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on the west IlocosNorte and Ilocos Sur. slope protection is Every year. on the east by Isabela and on the south by the province of Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya. When exposed to high Unlike reinforced concrete retaining walls. slope slips and landslides are common during the typhoon season. Dry riprap is designed to let water easily pass through its voids thus lessening the stress caused by hydrostatic pressure.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) is bounded on the north by the province of Cagayan. Different methods gave been developed and used to provide a means of stabilization of slopes. and Baguio City. Examples of the prevalent methods are: dry stone retaining wall or dry riprap. The Super Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng have caused 40 landslides that claimed at least 250 One of the most extreme events was that of the Little Kibungan tragedy. The region is politically subdivided into six (6) provinces and two cities. and lastly.benguetgov. grouted riprap. Last 2009. signed into law by Pres. (Dswales. 2014) The province of Benguet is situated in the Cordillera Region and is characterized as having a rugged and sloping terrain. Kalinga. dry riprap has the ability to deform and redistribute stress before failure. .gov. One of its other properties is permeability. Ifugao. Apayao. 2014) With the kind of terrain in the region. Corazon C. all the provinces in the Cordillera Region are among the top 10 most landslide-prone areas in the Philippines. shotcrete. namely Abra. reinforced concrete retaining wall. gabions. Stone retaining walls are especially favoured in the Cordilleras. Aquino on July 15. According to a study conducted by Mines and Geosciences Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. A dry retaining wall (or dry riprap) is a stone wall built without a binding agent such as 2014) The arrangement of stones set in dirt must be sturdy enough to stand up against the pressure of the earth and the water behind it. 1987.da. dry riprap will not readily fail. The creation of the Cordillera Administrative Region was provided for by Executive Order 220. It consists of wide tracts of forest land rich in mineral deposits and fertile soil. Dry riprap especially asserts its ductility. with Benguet in the top spot. (www. (http://ati. Province. Benguet. and the wall relies on good craftsmanship to ensure stability. where 100 residents were reported missing after loose soil slipped down the slopes covering 36 houses on hillsides. At least 50 bodies were retrieved from Little Kibungan alone. Mt. The stones are held together by gravity and friction.

a wall. might also qualify a wall for inclusion under such categories. In the Cordilleras. or in a construction style different from the original.The use and construction of dry stonewalls considered a lot of factors that essentially contributed to its multiple properties. In the landscape context. The scientific and technical properties of the dry stone wall are expounded in the following ideas: condition and integrity. While it has not been considered as a determining factor in assessing cultural significance of walls. Minor repairs are likely to have little or no detrimental impact on the integrity or potential heritage significance of the riprap. there are natural and environmental qualities. it is prone to weathering. It considers the scientific and technical properties. The dry stone walls provide ideal habitat for these species as often the adjoining properties have been de-rocked. Repairs of the dry riprap enhance its integrity and condition. Some stones may also fall due to poor craftsmanship. All other things being equal. authenticity. stony rises and other locations within environmental values are believed to also provide movement corridors for native animals and birds. rarity and representativeness. such as the amorphous round-shaped fieldstone or large boulders. A number of walls which connect areas of remnant vegetation. Lastly. which dry stone walls may embody that should be considered in determining their management. the skill of stone stacking is learned through experience with accomplished stone stackers. would be rated more highly than one which is deteriorated. The main imperfection of dry riprap is the noticeable bulging of the stones. The aesthetic property of the riprap is also affected when the stone stacker is inexperienced. The introduction of new stones different from the original will also impact detrimentally on integrity. and aesthetic property. or which has been reconstructed. environmental impacts. Integrity will be more affected where the reconstruction has been undertaken poorly. The achievement of a good construction technique using difficult local materials. . walls protect native species including flora and fauna. they are key habitat features. intactness. which is highly intact. In particular. since the riprap is made of stone.

To assess the competence of Non-Grouted Riprap in terms of economy. integrity and aesthetics. Non-Grouted Ripraps are not competent in terms of economy.PROBLEM OF THE STUDY The study of the non-grouted riprap raised the following problems: 1. 2. What are the differences among the prevalent Non-Grouted Riprap construction techniques of selected ethnic groups in the Cordilleras? 2. HYPOTHESES With the problems imposed. How competent are the Non-Grouted Ripraps in terms of economy. the following are the hypotheses: 1. To determine the differences among the prevalent Non-Grouted Riprap construction techniques of selected ethnic groups in the Cordilleras. There is no significant difference among the prevalent Non-Grouted Riprap construction techniques. integrity and aesthetics? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study of the non-grouted riprap raised the following objectives: 1. 2. integrity and aesthetics. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .

(2010) presented an experimental campaign on two 2. Dry stone walls are found throughout the world" (Post. (2007) developed a model for calculating the stability of dry stone walls. Different frictional and weathering characteristics. taking into account the irregularity of the geometry of the stones and their arrangement. entitled The Sustainability of Dry Stone Retaining Walls. A. P. Colas. and the naturally occurring shapes of stone found in an area. Brian Post made a study on the Dry Stone Walls of the United Kingdom with a focus on the construction methods and techniques. and McCombie. 2005). et al. The model consider the possibility of the internal failure of the wall. The study includes the following: the advantages and disadvantages of dry stone walls. After laboratory testing to quantify the interface friction. tools used. how to build retaining walls. using a parameter determined by in situ experiments. the data obtained were used in a model based on equilibrium of forces at failure. L. how to build a wall across slopes."Nearly everywhere in the world where stone was plentiful. the study did not include the effect they had on the populace and the methods of enclosures used. However. et al. it has been used as building material. In the study of Warren. and how to evaluate a wall. Ease of construction and aesthetics are also important. basics of walling. This has been done to develop simulations dedicated to dry stone walls because only a few experimental data are available to calibrate and validate these simulations. In 2005. He made full size on site experiments on 5 walls (2 and 4 meters high) loaded using hydrostatic pressure. anatomy of a dry stone wall. B. Common Shapes of Stones . the design of walls. all affect the ways in which the stones have traditionally been assembles into walls.5 meter high dry stone walls loaded by a gravel backfill until failure. the shapes of stones that are easy to use. they examined a range of construction styles of dry stone retaining walls in use across the United Kingdom. Villemus.

2005. . 2 Common Shapes that are Easy to Use (Post. While there is considerable variation in some styles of wall. 22) Fig. p. 22) Anatomy of a Stone Wall Walls have a number of distinct parts. 1 Common Shapes that are Difficult to Use (Post. most are similar to the one labelled below.Fig. p. 2005.

2005. or course. of stone upon which the rest of the wall sits.20) 1. Footings: The footings are the stones that make up the bottom layer. 2. p. Foundation: This is what the wall is built on. 20) There are also several other terms that are important to know when discussing walls. 3 Anatomy of a Wall (Post. Fig. as labelled below. 2005. For field walls it is often the native soil with the turf removed. p. . 4 Other Important Terms in a Wall (Post.Fig.

and also the most complicated to used. the ability to shape stones gives much more flexibility in what can be built. Stakes are much more flexible in terms of how they can be used. (Post. . between the through stones and the cope 6. there are many tools which make walling faster and easier. connecting the two sides 5. Course: A course is the term used to describe a layer of face stones in the wall 11. 2. 3. In both cases it means the side(s) that can be seen 12. Stakes and Batter Frames A batter frame has specific dimensions and can only used for building a wall of those dimensions. and that the stakes are much easier to bump out of position when building the wall. Additionally. more refined look. Pinning: Pinning stones are used to hold the face stones in place 10. The big disadvantages are the fact that stakes have to be driven into the ground. A description of the tools commonly used for walling and their use follows: 1. 21) Tools for Walling In its most basic form walling can be done entirely without the use of tools. However. First Lift: This refers to the lower portion of the wall. Hammers A hammer is the most basic tool used for walling. Shaping stones will tend to lead to a tighter. Through stones: These are stones that extend through the wall. Hammers are used to trim and split stone.3. hearting and pinning 4. Splitting is a means of shaping stones with the intension of using both of the remaining pieces. Cope: These are the top stones on the wall 7. Face: The term face can refer to the wall collectively or to individual stones. String Lines String lines are one of the most simple and versatile tools. A common walling hammer is between 2 and 4 pounds in weight and has one square end and one wedge shaped end. Batter: Batter is the term used to describe the angle of the face of the wall 8. from the foundation to the level of the through stones. Face stones: Face stones are the stones that can be seen in the side of the wall. String lines are used to keep the wall straight and the faces even. Trimming is breaking off a small part of the stone so that the remaining shape is of the desired size. This includes the face stones. Hearting: Hearting are small stones used to fill in the gaps between the face stones in the wall 9. Second Lift: This is the top half of the wall. 2005. p.

Crow Bars Crow bars. They are also very useful for breaking stones up to use for hearting. (Post. the courses should be level. Sledge Hammer Sledge Hammers are heavy and long handled. The pickaxe is also very useful for removing foundation stones. but applies to all walls. and are very useful for making sure the wall has proper dimensions. String lines are useful to keeping an even plane to the wall. Each stone should be crossing a joint below it so that it is setting on two stones below it. also called pry bars are no more than long bars of steel with at least one pointed end. 8. There are exceptionally useful for shifting and placing large foundations. 2. 23-27) Basics of Walling 1. 3. This is especially true in coursed walls or when working with a level bedded stone. Align the stones so that there is an even plane to the faces of the wall. Chisels Chisels are most useful for splitting with the grain and for precise shaping of stones. 7. Shovels Shovels are used primarily for digging foundations. Sledge hammers are used for breaking large stones. 9. Tape Measure Tape measures are fairly straight forward. Levels Levels are handy for checking to make sure that courses and stones are horizontal. Keep Stones level. These are very useful for moving excess soil away and for collecting hearting. and digging new foundations. especially when the exact location of the break is not critical. 6. Build with the plane of the wall. even when working on slopped ground. 2005. Pickaxe The pickaxe is primary used in stripping out.4. 10. 5. p. Apply the principle of cross joints. In coursed walls. .

Gaps between the face stones should be filled. Double Faced Retaining Wall . The tighter the hearting the stronger the wall. 41) Retaining Walls Retaining walls are walls that provide permanent lateral support to vertical or near vertical slopes of soil (Das. 2. However. The first is to dig down until the foundation is level just below the ground level on the downhill side of the wall. Trace walling is not acceptable in single retaining walls. Walling across steep slopes The bottom portion will take the function of a retaining wall while the top will remain free standing. and long “through” stones should protrude back. Build the wall with a tight hearting. However. Walling across gentle slopes It is nearly same as walling on flat ground. In other words the length of each stone is perpendicular to the direction of the wall. p. and only when there is no top load. Set the length of the stone to the wall. semi-gravity retaining wall. cantilever retaining wall. 5. Typically it is not recommended to build single retaining walls higher than 4 ft. it is a weaker structure. The wall should be built as solid as possible. and is a more efficient. tying the wall face to hearting behind. the foundation should be dug so that the bottom is level. There are two different ways to build the lower portion. 2000). and counterfort retaining wall. 2. T his means that the end of each stone is the part visible in the final wall. Single faced Retaining Wall Building a single faced wall is much faster and uses about half the stone of a double wall. 2005. However because it is inherently less massive and relies on what it is retaining to stay up. 2005) Walling on Slopes 1. This reduces the digging necessary for the foundation.4. (Gavins. (Post. Two Ways to Build Retaining Walls 1. It can be classified into four categories: gravity retaining wall. The more common method is to have a stepped foundation. it takes a lot of digging and there is a lot of stone to place below ground.

48) Design of Retaining Wall Developing a standard specifications for all dry stone walls is impossible because the stone is a variable material. 20005. Rainfall – It is well known that there is a strong direct relationship between heavy rainfall and landslides. 1976) In a study of wall failures in the United States. there is no need to further elaborate. and the effect of the said movement greatly affects residents living near around the landslide site. (Post. Landslides are caused by a number of reasons. both natural and man-made. T he building process begins by digging back into the bank the required amount. 2000). groundwater pressure levels spike or peak that makes the soil become unstable. This movement is caused by a variety of factors. the structure is checked for stability which includes checking for possible overturning.Building a double faced retaining wall is a much more substantial walling project than single walls. p. with that. With the groundwater building up above the impermeable stratum and flows laterally to a slope face where it comes out as a line of seepage or spring. These may be natural or man-made. 47) An Engineer must know the basic soil parameters such as unit weight.(1948) found that the major cause of failures of retaining walls to be inadequate performance of the foundation of the wall. 2.(Perloff. and bearing capacity failures (Das. Other design considerations include the effects of water in the backfill and evaluation of the magnitude. 1. sliding. Author said that rainfall flows into the ground until it reaches the less permeable stratum. Peck et al. Landslides Landslides are the sudden movement of masses of soil from a point of high elevation to a lower elevation. In the design of retaining walls. during severe typhoons. 2005. and cohesion of the soil retained behind the wall and the soil in the foundation. angle of frication. direction. Here are examples to state a few. (Post. The wall is built like a normal freestanding wall except that it does not mater how neat and even the buried face of the wall is. Springs and Seepage – Groundwater is often perched where water bearing sands and gravels overlie more impermeable soils like bedrock and the like. and significance of wall movements due to settlement. With that in mind. p. .

the soil. chunks. Artesian Pressures – This is when the groundwater head in the soil or rock is higher than the head in the overlying ground. Subaerial Submarine Flow Slides. River Erosion . Most erosion occurs during flooding conditions when the water is high. Debris Flows. 7. Ancient Landslide Reactivation. stones. 9. Failure of the banks may occur as the river level recedes after the peak flow.It is a natural geological process by which rivers are widened and deepened. having a more concentrated amount through irrigation and aqueducts. 31). both natural and man made. Cuts – It is the artificial reshaping of the soil surface by steepening the slope of the soil or making it gradual 8. the soil in contact is greatly affected.. which is a possible landslide. rocks and boulders would have parts. 11. and in some cases the whole mass being detached and thus falling down to a lower elevation. 4.3. Through weathering. The said topics would not be discussed in the text due to it being not a part of the study (Feng. Weathering – Weathering affects the soil in which it may cause a landslide. There are other causes of landslides like Coastal Erosion. there is no need to further elaborate. with that. sudden earthquakes and landslides. it is well known that there is a strong direct relationship between strong. would give a plausible outcome. rapidly flowing and turbulent. 10. Even with factors of safety. 5. Artesian conditions develop when a less permeable layer above it traps groundwater. It gives out a process called liquefaction in which it liquidizes the soil due to extreme pressure. 6. . Earthquakes – Again. entail. Floods also raise groundwater in the riverbanks. fed by an upslope source. This. Earth Dams and Reservoirs – Earth Dams are engineered fills that have to be capable of performing a dual function as a water barrier and gravity-retaining structure. the potential loss of strength due to temporarily elevated groundwater pressures during strong and sudden earthquakes is a major concern. X. and Delayed Failure. Concentrated Water Sources – The concept of this is similar to the concept of Irrigation and Aqueducts. 2011. Irrigation and Aqueducts – With imposed water loads and the water’s characteristics being as it is. p. Fills – Fills cause landslides through increasing the load on the ground and/or by artificially steepening the slope.

the researchers will evaluate existing non-grouted ripraps and interview stone stackers in the locality. for the assessment of competency of non-grouted riprap.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Interview experienced stone stackers Evaluation of existing nongrouted riprap Professional opinion 1. Thus. In order to determine the different techniques in non-grouted riprap construction. . giving us information on the longevity of the indigenous practice of non-grouted riprap. Distinctive techniques in nongrouted riprap construction. Qualitative data on the structural integrity of nongrouted riprap. who have dealt with the construction of riprap. 2. The information will be attested by a certain professional. The research study regarding the “The Timeless Practice of Non-grouted Riprap: A historical investigation” will follow the following concept.

With that. limited financial resources and the enrichment of a certain property in terms of aesthetics. cost effective and neat to look at. and are still in existence. Compared to modern retaining walls. liability and a waste of money. with the idea that ideologies of different indigenous groups vary. the methods on how the retaining wall is built vary. With science. one would think that it is as strong as modern retaining walls. To further add the aesthetic points of the retaining walls. With that. There are a lot of techniques in the construction of the non-grouted riprap that makes the structure interesting. is an achievement of the people who built them. Modern retaining walls are stronger. which generally covers big stones and rocks that are placed at a certain manner to which it would effectively retain or hold off soil. When considering dry stonewalls located in rural areas. Considering local culture and traditions. With that in mind. the construction of the non-grouted riprap is slowly being discarded. more visual design schemes are possible to apply. The non-grouted riprap mostly uses raw materials. it would visually look like it is weaker yet for some reason. there is a need to study the different techniques in constructing the non-grouted riprap and to determine the non-grouted riprap’s competence in terms of economy. For different indigenous groups. Aesthetically speaking. the non-grouted riprap may or may not be as important. in urban areas. integrity and aesthetics. cost effective and aesthetically pleasing. are the existing dry stonewalls proficient enough? With retaining walls being improved drastically in terms of its structural capabilities and aesthetics at limited budget allocations. With the demand of structures that are more structurally sound. non-grouted ripraps are not mostly accepted in terms of elegance and refinement especially when the structure is placed at random areas in which development is indisputable. The structures have stood the test of time and nature’s wrath. the structure’s competence is deliberated especially in terms of economy. with concrete and other materials. safety and development impending. one would be able to determine the most feasible way to build the non-grouted riprap in certain conditions.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The effective prevention of landslides would not be possible without the construction of the dry stonewall. To think of the dry stonewalls constructed a long time afore. the structure gives out a natural unpretentious ambiance in which it complements nature and its surroundings. The study of the non-grouted riprap would help determine its capabilities and establish whether or not it is a danger. retaining walls have come a long way. especially when it involves massive natural forces. integrity and aesthetics . This is possible with the help of various reinforcements like steel and concrete. Considering that there are many techniques developed by different ethnic groups in building the non-grouted riprap. these dry stonewalls are still existing. The non-grouted riprap is a soil retaining structure that can be found around the Cordilleras.

the builders of the structure would further admire the possible reasons on why they are building the non-grouted riprap. civil engineers would learn more about the social value and cultural essence of the non-grouted riprap constructed. the study would give a deeper perceptive on why the non-grouted riprap still exists and how it is valued structurally and ethnically by the society. Interviews with expert builders and professionals will be conducted to acquire information regarding the different techniques employed by ethnic groups in the Cordilleras to construct non-grouted ripraps. Ideally in a sense that. The significance of the study to civil engineering is very substantial and diverse in a way that. Data from local agencies and findings from related researches will also be acquired to be used as supplementary references for the assessment of the techniques. A comparative approach will then . integrity and proficiency of the non-grouted riprap. in general. it is a structure that makes a certain area safe and make the residents of the area be secure especially in terms of soil retention. With that in mind. it gives the professionals ideas and options to aid them in designing and solving problems in relation to soil retention considering aesthetics and ethnic acceptability. the study of the structure would give off a deeper understanding and appreciation of the non-grouted riprap. Ethnically in a sense that the forefathers of the indigenous groups made the non-grouted riprap and stood the test of time. In accordance to Saint Louis University's mission to transform. ideally and ethnically. It will help give a deeper understanding and admiration for the non-grouted riprap and its ethnicity and value. The study would be considered an integral part of society in which it provides knowledge and appreciation to the non-grouted riprap structures built and to be built. Without this study. The knowledge acquired in this study would help future generations in appreciating the aesthetics. DESIGN AND METHODS Research Design A qualitative method of research will be mainly utilized in this study. Taking into account the researchers and the future generation.In accordance to the society. The structures made have become an integral part of the community in which the residing people have considered them valuable. admiration of the non-grouted riprap would deteriorate thus the essence of why our forefathers developed the techniques of building the non-grouted riprap will be futile. the study will give the hard working faculty and students of SLU additional information about the non-grouted riprap with regards to ideas for their future studies. the study gives a profound knowledge on what the structure is. Considering the individuals who have constructed and who are constructing the nongrouted riprap. With the thought of knowing the mechanics and structural capabilities of the non-grouted riprap.

characteristics of soil. ACTIVITY Data gathering DESCRIPTION Inspection of existing dry riprap and interview with dry riprap builders in the provinces of Benguet. researches and studies will be gathered and reviewed to validate the information initially gathered through the interviews and visual inspections. the impact of the construction of the riprap to the vicinity. Data Gathering Techniques Interviews. A number of existing non-grouted ripraps will be visited and observed by the researchers.g. A normative approach will then be considered to determine how the indigenous techniques fare against the commonly used reinforced concrete retaining wall. A visual inspection will be conducted to determine physical properties of the cases. If deemed necessary. To obtain the information as accurate as used to determine the similarities and differences. TARGET DATE EXPECTED RESULTS December Detailed information regarding the existing riprap with its builder . Alternatively. Visual Inspection. will be acquired from related local agencies.. Personal interviews with professionals and experienced dry-riprap builders will be the primary source of information for this research. the date when the riprap was built. Additional information regarding classifications of stones. the interview will be conducted in the language where the interviewee is comfortable with. follow-up questions may be asked by the researchers to acquire supplementary information. recent atmospheric activity. These documents will assist in the affirmation or negation of the imposed hypotheses. e. Visual inspections will provide physical representation of the information provided by the expert builders non-grouted riprap. Ifugao. Bontoc. Related articles. interviews with the locals residing near the structures will be conducted to obtain information visual inspections can’t provide. etc. and advantages and disadvantages of the said techniques. Representatives from the ethnic groups will be asked to answer a set of structured questions regarding the techniques they employ in the construction of non-grouted riprap. Document Analysis. etc.

presentation and tarpaulin . Compilation Data input Writing of conclusion and recommendation Final output (to be check by promoter) Submission of output Journal PowerPoint Tarpaulin February March End of March Creation of initial write-up Final revision of journal.Engr. Eduardo Cruz February Affirmation of the presented data.Data sorting (to be checked by promoter) Examine and compile gathered data to be presented among professionals January Documentation of the information gathered Consultation Interview professionals who are fully acquainted with the construction of dry riprap .