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IGC2SampleQuestionsandAnswers:

Q.1Anorganizationusessmallquantitiesoftoxicchemicals.

(a) Identifyfourpossibleroutesofentryoftoxicsubstancesintothebody.

ByINHALATION:
Ifthechemicalsagentsisintheformofdust,vapour,fume,gas,etc.itisthemostrapidrouteofentrance.Ithas
beenestimatedthat90%oftheindustrialpoisonsareabsorbedthroughlungs.
ByINGESTION:
Anysignificantquantityofharmfulliquidorsolidwillbeswallowedwithoutdeliberateintent.
Itcanoccurdirectly(bymistakeifchemicalsarenotproperlylabeled)orindirectlywheresmallamountof
contaminantsaretransferredfromthefingerstothemouthifeating,drinkingorsmokinginchemicalareas.
ByABSORPTIONcontactwiththeskin:
Substancescanenterthroughtheskin,cutsorabrasionsandconjunctivaoftheeye.
Chemicalscan

Irritatetheskincausingdermatitis.
Penetratetheskincausingsystemictoxicity.
Damagetheskindirectly(suchasacid)

Injection:

Aforcefulbreachoftheskin,perhapsasaresultofinjury,cancarryharmfulsubstancesthroughtheskinbarrier.
1. Chemicalsmayinjectedhypodermicallyonsharpsetce.g.,brokenglasscutstheskinandtransfersa
biologicalorchemicalagent
2. Chemicalsmaybeinjectedathighpressuree.g.formhydraulichoses.

(b) Explainthedifferencebetweenacuteandchronichealtheffects.

Acutehealtheffect:Anadverseeffectresultfromasingleorshorttermexposuretoareversibleoffendingagent
andproducinganimmediateorrapideffect.

Examples:corrosiveaction,narcosisandprimaryirritation.

Chronichealtheffect:Anadversehealtheffectresultfromprolongedorrepeatedexposureswithagradualorlatent
andoftenirreversibleeffectthatmayoftengounrecognizedforanumberofyears.

Example:Cancer,sensitizationdermatitis&damagetobodyorgans.

(c)Identifythesourcesofinformationwhichcouldbeusedintheassessmentofriskoftoxicsubstances.

1.Manufacturers:
MaterialSafetyDataSheet:Providedbymanufactureroftoxicsubstance
ProductLabel:
2.GovernmentBodies:
3.EnforcementAgencies:Variouscountriesenforcementagenciesalsopublishinformationabouttoxicsubstances.
i.e.HSEBookletEH40forexposurelimits
4.ILOCodesofpractice:i.e.Safetyintheuseofchemicalsatwork

5.Tradeassociations
6.InsuranceCompanies
7.Organisationsinvolvedinoccupationalhealthmayalsoprovideinformation.

(c) Outlinethecontrolmeasuresthatmightberequiredinordertominimizeriskstoworkers.

Elimination:
Thisrepresentsanextremeformofcontroltoprohibittheuseofhighriskandtoxicsubstances.
Reduction:Thesubstitutionofalesstoxicsubstanceinaplaceofmoretoxiconeorthesamesubstanceinlesstoxic
form.E.g.Tolueneforbenzene
Isolate:
Enclosureofhazard:totallyenclosetheprocessandhandlingsystem(e.g.puttinglidsonsubstancesthathave
highvolatilevapours)
LocalexhaustVentilation:Removetoxicsubstancesatsourceitself.
DilutionVentilation:providesufficientgeneraventilation.
Control:
People:RestrictpeopletotoxicsubstancesintheformsofAge,Distance,TimeandGender.
Periodofexposure:Reducethetimeofexposurebasedonlongtermexposurelimitsorshorttermexposurelimits.
GoodHousekeeping:Regularcleaninganddisinfectionofworkplaceandcontaminatedareas.
Safestorage:provisionofsafestorageanddisposaloftoxicsubstances
Prohibit:Eatingdrinkingandsmokinginareaswheretoxiccontaminationoccurs
PersonalHygiene:Arrangementforpersonalcare,washingfacilityetc.Barriercreamsandsuitablehand
protectionsareimportantconsiderationsforchemicalandbiologicalrisks.
Respiratoryprotectiveequipment:RespiratorsandBreathingapparatuswillbechosenbasedonAPF(Assigned
Protectionfactor)toensurethatequipmentswillprovidethelevelofprotectionrequired.
Personalprotectiveequipment:SuitablePPEforthehazardinvolved.
Discipline:Ensureprocedureandrulesarebeingfollowedandtakingactionsagainstnotcompiling.

Q.2Identifythecontrolmeasuresthatcouldbeimplementedtoreducetherisktopedestriansinareaswhere
vehiclesaremaneuvering.

Segregatedsystemsforvehicular&pedestriantraffic,

Appropriateroadmarkings,

Maintaininggoodvisibility(mirrors,transparentdoors,provisionoflightingetc)

Audiblewarningsonvehicles.

Drawingup&enforcementofsiterules

Theprovisionofrefuges,

Thewearingofhighvisibilityclothing,

Agoodstandardofhousekeeping,

Training&supervisionofdrivers

Definedtrafficroutes
Onewaysystems
SpeedControl

Q.3Outlinethespecifichazardsassociatedwiththeuseofbatterypoweredforklifttrucksandstatethe
precautionsnecessaryineachcase.

Hydrogengasbeingreleasedduringbatterycharging,properventilationtobeprovidedtoavoidthebuildupof
vapours,

Electricityproblemsduringchargingwhichcanleadtoshortcircuittoelectricshockorevendeathso,useResidual
CurrentDevicesorproperlyearthedconnectionswithinsulatedcablesevenloaddistributiononCircuits,

Toavoidmanualhandlingofliquidsforbatteriesusesimpleliftingmachines,Corrosiveacidscausedbycharging,
whichcansplashoverbodyandhandscancauseirritation,itchingsoemergencywashingfacilities(handandeye),
useofproperPPE.i.e.coverallandhandglovesetc.

Q.4Excavationworkisbeingcarriedoutonaconstructionsite.Identifythecontrolmeasuresneededtoreduce
therisktoworkers.

Detectionofservices(fromplans,useofcable/pipedetectors)beforehand.

Supportofsidestoavoidcollapse.

Storageofmaterialsandtakeitawayfromedgetoprotectexcessiveload.

Stopblockstopreventvehiclesfromfallingintoexcavation.

Barriersandguardrailstoavoidfallintoexcavation.

Ensuresafemeansofaccess/egresstotheexcavationareas.

Testingforandventilationoffumesandothertoxicsubstances.

Suitablemeansofpumpingoutwater.

Onlycompetentpersonnelareallowedtoworkinanexcavation.

UseofsuitablePPE.

Q.5(a)Identifyfourmechanicalhazardsassociatedwiththeuseofapedestaldrill.

Entanglementofhairwiththedrillbitorchuck,

Stabbinginjuriesfromtheendofthebit,

Contactwiththedrillbitorchuckresultinginabrasions,

Ejectionoforimpactbyunclampedworkpieces,madeworsebythefactthattheworkpiecemaybe
spinningatfastspeedonthebit.

Cuttinghazardsmayalsobepresentedbymetalswarfproducedbythedrillingprocess.

(b)Outlinefourcontrolmeasurestoreducetheriskofinjurytooperatorsofpedestaldrills.

Secureworkpieceswithclampstopreventmovement

Ensureequipmentisproperlymaintained,Removefaultytoolsanddisconnectfrompowerwhennotinuse

WearappropriatePPE,suitablecompetentpersonareallowedtoworkonsuchequipments

Inform,instruct,supervisetheworkforce

Q.6Outlinethefactorsthatmayleadtooccupationalstressamongstworkers.

Cultureoftheorganisation

Shiftwork,unsociablehours,ExcessiveOvertime

Jobinsecurity,fearofredundancy

Repetitive/Monotonouswork

Lackofbreaksandcontroloverjob

Workratetoohighortoolow

Theworkingenvironment

Relationships(supervisors&peers)

Harassmentandbullying

Fearofviolence

Lackofcommunication

Personal&socialfactors

Q.7(a)Identifytheeffectsonthehumanbodyfromasevereelectricshock.

Electricshock:resultinginstoppingofheartandrespiratoryrhythm.Italsoleadstolossofconsciousness,fibrillation
andstrongcramplikeeffects.
Electricalburns:electricburnsaredeeperthanotherburntypesresultingfromtheheatingeffectofthecurrent
whichburnsthebodytissueandtakelongertimetoheal.
Secondaryeffects:suchasfallingfromaheightasaresultofelectricshock.Thiswillleadtofractures,bleeding,
organsdamage&death.

(b)Identifyfourfactorsthatcouldaffecttheseverityofinjuryresultingfromcontactwithelectricity.

Currentpaththroughthebody
LengthofcontacttimeorDuration
Conductivity/resistanceofthebody
Voltage
Frequencyofcurrentflow
Conductivityoftheenvironment
Natureofthecontact
Ageandhealthstatusofvictim

Q.8

(a) Inrelationtotheclassificationoffiresgiveanexampleofamaterial(fuel)thatfallswithineachofthe
classesA,B,CandD.

Fire
Class ExampleFuel
Solids
A
(Wood,Clothes,Papers,plastics)
Liquids
B
(Diesel,Petrol,oil,PaintsandThinners)
Gases
C
(Acetylene,HydrogenSulphide,LPG,Naturalgas)
Metals
D
(Sodium,Aluminum)
Electrical/Heat E
(FireInvolvingElectricalApparatus)
Oils&Fats
ForK (Fireinvolvingcookingoilsandfats)

(b) IdentifyTWOmethodsofheattransferandexplainhoweachmethodcontributestospreadoffire.

Convection:Whengasisheateditexpandsandbecomeslessdenseandthusitmovesup.Thisexplainsthespread
offiretotheupperstoreyofabuildingduetohotgasesrisingupliftshaftsandstairwells.

Radiation:Heatistransferredasinvisibleraysthroughtheair.Example:Clotheshungnearanelectricheaterfor
dryingcouldigniteandflamecanjumpacrossastreettothebuildingnearby.

Conduction:Materialsasmetalsaregoodheatconductorswhileglassandwoodareinsulators.
Directburning:ofacombustiblematerialinnakedflame.

DirectBurning:Whencombustiblematerialshavedirectcontactwithnakedflamethiswilloccur.Curtainsorcarpet
tilesmaybeconsumedbycombustionandenablefiretobetransferredtotheothernearbyareas.

Q.9Outlinethehazardsthataworkercouldbeexposedtowhenusingpetroldrivenchainsawtocutdownatree.

Operational Hazards Kickback is when a chain tooth at the upper quadrant of the guide bar tip cuts into wood
without cutting through it, the chain cannot continue moving and the bar is driven in an upward arc toward the
operator.

Equipmenthazards:ascutting,ejection,noise,vibration,etc.
Flyingsticks:leadingtoeyeinjury.
Heathazard:duetoworkingunderthesun.
Trippinghazard:duetoobstructionbytreeparts.

Biologicalhazard:duetocontaminatedground,insects,etc.
Wooddusthazards:leadingtoasthma,dermatitis,etc.
Petrolhazardsascarbonmonoxidehazards,fire,fumesetc.

Q.10Amaintenanceworkerregularlyuseshandheldgrinder,andisexposedtovibration.

(a)Identifythesymptomsthattheworkermayexperienceduetothisexposure.

Thetypicalsymptomsare

i)Numbnessoffingers.
ii)Blanchingoffingers.
iii)Swollenpainfuljoints.
iv)Reductioninmanualdexterity(thingsmayfallformhandsandfineadjustmentbyhandcannotbeachieved).

(c) OutlineSIXcontrolmeasuresthatcanbeusedtoreducetheriskfromvibration.

Thecontrolmeasuresare:

i)Eliminatetherisk:byprocesschangetoeliminatetheneedforusingvibratinghandheldtools.
ii)Reducetherisk:Tomodifyoperatingproceduresothatthepressureuponthetoolrequiredbyoperatoris
reduced.
iii)Properselectionofequipmentandmaintenance.
iv)Reducingtimeofexposureofoperatorstovibration(thismaynecessitaterecruitmentofnewstaff).
v)Healthsurveillancetodetecttheearlysignsandsymptomsofvibrationillness.
vi)UseofappropriatePPE(asglovestokeephandwarm).

Q.11IdentifyEIGHTcommoncausesoffiresintheworkplace.

Commoncausesmaybesplitintofourmaingroups.

I. CarelessActionsandAccidents

a. Smokinginprohibitedareas
b. Welding/hotwork
c. Unattendedorpoorelectricalconnections.

II. MisusingEquipment

a. Overloadingelectricalcircuits
b. Failuretofollowserviceinstructions.
c. Failuretorepairfaultymachinery/equipmentpromptly.

III. DefectiveMachineryorEquipment

a. Electricalshortcircuits.
b. Electricalearthfault
c. ElectricalInsulationFailure

IV. DeliberateIgnition

a. InsuranceFraud.
b. Concealmentofanothercrime
c. Politicalactivistsorvandalism