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# CONVECTION

## Convection: The mode

of energy transfer
between a solid surface
and the adjacent liquid
or gas that is in motion,
and it involves the
combined effects of
conduction and fluid
motion.
The faster the fluid
motion, the greater the
convection heat
transfer.
In the absence of any
bulk fluid motion, heat
transfer between a solid
surface and the
adjacent fluid is by pure

## Heat transfer from a hot surface to

air by convection.

## CONVECTION MASS TRANSFER

Newtons law of cooling
h convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 C
As the surface area through which convection heat transfer takes
place
Ts the surface temperature
T the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface.

## SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND

MASS TRANSFER
Many mass transfer processes encountered in practice
occur isothermally,
the vaporization of a liquid and the diffusion of this
vapor into the surrounding gas.
TO GENERALIZE, ANY MASS TRANSFER PROBLEM
involving phase change (evaporation, sublimation,
condensation, melting , etc.) must also involve heat
transfer, and the solution of such problems needs
to be analyzed by considering simultaneous heat and
mass transfer.

## SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND

MASS TRANSFER
Some examples
of simultaneous heat and mass problems are drying,
evaporative cooling, cooling by dry ice, combustion
of fuel droplets, and ablation cooling of space
vehicles during.
events like rain, snow
In warmer locations, for example, the
snow melts and the rain evaporates before reaching
the ground

## SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND

MASS TRANSFER
To understand the mechanism of simultaneous
heat and mass transfer, consider
the evaporation of water from a swimming
pool into air.

MASS TRANSFER