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Q.1.

Aworkerhasreceivedtheseriousinjuriesfrombeingstruckbyareversingvehicleinaloading
bay.
a.Identifyfourreasonswhytheaccidentshouldbeinvestigated.
Reasonswhyaccidentstobeinvestigated:

Preventivereasons:topreventtherecurrenceofsimilaraccidentsinthefuture

Tolookforevidenceofliability(thisismainlyrequiredforclaimsspecialist)

Tolookforevidenceofblame(thisisrequiredforenforcementagencies)

Tolookforenoughmaterialforcasestudy(thisisrequiredfortrainers).

Todeterminetheeconomicloss.

b.Outlinetheinformationthatshouldbeincludedintheinvestigationreport.
Informationstobeincludedintheinvestigationareasfollows:

Placeofaccident,timinganddateofoccurrenceoftheaccident.

Immediatecauseofinjuryorloss.

Underlyingorcontributingfactors.

Detailsofthoseinjured(regardingage,sex,occupationetc.)

DetailsofPhysicalexaminationincluding:

Simplediagramfortheareaoftheaccident

Photosfortheareashowingimportantaccidentfeatures.

Recordingofeventsasodours,spillage,firesetc.

Resultsofsampleexaminationaretoberecordedifavailable.

Witnessesstatements(includingprimary,secondaryortertiarywitnesses)

Correctiveactionsrecommended.

c.Outlinethepossibleimmediatecausesandrootcauses.

i.Possibleimmediatecauses

Unsafeactbythereversingvehicledriver

Lackofattention

Lackofconcentration

Workinginhurryduetojobpressure

Unsafecondition:
o

FaultyVehicle

Reversingwithnowarningfacilitiesaudibleorvisual

ii.PossibleUnderlying(Root)causesofanaccident:
TheUnderlyingcauses:

Lackofmanagementcommitmenttosafety

Absenceofsafesystemofwork.

Lackofpropersign&warningsystem.

Lackofpropersupervisionforworkers(exampleisthevehicledriver)

Improperdesigninworkplace(sothatnoseparateroutesforpedestrians)

Q.2.a.Identifythepurposeoffirstaidtreatment.

Preservelifetheoverridingaimofallmedicalcare,includingfirstaid,istosavelives

Preventfurtherharmalsocalledaspreventtheconditionfromworsening,thiscovers
bothexternalfactors,suchasmovingapatientawayfromanycauseofharm,and
applyingfirstaidtechniquestopreventworseningofthecondition.

Promoterecoveryfirstaidalsoinvolvestryingtostarttherecoveryprocessfromthe
illnessorinjury,andinsomecasesmightinvolvecompletingatreatment

b.Outlinethefactorstobeconsideredwhenmakinganassessmentoffirstaidrequirementsinwork
place.

Natureofworkactivities&typesofhazards
o

RelativelyfewhazardsandlowrisklevelsExample:Officework

MorespecificorHigherhazardsExample:Chemicalorconstructionsites

TheproximitytomedicalassistanceAccessfortreatmentwithequippedfirstaidroomif
ambulanceaccessisdifficultorlikelytobedelayed.

Workersworkingawayfromemployerspremisesthenatureoftheworkanditsriskwillneed
tobeconsidered.

Sizeoftheorganization&numberofworkers.

Distributionandcompositionofworkforce.

Thespecialneedsofinexperiencedworkers

Loneorshiftwork.

Availabilityofcommunication.

Q.3.Explainwhytheprovisionofpersonalprotectiveequipment(PPE)shouldbeconsideredonly
afterothercontrolmeasures.
Personalprotectiveequipment(PPE)shouldonlybeusedasalastresort.Therearemanyreasonsfor
this.Themostimportantlimitationsarethat:

PPEonlyprotectsthewearerandnototherswhomaybeintheareaandalsoatrisk.

PPEmaynotprovideadequateprotectionbecauseofsuchfactorsaspoorselection,poorfit,
incompatibilitywithothertypesofPPE,contaminationandmisuseornonusebyworkers.

PPEislikelytobeuncomfortableandreliesforitseffectivenessonaconsciousactionbythe
user.

Incertaincircumstances,itsusecanactuallycreateadditionalrisks(forinstance,warning
sounds,maskedbyhearingprotection)

TheintroductionofPPEmaybringanotherhazardsuchasimpairedvision,impairedmovement
orfatigue.

PPEmayonlybecapableofminimizinginjuryratherthanpreventingit.

IfPPEfailstogive100%protection,itisimpossibletomeasureactualexposuretohazardssuch
asdust,vapoursandnoise.

Q4.Outlinethekeyelementsofahealthandsafetymanagementsystem.

1.Policy:Healthandsafetyaimsoftheorganization,healthandsafetyobjectivesandmanagement
commitment
2.Organizing:Competence,commitmentandcontrol,Cooperation,Communication
3.PlanningandImplementation:Identifyhazards,assessrisks,anddecidehowriskscanbeeliminated
orcontrolled.Setsstandardsagainstwhichperformancecanbemeasured.

4.Measuringperformance:Beusedasameansofdeterminingtheextenttowhichhealthandsafety
policyandobjectivesarebeingimplementedandshouldbebothreactiveandproactive.
5.Reviewing:Analyzingdatagatheredthroughmonitoringtoseewhetherperformanceisadequate
6.Audit:Systematiccriticalexaminationofeachstageofanorganizationsmanagementsystemsand
procedures.

Q.5 Identify issues that could be considered at a safety committee meeting.

Study of accident/incident statistics


Examination of audit reports
Reports from enforcing authorities
Reports from workers representatives
Assist in the development of policies/procedures
Monitoring the effectiveness of training
Monitoring safety communications
Provide link with the enforcing authority

Q.6 (a) Identify reasons why young workers could be at greater risk of being injured at
work.

Lackofperceptionofriskoravoidanceofrisk(becauseoflimitedknowledge,experience&/or
lackoftraining)

theindividualsstageofphysicaldevelopment

thetendencyofyoungpersonstotakeriskssuchasoverenthusiasm

Respondmorereadilytopeergrouppressure.

Outlinethecontrolmeasuresthatshouldbetakentominimizeriskstoyoungworkers.

Riskassessmentsforyoungpersons

Inductionprogrammes,carefulsupervision

Mentoringbyanexperiencedoldercoworker,

Clearlinesofcommunication,

Limitsonthenumberofhoursworked.

Q.7Outlinethefactorsthatshouldbeconsideredwhenassessingthehealthandsafetycompetency
ofacontractor.

Theadequacyofthecontractor'shealth&safetypolicy.
Thesystemsinplaceforimplementingthehealthandsafetypolicy(includingriskassessments,
monitoring,training,consultation,etc.).
Thepastperformanceofthecontractor.
Thecontractor'sexperiencewiththeparticulartypeofworkandvariousrequiredlicenses.
Thecontractor'sreputationandcompetencyoftheworkforce.
Thecontractor'smembershipofrelevantprofessional/tradeorganization.
AdequacyofInsurancecover
Thecontractor'shistoryregarding
Accidents
Violations&enforcementactions

Q.8Outlinefouractive(Proactive)monitoringproceduresthatcouldbeusedtoassessthehealthand
safetyperformanceofanorganization.

Safetyinspection:areregularscheduledactivitieswiththeobjectivestoidentifygeneralworkplace
hazardsthatareoutofcontrolbeforetheyresultinanyharmfuloutcome.Itrangesfromsimple
observationsofworkandbehaviortosystematicinspectionofpremises,plantandequipment.
Safetysurveys:focusesonparticularactivityorisanidentificationofneed.e.g.:

Manualhandling.
Trainingprograms.
Employee'sattitudetowardssafety

Tours:provideopportunityformanagementtoexploretheeffectivenessofriskcontrolmeasures
throughplannedvisitstotheworkplacetoobserveanddiscussthecontrolsinuse.

Housekeeping.
WearingPPE

SafetySampling:Samplingiswhereonlyapartialamountofapotentialgroup/areaisexaminedto
establishfactsthatcanindicatethestandardofcomplianceofthewhole.
e.g.:unsafeworkingpracticesorgoodpractices,SpecificHazards.
Environmentalmonitoring:tomonitorforgases,vapors,fumes,radiations,etc.
Safetyaudits:isasystematicandcomprehensiveexaminationsofallaspectsofanorganization's
healthandsafetyperformanceagainststatedobjectives.

HAZOPS

Q.9
(a)Outlinethepurposeofthestatementofintentsectionofahealthandsafetypolicy.

Statementofintent:Itisaneffectivewaytodemonstrateanorganization'scommitmenttohealthand
safetyinadditiontosettingtheorganizationobjectives.

(b)Identifythecircumstancesthatwouldrequireahealthandsafetypolicytobereviewed.

Changesinorganizationalarrangements.
Changesinresponsibilities.
Changeofpremises.

Changeofworkprocesses/materials.
Changeofworkpattern.
Changeoflegislation.
Riskassessments.
Followingaccidentsinvestigation.
Followingenforcementaction.
Followingprofessionaladvice.

Q.10Identifyreasonsformaintaininggoodstandardsofhealthandsafetyinanorganization.

Therearemoral,socialandeconomicreasonsforthemaintenanceofgoodhealthandsafetystandards
atworkplace.

MoralSocialreasons:

Provisionandmaintenanceofworkplaces,machineryandequipment,theneedtoestablish
workmethods,whicharesafeandwithoutrisktohealthasisreasonablypracticable.
Theworkermustcomplywiththetrainingandinstructiongivenbytheemployerandalsowith
anythingprovidedforthepurposesofhealthandsafety,suchasPPEandmachineguard.

Economicreasonstomaintaingoodhealthandsafetyintheworkplace:

Thecostofbusinessfailurecanbeveryhighforanorganisation.

Damagetomaterial,plantandequipmentcancostalargeamountforanorganization.
Illhealth,injuriesordeathofstaffcanalsocostanorganizationlargeamountofmoney.

Bothdirectandindirect(orhidden)costinvolvedtoanorganisation.

Q.11Identifythefactorstobeconsideredtoreducetheriskstoworkersrequiredtoworkaloneaway
fromtheworkplace.

Thetypeofworktobedone

Thehazards&risksassociatedwiththeworkplace.

Theequipmenttobeusedandadequatelevelofsupervision&accesstospecialistadvice

Theworkenvironmentsafeaccessandoutletforoneperson.

Thecontrolmeasuresinplaceincaseofviolence,safeoperatingofequipment.

Thecompetence&suitabilityofthepersonsinvolved

Themethodsofcommunicationwiththehomebase

Provisionofappropriatetravelarrangementsfortheworkersconcerned.

Theemergency&firstaidprocedures