a cho bng tn di 11 GHz khng
trc x c ba ch lp vt l vi ba tn mi sau y: WirelessMAN 802.16-SCa,
WirelessMAN 802.16-OFDM v WirelessMAN 802.16-OFDMA.
C 802.16 v 802.16a u c s dng cho truy nhp khng dy bng rng c
nh. Trn c s chun 802.16a, nhm cng tc IEEE 802.16e xy dng chun
802.16e gm "cc lp vt l v MAC cho khai thc c nh v di ng trong bng tn
cp php". Trong chun ny tnh di ng c b sung cho SS trc y ch h tr kt
15

ni mng c nh trong cc bng tn t 2 n 6GHz. Bng 1.1 so snh cc tnh nng


ca cc chun 802.16, 802.16a v 802.16e.

Bng 1.1. So snh cc chun IEEE 802.16, 16a, 16e


802.16
Ngy hon

802.16a

802.16e

8/2002

4/2003

2006

Bng tn

10-66GHz

2-11GHz

2-6GHz

iu kin knh

LOS

NLOS

NLOS

iu ch

QPSK, 16QAM, OFDM 256 sng OFDMA kh nh c,


64QAM
mang,
BPSK, BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM,
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
64QAM

Tnh di ng

C nh

C nh

Bng thng
knh

20, 25, 28MHz

kh nh c t Kh nh c: 1,25; 5;
1,75 n 20 MHz 10; 20 MHz

Bn knh in
hnh

2-5 km

7-40 km

thnh

Di ri, xch tay, di ng

2-5 km

Chun IEEE cho mng LAN v MAN, phn 16: Giao din v tuyn cho h
thng truy nhp khng dy bng rng c nh v di ng a ra sa i b sung
cho IEEE 802.16-2004 v IEEE 802.16.2005.

1.2. WiMAX FORUM


Chun IEEE 802.16 c pht trin nhiu nm vi s tham gia ca nhiu
nh cng nghip. Tuy nhin, chun ny qu rng v vic hp chun IEEE 802.16 cha
m bo c thit b ca mt nh cung cp s tng hp vi thit b ca nh cung
cp khc. WiMAX Forum, t chc phi li nhun bao gm trn 350 thnh vin, tip
nhn cng vic m IEEE li. Trong s cc thnh vin ca WiMAX Forum c nh
cung cp dch v, nh cung cp thit b, nh sn xut bn dn v thit b. WiMAX
cng cng tc vi HiperMAN, nhm cng tc trong trong y ban k thut ca ETSI
BRAN. Vic hp tc ny dn n s hi ha hon ton gia ETSI HiperMAN v IEEE
802.16, c th hin ti liu b sung 802.16e v cc chun tng tc: PHY (TS 102

16

177v.1.6.1) v DLC (TS 102.178v.1.6.1). Hot ng khi tho ca cc tiu chun o


kim c dng trong qu trnh kim tra ca WiMAX Forum c thc hin vi s
cng tc cht ch ca ETSI BRAN HiperMAN, nhm cng tc WiMAX Forum v
nhm cng tc chng nhn WiMAX Forum. Vi nhiu thnh vin khc nhau, i din
ton th gii v s cng tc ca ETSI, WiMAX Forum sn sng c v vic tip
nhn ton cu v hi ha gii php v tuyn bng rng c chun ha da trn chun
v tuyn IEEE 802.16 m bo c tnh tng tc. t c mc ch ny, Forum
nh ngha hiu nng h thng v h s chng nhn bao gm tp con chun IEEE
802.16 vi tnh nng bt buc v ty chn cng vi mt b o kim tnh tng tc v
hp chun kim tra thit b v m bo tnh tng tc ca nhiu nh cung cp. V
th nhn chng nhn WiMAX m bo c s hp chun WiMAX 802.16 ln tnh
tng tc. Cc phng tin o kim cp chng nhn u tin c thit lp ti
Cetecom Labs Malaga, Ty Ban Nha thng 7 nm 2005 v cc sn phm c cp
chng nhn WiMAX trn chun 802.16-2004 bt u xut hin trn th trng. Cc
phng tin cp chng nhn b sung cng s c thit lp to iu kin cho
qu trnh cp chng nhn v p ng cc yu cu b sung cho qu trnh o kim cp
chng nhn cho 802.16e cho ng dng di ng. Cc nhm cng tc cp chng nhn v
k thut ca WiMAX Forum ang nghin cu cp chng nhn sn phm WiMAX
di ng s bt u a ra vo qu 4 nm 2006 n gia nm 2007. K vng rng s c
nhiu s tham gia ca cc thnh vin h thng, cc i tc v nhu cu v cc sn phm
802.16e s tng, gi thnh trn mt thu bao s gim trong 2 -3 nm tip theo.

1.3. WiMAX DI NG
WiMAX di ng c xy dng trn chun IEEE 802.16e l mt gii php
khng dy bng rng cho php hi t mng di ng v c nh thng qua mt cng
ngh v tuyn bng rng vng rng chung v kin trc mng linh hot. Giao din v
tuyn ca WiMAX di ng tip nhn a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao
(OFDMA) ci thin hiu nng cho mi trng truyn dn khng trc x. SOFDMA (OFDMA kh nh c) c a vo 802.16e h tr bng thng kh nh
c t 1,25 n 20 MHz. Nhm k thut di ng (MTG) trong WiMAX Forum pht
trin h s h thng WiMAX di dng nh ngha tnh nng bt buc v ty chn
ca chun IEEE. Cc tnh nng ny cn thit xy dng giao din v tuyn hp
chun vi chng nhn ca WiMAX Forum. H s h thng WiMAX di ng cho php
lp cu hnh h thng di ng da trn tp tnh nng c s chung m bo hot
ng tng hp cho thit b u cui v trm gc. Mt s phn t ca h s trm gc
c c t ty chn m bo tnh linh hot khi trin khai trong cc trng hp c
17

bit i hi cu hnh khc (chng hn nh ti u ha dung lng hoc vng ph). Pht
hnh 1 ca h s WiMAX di ng s bao ph cc bng thng 5; 7; 8.75; 10 MHz cho
cc n nh ph tn trong cc bng cp php: 2,3 GHz; 2,5 GHz; 3,3 GHz v 3,5 GHz.
WiMAX Forum nh ngha mt s ng dng cho h thng s dng 802.16e
v nghin cu m hnh lu lng v ng dng cho chng, chng Cc ng dng ny
c chia thnh nm loi, chng c tng kt trong bng 1.2 di y cng vi cc
thng s tr v jitter m bo cht lng ngi s dng.

Bng 1.2. Cc loi ng dng cho h thng da trn 802.16e


Loi
1
2

ng dng

Bng thng

Tr

Tr chi tng

Khng p dng

tc a lp

Thp

50 kbps Thp

<25ms

VoIP & Hi ngh


truyn hnh

Thp

32 n Thp
64 kbps

<160 ms

Phng tin
lung
Duyt Web v
bn tin tc thi

Jiiter

Thp
5 kbps Khng p dng
n cao n 2
Mbps
Trung

10 kbps
n 2 Khng p dng

bnh

Mbps

Ti xung ni
Cao
dung phng tin

>
2Mbps

Khng p dng

Thp

<50
ms

Thp

<100
ms

Khng p dng
Khng p dng

Nhm cng tc mng ca WiMAX Forum (NWG) ang pht trin cc tiu
chun kt ni mng lp cao cho cc h thng WiMAX di ng v chun IEEE 802.16e
ch nh ngha vn lin quan n giao din v tuyn. N lc kt hp ca IEEE
802.16 v WiMAX Forum s h tr gii php u cui u cui cho mng WiMAX di
ng.
Cc h thng WiMAX di ng h tr kh nng nh c trong c cng ngh truy
nhp v tuyn v kin trc mng. Mt s tnh nng c WiMAX di ng h tr l:
1. Tc s liu cao: Bao gm c kt hp k thut anten MIMO vi s phn
knh con linh hot. M ha v iu ch tin tin cho php WiMAX di ng h

18

tr tc s liu nh ng xung ln n 63 Mbps trn on v tc s


liu nh ng ln ln n 28 Mbps trn on trong knh 10 MHz
2. Cht lng dch v (QoS): im cn bn ca kin trc IEEE 802.16 MAC l
QoS. N nh ngha cc lung dch v nhm sp t chng ln cc im m
DiffServ hoc cc nhn MPLS truyn IP u cui u cui theo QoS. Ngoi
ra vic phn chia knh con v s bo hiu da trn MAP cng to ra c ch
linh hot lp biu ti u ti nguyn khng gian, tn s v thi gian trn giao
din v tuyn theo tng khung.
3. Kh nh c: Vic phn b ti nguyn tn s cho thng tin khng dy bng
rng rt khc nhau. V th cng ngh WiMAX di ng phi c thit k c
th nh c theo cc knh khc nhau c bng thng t 1,25 MHz n 20 MHz.
4. An ninh: WiMAX di ng s m bo tnh nng an ninh tt nht vi: nhn
thc da trn EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol: giao thc nhn thc
kh m rng), mt m ha vi nhn thc da trn AES-CCM, CMAC v
HMAC da trn s bo v bn tin iu khin. H tr tp chng nhn ngi
s dng khc nhau bao gm: SIM/USIM, th thng minh, chng nhn s v cc
s tn ngi s dng/ mt khu da trn c phng php EAP cho kiu
chng nhn
5. Di ng: WiMAX di ng h tr s chuyn giao ti u vi tr thp hn 50
ms m bo ng dng thi gian thc nh VoIP. Cc s qun l kha linh
hot m bo an ninh trong qu trnh chuyn giao.

1.4. L TRNH PHT TRIN SN PHM WiMAX


Phng th nghim kim nh cp chng nhn cho cc h thng WiMAX c nh
c thit lp ti ti Cetecoms Labs ti Malaga, Ty Ban Nha vo thng 7 nm
2005 v hin nay sn phm hp chun WiMAX cho dch v c nh kh dng v
c trin khai trong bng 3,5 GHz (bng tn cp php) v 5,8GHz (bng tn khng
cn cp php). Phng th nghim cp chng nhn th hai, TTA c thit lp ti
Hn Quc. C hai phng th nghim cp chng nhn theo chun ca pht hnh 1
WiMAX di ng vo qu ba nm 2006 nhm trin khai sn phm c chng nhn
WiMAX di ng vo cui nm 2006.
WiMAX di ng thng xuyn xem xt cc h s chun hiu nng WiMAX di
ng b sung da trn kh nng ca th trng. Cc chun ny cp cc bng tn
khc nhau, cc bng thng knh v cc gii php FDD ph hp vi yu cu lut a

19

phng trong th trng c chn. Hnh 1.2 cho thy l trnh pht trin sn phm
chun WiMAX.

802.16-2004
Cc ng dng c nh
n sng mang trc x
10-66MHz; OFDM bng
cp php 2-11MHz
khng trc x, bng
cp php v min php

Cc h s
WiMAX
Kim tra cp
chng nhn
OFDM
3,5 GHz
5,8 GHz

802.16e
Cc ng dng di ng
v c nh; SOFDMA <6GHz;
khng trc x,
bng cp php

2004

2005

Trin khi cc dch v c nh di ri


khng dy theo chun WiMAX c
nh/802.16-2004

Cc h s
WiMAX
Kim tra cp
chng nhn
2,3 GHz
2,5 GHz
3,5 GHz

2006

Trin khai cc dch v di ng theo


chun WiMAX di ng/802.16e
Cc h s WiMAX di dng khc:
Cc h s Bng tn, bng thng knh, FDD....
pht hnh 1 (ty theo th trng
v c hi)

2007

9/2008

Hnh 1.2. L trnh pht trin cng ngh WiMAX

1.5. KT LUN
Chng ny ti xt qu trnh hnh thnh cc chun khc nhau trong h chun
802.16 nh: 802.16, 802.16a, 802.16-2004 v 802.16e. Trong 802.16 e dnh cho di
ng bng rng. Ngoi ra, cng xt s hnh thnh ca WiMAX Forum v vai tr ca
n trong vic tng hp ton cu cc thit b da trn chun m ca IEEE. 802.16.

20

Chng 2
GIAO DIN V TUYN CHO CC H THNG KHNG DY
BNG RNG C NH CA WIMAX

2.1. M U
IEEE 802.16-2004 c t giao din v tuyn cho cc h thng truy nhp khng
dy bng rng (BWA) h tr cc dch v a phng tin cho mng vng. Lp MAC
trc ht h tr kin trc im a im cng vi cu hnh topo li ty chn. MAC
c cu trc h tr nhiu dng lp vt l, trong mi dng lp vt l ph hp
cho mt mi trng c th. i vi cc tn s trong trong di tn t 10-66 GHz,
m bo truyn sng trc x lp vt l WirelessMAN-SC PHY (iu ch n sng
mang) c c t. i vi cc tn s trong di tn thp hn 11 GHz, m bo
truyn sng khng trc x (NLOS), ba lp vt l c c t: WirelessMAN-OFDM,
WirelessMAN- OFDMA v WirelessMAN -SCa (iu ch n sng mang). Chun
ny sa i v thng nht cc chun IEEE-802.16-2001, IEEE-802.16a-2003 v IEEE
802.16c-2002. Chun IEEE 802.16 e-2005 sa i v b sung cc chun trc v
bao hm c cc dch v truy nhp khng dy c nh v di ng. WiMAX ch cp
n cc dch v truy nhp khng dy dc trn WirelessMAN-OFDM, WirelessMANOFDMA. Trong phn ny ta s xt cc giao din v tuyn cho truy nhp khng dy c
nh cu WiMAX

2.2. M HNH THAM KHO


Hnh 2.1 cho thy m hnh tham kho giao din v tuyn ca chun IEEE
802.16e-2005

2.3. TNG QUAN CC TNH NNG LP MAC


MAC bao gm ba lp con: (i) lp con hi t c th dch v (CS: Convergence
Sublayer); (ii) lp con phn chung ca MAC (MAC CPS); (iii) lp con an ninh.
Lp con hi t c th dch v (CS): m bo chuyn i cc s liu nhn t
mng ngoi qua im truy nhp dch v CS (CS SAP) vo cc MAC SDU (n v s
liu dch v MAC) v cung cp chng cho lp con phn chung ca MAC qua im
truy nhp dch v MAC(MAC SAP). MAC SDU gm: cc n v s liu dch v
(SDU) t mng ngoi, nhn dng lung dch v (SFID: Service Flow Identifier) MAC
21

v nhn dng kt ni (CID: Connection Identifier). N c th c c chc nng nn tiu


ti tin (PHS: Payload Header Supression). Nhiu c t CS c a ra cho
php giao tip vi cc giao thc khc nhau. Khun dng bn trong ca ti tin CS l
duy nht i vi CS v MAC CPS khng cn bit khun dng ny hay bt k thng tin
no v ti trng CS.
Phm vi ca tiu chun
CS SAP
Thc th qun l
Cc lp con hi t
c th dch v

MAC SAP
Lp con phn chung ca MAC
MAC CPS

Thc th qun l
Lp con phn chung ca MAC

Lp con an ninh

Lp con an ninh

PHY

PHY SAP
Lp vt l
(PHY)

H thng qun l mng

MAC

Lp con hi t c th dch v
(CS)

Thc th qun l
PHY
Mt phng qun l

Mt phng s liu/iu khin

K hiu:
SAP: Service Access Point: im truy nhp dch v
MAC: Medium Access Control: iu khin truy
nhp mi trng
CS: Convergence Sublayer: lp con hi t
CPS: Common Part Sublayer: lp con phn chung
PHY: Physical: lp vt l

Hnh 2.1. M hnh tham kho ngn xp giao thc ca 802.16.


Lp con MAC CPS: cung cp chc nng MAC li ca h thng truy nhp nh:
cp pht bng thng, thit lp kt ni v duy tr kt ni. N nhn s liu t cc CS
khc nhau thng qua MAC SAP (c phn loi cho tng kt ni c th). p dng
QoS cho truyn dn v lp biu s liu a n lp vt l.
Lp con an ninh: MAC cng cha mt lp con an ninh ring m bo nhn
thc, trao i kha v mt m.

22

2.4. TNG QUAN CC TNH NNG LP VT L, PHY


2.4.1. Bng tn
2.4.1.1. Bng tn cp php 10-66 MHz
Bng tn 10-66 MHz c s dng cho mi trng vt l, trong do bc
sng ngn, nn ch s dng ng truyn trc x (LOS), cn cc ng truyn phn
x v tn x (NLOS) khng ng k. Trong bng tn ny, bng thng c s dng
thng l 25 hay 28 MHz. Vi tc bit th ln hn 10Mbps, mi trng ny rt
thch hp cho truy nhp im a im (PMP) phc v cc ng dng khc nhau t
cc ng dng vn phng nh hoc vn phng ti nh (SOHO: Small Office/Home
Office) n cc ng dng vn phng ln v trung bnh. Trong bng tn ny giao din
v tuyn iu ch n sng mang c c t trong chun giao din v tuyn
"WirelessMAN-SC".
2.4.1.2. Cc tn s thp hn 11 MHz
Cc tn s thp hn 11 MHz c s dng trong mi trng vt l, trong do
bc sng di, nn LOS khng ng k v ch yu l NLOS. c th h tr cc
trng hp cn trc x v khng trc x (NLOS), lp vt l phi c chc nng b sung
nh: cc k thut qun l cng sut tin tin, loi b nhiu, hoc ng tn ti nhiu v
a anten.
Ti y mt s tnh nng c b sung cho MAC nh: cu hnh li v yu cu
t ng pht li (ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request).
2.4.1.3. Cc tn s min php di 11 MHz (ch yu l 5-6MHz)
Mi trng vt l cc bng tn min php di 11 MHz tng t nh mi
trng cho cc bng tn min php trong di tn ny. Tuy nhin bn cht ca min
php l gy thm nhiu v cc vn ng tn ti, ng thi cc quy nh cng hn
ch cng sut c php pht x. Ngoi cc tnh nng nh trnh by trong 2.2.2, lp
PHY v MAC trong trng hp ny cn c thm tnh nng chn tn s ng (DFS:
Dynamic Frequency Selection) pht hin v trnh li.
2.4.2. K thut ghp song cng

23

Giao thc MAC h tr mt s k thut ghp song cng cho PHY. Vic la
chn k thut ghp song cng nh hng ln mt s thng s PHY cng nh cc tnh
nng c th c h tr.
2.4.2.1. Ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s, FDD
Trong h thng FDD, knh ng ln v ng xung c n nh tn s
ring, v s liu ng xung c th truyn theo cm. Khung c di c nh c
s dng cho c ng xung v ng ln. iu ny cho php s dng cc kiu iu
ch khc nhau. Ngoi ra n cng cho php cc trm thu bao (SS: Subscriber Station)
s dng ch pht song cng (pht thu ng thi) v bn song cng (pht thu khng
ng thi) dng ty chn. Trong ch bn song cng, b iu khin bng thng
khng cp pht bng thng ng ln cho SS khi n thu s liu trn knh ng
xung, bao gm c tr truyn lan, khong thi gian chuyn i t pht sang thu ca SS
(SSTTG)v chuyn i t thu sang pht ca SS (SSRTG).
Hnh 2.2 cho thy vic n nh bng thng FDD theo cm. Vic knh ng ln
v ng xung u s dng khung c di c nh lm n gin gii thut n nh
bng thng. SS song cng c th lin tc i thu t knh ng xung trong khi SS
bn song cng ch c th thu t knh ng xung khi n khng pht trn ng ln.
ng
xung

ng
ln
Khung
Thi gian
Qung b

SS song cng

SS bn song cng 1

SS bn song cng 2

Hnh 2.2. n nh bng thng FDD theo cm

2.4.2.2. Ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian, TDD

24

Trong trng hp TDD, truyn dn ng xung v ng ln xy ra trong cc


thi gian khc nhau v cng s dng chung mt tn s. Khung TDD (xem hnh 2.3) c
di c nh v cha mt khung con ng xung v mt khung con ng ln.
thun tin cho vic phn chia bng thng, cc khung ny c chia thnh mt s
nguyn ln cc PS (Physical Slot: khe vt l). Vic n nh khung TDD thay i (thch
ng) vi s thay i n nh bng thng ng xung so vi n nh bng thng
ng ln. Phn chia ng xung v ng ln l mt thng s h thng v c
iu khin bi cc lp trn trong h thng.

Khung con ng ln

n=(Tc x thi gian khung)/4


Khung con ng xung

PSn-1

PS0

Thch ng

Khung j-2

Khung j-1

Khung j

Khung j+1

Khung j+2

i vi SC, SCa, tc l tc k hiu; i vi OFDM v OFDMA tc l tn s ly mu danh nh (fs)

Hnh 2.3. Cu trc khung TDD.

2.5. CC TY CHN
2.5.1. H thng anten thch ng, AAS
Thng qua vic s dng nhiu phn t anten, h thng anten thch ng c th
ci thin c ly ph sng v dung lng h thng bng cch thch ng mu pht x
anten v tp trung pht x n tng SS. Hiu sut s dng tn ph tng tuyn tnh theo
s lng phn t anten. iu ny t c nh vic li cc tia n cc ngi s dng
khc nhau nh vy c th t c tha s ti s dng tn s gia cc bng mt v
ni t l vi s phn t anten. Ngoi ra cng tng c t s tn hiu trn tp m nh
vic kt hp tng quan cc tn hiu v c kh nng iu khin li ny cho cc
ngi s dng c th. Mt li ch na l gim c nhiu nh vic li cc hng pht
x bng khng n n cc cc ngun nhiu ng knh. Kt hp cc li ch do tng
li SNR ca mt s ngi s dng v li pht x khng cho php c th pht ng thi
cc cm n cc SS nm cch nhau trong khng gian. Cng c th p dng phng

25

php ny cho ng ln mt cch tng h. Vic truyn ng thi cc cm khng ch


tng vng ph ca h thng m c th tng dung lng h thng.
Vic thit k ty chn AAS (Adaptive Antenna System: h thng anten thch
ng) cung cp c ch chuyn t mt h thng khng AAS n mt h thng cho php
ASS, trong thay th ban u BS khng c AAS bng BS c AAS s lm mt dch
v ca cc SS khng c kh nng AAS.
trnh iu ny cn dnh mt phn khung cho lu lng khng AAS v mt
phn khung cho lu lng AAS. Vic n nh c thc hin ng bi BS. Cc SS
khng AAS s b qua lu lng AAS. nhn ra lu lng ny chng s dng cc
bn tin DL MAP v UL MAP (sp xp ng ln v ng xung).
Phn AAS ca khung ng xung c bt u bng mt tin t c th AAS
nh cho trn hnh 2.4 v 2.5.

Vng AAS ng
xung

Tin t AAS

Cm 2

Cm 1

FCH

Tin t ng
xung thng thng

Cc cm
ng xung
thng thng

Vng ng ln
AAS

Cc cm ng ln
thng thng

Hnh 2.4. Vng AAS, FDD

26

Hnh 2.5. Vng AAS, TDD

27

Vng ng ln AAS

Vng AAS ng
xung

Tin t AAS

Cm 2

Cm 1

FCH

Tin t ng
xung thng thng

Cc cm
ng xung
thng thng
Cc cm ng ln
thng thng

2.5.2. M ha khng gian thi gian, STC


STC (s Alamouti) c th c s dng cho ng xung cung cp phn
tp pht (khng gian) bc hai. Hai anten pht c s dng ti BS v mt anten thu
c s dng ti SS. S ny i hi c tnh knh MISO (Multi Input Single
Output: nhiu u vo mt u ra). Hai anten pht pht ng thi hai k hiu s liu
OFDM khc nhau. B gii m pha thu s thc hin gii m sau khi nhn c c hai
k hiu ny t mi anten. Trong s ny mi k hiu c pht lp theo thi gian
trn hai anten khc nhau.
Hnh 2.6 cho thy v tr ca STC trong chui truyn dn OFDM. Mi anten pht
c mt chui truyn dn OFDM ring, nhng chng c cng b dao ng ni cho mc
ch ng b.

BS
iu ch
knh con

ng gi
u vo
IFFT

IFFT

Lc

DAC

RF

IFFT

Lc

DAC

RF

M ha
phn
tp pht

SS
RF

ADC

Lc

FFT

B kt
hp phn
tp

B gii
iu ch
knh con

Ly Log
t l kh
ging

B gii
m

Hnh 2.6. Nguyn l STC.


2.5.3. Pht li t ng, ARQ
C ch ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) l mt b phn ca MAC, n c
s dng nh mt ty chn. Khi ARQ c ci t, n c cho php theo tng kt
ni. ARQ s c c t v m phn trong qu trnh to lp kt ni. Mt kt ni
khng th c hn hp c lu lng ARQ v lu lng khng ARQ.
2.5.4. Cu hnh im a im v li
WiMAX c nh cho php h tr c hai cu hnh im a im (PMP: Point to
Multipoint) v li (Mesh), trong cu hnh PMP l bt buc.

28

1. Cu hnh bt buc im a im, PMP


Trong chun IEEE 802.16e-2005 cho cc h thng khng dy c nh, cu hnh
im a im (PMP) l bt buc. Trong cu hnh ny, ng xung t BS n cc SS
lm vic trn c s im a im. ng truyn v tuyn ca IEEE 802.16e-2005 lm
vic vi mt BS trung tm c anten phn on c th x l ng thi nhiu on .
Trong mt knh tn s cho trc v mt on cho trc, tt c cc SS nhn c
cng mt truyn dn. BS ch l my pht pht theo hng ny, v th n ch vic pht
m khng phi hp vi cc SS khc tr vic phn chia thi gian cho ng ln v
ng xung trong TDD. Ni chung ng xung pht qung b. Trong trng hp
bn tin sp xp ng xung (DL MAP) khng ch th mt on khung con ng
xung cho mt SS c th, th tt c cc SS c th thu on khung con ny u s thu.
Cc SS s kim tra CID (Connection Identifier: nhn dng kt ni) ca cc PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) thu c v s ch nhn cc PDU gi cho n.
2. Cu hnh li, Mesh
Khc bit chnh gia ch PMP v ch li l trong ch PMP, lu
lng ch xy ra gia BS v cc SS, cn trong ch li (Mesh) lu lng c th
c nh tuyn qua cc SS khc v c th xy ra gia cc SS. Ph thuc vo gii
thut cu giao thc truyn dn c s dng, iu ny c th c thc hin trn c s
bnh ng khi s dng lp biu phn b hoc trn c s u tin. ca Mesh BS.
Trong mt mng Mesh, mt h thng c kt ni trc tip n cc dch v ng
trc ra bn ngoi mng Mesh c gi l Mesh BS. Tt c cc h thng khc ca
mng Mesh u c gi l Mesh SS. Ni chung, cc h thng ca mng Mesh c
gi l cc nt. Trong ng cnh Mesh, cc ng ln v ng xung c nh ngha
l lu lng trong hng n Mesh BS v v ngc li.

2.6. TNG KT CC C T GIAO DIN V TUYN KHC NHAU


TRONG IEEE 802.16e 2005 CHO TRUY NHP C NH
Bng 2.1. tng kt cc c t giao din v tuyn khc nhau trong chun IEEE
802.16 e cho truy nhp c nh.
Bng 2.1. Cc c t giao din v tuyn
Tn c t

ng dng

Yu

cu Cc

lp MAC chn

29

ty K
ghp

thut
song

b sung

cng

Wireless MAN-SC 10-66GHz


WirelessMANSCa
WirelessMANOFDM

TDD
FDD

Cc bng tn cp
php di 11

AAS**
ARQ***

MHz

STC****

Cc bng tn cp

AAS

TDD

php

ARQ

FDD

di

11

Cu
li

MHz

TDD
FDD

hnh

STC
WirelessMANOFDMA

Cc bng tn cp

AAS

TDD

php
MHz

HARQ
STC

FDD

AAS
ARQ

TDD

di

11

WirelessHUMAN* Cc bng tn min DFS


php di 11

Cu
li
STC

MHz

hnh

* HUMAN: High Speed Unlicensed Metropolitan Network: Mng th min


php tc cao
** AAS: Adaptive Antenna System: H thng anten thch ng
***ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request: Yu cu pht li t ng
****STC: Space Time Coding: M khng gian thi gian
V WiMAX ch cp n OFDM v OFDMA nn trong cc phn di y ta
s xt WirelessMAN OFDM v WirelessMAN OFDMA.

2.7. WIRELESSMAN OFDM


2.7.1. Tng quan cc tnh nng ca WirelessMAN OFDM
Bng tn cng tc cn thit cho WirelessMAN OFDM l 2-11GHz, v khng
th m bo truyn khng trc x (NLOS: Non Line of Sight) trong bng tn cao hn.
Bng 2.2 cho thy cc tnh nng chnh ca lp vt l (PHY) ca IEEE 802.16e -2005
cho h thng khng dy c nh.

30

Bng 2.2. Cc tnh nng ca WirelessMAN OFDM


Tnh nng
Dng sng 256 im FFT OFDM

Li ch
h tr cc mi trng LOS v NLOS
ngoi tri

iu ch v thay i m sa li thch m bo ng truyn v tuyn bn vng


ng theo tng cm sng v tuyn
nhng vn duy tr tc bit cc i cho
tng thu bao
H tr TDD v FDD

p ng cc iu l khc nhau cc vng


khc nhau trn th gii

Kch thc knh linh hot (3,5MHz; Cung cp nhu cu khai thc linh hot trong
5MHz; 10 MHz...)
cc bng tn khc nhau ph thuc vo yu
cu knh khc nhau trn th gii
Thit k h tr cc h thng an ten Cc h thng ny cng kh dng v gi
thch ng (to bp) v STC
thnh ngy cng r. Chng cho php gim
nhiu, tng li h thng v s tr nn
quan trong khi trin khai BWA.
Vic s dng nhiu im FFT trong WirelessMAN OFDM hn trong 802.11a
(256 so vi 64) cho php m rng thi gian mt k hiu v v th kh nng chu ng
tr a ng ln hn i vi hot ng NLOS c ly xa.
m bo tnh bn vng v thng lng cc ai, cc s iu ch thch ng
c s dng trong chun WirelessMAN OFDM: QPSK, 16QAM, 64 QAM. Khi iu
kn knh tt, iu ch 64QAM tc s liu cao c la chn, tri li khi iu kin
knh km iu ch QPSK tc s liu thp hn c la chn (hnh 2.7).

31

Trm gc

SS3

SS4

SS1

SS2

Hnh 2.7. iu ch thch ng trong lp vt l


Mt tnh nng tin tin khc ca WirelessMAN OFDM l n cho php nh c
knh t 1,75 MHz n 20 MHz. V th nh sn sut thit b c th linh hot s dng
ton b bng thng c cp pht. Chng hn nu bng thng c cp pht l 14
MHz, h s khng s dng bng thng 6MHz v s lng ph 2MHz. H c th s dng
bng thng 1,75MHz, 3,5 MHz cng nh 7MHz. Nh vy ton b bng thng s c
s dng.
2.7.2. Cu trc khung
H thng s dng khung c di 0,5; 1 hay 2 ms. Mi khung c chia thnh
cc khe vt l (PS: Physical Slot) n nh bng thng v nhn dng s chuyn i
lp vt l. Lp vt l OFDM h tr ba phng n ghp song cng: FDD, TDD v
HFDD. Mi khung bao gm mt khung con ng xung v mt khung con ng
ln. Trong phng n FDD khung con ng xung v ng ln c truyn trong
ton b thi gian khung nhng hai tn s khc nhau. Trong phng n TDD, khung
con ng ln c truyn tip sau khung con ng xung trong cng mt thi gian
khung trn cng mt sng mang, gia khai khung con ny c mt khong bo v
trnh chng ln do ng b khng tt. Mi khung cha cc PDU (Protocol Data Unit:
n v s liu giao thc) lp vt l, cc khong trng v cc khong bo v.
Cu trc khung con ng xung v ng ln ca OFDM c cho trn hnh
2.8 v 2.9.
Khung con ng xung ch cha mt PDU ng xung. Khung con ng ln cha
cc khong va chm (tranh chp) c lp biu cho nh c ly khi u, yu cu

32

bng thng v mt hay nhiu PDU lp vt l ng ln t cc SS khc nhau. PDU lp


vt l ng xung bt u bng mt tin t di s dng cho ng b lp vt l. Sau
tin t ny l cm FCH (Frame Control Header: tiu iu khin khung). Cm FCH
c di mt k hiu OFDM c pht bng cch iu ch BPSK vi s m ha
knh t l m 1/2. FCH cha DLFP (DL Frame Prefix:tin t khung ng xung)
c t h s cm v di ca mt hay nhiu cum ng xung tip sau FCH. Bn tin
DL-MAP (sp xp ng xung) (nu c truyn trong khung ny) s l PDU ca
lp MAC u tin tip sau FCH. Sau DL-MAP (nu c truyn) l UL-MAP (sp
xp ng xung). Tip theo UL-MAP l UCD (m t knh ng ln) v DCD (m
t knh ng xung) nu cc m t ny c truyn. Mc d cm 1 cha thng tin
qung b, nhng khng nht thit phi s dng iu ch v m ha chc chn nht. C
th s dng s iu ch m ha hiu sut nht cho ttc cc SS ca BS.
Cc cm ng xung sau FCH c truyn vi cc h s cm khc nhau. Mi
cm cha mt s nguyn cc k hiu OFDM. V tr v h s cm th nht c c t
trong DLFP. V tr v h s ca cc cm tip theo c c t trong DL-MAP c
pht qung b trong cm 1.
Thi gian
Khung n-1

Khung n

Khung n+1

Khung n+2

Khung con ng xung

DL PHY PDU
Cha mt hay nhiu cm DL vi iu ch v m ha
khc nhau c pht theo th t gim dn bn chc

Tin t

FHC

Cm DL#1

Cm DL#2

MAC PDU 1

DLFP

Cc bn tin
qung b

Cm DL#m

MAC PDU n

Cc MAC PDU
thng thng

Cha: DL-MAP
Tiu MAC
UL-MAP, DCD,
(6 byte)
UDC
DL: Downlink: ng xung
MAC: Medium Access Control: iu khin truy nhp mi trng
PDU: Protocol Data Unit: n v s liu giao thc
DL-MAP: sp xp ng xung
UL-MAP: sp xp ng ln
DCD: Downlink Channel Descriptor: m t knh ng xung
UCD: Uplink Channel Descritor: m t knh ng ln
DLFP: Downlink Frame Prefix: tin t ng xung

Mt k hiu OFDM s
dng BPSK t l 1/2

Ti tin MAC
(ty chn)

Hnh 2.8. Cu trc khung OFDM ng xung

33

CRC (ty
chn)

Thi gian

Khung n

Khung n-1

Khung n+1

Khung n+2

Khung con ng ln
Khe va chm
nh c ly lnu

Khe va chm yu cu
bng thng

PDU lp vt l t SS#1

Tin t

PDU lp vt l t SS#n

Mt cm UL cho mt PDU lp vt
l c truyn theo iu ch v
m ha ring cho tng SS

Cm UL

MAC PDU#1

MAC PDU#n

UL: Uplink: ng ln
MAC: Medium Access Control: iu khin truy nhp mi trng
PDU: Protocol Data Unit: n v s liu giao thc
Tiu MAC
(6 byte)

Ti tin MAC
(ty chn)

CRC (ty
chn)

Hnh 2.9. Cu trc khung OFDM ng ln


DL-MAP xc nh mc s dng cc on thi gian ng xung cho mt cm.
UL-MAP xc nh mc s dng ng ln c th hin dch thi cm so vi
thi im cp pht ban u.
DDC v UDC l cc bn tin MAC m t cc c tnh lp vt l ca knh
ng xung v ng ln.
Tin t trong khung ng xung c gi l tin t di bao gm CP sau l
4x64, tip theo li l mt CP vi 2x128 mu i sau nh trn hnh 2.10.

CP

TG

64

64

64

64

CP

128

TG

T FFT

128

T FFT

Hnh 2.10. Tin t di ng xung


Tin t di c s dng ng b v c tnh knh.
2.7.3. Cu trc lp vt l WirelessMAN OFDM
2.7.3.1. Cc thng s WirelessMAN OFDM
Cc thng s chnh ca WirelessMAN OFDM OFDM c cho trong bng 2.3
(cho trng hp bng thng 3,5MHz)
34

Bng 2.3 Cc thng s chnh WirelessMAN OFDM


Thng s

Gi tr

Bng thng

3,5MHz

T l tn s ly mu trn bng thng, i vi bng thng l bi s 1,75 GHz:


n=fs/B
n=8/7, i vi bng thng l bi s 1,5
GHz: n=86/75, i vi bng thng l bi s
1,25 GHz: n=144/125, i vi bng thng l
bi s 2,75GHz: n=316/275, i vi bng
thng l bi s 2GHz: n=57/50; i vi
bng thng khng c c t khc: n=8/7.
S im FFT

256

S sng mang con tch cc

200

S sng mang con bo v (tri)

28

S sng mang con bo v (phi)

27

Ch s dch tn ca cc sng mang con


bo v

-128, -129,...,-101

Khong cch tn s sng mang con

15,625

+101, +102,..., +127

(kHz), f
Thi gian k hiu hu ch (s), TFFT

64

Khong bo v vi gi thit 12% (s),

TGP
Thi gian k hiu OFDM (s), T

72

T l di tin t trn di hiu


dng ca k hiu OFDM (TG/TFFT)

1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32

2.7.3.2. S khi my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM


My pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM c th c chia thnh 2 phn:
phn bng gc v phn v tuyn (xem hnh 2.11).
35

Re

Bng gc

Lung bit

My pht v tuyn

D/A
IF LO

Im

90o

D/A

RF LO

My thu v tuyn

90

Re

Bng gc

A/D
IF LO
A/D

RF LO

Im

Lung bit

Sync

K hiu:
Re: Phn thc, Im: Phn o, D/A: bin i s vo tng t, A/D: bin i tng t vo
s, IFLO: B giao ng ni trung tn, RF LO: B giao ng ni v tuyn, Sync: Mch
ng b
Hnh 2.11. S khi my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM

Trc ht lung bit ti u ra ca MAC c a n bng gc ca my pht,


sau x l bng gc, lung s c chia thnh phn thc (Re) v phn o (Im). Sau
bin i s v tng t (D/A), phn thc v phn o c bin i vo cc sng ng
pha v vung gc. Sng ng pha c nhn vi sng mang trung tn hm cos, cn
sng vung gc c nhn vi sng mang trung tn hm sin. Sau hai sng ny
c cng vi nhau to thnh sng mang trung tn c iu ch. Cui cng sng
ny c nhn vi sng mang v tuyn c bin i nng tn trc khi vo anten.
Ti my thu, cc thao tc ngc c thc hin theo th t ngc li. Cn m
bo ng b chnh xc m bo x l bng gc chnh xc. Cn ng b tn hiu
OFDM cn thit pht hin gi. ng b bao gm ng b k hiu v ng b tn
s.
Pht hin gi nhm tm ra v tr u ca gi, qu trnh ny c thc hin vi
s h tr ca cc k hiu hoa tiu (chng hn cc tin t). C hai cch thc hin
iu ny: (1) Ly t tng quan tn hiu thu, trong trng hp ny tin t thng bao
gm hai phn ging nhau; (2) Ly tng quan tn hiu thu vi cc tin t. V tr nhn
c gi tr nh chnh l im u ca gi.
Cc tn hiu thu tng t cn c ly mu ti thi im chnh xc ca chu k
ly mu (chu k A/D)cho qu trnh x l tn hiu s. Tuy nhin pha v chu k ly mu

36

lun khc nhau gia D/A (pha pht) v A/D (pha thu). C th hiu chnh khc bit
ny bng vng kha pha tr (DPLL: Delay Phase Locked Loop) v VCO iu chnh
tn s A/D. V pha thu lun c th xc nh chnh xc c v tr cu cc hoa tiu trn
chm tn hiu v ly mu sai ch dn n quay chm tn hiu, v th da trn khong
cch quay ta c th tnh ra c cc tn s cn thit iu chnh A/D.
Cc h thng OFDM rt nhy cm vi dch tn v y l nguyn nhn dn n
mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con. Dch tn c c tnh vi s h tr cu
cc tin t v dch pha trn chm tn hiu dn n dch tn s cc sng mang con. C
th thc hin c tnh trong c min thi gian ln min tn s da trn mt tiu chun
thng k no , chng hn kh ging cc i. u ra ca b c tnh c a ngc
tr v iu chnh VCO.
Cu trc bng gc c trnh by trn hnh 2.12.
Bng gc pht
Ngu
nhin ha

M ha
knh

iu ch

Lp rp
khung

256
IFFT

Chn
CP

P/S

Knh

c tnh knh

Cn bng
min tn s

Tho g
khunng

256 FFT

Loi CP

Gii iu ch

S/P

Gii m
knh

ng b

Gii ngu
nhin

Bng gc thu

Hnh 2.12. S khi bng gc ca my pht v my thu WirelessMAN OFDM


Trc ht lung bit t MAC c ngu nhin ha, sau c m ha knh
chng li cc nh hng l gim cht lng ca knh nh: tp m, phainh v nhiu.
tng hiu qu m ha knh lung s sau m ha knh c an xen. M ha knh
c th l Reed-Solomon, xon kt hp chch b ( iu chnh tc bit). M turbo v
m turbo xon (CTC) cng vi an xen CTC cng c th c s dng dng ty
chn.
iu ch thc hin sp xp tn hiu s vo dng tng t c th truyn n
trn knh. iu ch c s dng l BPSK. QPSK, 16QAM v 64QAM m Gray.
iu ch OFDM bao gm ba phn: lp rp khung OFDM, to lp tn hiu
OFDM bng IFFT v chn tin t chu trnh (CP: Cyclic Prefix).

37

Ti pha thu ngoi cc khi thc hin thao tc ngc so vi pht, ngoi ra cn
c thm b cn bng knh. C ba dng b cn bng knh trong min tn s: b cn
bng LS c h tr bi hoa tiu, b cn bng LMMSE vi h tr hoa tiu v b cn
bng LS vi h tr tin t.
Knh truyn l knh AWGN v phainh Rayleigh.
2.7. 4. M t cc khi
2.7.4.1. Ngu nhin ha, PBRS
Khi u tin cu my pht l khi ngu nhin ha. Khi ny c s dng
trnh xy ra cc chui di ton "1" hoc ton "0". Cc gi s liu c ngu cng
modul-2 vi mt chui gi ngu nhin (PRBS: Pseudo Random Binary Sequence:
chui nh phn gi ngu nhin). Trong chun WirelessMAN OFDM, b ngu nhin
ha l mt thanh ghi dch 15 bit c hai cng XOR (xem hnh 2.13).
1

S liu vo

10

11

12

13

14

15

S liu ra

Hnh 2.13. B ngu nhin ha


a thc thc to m ca b ngu nhin ha trong trng hp ny l:
g(x)=x +x+14+1. Ti khi u ca mi cm thanh ghi dch PRBS c xa v c
np bit chui hai ging 100101010000000. Ngu nhin ha chr p dng cho cc bit
15

thng tin.
Ti my thu s ny cng c s dng gii ngu nhin.
2.7.4.2. Khi m ha knh
M ha knh c thc hin bng cch mc ni hai m Reed-Solomon v m
ha xon c t l tng thch (RS-CC). H tr m BTC (Bock Turbo Code: m turbo
khi) v CTC (Convolutional Turbo Code: m turbo xon) l ty chn. T l m RSCC 1/2 lun c s dng khi yu cu truy nhp mng (tr cc ch phn knh con
trong ch s dng m xon 1/2) v trong cc cm FCH.

38

Trc ht lung s c chia thnh cc khi v a vo b m ha RS, sau


c a vo b m ha xon CC (Convolutional Code) vi kt cui bng khng.

M Reed-Solomon
Vai tr ca m ha knh l chn thm cc bit d trc khi khi pht sa li
pha thu. Khi u tin trong m ha knh l b m ha Reed-Solomon. M ReedSolomon l m khi cho php hiu chnh li cm tt. Cc m ny c k hiu dng
(N,K,T), trong N l s byte u ra, K l s byte u vo v T l s byte c th sa
li c. Vi K byte u vo b m ha, ta c K byte ny ti u ra b m ha vi
tip sau l N-K byte d b sung hiu chnh li. B m ha Reed-Solomon c rt
ra t b m ha RS h thng chun RS(N=255,K=239,T=7).
B m ha xon/ gii m Viterbi
B m ha xon c trnh by trn hnh 2.14 sa li ngu nhin. B m ha
xon ny c t l m 1/2 v di hn ch 7.
X

Vo s
liu

Ra s
liu
D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Hnh 2.14. B m ha xon

a thc to m trong trng hp ny nh sau:


G1=(171)OCT cho X

(2.1)

G2=(133)OCT cho Y

(2.2)

39

Ti pha thu b gii m Viterbi c s dng gii m vi su ca li l


34.
2.7.4.3. B an xen/ gii an xen
Tt c cc bit sau m ha knh RS-CC u s c an xen khi bi b an xen
khi vi kch thc tng ng vi s cc bit sau m ha trn cc knh con c n
nh trn k hiu OFDM, Ncbps. Ph thuc vo s iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM
hay 64QAM, Ncbps bng 192, 384, 768, 1152. an xen c thc hin theo hai bc
hon v. Hon v bc 1 m bo rng cc bit cnh nhau c sp xp ln cc sng
mang khng cnh nhau. V th khi phainh su lm hng mt bit th bit cnh n khng
b nh hng ca phainh nh vy c th hiu chnh c nh hng cu phainh ny.
Hon v th hai m bo rng cc bit cnh nhau lun phin c t vo cc bit c
trng s cao hn hoc thp hn ca chm tn hiu. Nh vy tch tn hiu chnh xc
hn v trnh c cc on di cc bit c tin cy thp. Gii an xen c thc hin
ngc li.
Phng trnh (2.3) biu din quan h gia cc ch s k, mk v jk ca bit sau khi
an xen ln th nht v ln th hai. Trong Nc l tng s cc bit trong khi, s=M/2,
trong M l bc ca iu ch (2 i vi QPSK, 4 i vi 16QAM v 6 i vi
64QAM). V d l mt thng s bt k c t bng 16:

N
k
mk c kmod( d ) floor
d
d
m
jk s. floor k
s

(2.3a)

d .mk

mk N c floor

Nc


mod( d )

(2.3b)

Trong : k=0,1,., Nc-1


d. j
j
m j s. floor j N c floor

s
N c mod( d )

(2.4a)

d.m j
k dm j N c 1 . floor

Nc

(2.4b)

trong hm floor(x) l hm ly gi tr nguyn ca (x)


2.7.4.4. iu ch/ gii iu ch

40

Sau an xen, lung bit c a ln b sp xp iu ch c sp t ln


chm tn hiu. iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM v 64QAM m Gray c s dng
(trong bng min php 64-QAM l ty chn). Chm tn hiu ny s c nhn vi mt
hng s c cn bng cng sut trung bnh. c bng 1 cho BPSK, 1/ 2 cho QPSK,
1/ 10 cho 16QAM v 1/ 42 cho 64QAM.

Bng 2.4 cho thy quan h gia iu ch v t l m c s dng trong cm ng


xung u tin ngay sau FCH.

Bng 2.4. Quan h gia iu ch v t l m


Nhn dng t l

iu ch

T l m RS-CC

BPSK

1/2

QPSK

1/2

QPSK

3/4

16QAM

1/2

16QAM

3/4

64QAM

2/3

64QAM

3/4

7-15

d phng

(Rate_ID)

Hnh 2.15 cho thy cc chm tn hiu ca iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM v 64


QAM.

41

Q
Q

c / 42

b2b1b0

c=1

011

010

000

b0=0

I
b0=1

b0
0

c1/ 2

001

-1

-7

-5

-3

-1

101

-1

100

-3

001

000

010

011

-1

b1b0

b1

c / 10

01

-5

110
1

00

-7

111
-3

-1

10

-1

11

-3
11

10

00

01

111

110

100

101

b5b4b3

b3b2

Hnh 2.15. Cc chm tn hiu iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM


2.7.4.5. IFFT v FFT
m bo tnh trc giao, cc sng mang con ca h thng OFDM l cc hm
sin c tn s l bi s ca tn s c bn. Mt chu k T FFT ca k hiu OFDM cha mt
s nguyn ln chu k cc sng mang con. FFT thc hin bin i tn hiu trong min
thi gian vo min tn s dng mt hm ph thuc vo chu k ly mu v s cc
mu c s dng. Tn s c bn ca FFT l 1/Ts (Ts thi gian ly mu ca FFT).
IFFT thc hin thao tc ngc ca FFT, n bin i tn hiu t min tn s vo min
thi gian. Cc gi tr u ra IFFT l tng ca nhiu mu ca nhiu hm sin nh sau:

i =N/2-1
i

R
e
w(t
kT)
x
exp
j
2

f
+
(t
kT)

i,k

FFT
i =-N/2

(2.5)
x RF,k (t - kT) =
kT - TGD t kT +TFFT
0,
nu khc

Trong thng tin v tuyn, tn hiu gc c th b mo dng do phn x nhiu


ng (ISI). chng li ISI, tin t chu trnh (CP) c chn vo u k hiu
OFDM. iu ny c thc hin bng cch copy phn cui ca phn hiu dng k

42

hiu OFDM vo phn u ca n. Trong chun IEEE 802.16e-2005, c th p dng


CP thch ng vi di 1/4; 1/8; 1/16; 1/32. Ti pha thu thao tc ngc c thc
hin.
2.7.4.6. B c tnh knh v cn bng
1. M hnh knh
Knh truyn c cc c tnh sau:
Tn hao ng truyn (che ti chng hn)
Tri tr a ng
Cc c tnh phainh
Tri Doppler
Nhiu ng knh v nhiu knh ln cn
Tn hao ng truyn
Tn hao ng truyn ph thuc rt nhiu vo a hnh v mt cc vt chn
trn ng truyn sng. Mt vt chn cao v a hnh i ni s dn n tn hao
ln.
Tri tr a ng
Mi trng tn x dn n tin hiu truyn n im thu theo nhiu ng vi
cc thi gian tr khc nhau. Tn hiu ti im thu s l tng vect ca cc tn hiu n
t cc ng khc nhau ni trn.
Phainh
Phainh l qu trnh trong tn hiu thu b thng ging mt cch ngu nhin.
Phainh c c trng bng mt m hnh phn b thng k. Khi c rt nhiu ng
truyn khng trc x t BS n SS v cng sut ca chng ln hn nhiu so vi cng
sut ca ng trc x, ta c phainh Rayleigh. Trong trng hp ng truyn trc
x ni tri so vi cc ng truyn khng trc x ta c phainh Rice.
Dch Doppler
Dch tn Doppler gy ra do s chuyn ng tng i gia my thu v my
pht. i vi mi trng thng tin v tuyn di ng, ph thuc vo a hnh ta c th
c phn b mt ph xng sut Doppler dng Jake hoc Gauss.

43

Ngoi cc yu t knh ni trn, khong cch nht qun, nhiu ng knh, h s


gim li anten cng cn c xem xt trong h thng thng tin a knh v MIMO.
2. c tnh knh v cn bng knh
Cc tn hiu OFDM b nh hng ca phainh a ng v hiu ng Doppler
khi truyn trn knh v tuyn. c th gii iu ch v gii m knh chnh xc, my
thu cn c tnh c hm truyn t knh. Tip sau c tnh knh l cn bng knh.
c tnh knh c th c thc hin c trong min tn s v min thi gian. i vi
h thng OFDM, FFT cn c thc hin cho tt c cc sng mang con v th x l
trong min tn s c thc hin trc tip. V th di y ta s xt c tnh knh v
cn bng knh trong min tn s cho h thng SISO (mt anten pht v mt anten thu).
Ta k hiu X l tn hiu c pht, H l p ng xung kim, l tp m trng
ca knh, tn hiu thu s l:

Y=X*H+

(2.6)

X=(Y-)/H=Y/ H

(2.7)

trong H l hm truyn t knh c tnh. khi phc li tn hiu Y ta cn bit


. Trong chun IEEE 802.16e-2005, ta c mt s tn hiu bit trc ti my thu: cc
H

hoa tiu v cc tin t. Bng cch phn tch s thay i ca cc tn hiu ny khi chng
c truyn n my thu t pha pht, my thu c th tnh ra c H da trn mt s
tiu ch thng k. Di y l ba phng php c tnh knh da trn c cc hoa tiu
v cc tin t di:
B c tnh knh LS vi h tr hoa tiu
B c tnh knh LMMSE vi h tr hoa tiu
B c tnh knh LS vi h tr tin t di
Cc tiu ch thng k c chn cho ba phng php ny s l: (1) c tnh
theo bnh phng trung bnh (LS: Least Mean Square), c tnh theo bnh phng
trung bnh cc tiu tuyn tnh (LMMS: Linear Minimum Mean Square).
Trong c tnh knh da trn LS, hm truyn t knh c tnh c tnh ton
n gin bng cch chia tn hiu thu theo tn hiu c pht chnh xc.
LS=Y/X
H

(2.8)

44

trong Y l vect thu cn X l vect pht.


Trong c tnh knh da trn LMMSE,
LMMSE=Rhh{Rhh+ 2 (XXh)-1 H
LS
H
N

(2.9)

Rhh=E{ H LS. H hLS }

(2.10)

trong 2N l phng sai ca tp m Gauss trng cng, ch s h pha trn l chuyn


v Hermitian ca ma trn.

2.8. WirelessMAN OFDMA


WirelessMAN OFDMA c xy dng trn c s iu ch OFDM v c
thit k cho hot ng khng trc x (NLOS) trong bng tn thp hn 11 MHz.
Th d, nu bng thng quy dnh l 14 MHz trong di t 3400 MHz n 3414
MHz, th cc bng thng c php s dng s l cc gi tri c cho trong bng 2.4.
Bng 2.4. Th d v t knh cho cc bng cp php
To knh (MHz)

Cc tn s trung tm

14

3407

3403,5+n.0,25 n{0,...,28}

3,5

3401,5+n.0,25 n{0,...,42}

1,75

3400,875+n.0,25 n{0,...,49}

2.8.1. M t k hiu OFDMA, cc thng s k hiu v tn hiu pht


1. M t trong min thi gian
Bin i Fourier ngc to nn dng sng OFDMA, khong thi gian ny
ch gi l thi gian hiu dng ca k hiu, TFFT. Copy phn cui cng (TGD) ca
thi gian hiu dng k hiu (CP: Cyclic Prefix) c s dng loi b nh hng a
ng trong khi vn duy tr c tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang con. Hnh 2.16 cho
thy cu trc ny.

45

TGD

TFFT
T

Hnh 2.16. Cu trc thi gian ca k hiu OFDM

Khi du, SS phi tm tt c cc CP c th c cho n khi tm c CP c s


dng bi BS. SS s s dng chnh CP ny cho ng ln.
2. M t trong min tn s
M t min tn s bao gm cu trc ca mt k hiu OFDMA
Mt k hiu OFDMA bao gm cc sng mang con, trong s lng cc sng
mang con xc nh kch thc FFT c s dng. C mt s dng sng mang con:
Cc sng mang con s liu: truyn s liu
Cc sng mang con hoa tiu: cho cc mc ch c tnh khc nhau
Cc sng mang con rng: cho cc bng bo v v sng mang DC.
Trong ch OFDMA, cc sng mang tch cc c chia thnh cc tp sng
mang con, mi tp c gi l mt knh con. Trn ng xung mt knh con c th
c th c dnh cho cc my thu (nhm cc my thu) khc nhau. Trn ng ln,
my pht c th c n nh mt hay nhiu knh con nhiu my pht c th pht
ng thi. Khi nim ny c cho trn hnh 2.17.
Knh con 1

Knh con 2

Knh DC

Bng bo v tri

Knh con 3

Bng bo v phi

46

Hnh 2.17. M t min tn s OFDMA (ba knh)


3. Cc thng s s cp
Cc thng s c trng cho mt k hiu OFDMA nh sau:
B: Bng thng knh
Nu: S sng mang con hiu dng (bao gm c sng mang DC)
n: tha s ly mu. Thng s ny cng vi B v N xc nh khng khong
cch gia cc sng mang con.
G: TGD/TFFT; cc gi tr dc s dng nh sau: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 v 1/4
4. Cc thng s th cp
N: s hai ly tha nh nht ln hn Nu
Tn s ly mu: fs=n.B khong cch gia cc sng mang: f=fs/N
Thi gian hiu dng k hiu: TFFT=1/f
Thi gian k hiu OFDM: T=T GD+TFFT
Thi gian ly mu: TFFT/N
4. Tn hiu pht
Tn hiu pht c xc nh nh sau:

i =N/2-1
i

R
e
w(t
kT)
x i,k exp j2 fc + T (t - kT) ,

FFT
i =-N/2

; (2.7)
x RF,k (t - kT) =
kT - TGD t kT +TFFT
0,
nu khc

2.8.2. Sp xp knh con v khe OFDMA


Cc sng mang con trong WiMAX c chia thnh cc nhm sng mang con
c gi l cc knh con. WiMAX c nh ch cho php s dng mt dng hn ch
Sp xp knh con trn ng ln. Tiu chun nh ngha 16 knh con trong c th
cp pht cho mt trm thu bao (SS) trn ng ln 1,2,4,8 hoc ton b tp knh con.
Sp xp knh con trn ng ln trong WiMAX c nh cho php cc trm thu bao
ch s dng mt phn (t nht l 1/16) bng thng m trm gc cp pht cho n. Mc

47

cp pht bng thng m bo ci thin qu ng truyn tng cng vng ph


sng hoc tit kim cng sut acqui. Tha s Sp xp knh con 1/16 cho php tng
qu ng truyn 12dB.
Khe OFDMA l ti nguyn thi gian-tn s ti thiu m h thng WiMAX cp
pht cho mt lin kt. Mi khe bao gm mt knh con trn mt, hai hay ba k hiu
OFDM ty thuc v s phn chia knh c s dng. Mt chui cc khe lin tc
c n nh cho mt ngi s dng c gi l mt vng (Region).
2.8.3. n nh cc sng mang con OFDMA
i vi OFDMA, tn s ly mu fs=nB. Lai b cc sng mang con bo v t
N sng mang con ta c cc sng mang con kh dung. i vi c ng ln v
ng xung, cc sng mang con ny c s dng n nh cho cc sng mang con
hoa tiu v cc sng mang con s liu. Tuy nhin vic n nh ny khc nhau cho cc
vng khc nhau. i vi FUSC (Down Link Fully Used Subchannelization: Sp xp
knh con s dng ton b ng xung), cc tn s hoa tiu c n nh trc, cc
sng mang con cn li s dnh cho s liu v c chia thnh cc knh con. i vi
PUSC (Partially Used Subchannelization: Sp xp knh con s dng mt phn) trn
ng xung v ng ln, th trc ht tp cc sng mang con kh dng c chia
thnh cc knh con, sau cc sng mang con hoa tiu c n nh trong tng knh
con. Nh vy trong FUSC ch c mt tp sng mang con hoa tiu chung, cn trong
PUSC mi knh con c cc sng mang con hoa tiu cho ring mnh.

48

2.8.4. Sp xp knh con ng xung


ng xung c th c chia thnh ba cu trc on vi m u l tin t.
Cc sng mang con tin t c chia thnh 3 tp sng mang. Ty thuc vo vic on
s dng tp sng mang no, ta s c ba nhm. Hnh 2.18 cho thy cu trc truyn dn

K hiu s liu

K hiu s liu
K hiu s liu

Tin t
K hiu s liu
K hiu s liu
K hiu s liu
K hiu s liu

c s ng xung.

Hnh 2.18. Cu trc truyn dn c s ng xung


2.8.4.1. Cu trc k hiu cho FUSC
Trong FUSC (Down Link Fully Used Channelization: Sp xp knh con s
dng ton b ng xung), cu trc k hiu c xy dng trn cc sng mang hoa
tiu, s liu v cc sng mang rng. Trc ht l k hiu cha cc hoa tiu tng ng
cng vi cc sng mang rng. Sau l cc sng mang cn li dnh cho s liu
(chng c chia thnh cc knh con).
C hai tp hoa tiu kh bin v hai tp hoa tiu c nh. Trong FUSC, mi on
s dng c tp hoa tiu kh bin v c nh. Trong ch STC, mi anten s dng
mt na ti nguyn tp hoa tiu. Bng 2.5 tng kt cc thng s ca mt k hiu.

Bng 2.5. Cc thng s ca mt k hiu


Thng s

Gi tr

S sng mang con DC

S sng mang con bo v (tri)

173

S sng mang con bo v phi

172

S sng mang con kh dng

1703

49

S sng mang con hoa tiu


Tp kh bin #0

24

Tp khng i#1

Tp kh bin#1

24

Tp khng i

S sng mang con s liu

1536

S sng mang con s liu trn mt knh con

48

S knh con

32

Hnh 2.19 cho thy th d v cu trc k hiu ng xung cho on 0 trn k hiu s
1 s dng FUSC

12

24

36

Bng bo v tri (173


sng mang con)

39

1692

1701
Bng bo v phi
(172 sng mang con)

Hnh 2.19. Cu trc k hiu ng xung cho on 0 trn k hiu s 1 s dng


FUSC
2.8.4.2. Cu trc k hiu ng xung PUSC
Trong PUSC (Partially Used Subchannelization: Sp xp knh con ng
xung kiu sp xp knh con s dng mt phn) ng xung, cu trc k hiu c
thit k bng cch s dng cc sng mang con hoa tiu, s liu v khng. Trc ht k
hiu c chia thnh cc cm (Cluster) c s. Cc sng mang hoa tiu v s liu c
n nh cho tng cm. Bng 2.6 cho thy cc thng s ca cu trc k hiu cho trng
hp kch thc FFT bng 2048.

Bng 2.6. n nh sng mang con ng xung OFDM-PUSC

50

Thng s

Gi tr

S sng mang con DC

S sng mang con bo v (tri)

184

S sng mang con bo v (phi)

183

S sng mang con kh dng

1681

S sng mang con trn mt cm

2x14

S sng mag con hoa tiu trn mi cm

2x4

S cc sng mang con s liu trn mi cm

24

S cm trong mt knh con

S cm

120

S knh con

60

Ch thch

gm c sng mang con


DC

Cu trc cm c cho trn hnh 2.20. Hnh 2.20 cho thy cc sng mang con
t tri sang phi theo ch s tng dn. xc nh v tr ca hoa tiu PUSC, cc k
hiu chn v l c c tnh t u vng hin thi. K hiu chn l k hiu u tin.
Tin t khng c tnh nh l b phn ca vng u tin.

K hiu chn
K hiu l

Sng mang con


hoa tiu

Sng mang
con s liu

Hnh 2.20. Cu trc cm

n nh cc sng mang con cho cc knh con trong PUSC c thc hin nh sau:
1. Chia cc sng mang con thnh 120 cm vt l vi mi cm cha 14 sng mang
con lin k (bt u t sng mang con 0)
2. nh s li cc cm vt l thnh cc cm logic theo cng thc sau:

51

logicalCluster= RenumberingSequence((PhysicalCluster+13*IDCell)mod120)
Trong vng PUSC u tin ca ng xung, IDCell mc nh c s dng
v
bng 0
3. Chia Cluster thnh 6 nhm chnh. Nhm 0 gm cc cluster 0-23, nhm 1 gm
cc cluster 24-39, nhm 2 gm cc cluster 40-63, nhm 3 gm cc cluster 6479, nhm 4 gm cc cluster 80-103, nhm 5 gm cc cluster 104-119. Cc
nhm ny c th c n nh cho cc on nu on c s dng, mi on
c n nh t nht mt nhm
4. Thc hin n nh cc sng mang con cho cc knh con nh sau: trc ht n
nh cc sng mang hoa tiu trong tng cm, sau ly tt c cc sng mang
con s liu li trong k hiu phn chia chng vo cc knh con vi mi knh
cha 24 sng mang con s liu trong mi k hiu. Lu IDCell s dng cho
vng PUSC th nht bng khng
2.8.4.3. Cu trc k hiu ng xung TUSC1 v TUSC2
Cu trc k hiu TUSC1 v TUSC2 ging nh PUSC, tuy nhin s dng hon v
sng mang con khc.
2.8.5. Cu trc k hiu ng ln PUSC
Trong PUSC (Partially Used Subchannelization: Sp xp knh con ng
xung kiu sp xp knh con s dng mt phn) ng ln, cu trc k hiu c thit
k bng cch s dng cc sng mang con hoa tiu, s liu v khng.
ng ln h tr 70 knh con trong mi truyn dn s dng 48 knh con.
Mi ln truyn dn ng ln khi u bng thng s trong bng 2.7.

Bng 2.7. Cc thng s ca mt k hiu


Thng s

Gi tr

S sng mang con DC

S sng mang con bo v (tri)

184

S sng mang con bo v phi

183

52

S sng mang con kh dng

1681

S knh con hoa tiu

70

S lt

420

S sng mang con s liu trn mt knh con

48

Cu trc k hiu PUSC ng ln bao gm cc khe (cm). Cc khe trn ng


ln bao gm ba k hiu OFDMA v mt knh con, trong c 48 sng mang con s
liu v 24 sng mang con hoa tiu c v tr c nh.
Knh con c cu trc t 6 lt, mi lt c 4 sng mang con tch cc lin k vi
cu hnh nh cho trn hnh 2.21.
S th t k hiu

K hiu 0
K hiu 1
K hiu 2

Sng mang conS th th t mang con


hoa tiu

Sng mang
con s liu

Hnh 2.21. M t lt ng ln
2.8.6. Khe OFDMA v vng s liu
Mt khe trong OFDMA PHY (lp vt l OFDMA) i hi c kch thc thi
gian ln knh con v l n v ti thiu dnh cho s liu.
nh ngha khe OFDMA ph thuc vo cu trc k hiu OFDM, trong khi cu
trc ny thay i i vi ng ln v ng xung.
i vi FUSC ng xung s dng han v sng mang con phn b, mi khe
l mt knh con trong mt k hiu OFDMA
i vi PUSC ng xung s dng hon v sng mang con phn b, mt khe
l mt knh con trong hai k hiu OFDMA
i vi PUSC ng ln s dng sng mang con phn b v i vi cc
TUSC1 v TUSC2 mt khe l mt sng mang con trong ba k hiu OFDMA

53

S th t knh con

Trong OFDMA, vng s liu l n nh hai chiu mt nhm cc knh con lin
tc trong mt nhm cc k hiu OFDM lin tc. n nh ny c th c biu din
dng hnh ch nht 4x3 nh trn hnh 4.22.

S th t k hiu

Hnh 2.22. Th d v vng s liu trong n nh OFDM


2.8.7. Sp xp s liu OFDMA
S liu MAC c x l sau c sp xp ln min s liu cho ng
xung v ng ln theo cc gii thut sau. Min s liu c coi l mt nhm cc
knh con lin tc trong mt nhm cc k hiu OFDMA lin tc. Mt n nh c dng
ch nht kch thc 4x3 c cho trn hnh 2.22.
ng xung
1. Phn chia s liu sau khi iu ch thnh cc khi c kch thc va mt khe
OFDMA
2. Mi khe chim mt knh con trong trc knh con v mt hay nhiu k hiu
OFDMA trong trc thi gian (xem hnh 2.23). Sp xp cc khe sao cho khe c
s th t thp nht chim knh con c nh s thp nht trong k hiu
OFDMA c nh s thp nht
3. Tip tc sp xp theo ch s k hiu OFDMA tng dn. Khi t n bin ca
min s liu, tip tc sp xp bt u t knh con OFDM c s thp nht trong
k hiu kh dng tip theo.

54

Vng ng ln
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

K-2

K-1

Ch s k hiu OFDMA

K+1 K+2 K+3 K+4 K+5 K+6 K+7 K+8 K+9

Khe n
Khe n+1

K+1
0

K+1
K+12
1

Khe
n+12

Khe n+11

Vng s liu

S th t knh
con

Hnh 2.23. Th d v sp xp cc khe OFDMA vo cc knh con v cc k hiu


trn ng xung (trong ch PUSC)
ng ln
Sp xp knh con chia thnh hai bc. Bc th nht chn cc khe OFDMA
n nh cho tng cm. Bc th hai thc hin sp xp cc khe c n nh.
Bc 1- n nh cc khe OFDMA cho cc cm
1. Chia s liu thnh cc khi c kch thc va mt khe OFDMA
2. Mi khe s chim mt hay nhiu knh con trong trc knh con v mt hay
nhiu k hiu OFDMA trong trc thi gian (xem hnh 2.20). Sp xp cc khe
sao cho khe c s thp nht chim knh con c s thp nht trong k hiu
OFDMA c s thp nht
3. Tip tc sp xp theo ch s k hiu OFDMA tng. Khi t n bin ca min
ng ln (c nh du bng Zone _IE), tip tc sp xp t k hiu OFDMA
c s thp nht trong knh con kh dng tip theo.

55

Vng ng ln
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

K-2

K-1

Ch s k hiu OFDMA

K+1 K+2 K+3 K+4 K+5 K+6 K+7 K+8 K+9

Khe n

K+1
0

K+1
K+12
1

Khe
n+22

Khe
n+11

Khe n+10

Vng s liu

S th t knh
con

Hnh 2.24. Th d v sp xp cc khe OFDMA vo cc knh con v cc k hiu


cho ng ln

56

Bc 2- Sp xp cc khe OFDMA cho n nh ng ln


1. Sp xp cc khe sao cho khe c s thp nht chim knh con c s thp nht
trong k hiu OFDM c nh s thp nht
2. Tip tc sp xp sao cho ch s knh con tng dn. Khi t n knh con cui cng,
tip tc sp xp t knh con c s thp nht trong k hiu OFDMA tip theo ca n
nh ng ln. Th t c th hin bng mi tn trn hnh 2.24.

2.8.8. Cu trc khung PMP


WirelessMAN OFDMA trong cc bng tn cp php s dng cc phng php
ghp song cng FDD hoc TDD. Cc FDD SS c th l bn song cng (H-FDD).
Trong cc bng tn min php n s dng phng php ghp song cng TDD.
Trong h thng TDD, cu trc khung c thit lp trong mi ln truyn dn
BS v SS. Mi khung ng xung bt u bng mt tin t, sau l cc thi gian
truyn dn ng xung v ng ln (xem hnh 2.25). Trong mi khung, TTG
(khong trng chuyn i t pht sang thu) v RTG (khong trng chuyn i t
thu sang pht) s c chn vo ng xung v ng ln v ti kt thc khung
BS c th chuyn ch .
Trong cc h thng TDD v H-FDD, chuyn i ch pht thu ca SS c
thc hin theo SSRTG v SSTTG. BS s khng pht thng tin ng xung n SS
mun hn (SSRTG+RTD) trc khi bt u n nh ng ln u tin ca n theo
lp biu v s khng pht thng tin ng xung sm hn (SSTTG+RTD) sau khi kt
thc n nh ng ln cui cng theo lp biu, trong RTD l tr vng.

t
k+7

k+9

k+11

k+13 k+15

k+17

k+20

k+29

k+23 k+26

Cm UL #1

Cm DL#1

Cm UL #2

Cm DL #4

Cm DL #2

Cm UL #3
Cm UL #4

Cm DL #5

Cm DL #5

s+L

Khung con DL

TTG

57

Khung conUL

k+30 k+32

FCH

Knh con Ranging

Cm DL #3

DL-MAP

Tin t

k+5

RTG

DL-MAP

FCH

k+3

Tin t

k+1

UL-MAP

S th t logic knh con

s
s+1
s+2

Hnh 2.25. Th d v cu trc khung theo thi gian TDD (vng bt buc)
n nh knh con c th c thc hin theo hai cch: (1) s dng mt phn
cc knh con (PUSC: Partially Used Subchannelization) trong mt s knh con
c n nh cho my pht v (2) s dng ton b cc knh con (FUSC: Fully Used
Subchannelization) trong ton b cc knh con u c n nh cho my pht.
FCH (Frame Control Header: tiu iu khin khung) s c truyn bng iu ch
QPSK t l m ha 1/2 vi lp bn ln bng s m ha bt buc (thng tin FCH s
c pht trn bn s th t knh con logic lin tip) trong vng PUSC. FCH cha
DL_Frame_Prefix (tin t khung ng xung) v c t di ca bn tin DL-MAP
(i sau tin t khung ng xung) v m ha lp c s dng cho bn tin DL-MAP.
Cc chuyn i gia cc ch iu ch v m ha xy ra trn bin gii ca
khe OFDMA trong min thi gian (tr trng hp trong min AAS) v trn cc knh
con trong mt k hiu OFDMA trong min tn s.
Khung OFDMA c th cha nhiu vng (chng hn PUSC, FUSC, PUSC vi
tt c cc knh con, FUSC ty chn, AMC, TUSC1 v TUSC2), vic chuyn i gia
cc vng c ch th trong DL-MAP bi STC_Zone_IE. Hnh 2.26 cho thy khung
OFDM c nhiu vng.

AMC

PUSC ty chn

TUSC2

TUSC1

AMC

FUSC ty chn

FUSC
(DL-PermBasel Z)

FUSC
(DL-PermBasel y)

PUSC
(DL-PermBasel X)

PUSC (vng u
tin cha FCH v
DL-MAP)

TIn t

Phi xut hin trong mi khung

PUSC

Khung con ng ln

Khung con ng xung

DL-PermBase: Downlink Permutaion


Base: c s hon v ng xung

C th xut hin trong khung

Hnh 2.26. Khung OFDM c nhiu vng.

2.9. TNG KT

58

Chng ny xt giao din v tuyn trn c s hai lp MAC v PHY ca


WiMAX c nh theo chun IEEE 802.16e-2004. Cc lp con ca MAC c xt tng
quan. PHY ca IEEE 802.16e -2005 c bn dng: WirlessMAN-SC (iu ch n
sng mang), WirelessMAN-SCa (iu ch n sng mang), WirelessMAN-OFDM v
WirelessMAN- OFDMA. Trong WirlessMAN-SC PHY m bo truyn trc x
n sng mang trong di tn t 10 n 66 GHz, ba m hnh PHY cn li cho php
truyn dn khng trc x trong di tn thp hn 11 GHz. Hai dng PHY:
WirelessMAN-OFDM v WirelessMAN- OFDMA c WiMAX tip nhn c
kho st c th trong chng ny.

59

Chng 3
LP MAC CA WIMAX DI DNG

3.1. M U
Tiu chun WIMAX/IEEE 802.16e c xy dng cho cc dch v bng rng
bao gm: thoi, s liu v video. Lp MAC c th m bo lu lng dng cm vi
yu cu tc nh cao trong khi vn ng thi h tr lu lng lung v lu lng
thoi nhy cm tr trn cng mt knh. Cc ti nguyn do b lp biu MAC n nh
cho u cui c th thay i t mt khe thi gian n ton b khung v th cung cp
di ng thng lng rt ln cho tng my u cui ti tng thi im. Ngoi ra thng
tin n nh ti nguyn c mang trong cc bn tin MAP ti u khung, b lp biu c
th thay i hiu qu vic n nh ti nguyn theo tng khung thch ng tnh cht
cm ca lu lng.
IEEE 802.16 MAC h tr hai kiu kin trc mng: im a im (PMP:Point to
Multipoint) v mng hn hp. Hnh 3.1 minh ha mng PMP tiu chun. Cc u cui
trong mng PMP c gi l MSS (Mobile Subscriber station). Cc MSS khng thng
tin trc tip vi nhau.

MSS1

BS

Internet

MSS2

MSS3

Hnh 3.1. Ch PMP trong cc mng 802.16

60

Hnh 3.2 minh ha ch mng 802.16 hn hp. Khng nh ch mng


802.16 PMP l bt buc, ch mng 802.16 hn hp ch l ty chn. S khc nhau
gia ch PMP v ch hn hp l ch trong PMP lu lng ch c truyn
gia BS v MSS, cn trong ch hn hp, lu lng c th c nh tuyn n cc
MSS khc thng qua MSS hoc truyn trc tip gia cc MSS.

MSS1

BS

Internet

MSS3

Hnh 3.2. Ch mng 802.16 h hp

3.2. CU TRC LP MAC


Nhim v chnh ca lp MAC (Medium Access Control) l qun l cc ti
nguyn v tuyn ca giao din v tuyn mt cch hiu qu. Hnh 3.3 cho thy cu trc
ca lp MAC.
Lp MAC bao gm ba lp con:
1. Lp con hi t c th dch v (SSCS: Service Specific Convergence Sublayer:. Cung cp giao din vi cc phn t lp trn. Lp ny thc hin cc chc
nng sau:
Tip nhn PDU t cc lp cao hn
Sp xp v chuyn i s liu nhn t mng ngoi thng qua CS SAP vo
cc MAC SDU. Qu trnh ny bao gm: phn loi v x l (nu cn) cc
PDU lp cao hn v lin kt chng vi mt lung dch v MAC thch
hp v nhn dng kt ni (CID), ti tin, tiu ...
Nhn cc CS PDU t thc th ng cp

61

Hin nay 802.16 nh ngha hai tiu chun SSCS: ATM CS v CS gi da trn
IP.

ng dng

SSCS

B phn loi
gi DL

CPS

Hng i cho cc lung QoS khc nhau

Qun l
ng truyn
Lp biu cm
ng xung

Qun l cu
hnh

H thng
qun l mng

u my lung dch v

iu khin
cho php
kt ni

B lp rp li
gi UL

B lp biu

ARQ

Bo mt

Qun l MAC

PHY

X l cm
ng ln

Lp vt l

Hnh 3.3. Cu trc lp MAC ca WiMAX

2. Lp con phn chung MAC (CPS: Common Part Sub-Layer): Cung cp cc chc
nng li ca MAC. N iu khin truy nhp h thng, thit lp v qun l kt
ni. Cc chc nng chnh ca lp ny nh sau:
nh a ch, thit lp v duy tr kt ni
Kt cu MAC PDU, phn on v lp rp li
Thc hin ARQ
Lp biu
Yu cu v n nh bng thng
H tr cc s PHY khc nhau
Phn gii xung t
Ranging v nhp mng ln u
m bo QoS da trn lung dch v
H tr di ng

62

3. Lp con an ninh (PS: Privacy Sub-Layer): m bo cc chc nng nhn thc,


trao i kha v mt m ha. Hin nay chun 802.16 cha hai giao thc thnh
phn sau:
Giao thc ng bao mt m gi s liu trong khi thng tin. Giao thc
ny nh ngha cp gii thut nhn thc v mt m s liu v cc quy tc
p dng cc gii thut ny cho MAC PDU
Giao thc qun l kha phn phi s liu kha an ninh t BS n
MSS. BS c th s dng giao thc ny p t truy nhp c iu kin
n cc dch v mng
Tm li MAC CPS thc hin chc nng chnh nh: truy nhp h thng, yu cu
v n nh bng thng, thit lp v qun l kt ni, h tr chuyn giao. Phn di y
s kho st k cc tnh nng cu MAC CPS.

3.3. LP CON PHN CHUNG CA MAC (MAC CPS)


802.16 MAC l nh hng theo kt ni (CO: Connection Oriented). Ton b
truyn s liu xy ra trong ng cnh (Context) ca cc kt ni. Mi kt ni c lin
kt vi mt lung dch v, n quy nh cc thng s QoS trao i cc PDU.Trong
qu trnh nhp mng, hai kt ni bt buc v mt kt ni ty chn c thit lp cho
MSS trn c ng xung ln ng ln. Ba kt ni ny phn nh ba mc yu cu
QoS cho cc mc ch qun l. Kt ni th nht c gi l kt ni c s. N c s
dng trao i thng tin nhy cm tr v ngn nh: lnh khi ng li v yu cu h
s cm. Kt ni th hai c gi l kt ni s cp, n c s dng mang thng tin
di hn v t nhy cm tr hn nh cc cu hnh dch v ng. Kt ni th ba c gi
l kt ni th cp. N c s dng mang thng tin khng nhy cm tr nh giao
thc lp cu hnh my t ng (DHCP). Mi kt ni c gn mt s nhn dng 16 bit
cho php phn bit 64 K cc kt ni trn knh DL v UL.
3.3.1. Khun dng MACPDU.
Tt c cc MACPDU u c cu trc theo khun dng nh trn hnh 3.4.

63

HT(1)
EC (1)

LEN
MSB(3)

Rsv(1)
CI(1)

HT(1)
EC (1)

Kiu (6)

EKS(2)

Ti tin
( di kh bin, ty chn)

Tiu MAC

CRC
(Ty chn)

T (3)

BR MSB(3)

LEN LSB(8)

CID(8)

BR LSB(8)

CID (8)

CID LSB(8)

HCS(8)

CID LSB(8)

HCS(8)

Tiu yu cu bng thng

Tiu MAC chung

Hnh 3.4. Khun dng MACPDU

MAC PDU cha mt tiu c di c nh v c th c hoc khng ti tin


v CRC 32 bit.
Cc trng trong tiu MACPDU c cho trong bng 3.1.
Bng 3.1. Cc trng trong tiu MAC PDU
Trng

M t

HT

Kiu tiu : 0=tiu chung; 1= tiu yu cu bng thng (BR)

EC

iu khin mt m: c mt m ti tin hay khng. Tiu BR s t


trng ny vo 0

T (kiu)

Trng ny ch th cc kiu tiu con v cc ti tin con c bit


trong ti tin ca bn tin

Rsv

Dnh trc

CI

Ch th kim tra: bn tin c cha CRC hay khng

EKS

Chui kha mt m: thng s mt m ti tin

LEN

di MAC PDU c o bng byte bao gm c tiu v CRC


(nu c)

64

CID

Connection ID: nhn dng kt ni

HCS

Chui kim tra tiu : chui c tnh ton theo cng thc quy nh
trc

BR

Yu cu bng thng: S byte c MSS yu cu cho ng ln

Nhiu MAC PDU c th mc ni vi nhau vo mt cm truyn dn h tr


truyn dn s liu nhanh. Mt MAC SDU c th c chia thnh nhiu PDU s
dng hiu qu bng thng theo cc yu cu QoS. Ngoi ra nhiu MAC SDU c th
c gi chung vo mt MAC PDU s dng hiu qu bng thng.
3.3.2. Cc dch v MAC
3.3.2.1. H tr cht lng dch v (QOS)
Nh vic s dng ng truyn v tuyn nhanh, kh nng khng i xng
ng xung/ng ln, tnh ht nh ca ti nguyn v c ch n nh ti nguyn linh
hot, WiMAX c th p ng cc yu cu QOS cho rt nhiu dch v s liu v ng
dng.
Trong lp MAC ca WiMAX di ng, QOS c cung cp qua cc cc lung
dch v nh trn hnh 3.5.
y l lung gi n hng c m bo bi mt tp cc thng s QOS. Trc khi
cung cp mt kiu dch v no , u tin BS v u cui ca ngi s dng phi
thit lp mt lin kt logic n hng gia cc MAC ng cp (c gi l kt ni).
Khi ny MAC u cui lin kt cc gi s a vo mt lung dch v thng qua giao
din MAC a ln kt ni. Cc thng s QOS lin quan vi lung dch v s quyt
nh th t v lp biu truyn dn trn giao din v tuyn.V th QOS nh hng theo
kt ni ny s m bo iu khin chnh xc trn giao din v tuyn. V giao din v
tuyn thng l nt c chai, v th QOS theo kt ni c th m bo iu khin hiu
qu u cui u cui. C th qun l ng cc thng s lung dch v thng qua cc
bn tin MAC p ng nhu cu dch v ng. Lung dch v da trn c ch
QOS c p dng cho c DL v UL. WiMAX di ng h tr nhiu dch v v ng
dng theo cc yu cu QOS khc nhau. Cc QOS ny c cho trong bng 3.5.

65

BS
MSS1

B lp biu

B phn loi

PDU (SFID, CID)

Cc kt ni MAC
(Cc thng s QoS)
MSS2
PDU (SFID, CID

Cc lung dch v

K hiu:
SFID: Service Flow ID: Nhn dng lung dch v
CID: Connection ID: Nhn dng kt ni

Hnh 3.5. H tr QoS ca WiMAX di ng

Bng 3.2. QoS v cc ng dng ca WiMAX


Loi QoS

ng dng

UGS (Unsolicited Grant Servic)

c t QoS
T l treo cc i

VoIP

Dch v cho php khng cn

Dung sai tr cc i

khn ni

Dung sai Jitter

rtPS (Real-Time Polling Service)


Dch v thm d thi gian thc

m thanh
video lung

T l dnh trc cc
tiu
T l treo cc i
Dung sai tr cc i
u tin lu lng

ErtPS (Extended
Polling Service)

Real-Time

Dch v thm d thi hian thc


m rng

Thoi vi pht
hin tch cc
(VoIP)

Tc dnh trc cc
tiu
Tc treo cc i
Dung sai tr cc i
Dung sai Jitter
u tin lu lng

66

nrtPS (Non Real-Time Polling

Giao thc chuyn

Tc dnh trc cc

Service)

File

tiu

Dch v thm d phi thi gian

(FTP)

Tc treo cc i

thc

u tin lu lng

BE (Best Effort)

Chuyn File, Trnh

Tc treo cc i

N lc nht

duyt...

u tin lu lng

3.3.2.2. Dch v lp biu MAC


Dch v lp biu MAP c thit k chuyn pht hiu qu cc dch v s
liu bng rng nh: thoi, s liu v video trn knh bng rng thay i theo thi gian.
Lp biu MAC c cc thuc tnh sau:
B lp biu s liu nhanh: B lp biu MAC phi n nh hiu qu cc ti
nguyn kh dng p ng lu lng s liu kiu cm v cc iu kin knh
thay i theo thi gian. Cc gi s liu c lin kt vi cc lung dch v bi
cc thng s QOS c nh ngha r rng ti lp MAC b lp biu c th
quyt nh chnh xc trnh t truyn dn gi trn giao din v tuyn. Knh
CQICH cung cp thng tin hi tip nhanh cho b lp biu n chn iu ch
v m ha knh ph hp cho tng n nh. iu ch v m ha thch ng cng
vi HARQ m bo truyn dn n nh trn knh thay i theo thi gian.
Lp biu cho c DL v UL: Dch v lp biu c cung cp cho c lu lng
DL v UL. b lp biu MAC c th n nh hiu qu ti nguyn v cung cp
QoS cn thit trn DL v UL, cn m bo thng tin hi tip v cc iu kin
lu lng v cc yu cu QoS mt cch chnh xc v kp thi. C ch yu cu
bng thng nhiu ng ln nh yu cu bng thng trn knh nh cc ly, yu
cu cng v thm d c thit k h tr cc yu cu bng thng ng ln.
Lung dch v UL quy nh c ch hi tip cho tng kt ni UL m bo
hnh vi ca b lp biu kh d on. Ngoi ra, vic s dng cc knh con UL
trc giao dn n khng xy ra nhiu ni . Qu trnh lp biu UL c th n
nh ti nguyn hiu qu hn v thc hin QoS tt hn
n nh ti nguyn ng: MAC h tr n nh ti nguyn tn s-thi gian trn
c DL ln UL theo tng khung. n nh ti nguyn c truyn trong cc bn
tin MAC ti u mi khung. V th c thay i n nh ti nguyn theo tng
khung p ng cc iu kin lu lng v knh. Ngoi ra khi lng ti

67

nguyn c th thay i t khe n khung. Vic n nh ti nguyn nhanh v cu


trc ht mn ny cung cp QoS tt nht cho lu lng.
nh hng theo QoS: B lp biu MAC x l truyn ti s liu theo kt ni.
Mi kt ni c lin kt vi mt dch v s liu bi mt tp cc thng s QoS
xc nh cc c im hnh vi. Bng kh nng n nh ti nguyn ng c
trn DL ln UL, b lp biu c th cung cp QoS tt hn cho c lu lng DL
v UL. Ngai ra vic s dng lp biu UL cn cho php: n nh ti nguyn
hiu qa hn, kh nng d bo hiu nng tt hn v thc thi QoS tt hn.
n nh chn lc tn s: B lp biu hot ng trn cc kiu knh con khc
nhau. i vi cc knh con phn tp tn s (phn tn trn cc tn s khc nhau)
nh PUSC, trong cc sng mang con c phn b ngu nhin trn bng
thng, cc knh con c cht lng nh nhau. B lp biu phn tp tn s c th
h tr tnh ht mn v lp biu ti nguyn tn s-thi gian linh hot. S dng
sp xp lin tc nh AMC dn n cc knh con c suy hao khc nhau. B lp
biu phn tp tn s c th n nh ti nguyn cho ngi dng di ng n cc
knh con mnh nht. B lp biu chn lc tn s c th tng cng dung lng
h thng bng cch tng phn no thng tin CQI trn UL [10].
B lp biu kho st cc yu t sau quyt nh truyn dn cho khung/n nh
bng thng c th:
Dch v c c t cho lung dch v
Cc gi tr c n nh cho cc thng s QoS ca lung dch v
Mc sn sng s liu cho truyn dn
Dung lng ca bng thng c cp php
lp biu cho yu cu/cho php, 802.16 nh ngha cc dch v lp biu v
cc ty chn thm d/cho php nh trong bng 3.3. Tuy nhin gii thut lp biu c
th l c th ca nh cung cp thit b v MAC ch cung cp phng tin thc hin
cc gii thut lp biu ny.

Bng 3.3. Cc ty chn lp biu dch v


Kiu
dch

Yu cu
cng theo

Ly trm
bng thng

Thm d

68

UGS

Khng c Khng c S dng mt bit c bit yu cu thm d


php
php
n phng cho cc kt ni khng phi UGS

rtPS

c php

c php

Ch c php thm d n phng

nrtPS c php

c php

C th gii hn mt lung dch v n thm d


n phng thng qua chnh sch truyn
dn/yu cu; tri li tt c cc dng thm d
u c php

3.3.2.3. C ch yu cu v n nh bng thng


Khi MSS nhn thy bng thng c cp pht khng , n cn yu cu bng
thng t BS. 802.16 MAC cung cp ba kiu c ch MSS gi bn tin yu cu n
nh bng thng n BS.
1. Yu cu
Yu cu l c ch MSS thng bo cho BS rng n cn n nh bng thng
ng ln. MSS c th gi yu cu ny nh mt tiu yu cu bng thng ng
ring hay km theo yu cu ny trong trng ti tin.
Yu cu bng thng c th dng tng thm hay dng tng. Khi MSS gi i
yu cu bng thng tng thm, BS s cng thm mt i lng bng thng c
yu cu vo bng thng hin ang c n nh cho kt ni. Khi MSS gi yu cu
bng thng tng, BS s lu li i lng bng thng c yu cu ny nh bng
thng hiu dng cho kt ni.
2. Cho php
Khi mt MSS gi i yu cu bng thng, th yu cu ny c lin kt vi mt
kt ni ring l, trong khi mi cho php bng thng li cp n kt ni c s
ca MSS ch khng phi kt ni c yu cu. V th khi MSS c c hi truyn
dn ngn hn k vng, n khng bit c rng i vi kt ni no yu cu bng
thng khng c cho php. Trong trng hp ny MSS s quyt nh hoc pht
li hoc hy b yu cu.
3. Thm d

69

Thm d l mt c ch m theo BS n nh bng thng n tng MSS ring l


hay mt nhm MSS c bit cho mc ch p ng cc yu cu. Tn ti hai kiu
thm d: thm d n phng v thm d a phng/qung b.

70

3.3.3. Qun l cng sut v di ng


3.3.3.1. Qun l cng sut
Thi hn acqui v chuyn giao l cc vn quan trng i vi cc ng
dng di ng.WiMAX h tr cc ch ng v ri tit kim ngun cho MSS.
WiMAX cng m bo chuyn giao gia cc ti tc chuyn ng ca xe t m
khng gy t on kt ni.
m bo tit kim ngun WiMAX di ng h tr hai ch : ch ng v
ch ri. Ch ng l trng thi trong MS thc hin cc khong thi gian vng
mt c m phn trc trn giao din v tuyn vi BS phc v. Nhn t BS cc
khong thi gian ny l khong thi gian khng sn sng ca MS i vi c lu lng
DL v UL. Ch ng c p dng gim thiu s s dng cng sut v gim
thiu mc s dng cc ti nguyn trn giao din v tuyn ca BS phc v. Ngoi ra
ch ng cng cho php MS qut cc trm BS khc chn la thng tin cho
chuyn giao trong ch ng.
Ch ri cung cp c ch MS nh k c kh nng nhn tin lu lng
qung b DL m khng ng k ti mt BS c th, khi n i qua mi trng c rt
nhiu BS. Ch ri gii phng MS khi i hi chuyn giao v cc hot ng bnh
thng khc ngoi ra n cng loi b khi giao din v tuyn i vi BS v lu lng
chuyn giao mng i vi mng v BS cho cc MS khng tch cc nhng vn m bo
phng php n gin v kp thi thng bo (tm gi) MS v lu lng DL.
3.3.3.2. Chuyn giao
m bo di ng v ti ca BS, MSS c th phi thay i kt ni m
bo cht lng truyn dn. Chuyn giao c mng quyt chuyn giao din v
tuyn, cc lung dch v v kt ni mng cu MSS t mt BS phc v n BS ch.
Chuyn giao c th c khi xng bi MSS, BS hay t pha mng. Qu trnh
chuyn giao ca 802.16e gm cc bc sau (xem hnh: (1) chn li ; (2) quyt nh
v khi u chuyn giao; (3) qut BS ch; (4) nhp li mng; v (5) kt thc dch v.
Tiu chun 802.16e h tr ba hnh thc chuyn giao: chuyn giao cng (HHO),
chuyn giao BS nhanh (FBSS: Fast BS Switching) v chuyn giao phn tp Macro
(MDHO: Macro Diversity Handoff). Trong s cc chuyn giao ny chuyn giao HHO
l bt buc, cn FBSS v MDHO l ty chn. Mt s k thut c nghin cu

71

ti u ha chuyn giao HHO. Cc nghin cu ny cho php m bo tr chuyn


giao lp 2 khng qua 50 ms.
Khi h tr FBSS, MS v BS duy tr mt danh sch cc BS tham gia vo FBSS
vi MS. Danh sch ny c gi l tp tch cc. Trong FBSS, MS lin tc gim st
cc BS trong tp tch cc. Trong s cc FBSS trong tp tch cc mt BS c n nh
l neo. Trong FBSS, MS ch thng tin vi BS neo i vi cc bn tin DL, UL bao gm
c qun l v kt ni lu lng. Vic chuyn t BS neo n BS khc (chuyn mch
BS) c thc hin m khng cn c cc bn tin bo hiu tng minh. Cc th tc cp
nht neo c thc hin da trn cng tn hiu thng tin thng qua knh CQI.
FBSS bt u bng quyt nh ca MS s thu v pht s tiu vi BS neo. MS qut cc
BS ln cn v chn cc BS ph hp a vo tp tch cc. MS bo co cc BS c
chn v th tc cp nht tp tch cc c tin hnh gia BS v MS. MS lin tc gim
st cng tn hiu ca cc BS trong tp tch cc v chn mt BS trong tp ny lm
BS neo. MS bo co BS neo c chn trn knh CQICH hay hay bn tin yu cu HO
c khi xng bi MS. Mt yu cu quan trong ca FBSS l s liu lin tc c
truyn n tt c cc thnh vin trong tp tch cc, trong cc BS c th phc v MS.

72

BS1
phc v

MSS

BS2
ch

ng b vi BS1

Tm BS ln cn
o knh, nh c ly ln u

Pht hin BS
ln cn
ng b vi BS2

nh c ly ln u v nhp mng

Kt thc dch v

Hnh 3.6. Qu trnh chuyn giao


i vi ch MDHO, MS duy tr tp tch cc ca cc BS tham gia vo
MDHO vi MS. Trong s cc BS trong tp tch cc mt BS c quy nh l neo.
Trong ch ny, MS thng tin cc bn tin n phng DL, UL v lu lng vi tt
c cc BS trong tp tch cc. MDHO bt u khi MS quyt nh pht v thu cc bn
tin n phng v lu lng t nhiu BS trong cng mt khong thi gian. i vi
MDHO ng xung, hai hay nhiu BS m bo truyn dn ng b s liu ng
xung cho MS n thc hin kt hp phn tp. i vi UL, nhiu BS thu tn hiu t
MS thc hin phn tp chn lc.
3.3.4. An ninh
WiMAX di ng h tr cc tnh nng an ninh tt nht nh vic tip nhn cc
cng ngh an ninh tt nht hin c. H tr nhn thc tng h (thit b/ngi s
dng), giao thc qun l kh linh hot, mt m ha lu lng mnh, bo v cc bn tin
qun l va iu khin, ti u ha giao thc an ninh cho chuyn giao nhanh.

73

Cc tnh nng cu an ninh l:


Giao thc qun l kho: Giao thc qun l kha v ring t phin bn 2
(PKMv2: Privace Key Management Protocol version 2) l c s an ninh ca
WiMAX di ng c nh ngha trong 802.16e. Giao thc ny qun l an
ninh trn c s s dng cc bn tin hi p PKM (PKM REQ/RES). Giao thc
ny c xy dng trn c s nhn thc PKM EAP, iu khin mt m lu
lng, trao i kha chuyn giao, v cc bn tin an ninh a phng/qung b.
Nhn thc thit b/ngi s dng: WiMAX h tr nhn thc thit b v
ngi s dng bng cch s dng giao thc IETF EAP (Extensible
Authentication Protocol) cung cp cc y nhim da trn SIM, USIM hay
chng nhn s, hay da trn tn ngi dng/mt khu. Cc phng php nhn
thc EAP SIM, EAP AKA, EAP-TLS v EAP-MSCHAPv2 ny c h tr
bi giao thc EAP.
Mt m lu lng: B mt m AES-CCM (Advanced Encryption StandardCounter with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code) c s
dng bo v tt c cc s liu ca ngi s dng trn giao din WiMAX
MAC di ng. Cc kha s dng iu khin b mt m ny c to ra
trong qu trnh nhn thc EAP. B trng thi mt m ha lu lng thc hin
c ch lm ti kha (TEK: Traffic Encryption Key: kha mt m lu lng)
nh k thay i kha nhm tng cng bo v.
Bo v bn tin iu khin: S liu iu khin c bo v bng cch s dng
EAS da trn CMAC (block Cipher-based Message Authentication Code), hay
cc s HMAC (keyed Hash Message Authentication Code) da trn MD5.
H tr chuyn giao nhanh: WiMAX di ng h tr s bt tay ba chiu
ti u cc c ch nhn thc li h tr chuyn giao nhanh. C ch ny cng
hu dng ngn chn s tn cng ca k trung gian.

3.4. TNG KT
Lp MAC ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong giao din v tuyn ca
WiMAX di ng. Lp MAC c th m bo lu lng dng cm vi yu cu tc
nh cao trong khi vn ng thi h tr lu lng lung v lu lng thoi nhy cm
tr trn cng mt knh. Cc ti nguyn do b lp biu MAC n nh cho u cui c
th thay i t mt khe thi gian n ton b khung v th cung cp di ng thng
lng rt ln cho tng my u cui ti tng thi im. Ngoi ra thng tin n nh ti

74

nguyn c mang trong cc bn tin MAP ti u khung, b lp biu c th thay i


hiu qu vic n nh ti nguyn theo tng khung thch ng tnh cht cm ca lu
lng. IEEE 802.16 MAC h tr hai kiu kin trc mng: im a im (PMP:Point to
Multipoint) v mng hn hp. Chng ny xt cu trc chung ca MAC, cc dch v
ca MAC, qun l cng sut v di ng, cc tnh nng an ninh.

75

Chng 4
M HNH LP VT L V CC TNH NNG TIN TIN CA
WIMAX DI DNG

4.1. M U
WiMAX (Wireless Microwave Access: truy nhp khng dy vi ba) di ng
c xy dng trn cng ngh 802.11e do nhm cng tc IEEE 802.16e pht trin.
Nhm ny pht trin cc lp vt l v iu khin truy nhp mi trng cho hot ng
c nh v di ng trong cc bng tn i hi cp php. Tn ti ba ch PHY trong
802.16e:
n sng mang
OFDM
OFDMA
Tuy nhin ch yu chun ny c xy dng trn c s ch OFDMA.
Chun IEEE 802.16e c to ra rt m v khng tnh n hp chun cng nh
tnh tng tc gia cc nh sn xut thit b. WiMAX Forum tip nhn chun ny
v pht trin hp chun v tng tc cho n. WiMAX Forum (Wirreless
Interoperability for Microwave Access Forum: din n tng hp khng dy cho truy
nhp vi ba) l mt t chc phi li nhun c to ra t cc nh cung cp thit b, sn
xut phn t v linh kin in t vi mc ch thc y cc nh khai thc cc h thng
truy nhp bng rng khng dy nh mt gii php thay th cho cp v DSL. D kin
rng cng ngh WiMAX di ng s c trong cc my tnh xch tay, my tnh s tay v
cc PDA vo nm 2006 bin cc vng thnh ph thnh cc "vng Metro" cho truy
nhp sch tay v truy nhp khng dy bng rng di ng ngoi tri.
IEEE 802.16e c th cung cp ng truyn s liu bng rng cho cc u cui
di ng v ngi i b trong bn knh t 1 n 3 dm (2-5km). 802.16e bao gm nhiu
cu hnh c kh nng h tr cc mng TDD v FDD vi bng thng t 1,25 MHz n
20 MHz. Bng 4.1 im qua mt s tnh nng ca WiMAX.

76

Bng 4.1. Cc ng dng ca WiMAX


Loi QoS

Kiu s liu

ng dng

Dch v cho php khng


khn ni (UGS:

Cc lung s liu c T1/E1; VoIP vi trit im lng


ccgi kch thc c nh

Unsolicited Grant

thi gian thc c pht

Service)

nh k

Dch v thm d thi Cc lung s liu c cc in thai thy hnh, tr chi


gian thc (rtPS: Real gi kch thc kh bin video tng tc, VoD, AoD
Time Polling Service)
thi gian thc c pht
nh k
Dch v thm d phi thi Cc lung s liu c cc Chuyn file tc cao, MMS,
gian thc (nrtPS: Non gi kch thc kh bin trnh duyt WEB
Real
Time
Polling chu tr i hi tc s
Service)

liu cc tiu

Dch v n lc nht (BE: Mc dch v thp nht


Best Effort)

FTP, WWW, th in t

Cc tnh nng ni bt cu 802.16e l:


Cc knh con s liu bn chc cho di ng v ti s dng tn s cao
Phn tp tn s cho mc di ng cao
Phn nhm cc sng mang con loi nhiu gia cc sector v cc
Ti s dng tn s t 1 n 3 trong cu hnh nhiu sector v nhiu
Cc knh con iu ch v m ha tin tin (AMC) khai thc phn tp v
a ngi s dng
n nh knh con ng (ni v gia cc )
Hi tip thng tin cht lng knh v gim st knh ng ln
iu ch vi m ha thch ng t c thng lng cao nht
S-OFDMA (OFDMA kh nh c)
Phn cch sng mang con c lp bng thng m bo chng hiu ng
Doppler v phainh a ng

77

S sng mang con (kch thc FFT) thay i theo bng thng/kch thc
FFT
n v nh nht cu cp pht bng thng c gi tr c nh
Cc cu trc knh con linh hot v chuyn mch vng gia cc ch phn
tp v AMC
M ha knh kt hp yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp (H-ARQ)
MIMO v cc h thng anten tin tin (AAS)
Cc thng s h thng v cc chc nng c s:
Lp vt l 802.16e nh ngha cc chun lin quan n:
Cc cu trc khung bao gm cc khung ng ln, ng xung v cc
khung ty chn cho dn anten thch ng (AAS)
Sp xp cc trng bn tin vo cc khun dng phn t thng tin (IE)
ng ln, ng xung v ngc li
n nh sng mang con OFDMA bao gm tin t ng xung, cc cu trc
knh con s liu v hoa tiu, gim st knh v knh con s liu ng ln
Cc tn hiu nh c ly OFDMA
Khai thc dn anten bao gm cc m khng gian thi gian 2x, 3x, 4x v cc
c ch to bp anten
iu ch v m ha knh, c ch H-ARQ
iu khin cng sut

4.2. OFDMA KH NH C
OFDMA kh nh c (S-OFDMA: Sclable-OFDMA) cho php s dng nhiu
di bng thng khc nhau p ng nhu cu cp pht ph tn khc nhau cho cc yu
cu s dng khc nhau. nh c c thc hin bng cch iu chnh kch thc FFT
trong khi vn gi nguyn khong cch tn s sng mang con bng 10,94 kHz. V n
v ti nguyn: bng thng sng mang con v thi gian k hiu khng i, nn lp cao
b nh hng t nht trong qu trnh nh c bng thng. Cc thng s ca S-OFDMA
c cho trong bng 4.2.

78

Bng 4.2. Cc thng s cu S-OFDMA


Thng s

Gi tr

Bng thng (MHz)

1,25

10

20

Tn s ly mu, fs (MHz)

1,4

5,6

11,2

22,4

S im FFT

128

512

1024

2048

DL FUSC

16

32

DL PUSC

15

20

60

UL PUSC

17

35

70

S knh con
cho cc ch
khc nhau

Khong cch sng mang con, f

10,94 kHz

Thi gian hiu dng, TFFT

91,4 s

Thi gian bo v, TG

11,4 s

di k hiu T=TG+TFFT

102,9 s

S k hiu OFDMA trong khung 5ms

48

Hnh 4.1 cho thy cc khi trong lp vt l ca S-OFDMA ca WiMAX.


Tuyn pht
Ngoi cc chc nng thng thng nh ngu nhin ha, m ha sa li trc
(FEC: Forward Error Correction), an xen v sp xp cc k hiu QPSK, QAM, chun
cng c t cc k thut nhiu anten ty chn, Cc k thut nay bao gm m ha knh
khng gian thi gian (STC), to bp s dng cc s anten thch ng (AAS) v cc
k thut MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) cho php t c tc s liu cao hn.
Cc s iu ch OFDM c thc hin bng cch s dng bin i Fourier nhanh
ngc (IFFT: Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) cho tn hiu. B bin i nng tn s
(DUC: Digital Up Converter) thc chuyn i tn s cc sng mang con v tn s v
tuyn trong min s. Mc d khng c c t trong tiu chun cc k thut x l tn
hiu s tin tin nh gim tha s nh (CFR: Crest Factor Reduction) v lm mo s
trc (DPD: Digital Predistortion) cng c s dng cho ng xung ci thin
hiu sut cho b khuych i cng sut trong BS. Sau x l s tn hiu c chuyn
i t s vo tng t (DAC) v c khuych i cng sut (PA: Amplifier) trc

79

khi a ln anten pht. Qu trnh x l trn cng s c thc hin tng t cho anten
pht khc khi s a anten c s dng.

Giao din MAC/PHY

Ngu nhin ha
ng xung

FEC

Gii ngu nhin


X l mc bit

Gii m FEC

an xen

Gii an xen

Sp xp k hiu

Gii sp xp k hiu

X l mc k
hiu OFDMA
M ha khng
gian thi gian
To bp
M ha MIMO

Tuyn x l
s cho
anten pht
khc

Gi m khng gian
thi gian
To bp
Gii m MIMO
nh gi knh
Cn bng v CFO
Hiu chnh

Sp xp knh con
Chn hoa tiu

Gii sp xp knh con


Ly ra hoa tiu

IFFT

FFT

Tin t chu trnh

Loi b tin t chu trnh

DUC

DDC

CFR

DAC

PA

PA

n anten
pht khc

ng chnh
OFDM (Ranging)

X l RF s
n tuyn x l s
cho anten thu khc

DPD

DAC

ng ln

X l RF
tng t

n anten pht

ADC

ADC

LNA

LNA

Anten thu

T anten thu khc

Hnh 4.1. Cu trc lp vt l ca S-OFDMA ca WiMAX


Tuyn thu

80

Sau b khuych i tp m nh (LNA: Low Noise Amplifier) v bin i t


tng t vo s (ADC), tn hiu c a vo min x l s. Trc ht tn hiu c
bin i h tn. Sau l cc chc nng x l s ng ln bao gm ng b thi
gian, tn s v cng sut (Ranging) v cn bng min tn s cng vi cc chc nng
cn li nh iu ch v gii iu ch truy hon li tn hiu pht. S gii iu ch
OFDM c thc hin bng bin i Fourier FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). Trong
trng hp s dng nhiu anten thu, tn hiu sau b ADC ca tuyn anten thu khc
cng s c a ln tuyn x l s khc tng t.

4.3. CU TRC K HIU OFDM


Cu trc k hiu OFDM bao gm ba kiu sng mang mang con (hnh 4.2):
Cc sng mang con s liu
Cc sng mang con hoa tiu c tnh v ng b
Cc sng mang con rng khng truyn bo v v cc sng mang con DC

Sng mang con


hoa tiu

Sng mang con


s liu

Sng mang con


bo v

Hnh 4.2. Cu trc sng mang con OFDMA

Cc sng mang con tch cc (cc sng mang con s liu v hoa tiu) c chia
thnh cc tp con vi tn gi l knh con.

4.4. SP XP KNH CON


Lp vt l ca WiMAX OFDMA h tr phn chia knh con cho c ng
xung (DL) v ng ln (UL). n v ti nguyn tn s-thi gian nh nht trong qu
trnh chia knh con l mt khe bao gm 48 sng mang con s liu.
C hai kiu thay i trt t khi sp xp knh con: phn tp v lin tc. Sp xp
phn tp thc hin ly ra mt tp cc sng mang con trn mt s k hiu OFDM mt
cch ngu nhin t khng gian cc sng mang con tch cc to nn mt knh con.
Cc sp xp ny m bo phn tp tn s v trung bnh ha nhiu gia cc k hiu.

81

h tr a truy nhp, cc sng mang con s liu c chia thnh cc nhm


to nn cc knh con. Cc sng mang con to nn cc knh con c phn b trn
tt c cc sng mang con kh dng. Cc khi sp xp knh con (Channelization) v
tho g knh con (Dechannelization) thc hin sp xp (MAP) s liu th ca chm
tn hiu iu ch ln cc sng mang con trong cc knh con v ly ra (Demap) s liu
ny t cc sng mang con ni trn. Mt cng thc hon v thc hin sp xp cc sng
mang con ln cc knh con vt l cu k hiu OFDM.
Cng thc ny khc nhau i vi ng DL v UL v i vi cc ch khc
nhau (nh FUSC v PUSC chng hn).
Mt knh con c s trong OFDMA lun cha 48 sng mang con t mt hoc
vi k hiu. Cc knh con c phn lai theo nhiu cch nh sau:
ng xung (DL: Down Link) v ng ln (UL: Up Link): tn ti ba dng
c bn cu cc knh ng xung (FUSC, PUSC v AMC) v hai dng c
bn cc knh ng ln (PUSC v AMC).
Phn tp v lin k: Mi knh con phn tp (chng hn FUSC, PUSC, FUSC
ty chn-OFUSC, PUSC ty chn-OPUSC) bao gm cc sng mang con
c phn b, cn knh con lin k (AMC chng hn) bao gm cc sng
mang con lin tip nhau
Hoa tiu t trc v hoa tiu t sau: Tr FUSC, tt c cc cu hnh knh
con u c cc cc sng mang con hoa tiu v cc sng mang con s liu i
cng nhau trong mt s n v c nh (chng hn cm hay bin hoc lt).
Trong FUSC, cc sng mang con c t vo cc knh con sau khi cc
sng mang hoa tiu c t vo cc v tr cu chng (xem hnh 4.1).
Trong FUSC ch c mt tp cc sng mang con hoa tiu chung; cn trong
PUSC mi knh con cha tp ring cc sng mang con hoa tiu.
Cc ngi s dng c n nh cc khe truyn s liu. Cc khe ny th hin
cc khi s liu nh nht. Cc khe c nh ngha theo chiu thi gian v knh con,
cc khe ny thay i ph thuc vo cc ch nh sau:
1. i vi DL FUSC, mt khe l mt knh con c to ra trn mt k hiu
OFDM
2. i vi DL PUSC, mt khe l mt knh con c to ra trn hai k hiu
OFDM
3. i vi UL PUSC, mt khe l mt knh con c to ra trn ba k hiu OFDM
82

4.4.1. Sp xp knh con s dng ton b ng xung (FUSC: Down Link Fully
Used Channelization)
FUSC c cu hnh knh con phn tp ph hp cho cc trm thu bao di ng
hay trm thu bao b nhiu nng. Hnh 4.3 m t 1024 FFT, DL FUSC bng thng 10
MHz, trong DL FUSC cha:(xem tr564 IEEE standard 2004)
16 knh con
Mi knh con c 48 sng mang con
48 sng mang con trong mi knh con c ly ra t 48 nhm

Bng bo v tri
(87 sng mang
con)

Nhm 1

Nhm 47

Nhm 2

Cc hoa tiu c
n nh trc
(83 sng mang con)

Nhm 48

Knh con s
Knh con s
liu 1
liu 2
(48 sng mang (48 sng mang
con)
con)

Bng bo v
phi (86 sng
mang con)

Knh con s
liu 16
(48 sng mang
con)

Hnh 4.3 Cu hnh sng mang con cho 1024-FFT OFDMA DL FUSC

Vic n nh chnh xc cc sng mang con vo mt knh con c thc hin


theo phng trnh c tn gi l cng thc hon v ng xung. Bng 4.3 tng kt cc
cu hnh knh FUSC c s.

Bng 4.3. Cc cu hnh knh FUSC c s


Bng thng (MHz)

1,25

10

20

Kch thc FFT

128

512

1024

2048

S sng mang con bo v (tri)

11

43

87

173

S sng mang con bo v (phi)

10

42

86

172

S sng mang s liu

96

384

768

1536

83

S sng mang con hoa tiu

11

43

83

267

S knh con s liu (s sng mang


con trn nhm)

16

32

S sng mang con trn knh con (s


nhm)

48

48

48

48

4.4.2. Sp xp knh con s dng mt phn (PUSC: Partially Used


Subchannelization)
Ch PUSC l bt buc cho khung con u tin cho c DL v UL. Hnh 6.4
cho thy cc n v c bn ca cc knh con PUSC.
Sp xp DL PUSC
Vi DL PUSC, cc sng mang s liu trn ng xung c chia thnh cc
cm mi cm bao gm 28 sng mang con trn hai k hiu (gm k hiu chn v l),
trong trn mi k hiu c 12 sng mang con s liu v 2 sng mang con hoa tiu
nh cho trn hnh 4.4. Sau cc cm c t chc thnh 6 nhm khng chng ln
nhau. Cc nhm ny c th c n nh cho cc an hoc cc khc nhau. Trong
tng nhm, 2 cm vi 48 sng mang con s liu v 8 sng mang con hoa tiu c
c sp xp vo cc knh con da trn c ch hon v gim xc sut va chm gia
cc nhm.
Sp xp UL PUSC
Khng ging nh DL, khi c s trong mt knh UL PUSC c gi l lt
(hnh 4.4). Ton b bng tn c chia thnh nhm cc lt lin tc. Mi knh con bao
gm 6 lt phn tn, trong cc lt c chn t cc nhm khc nhau. Mi lt bao
gm 4 (hoc ba sng mang con) trn ba k hiu OFDM. Lt 4x3 cha nhiu hoa tiu
hn lt 3x3 v v th bn chc hn. Mi knh con cha 6 lt v n nh chnh xc cc
lt vo mt knh con c thc hin bi mt cng thc hon v ng ln. Nh
thng l s c 48 sng mang con trong mi knh con. 6 (hoc 8 trong trng hp c
bit) lt to nn mt knh con (khe). Nh vy i vi cu trc lt 4x3 mi knh con
UL PUSC bao gm 643=72 sng mang con, trong 48 sng mang con s liu v

84

24 sng mang con hoa tiu. Chng hn su lt c th c chn t cc sng mang con
sau: t 448 n 451 cho lt th nht; t 512 n 515 cho lt th hai; t 984 n 987
cho cho lt th 3; t 1189 n 1192 cho lt th t; t 1505 n 1508 cho lt th nm
v t 1753 n 1756 cho lt th su, trong v tr ca mi lt thay i theo 3 k hiu
(ty theo s quay vng). Sau ba k hiu OFDM, v tr cu cu trc lt thay i.
Cc knh con da trn lt (TUSC1 v TUSC2; TUSC: Tile Used Subchannel)
c th c trn ng xung nh mt ty chn trong mt vng AAS.
Sng mang
con (tn s)
K hiu chn

K hiu OFDM
(thi gian)

K hiu l
a) Cu trc cm 14x2 DL PUSC

b) Cu trc lt 4x3
UL PUSC

c) Cu trc lt 3x3
UL OPUSC

Sng mang con


hoa tiu

Sng mang
con s liu

DL: Down Link ng xung;


UL: Up LinK: ng ln

Hnh 4.4. Cc cu trc DL PUSC v UL PUSC


4.4.3. Sp xp AMC
Trong ch AMC (Adaptive Modulation and Coding: m ha v iu ch
thch ng) c hai sp xp ng ln v ng xung u ging nhau. Trong c hai ch
UL AMC v DL AMC, cc sng mang con s liu c chia thnh cc bng sng
mang con lin tuc. Mi bng c bn bin. Mi bin bao gm 9 sng mang lin tc trong
mt k hiu OFDM, trong c 8 sng mang s liu v mt sng mang hoa tiu. Ph
thuc vo cch sp xp 6 bin (6x8=48 sng mang con s liu) vo mt knh con, s c
bn kiu knh con AMC (xem hnh 6.5). Mi khe (knh con) bao gm NM bin, trong
N l s bin lin tc v M l s k hiu lin tc. Trn hnh 6.5 ta thy c cc t hp
sau y: 3 bin hai k hiu, 2 bin 3 k hiu, k hiu u cha 4 bin v k hiu sau cha

85

2bin), 1 bin su k hiu. Sp xp AMC cho php phn tp theo ngi s dng da trn
vic chn p ng tn s tt nht.
ch AMC hot ng hiu qu, cn c thng tin knh. thc hin DL
AMC, MS phi thc hin thm d knh cho ng ln BS thc hin xc nh p
ng knh t BS n u cui vi gi thit tnh i ln TDD. Mt vng thm d ring
c n nh vi trong mt hay nhiu chu k k hiu OFDM trong khung UL
MS pht bo hiu thm d.
T qu ng ln, ch AMC th t l hiu qu nht v n ch s dng
8+1=9 sng mang con trong mt k hiu (thay v 4x6=24 sng mang con/k hiu trong
PUSC v 2x16=18 sng mang con/k hiu trong OPUSC). V th tit kim c cng
sut t 3 n 4,6dB.

Bng 2

Bin 4

Bng 1

Bng N

Bin 3

Bng 2

Bin 2

Bng 1

Bin 1

K hiu OFDM
(thi gian)

Sng mang con


(tn s)

8 sng mang con s liu + 1


sng mang con hoa tiu

Bin 4

Bin 3

Bin 2 Bin 2

Bin 1 Bin 1

Bin 2 Bin 2 Bin 2

Knh con AMC

Knh con AMC 1x6

Bin 1 Bin 1 Bin 1 Bin 1 Bin 1 Bin 1

Knh con AMC 2x3

Bin 1 Bin 1 Bin 1

Bin 3 Bin 3

Bin 2 Bin 2

Bin 1 Bin 1

Knh con AMC 3x2

Hnh 4.5. Cc cu hnh knh con c t chc theo BIN trong AMC

4.5. IU CH V M HA

86

802.16e h tr BPSK, QPSK c sp xp theo m Gray, 16-QAM, 64 QAM.


Cc ty chn m ha knh trong 802.16e nh sau:
M ha lp (2x, 4x, 6x) cho cc tn hiu iu khin
M ha xon vi d tng cng
M ha turbo xon (CTC: Convolutional Turbo Code) vi d tng cng
M ha khi turbo
M ha kim tra chn l mt thp (LDPC: Low Density Parity Check)
Cc dng iu ch v m ha trong lp vt l c cho bng 4.4.
Bng 4.4. Cc dng iu ch v m ha c s dng lp vt l
ng xung (DL)

ng ln (UL)

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

CC

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6

1/2, 2/3,5/6

CTC

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6

1/2, 2/3, 5/6

Lp

x2, x4, x6

x2, x4, x6

iu ch
T l
m

Bng 4.5 cho thy tc s liu vt l cho cc cu trc knh vt l OFDMA


khc nhau i vi cc knh 5 MHz v 10MHz s dng cc knh con PUSC, trong
ch nghing biu th cho ty chn. di mi khung l 5ms. Mi khung c 48 k hiu
OFDM, trong 44 k hiu dnh cho truyn dn s liu.
Tc s liu vt l c tnh nh sau:
S sng mang con s liu
T c s liu vt l =
S bt thng tin trn mt k hiu
Chu k s liu

Bng 4.5. Tc s liu vt l cho cc knh con PUSC


Thng s

DL

Bng thng h thng

5MHz

10 MHz

Kch thc FFT

512

1024

UL

87

DL

UL

Cc sng mang con rng 92

104

184

184

Cc sng mang con hoa 60


tiu

136

120

280

Cc sng mang con s 360


liu

272

720

560

17

30

35

Cc knh con

15

Thi gian k hiu, T

102,9s

Thi gian khung

5ms

S k hiu trn khung

48

S k hiu s liu

44

Ch
T l m
iu ch

Knh 5MHz

QPSK

16 QAM

64 QAM

Knh 10MHz

Tc DL, Tc UL, Tc DL, Tc


Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps

1/2 CTC, 6x 0,53

0,38

1,06

0,78

1/2 CTC, 4x 0,79

0,57

1,58

1,18

1/2 CTC, 2x 1,58

1,14

3,17

2,35

1/2 CTC, 1x 3,17

2,28

6,34

4,70

3/4 CTC

4,75

3,43

9,50

7,06

1/2 CTC

6,34

4,57

12,67

9,41

3/4 CTC

9,50

6,85

19,01

14,11

1/2 CTC

9,50

6,85

19,01

14,11

2/3 CTC

12,67

9,14

25,34

18,82

3/4 CTC

14,26

10,28

28,51

21,17

5/6 CTC

15,84

11,42

31,68

23,52

* Ch nghing t m biu th cho ty chn trn ng ln

88

UL,

DL h tr bt buc iu ch QPSK, 16QAM v 64QAM, trong khi UL ch


h tr bt buc QPSK v 16QAM cn 64QAM ch h tr ty chn. M xon (CC:
Convolutional Code), m turbo xon (CTC: Convolutional Turbo Code) cng vi t l
m kh bin v m lp c h tr ti lp vt l. Ngoi ra m turbo khi v m kim
tra chn l mt thp (LDPC: Low Density Parity Check) c th c s dng
dng ty chn.
H-ARQ trn c s d tng cng s dng mu chch b v th i vi mi ln pht
li khi c m ha khng ging nhau. Ti my thu, cc tn hiu thu c gii chch
b theo mu chch b, sau c x l ti mc bit.

4.6. CC CNG NGH ANTEN THNG MINH


Cc cng ngh anten thng minh lin quan n x l vect phc hay ma trn
i vi cc tn hiu a n nhiu anten. OFDMA cho php cc x l ny c thc
hin trn cc sng mang con vect phng. Khng cn s dng cc b cn bng b
tr phainh chn lc. V th OFDMA rt thch hp cho vic s dng cc cng ngh
anten thng minh. MIMO/OFDM/OFDMA c coi l nn tng cho cc h thng
thng tin bng rng th h sau. WiMAX h tr tt c cc cng ngh anten thng minh
khc nhau tng hiu nng h thng. Cc cng ngh anten thng minh bao gm:
To bp: Vi dng to bp, h thng s dng nhiu anten pht i cc tn hiu
c nh trng s ci thin vng ph, dung lng h thng v gim xc
sut qu ngng
M khng gian thi gian (STC): Phn tp pht, chng hn m Alamouti
[14,15] c h tr m bo phn tp khng gian v gim d tr phainh
Ghp knh khng gian (SM): Ghp knh khng gian c h tr pht huy
u im ca tc nh cao v tng dung lng. Vi ghp knh khng gian,
nhiu lung c truyn trn nhiu anten. Nu my thu c nhiu anten, n c
th phn tch cc lung khc nhau t c thng lng cao hn so vi h
thng mt anten. Vi 2x2 MIMO, SM tng tc nh ln hai ln bng cch
truyn i hai lung. Trn UL mi ngi s dng ch c mt anten pht, hai
ngi s dng c th ng thi pht trong cng mt khe thi gian nu hai
lung ny c ghp theo khng gian. Ghp knh ny c gi l ghp knh
khng gian cng tc.
Cc tnh nng s dng anten tin tin ca WiMAX di ng c lit k trong bng
4.6.

89

Bng 4.6. Cc tnh nng ty chn anten tin tin


ng
truyn

To bp

M ha khng gian Ghp knh khng gian


thi gian (STC)

ng
xung

nt2, nr1

nt2, nr1, Ma trn A

ng ln

nt1, nr2

nt=2, nr2
Ma trn B, m ha ng

Khng p dng

nt=2, nr2
SM cng tc hai ngi s dng

trong nt v nr l s cc anten pht v cc anten thu tng ng.

WiMAX di ng cho php chuyn mch thch ng gia cc ty chn ni trn


t c li ch ca vic s dng cc cng ngh anten thng minh tt nht trong
cc iu kin knh khc nhau. Chng hn SM cho php t dung lng nh. Tuy
nhin khi iu kin knh xu, t l li gi (PER: Packet Error Rate) c th cao v th
vng ph p ng PER ch b gii hn. STC c th c s dng m bo vng
ph rng nhng gim dung lng. WiMAX di ng h tr chuyn mch MIMO thch
ng (AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching) gia cc ch MIMO t c hiu sut
s dng ph tn cc i m khng lm gim vng ph. Hnh 4.6 cho thy kin trc h
tr cc tnh nng anten thng minh. Bng 4.7 tng kt cc tc s liu l thuyt nh
cho cc t l DL/UL khc nhau vi gi thit bng thng knh 10MHz, thi gian khung
5ms, 44 k hiu OFDM (trong s 48 k hiu OFDM) v phn knh con kiu PUSC.
Tc nh l thuyt thng c s dng lm s o so snh, nhng trong thc t
tc s liu t c thng thp hn ty theo iu kin truyn sng v nhiu. Vi
2x2MIMO, tc s liu ngi s dng v on DL tng gp i.

90

nh trng
s to bp

Sp xp
knh con

M ha
knh

Gii sp
xp

Sp xp
knh con

Sp xp
k hiu

Gii m
knh

Sp xp
knh con

K hiu:
STC Enc: STC Encoder: b m ha STC
VSM: Vertical Space Multiplexing: ghp knh khng gian ng
AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching

Hnh 4.6. Chuyn mch thch ng cho cc ch MIMO


Tc nh s liu on trong trng hp ny t 63, 36 Mbps (so vi 31
Mbps trong bng 4.3. cho SIMO) khi tt c cc k hiu u dnh cho DL (t l DL/UL
bng 1:0). Vi SM cng tc, tc s liu nh on UL tng gp i trong khi tc
nh ca ngi s dng khng i. Tc s liu nh ngi s dng v tc
nh on UL bng 14,11 Mbps v 28,22 Mbps tng ng khi tt c cc k hiu s
liu u dnh cho ng ln (t l DL/UL bng 0:1). Bng cch p dng cc t l
DL/UL khc nhau, ta c th iu chnh bng thng gia ng ln v ng xung
p ng cc mu lu lng khc nhau. Cn lu rng cc trng hp c bit trong
bng thng c dnh ton b cho DL hoc UL him khi xy ra. Tiu chun
WiMAX h tr cc t l DL/UL t 3:1 n 1:1 p ng chun lu lng khc nhau.
Bng 4.7. Cc tc s liu cho cc cu hnh SIMO/MIMO khc nhau (cho
knh 10 MHz, khung 5ms, knh con PUSC, 44 k hiu OFDM s liu)
T l DL/UL
Tc nh SIMO
cu ngi s (1x2)
dng
MIMO

1:0

3:1

2:1

3:2

1:1

0:1

DL

31,68

23,04

20,16

18,72

15,84

UL

4,03

5,04

6,05

7,06

14,11

DL

63,8

46,08

40,32

37.44

31,68

91

(Mbps)

(2x2)

UL

4,03

5,04

6,05

7,06

14,11

DL

31,68

23,04

20,16

18,72

15,84

(1x2)

UL

4,03

5,04

6,05

7,06

14,11

MIMO

DL

63,8

46,08

40,32

37.44

31,68

(2x2)

UL

8,06

10,08

12,10

14,12

28,22

Tc nh SIMO
ca on
(Mbps)

4.7. CU TRC KHUNG TDD


802.16e PHY h tr c hai cu trc khung TDD v FDD vi di t 2ms n
20ms. FDD p ng nhu cu cu th trng ni khng th s dng FDD do quy
nh tn s hoc trin khai FDD thun li hn. TDD i hi c cc bin php chng
nhiu, tuy nhin do ghp song cng theo thi gian nn n c li im sau:
TDD cho php iu chnh t l ng ln/ ng xung h tr hiu qu lu
lng ng ln/ng xung khng i xng. FDD lun c bng thng ng
ln ng xung c nh v bng nhau
TDD m bo tnh i ln knh ng ln v ng xung v th h tr tt hn
cho truyn dn thch ng, MIMO v cc cng ngh anten tin tin vng kn
khc
FDD i hi hai knh mang tn s, trong khi TDD ch cn mt knh mang
tn s v th cho php thch ng tt hn i vi cc cp pht tn s khc nhau
trn th gii
Thit k my pht thu TDD t phc tp hn v v th r tin hn.

Cu trc khung OFDM TDD c cho trn hnh 4.7.

92

S th t k hiu OFDM
k+3

k+5

k+7

k+11

k+13 k+15

k+17

k+20

k+30

k+23 k+26

k+31 k+33

FCH

Cm UL #1

Cm DL #3

Cm UL #2
Cm DL#1

DL-MAP

Tin t

k+9

Cm DL #4

Cm DL #2

Cm UL #3
ACK
-CH

Cm DL #5

nh
c ly

s+L

Khung con DL

TTG

DL-MAP

k+1

FCH

Tin t

UL-MAP

S th t logic knh con

s
s+1
s+2

Cm UL #4
Cm DL #5
Hi tip nhanh (CQICH)

Khung conUL

RTG

Hnh 4.7. Cu trc khung OFDMA TDD (ch cho vng bt buc)

Mi khung c chia thnh cc khung con cho DL (ng xung) v UL


(ng ln). Cc khung con DL v UL c phn cch bi cc khong trng
chuyn sang pht (TRG: Transmit Transition Gap) v khong trng chuyn sang
thu (RTG: Receive Transition Gap) trnh va chm gia pht v thu. TTG v RTG
m bo chng tr truyn vng trong TDD v thi gian gim cng sut ca cc b
khuych i cng sut. m bo hot dng ti u h thng, mi khung cha cc
thng tin iu khin sau y:
Tin t: c s dng ng b, y l k hiu OFDM u tin cu khung.
Tin t l mt chui PN c iu ch trn tp sng mang con tin t. Tin t
mang thng tin nhn dng (Cell ID) v thng tin phn on cho MSS. Ngoi
ra MSS c th thc hin nh thi ban u v ng b sng mang trn c s cc
tn hiu tin t
Tiu iu khin khung (FCH: Frame Control Header): i sau tin t
cha thng tin v cu hnh khung nh: di bn tin MAP, s m ha v
cc knh con kh dng. FCH cha 48 bit c iu ch QPSK vi t l m 1/2
v m ha lp 4x. FCH cha tin t khung ng xung (DLFP: Down Link
Frame Prefix) c t l lch cm, chng hn DLFP nh ngha:
Bitmap knh con c s dng
Thay i c ly
Khun dng m ha v lp cho DL-MAP i sau FCH
di DL-MAP

93

Sp xp ng xung (DL MAP): DL-MAP i sau FCH (nu cn thit)


nh ngha s s dng chu k ng xung cho PHY ch cm. DL-MAP
cung cp cc thng tin v n nh knh con v cc thng tin iu khin khc
cho cc khung con DL. DL-MAP c s nh ngha:
Nhn dng kt ni (CID: Connection ID) trnh by n nh IE cho cc a
ch qung b, a phng v n phng
M mc s dng ng xung (DIUC: Down Link Usage Code) nh
ngha kiu cm ng xung
Khong dch k hiu OFDM ti thi im khi u cm (o bng n v k
hiu OFDM)
Khong dch knh con - knh con ch s thp nht c s dng mang
cm ny
Khuych i cng sut cho cc sng mang con s liu
S lng cc k hiu OFDM c s dng mang mang cm ng
xung
S cc knh con cng vi cc ch s lin tip
Thi gian theo s khe OFDM c n nh
M lp c s dng trong cm c n nh
Sp xp ng ln (UL MAP). UL-MAP nm ngay sau DL-MAP (nu c
truyn) hoc FCH. UL-MAP IE nh ngha cc n nh bng thng cho ng
ln. UL-MAP IE c t:
Nhn dng kt ni (CID: Connection ID) trnh by n nh IE cho cc a
ch qung b, a phng v n phng
M s mc s dng ng ln (UIUC: Uplink Link Usage Code) nh
ngha kiu truy nhp ng ln v kiu cm lin quan n truy nhp
Khong dch k hiu OFDM ti thi im khi u cm (o bng n v k
hiu OFDM)
Khong dch knh con - knh con ch s thp nht c s dng mang
cm ny
S lng cc k hiu OFDM c s dng mang mang cm ng ln
S cc knh con cng vi cc ch s lin tip
Thi gian theo s khe OFDM c n nh
M lp c s dng trong cm c n nh
94

ng chnh UL (UL Ranging): Knh con c ly UL c n nh cho MS


thc hin cc yu cu v thi gian vng kn, tn s v iu chnh cng sut
cng nh bng thng
UL CQICH: Knh UL CQICH c n nh cho MS thng tin trng thi
knh cho BS
UL ACK: UL ACK c n nh cho MS bo nhn DL HARQ (Down Link
Hybrid Automatic Request: yu cy pht li t ng linh hot)
Truy nhp v ng chnh (ranging)
Truy nhp ln u, ng b nh k, chuyn giao v cc yu cu v bng thng
c thc hin bi MSS thng qua knh ng chnh (Ranging). Ranging l mt
phng tin quan trng MSS ng b vi BTS trong ln u.
Knh ng chnh (Ranging Channel) bao gm mt hay nhiu nhm su knh
con lin k nhau. Ty chn, knh ng chnh c th bao gm tm knh con lin k.
256 m nh phn c nhm vo bn nhm con nh sau: (1) ng chn ln u, (2)
ng chnh nh k, (3) cc yu cu bng thng, (2) ng chnh chuyn giao. Mi
ngi s dng chn ngu nhin mt m ng chnh t bng cc m nh phn quy nh.
Sau cc m ny c iu ch BPSK trn cc sng mang con trong cc knh ng
chnh c ly: mt bit trn mt sng mang con. Trong qu trnh ng chnh c th xy ra
va chm v cc tn hiu ng chnh c phn tch bng gii thut phn gii va chm.
BS s s dng tn hiu ng chnh thu c nh gi dch thi v cng sut
ca MSS c th iu chnh ph hp trc khi cho php MSS truy nhp mng. Cc
kh nng x l knh ng chnh bao gm:
Pht hin. BS cn nhn dng mi MSS pht trn knh ng chnh. Trong
trng hp mhiu MSS cng pht trn mt knh ng chnh v gy s c
pht hin, BS s thng bo va chm
nh gi dch thi: Dch thi pht cu MSS so vi tham chun thi gian ca
MS cn c nh gi trong qu trnh ng chnh
o cng sut: MSS pht tn hiu ng chnh cng vi cng sut pht c
nh gi t iu khin cng sut vng h. BS s o cng sut ca tn hiu
ng chnh thu c thc hin iu khin cng sut vng kn.

95

4.8. CC TNH NNG TNG CNG KHC CA LP VT L


tng cng vng ph v dung lng, lp vt l ca WiMAX c tng
cng cc tnh nng tin tin khc nh:
M ha v iu ch thch ng (AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding)
Yu cu pht li t ng linh hot (HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request)
Hi tip knh nhanh bng knh CQICK (CQICH: Channel Quality
Information Channel)
B lp biu trm gc xc nh tc s liu ph hp (l lch cm) cho tng
tng n nh cm tr c s kch c b m, iu kin truyn sng ti my thu. Knh
ch th cht lng khung (CQICH) c s dng cung cp trng thi t u cui
ca ngi dng cho b lp biu BS. Cc thng tin hi tip do CQICH cung cp bao
gm: t s tn hiu trn tp m cng nhiu (CINR), CINR hiu dng, chn la ch
MIMO v chn la knh con chn lc tn s. Khi s dng TDD, thch ng ng
truyn cn c th s dng tnh i ln ng ln v ng xung cung cp chnh
xc hn iu kin knh.
WiMAX di ng cng m bo HARQ. HARQ cho php s dng giao thc N
knh "dng v i" phn ng nhanh cc li gi v m rng bin gii ph sng. Kt
hp bm ui v gia tng d cng cho php ci thin tin cy pht li. ng ln
cng c knh ACK (bo nhn) ring cho bo hiu HARQ ACK/NACK (bo nhn/ph
nhn HARQ). Khai thc nhiu knh HARQ cng c s dng. ARQ dng-i a
knh vi s lng knh nh l mt giao thc n gin, hiu qu gim thiu b nh
i vi HARQ v ngng t ngt [8]. WiMAX m bo bo hiu hon ton d b.
Hot ng d b cho php tr thay i gia cc ln pht li. HARQ kt hp vi
CQICH v AMC to nn ng truyn n nh trong mi trng di ng ti tc xe
t cao hn 120km/gi.

4.9. CC TNH NNG TIN TIN CA WiMAX


4.9.1. Ti s dng tn s mt phn
WiMAX di ng h tr tha s ti s dng tn s bng 1, c ngha l tt c cc
/on u lm vic trn mt knh tn s t c hiu sut s dng ph tn cc
i. Tuy nhin khi s dng ti s dng tn s bng mt, do nhiu ng knh (CCI: Co-

96

channel Interference) qu ln, cc ngi s dng ti bin c th b gm cht lng


kt ni. Trong WiMAX di ng, cc ngi s dng lm vic trn cc knh con v cc
knh con ny ch chim mt phn ca ton b bng thng knh. Vn nhiu bin
c th gii quyt d dng bng cch lp cu hnh s dng cc knh con m khng cn
p dng quy hoch tn s truyn thng.
Trong WiMAX di ng, vic ti s dng knh linh hot c h tr bng cch
s dng vng sp xp v phn on knh con. Mt on l mt nhm cc knh con
OFDM kh dng (mt on cng c th cha tt c cc knh con). on c s dng
trin khai mt trng hp ca MAC.
Vng sp xp l mt s cc k hiu OFDMA trn DL v UL c s dng cho
cng mt sp xp. Khung con DL hay UL c th cha nhiu vng sp xp nh trn
hnh 4.8.

AMC

PUSC ty
chn

TUSC2

TUSC1

MAC

FUSC ty chn

PUSC
(Tin t DL Z)

PUSC
(Tin t DL Y)

PUSC
(Tin t DL X)

PUSC
(Vng u tin
cha FCH v
DL-MAP)

Tin t

Cc phn t IE chuyn mch


vng trong DL-MAP

PUSC

Khung con UL

Khung con DL

Phi c trong mi khung


C th xut hin trong mt khung

IE: Information Element: phn t thng tin


Hnh 4.8. Cu trc khung a vng

Mu ti s dng knh con c th c lp cu hnh sao cho cc ngi s dng


gn BS lm vic trn vng cha tt c cc knh con kh dng. Trong khi cc ngi
s dng bin hay on ch lm vic trn vng cha mt phn cc knh con kh
dng. Trn hnh 4.9, F1, F2, F3 th hin cc tp khc nhau ca cc knh con trong
cng mt knh tn s. Vi cu hnh ny, ti s dng tn s bng mt ca ton b ti
c duy tr cho cc ngi s dng ti tm t c hiu sut s dng ph tn

97

cc i, trong khi ti s dng tn s mt phn c s dng cho cc ngi s dng


bin m bo cht lng kt ni v cho ngi s dng bin v dung lng.

F3
F1+F2+F3

F2

F1

Hnh 4.9. Ti s dng tn s mt phn

Ty thuc vo ti mng v iu kin nhiu trong mi khung, k hoch ti s


dng tn s c th c ti u ha ng trn cc on v cc . V th tt c cc v
cc on c th hot ng trn cng mt knh tn s m khng cn quy hoch tn s.
4.9.2. Dch v a phng v qung b (MBS)
Dch v a phng v qung b (MBS: Multicast and Broadcast) c
WiMAX di ng h tr kt hp cc tnh nng tt nht ca DVB-H, MediaFLO v
3GPP E-UTRA v tha mn cc i hi sau:
Tc s liu cao v vng ph s dng mng mt tn s (SFN: Single
Frequency Network)
n nh ti nguyn v tuyn linh hoat
Tiu th cng sut MS thp
H tr qung b s liu b xung cho cc lung video v audio
Thi gian chuyn mch knh ngn
Chun WiMAX di ng pht hnh 1 nh ngha hp cng c chuyn pht
dch v MBS ban u. Dch v MBS c th c h tr bng cch cu trc cc vng
MBS ring bit trong khung DL cng vi dch v n phng (nhng trong MBS) hay

98

ton b khung c th c dnh ring cho MBS (ch cho ng xung) i vi dch
v MBS ng ring. Hnh 4.10 cho thy cu trc vng DL/UL khi trn dch v n
phng v MBS. Vng MBS h tr ch MBS cho nhiu BS bng khai thc mng
n tn s (SFN) v thi gian linh hot ca cc vng MBS cho php n nh kh nh
c cc ti nguyn v tuyn cho lu lng MBS. Lu rng cng c th thc hin
nhiu vng MBS. Ch c mt m t phn t thng tin ca giao thc truy nhp phng
tin (MAP IE: Media Access Protocol Information Element) trn mt vng MBS. MS
truy nhp DL MAP bt u nhn dng cc vng MBS v cc v tr ca cc MBS
MAP lin quan trong tng vng. Sau MS c th c cc MBS MAP m khng cn
tham kho DL MAP cho n khi mt ng b vi MBS MAP. MBS MAP IE c t
cu hnh vt l ca vng v nh ngha v tr ca mi vng MBS thng quan thng s
dch v OFDMA (OFDMA Offset). MBS MAP c t ti knh con th nht ca k
hiu th nht ca vng MBS lin quan. MBS ca nhiu BS khng i hi MS phi
ng k n bt k BS no. MS trong ch ri c th truy nhp MBS, nh vy tiu
th cng sut s thp. Vic kt hp linh hot MBS vi Unicast (n phng) cho php
m rng cc ng dng.

Vng H-ARQ
(VoIP)

ACK

CQICH

Vng MBS

Vng PUSC

nh c ly

Vng MBS PUSC STC

Vng H-ARQ
(VoIP)

Vng PUSC STC

MBS MAP

DL MAP nn

Tin t

PCH

Vng PUSC 1

Khung con UP

Khung con DL

Hnh 4.10. H tr MBS nhng bng cc vng MBS

4.10. QU NG TRUYN CA H THNG WiMAX DI NG


4.10.1. Cc thng s ca h thng WiMAX di ng
V WiMAX da trn S-OFDMA nn n c th c lp cu hnh mm do
hot ng trn cc bng thng khc nhau bng cch iu chnh cc thng s h thng.
Di y ta xt mt h thng WiMAX di ng vi cc thng s cho trc lm th
d cho vic nh gi hiu nng hot ng ca h thng WiMAX di ng. Cc bng

99

di y cho thy cc thng s h thng (bng 4.8), cc thng s OFDMA (bng 4.9),
m hnh truyn sng (bng 4.10) cho th d dc xt.

100

Bng 4.8. Cc thng s h thng WiMAX di ng


Cc thng s

Gi tr

S ba on

19

Tn s cng tc

2500 MHz

Song cng

TDD

Bng thng

10MHz

Khong cch gia BS

2,8 km

Khong cch ti thiu gia MS v BS

36 m

Mu pht x anten

700 (3dB) vi t l trc sau 20dB

Chiu cao anten BS

32 m

Chiu cao anten MS

1,5m

Tng ch anten BS

15dBi

Tng ch anten MS

-1dBi

Cng sut khuych i cc i BS

43dBm

Cng sut khuych i cc i MS

23 dBm

S anten pht/thu BS

Pht: 2 hay 4; thu: 2 hay bn

S anten pht/thu MS

Pht: 1; thu: 2

H s tp m BS

4dB

H s tp m MS

7dB

Bng 4.9. Cc thng s OFDMA


Cc thng s

Gi tr

Bng thng h thng (MHz)

10

Tn s lymu (fs, MHz)

11,2

Khong cch gia cc sng mang con

10,94 kHz

101

Kch thc FFT (N)

1024

Thi gian k hiu hu ch (TFFT =1/f)

91,4 s

Thi gian bo v (TGP)

11,4 s

Thi gian k hiu OFDM (T=T FFT+TGP)

102,9 s

Thi gian khung

5 ms

S k hiu OFDM trong mt khung

48

DL PUSC

UL PUSC

S sng mang con rng

184

S sng mang con hoa tiu

120

S sng mang con s liu

720

S knh con

30

S sng mang con rng

184

S sng mang con hoa tiu

280

S sng mang con s liu

560

S knh con

35

Bng 4.10. M hnh truyn sng


Cc thng s

Gi tr

M hnh truyn sng

COST 231 ngoi

Phng sai che ti chun log

8 dB

Tn hao thm nhp

10 dB

4.10.2. Qu ng truyn WiMAX


Tnh ton qu ng truyn di y c thc hin da trn cc thng s h
thng v m hnh truyn sng c cho trong cc bng 4.6 v 4.7. Gi tr 5,56 dB
c s dng cho d tr phainh che ti trong bng trn m bo rng xc sut ph
sng l 75 % ti bin v 90% trn ton b . D tr nhiu l 2dB cho DL v 3dB cho
UL vi gi thit ti s dng tn s (1,3,3). Trong mu ti s dng tn s (c,n,s) nh

102

sau: n k hiu cho s i trm BS trn cm, n k hiu cho s knh tn s duy nht
c ti s dng v s l s on trn i trm. C th gim d tr phainh 0,2 dB
cho mu ti s dng tn s (1,3,3) nhng tr gi l gim hiu sut s dng ph tn.
li phn tp v m l 4dB vi gi thit l tng quan phainh che ti bng 0,5. C th
tnh ton bn knh bng cch s dng mt trong s cc m hnh truyn sng chng
hn m hnh truyn sng 231 HATA hay m hnh Erceg-Greenstein. M hnh truyn
sng 231 HATA da trn cc kt qu kinh nghim trong di 2GHz v c th s dng
cho di 2,5GHz. Egceg-Greenstein l mt m hnh truyn sng thng c s dng
trong bng tn ny v bn knh tnh c thng ln hn 70%. Cng cn lu rng
tn hao ng truyn cc i cho php l 128,2 dB tng ng vi tc s liu DL
ti bin bng 5,76 Mbps v tc s liu UL ti bin bng 115 kbps (cao hn
nhiu so vi cc h thng 3G). Tc s liu ti bin cng cao v tn s mang cng
cao th bn knh cng nh. Ni mt cch khc, c th t c qu ng truyn cao
hn v kch thc ln hn khi tc s liu ti bin thp nh trong cc bng 4.11
v 4.12.

Bng 4.11. Qu ng truyn DL cho Mibile WiMAX


Thng s BS

MAP

PUSC
lng

Cng sut pht trn mt phn t anten

10,0

10,0

10,0

S phn t anten ten pht

li kt hp nh k

3,0

3,0

3,0

dB

li anten pht

15,0

15,0

15,0

dBi

li kuych i cng sut hoa tiu

-0,7

-0,7

-0,7

dB

EIRP

57,3

57,3

57,3

dBm

Vng hon v c s

PUSC

PUSC

PUSC

li anten thu

-1,0

-1,0

-1,0

dBi

li phn tp anten thu (2 anten)

dB

H s tp m

7,0

7,0

7,0

dB

lu

n v

Watt

MS (my cm tay trong nh)

103

D tr
D tr phaing chun log

5,56

5,56

5,56

dB

D tr phainh nhanh

6,0

2,0

2,0

dB

D tr nhiu

2,0

2,0

2,0

dB

Tn hao thm nhp

10,0

10,0

10,0

dB

Tng d tr

23,56

19,56

19,56

dB

Tp m nhit

-174

-174

-174

dBm/Hz

Khong cch sng mang con

10,94

10,94

10,94

kHz

QPSK
1/8

QPSK
1/2

16QA
M1/2

SNR yu cu

-3,31

3,49

8,93

dB

Delta do c ly ph sng gii hn

0,82
2,88

5,76

Mbps

nhy my thu

iu ch

Tc s liu lu lng DL
nhy thu trn mt sng mang con

-129,9

-123,2

-117,7

dBm

nhy thu (tng hp)

-100,7

-93,9

-88,4

dBm

li h thng

160,0

153,0

147,8

dB

136,4

133,7

128,2

dB

-174

-174

-174

dBm/H

Tn hao ng truyn cho php cc


i
Tp m nhit

Bng 4.12. Qu ng truyn UL cho WiMAX di ng


MS

Knh
FB

(My cm tay trong nh)


Vng hon v

Knh
FB

Cc sng mang con kh dng

70

104

n nh ton b
lu lng
PUSC

PUSC

840

840

n v

Cc knh con c n nh

2,5

Cc sng mang con c n nh

70

72

216

Cc sng mang con s liu dc n nh

60

48

144

3,56

3,44

-1,33

dBm

li anten thu

15,0

15,0

15,0

dBi

li phn tp anten thu

3,0

3,0

3,0

dB

H s tp m

4,0

4,0

4,0

dB

D tr phanh log chun

5,56

5,56

5,56

dB

D tr phainh nhanh

4,0

2.0

2,0

dB

D tr nhiu

3,0

3,0

3,0

dB

Tn hao thm nhp

10,0

10,0

10,0

dB

Tng d tr

22,66

20,56

20,56

dB

Tp m nhit

-174.0

-174,0

-174,0

dBm/Hz

Khong cch sng mang con

10,94

10,94

10,94

kHz

Cng sut trn mt sng mang con b


chim

Kiu iu ch

Rangin QPSK1/ QPSK1/


g

SNR yu cu

-6,0

Delta do c ly ph hn ch

0,66

8
-2,5

-2,5

dB

38

115

kbps

-135,6

-132,1

-132,1

dBm

nhy my thu (tng hp)

-117,8

-111,1

-108,8

dBm

li h thng

157,2

153,5

148,8

dB

134,6

133,0

128,2

dB

Tc s liu lu lng UL
nhy my thu (trn mt sng mang
con)

Tn hao ng truyn cho php cc


i

105

4.11. THNG TIN B SUNG V TIN CY MAP CA WiMAX DI


NG
Thng tin iu khin c pht di dng cc bn tin MAP ti u mi khung.
MAP cho php iu khin linh hot vic n nh cc ti nguyn trn c DL v UL
ci thin hiu sut ph tn v QoS.
V cc bn tin MAP cha cc thng tin n nh ti nguyn cho ton b khung,
nn tin cy ca cc bn in MAP rt nh hng n hot ng ca h thng.
Vng ph ca knh iu khin c m phng s dng cu hnh m phng
c cho trn vi phn tp pht dch vng (CSTD: Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity)
[18]. CSTD l mt dng cu phn tp tr p dng cho cc h thng OFDM. Vi
CSTD, mi anten trong dn anten pht pht i mt phin bn dch thi ca cng mt
k hiu OFDM trong min thi gian. i vi k hiu b, x(n,b) 0n N-1, trong N
l kch thc FTT. Th d nu c nt anten pht ti BS v nu anten th nht pht i
phin bn khng dch thi ca k hiu OFDM, th anten th m s pht i k hiu
OFDM ny vi dch vng (m-1)D. Lu rng mi anten cng thm mt tin t dch
vng sau khi dch vng k hiu OFDM, v th CSTD khng nh hng ln s bo v
chng ISI ca tin t dch vng.
Hnh 4.11 cho thy hm phn b tch ly (CDF) ca vng ph knh iu khin
cho tc lp khc nhau vi 1, 2 v 4 anten s dng m hnh truyn sng trong bng
4.11.

100

4Tx_10W

Lp 1
Lp 2

4Tx_10W

90

Lp 4
Lp 6

10%

1%
85
2Tx_10W

80

2
x_
1T

1Tx_10W

0W

75
70
4Tx_10W

65

0W

60

1T
x_
1

Vng ph ca (phn trm MS c PER<10 x )

2Tx_10W

95

55
2Tx_10W

50
45
40
-3

-2,5

-2

-1,5

106

-0,5

Hnh 4.11. Kt qu m phng hiu nng knh iu khin cho knh m hnh
truyn sng TU (thnh ph in hnh) [7,8]

Ta c th nhn thy rng vic s dng CSTD vi hai anten pht v anten thu,
m CTC R=1/2, lp bng 6, cho php t vng ph 95% ti PER cng tc bng 1%.
Lu rng c th nng cao hiu nng MAP bng cch s dng b trit nhiu ti MS.
Kch thc bn tin MAP c th thay i ph thuc vo s ngi s dng c
n nh trong mt khung. Khi mng ch yu truyn dn lu lng s liu dng cm
nh FTP v HTTP, s ngi s dng c lp biu trn mt khung thng nh (nh
hn 10). Trong trng hp ny, n nh ti nguyn c thc hin hiu qu nht v
bn tin MAP ch cha thng tin MAP c nh. Thng tin MAP trong trng hp ny
thng bng 10% trong bng tn 10MHz vi kch thc khung l 5ms. Khi mng ch
yu truyn VoIP, s ngi s dng c lp biu trn mt khung rt ln. Thng tin
MAP tng tuyn tnh cng vi s ngi s dng c lp biu trn khung.
iu khin thng tin MAP, WiMAX a ra cc MAP con pht a phng
(hnh 4.12).

k+5

FCH

SUB-DL-UL-MAP

SUB-DL-UL-MAP

k+3

DL-MAP nn v UL MAP nn

k+1

SUB-DL-ULMAP

Tin t

S th t knh con logic

SUB-DL-ULMAP

S th t k hiu OFDM
k+7

k+9

k+11

Cm DL
#3

k+13

k+15

k+17

Cm DL #4

Cm DL #5
Cm DL #1
Cm DL #6

SU-DL-ULMAP

Cm DL #2

Hnh 4.12. Cm MAP con.

107

Cm DL #7

k+19

Gii php ny cho php pht nhiu MAP con vi cc tc khc nhau cho cc
ngi s dng vi SINR khc nhau. V th trong khi cc bn tin qung b c pht
vi tin cy cao nht cn thit cho ph sng bin , th cc bn tin iu khin chung
(chng hn cc n nh lu lng) c th c pht mt cch hiu qu hn ty theo
iu kin SINR ca ngi s dng. Nh thy trn hnh 4.8, mt phn trm rt ln ca
vng ph c th h tr tc cao hn QPSK 1/12 ti PER 1% (hu nh 60% cho
QPSK 1/4). V th bng cch s dng cc bn tin MAP con pht a phng, thng tin
iu khin c th c gim ng k. Ngay c khi s ngi s dng ln (20 ngi s
dng DL v 20 ngi s dng UL) trong mt khung, phn thng tin MAP thp hn
20%. V th bn tin iu khin ca WiMAX rt linh hot i vi truyn s liu. N c
tin cy v chim s phn trm t thp n trung bnh ph thuc vo ti mng v
ng dng.

4.12. PH TN CA WiMAX
t c u im tt nht ca cc h thng WiMAX, cn c cc khi tn
ph ln. iu ny cho php trin khai cc h thng ch TDD c rng bng
thng ln, ti s dng tn s linh hot vi chi ph ti thiu cho cc bng bo v h
tr s ng tn ti vi cc nh khai thc lin k. Mt hot ng quan trng khc ca
WiMAX Forum l s cng tc vi cc c quan tiu chun v lut trn tan th gii
thc y vic cp pht ph cho cc bng tn thp (<6MHz) ph hp chung cho c cng
ngh v ng dng. Ngoi ra cn thc y mnh hn vic hi ha cp pht tn s
gim thiu cc chng loi thit b cn thit ph ton cu.
Cc h s h thng ban u s c WiMAX Forum pht trin cho chun
WiMAX 802.16e-2005 d nh s c cp pht cc bng tn 2,3 GHz, 2,5GHz v 3,5
GHz. Bng tn 2,3 GHz c Hn Quc cp pht cho cc dch v WiBro da trn
cng ngh WiMAX. Vi khi ph 27 MHZ cp pht cho mi nh khai thc, bng tn
ny s h tr vic trin khai TDD vi 3 knh trn mt trm BS v bng thng chun
ha l 8,78MHz. Cc dch v WiBro c trin khai vo nm 2006 cng vi cc sn
phm c cp chng ch WiMAX.
Bng tn t 2,5 n 2,7 GHz kh dng cho cc dch v c nh v di ng
trong nc M. Bng ny cng c s dng v hu nh kh dng trong nhiu
nc t Nam M n chu u cng nh trong vng chu Thi Bnh Dng. Cc
bng 3,3 v 3,5 GHz cng cp pht cho cc dch v v tuyn c nh trong nhiu

108

nc trn th gii v cng rt ph hp cho cc gii php WiMAX i vi cc dch v


di ng cng nh c nh.

4.13. TNG KT
Chng ny trnh by m hnh lp vt l ca WiMAX di ng/IEEE
802.16e. M hnh S-OFDMA, cu trc my thu pht, cu trc khung cng nh cc tnh
nng khc ca WIMAX di ng c trnh by trong chng ny.

109

Chng 5
NG DNG CA WIMAX

5.1 GII THIU


Wimax ng gp mt cng ngh m cho rt nhiu ng dng v n c tc
truyn dn cao v xa.
5.1.1 ng dng cho mng khng dy
u im chnh ca Wimax l trong dch lnh vc dch v di ng. i vi cc
nh cung cp dch v di ng, yu cu rt nhiu cc ng truyn dn gia cc MSC
v trm thu pht sng nh hnh 5.1. Khi thay th cc ng truyn dn ny bng
Wimax, nh cung cp dch v c th truyn mt khi lng ln d liu v bng thng
ca Wimax ln hn rt nhiu. Cc d liu c th gm thoi, d liu di ng, TV, hi
ngh truyn hnh, video theo yu cu

Hnh 5.1 Kin trc mng di ng s dng T1 nh l lung truyn dn gia cc


MSC.

110

5.1.2 ng dng trong y hc


Trong cc tnh hung m bnh nhn cn h tr y t ngay lp tc, Wimax c th
phc v nh mt t chc bnh vin di ng. N c th l mt nn tng ca chm sc
sc khe in t (e-health). Trong dch v chm sc sc khe in t, bc s c th
chun on cho bnh nhn v tr rt xa vi s tr gip ca cc phng tin in t.

My tnh bc s

My tnh bnh nhn

H thng
gim st
huyt p

H thng o
huyt p

V tr 2

V tr 1

Hnh 5.2 ng dng y t


My tnh ca bc s c trang b vi cc phng tin y t c th kt ni vi
my tnh ca bnh nhn qua Wimax. Bnh nhn v tr 2 c th gi bnh n, v d nh
huyt p thng qua my tnh ca bnh nhn ti my tnh ca bc s nh hnh 5.2. Bc
s c th chun on bnh ca bnh nhn v iu tr cn thit. Kt ni gia bc s v
bnh nhn thng qua Internet. Hai my tnh c kt ni thng qua Wimax.
5.1.3 H thng bo mt
Wimax cung cp mt h thng n gin v tin li cho an ninh. Mt camera
c gn trn Anten ca Wimax hoc bt k ni no c th c iu khin t trung
tm nh trong hnh 5.3. H thng camera s gi cc hnh nh v trung tm iu khin
ngi gim st c th theo di.

111

Tr s gim st

Hnh 5.3 Kin trc Wimax cho ng dng bo mt


Cng c th s dng Wimax cho cc hot ng gim st trn bin. Camera c
th c t trn Anten ca du thuyn c th gim st cc hot ng v gi cho trung
tm iu khin nh hnh 5.4. N c th gim st hiu qu cc hot ng giao thng
trn bin, tu thuyn

Tr s gim st

Hnh 5.4 Kin trc Wimax cho hot ng gim st.

5.1.4 Kt ni mng ngn hng

112

H thng ngn hng m ti vn bo mt rt quan trng c th c kt


ni thng qua mng Wimax. C kh nng ph sng rng v kt ni ln, wimax c th
kt ni mt s lng ln cc ngn hng v my rt tin t ng nh trong hnh 5.5

My rt tin ATM

Vn phng chi
nhnh

Tr s ngn hng

Chi nhnh con

Hnh 5.5 Kt ni Wimax cho h thng ngn hng


Mng Wimax khng ch cung cp bo mt m cn c kh nng m rng cao. Thng
qua Wimax, c th s dng in thoi, giao dch ti chnh, email, Internet, intranet,
gim st hay TV
5.1.5 VoIP

113

Hnh 5.6 Kin trc h thng VoIP n gin


Wimax cung cp cc phng tin h tr tt hn kh nng dng VoIP.
5.1.6 Truy nhp ti nh
Mch vng thu bao ni ht truyn thng c th thay th bng truy nhp trc tip bng
Wimax.

114

Tng i ni
ht

Trng hc
Cp ng

Nh
Tr s kinh
doanh
Tng i ni
ht

Cp ng

Khu cng
nghip

Mch vng
ni ht

Hnh 5.7 Mch vng ni ht trong mng PSTN


Thay th bng Wimax vi cc u im :
- Lp t nhanh
- D dng bo dng
- D dng cu hnh
Cu hnh gm mt s trm pht sng nh trong mng di ng. Trong ct
pht sng s ng vai tr giao din gia ngi dng v mng PSTN. C th cu hnh
mt s ngi dng chia s cng Anten, n s gim gi thnh cng nh thi gian lp
t. Thit b lp t nh khch hng cng gm Anten lp t ngoi tri mi nh
hay Anten t trong nh.

115

Tng i ni
ht

Mch vng
ni ht

Trm pht sng


Viba hoc
cp

Tng i ni
ht
Trm pht sng

5.1.7 Kt lun
Trn y l mt s ng dng ca Wimax. Khng ch c vy, cng ngh ny cng c
th cung cp nhiu dch v hn na vi tc cao trong thi gian ti. N l mt trong cc
cng ngh truy nhp bng rng s cung cp rt nhiu tin ch cho ngi s dng.

116

TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Jeffrey G.Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed. Fundamentals of WiMAX,


June 2007.
[2] Mobile Wimax-Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation, Wimax
Forum, June 2006.
[3] Understanding Wimax and 3G for Portable/ Mobile Broadband Wireless, Technical
White Paper, Dec 2004.
[4] Y.Jay Guo, Advance in Mobile Radio Access Netwworks, Artech House Boston.
London, 2004.
[5] Mobile WiMAX Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation
Prepared on Behalf of the WiMAX Forum April, 2006.
[6] Mobile WiMAX Part II: A Comparative Analysis, WiMAX Forum May, 2006
[7] WiMAXs technology for LOS and NLOS environments WiMAX Forum April,
2006.

117