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Contents
List of Figures and Maps  

vii

Preface and Acknowledgements  

xi

Note on Transliteration  

xvii

Abbreviations  

xxi

Maps  

xxv

Introduction: Contexts  

1

Part I: Hagiographical Texts
1

The Vitae of Šušanik and Evstat‛i  

2

The Nino Cycle  

33
105

Part II: Historiographical Texts
3 K‛art‛lis c‛xovreba and the Historiographical Mok‛c‛evay k‛art‛lisay   
169
4

The Life of the Kings  

187

5

The Life of the Successors of Mirian  

261

6

The Life of Vaxtang Gorgasali  

271

7 Ps.-Juanšer’s Continuation  

331

Epilogue: Hambavi mep‛et‛a and Sasanian Caucasia  

353

Appendix I: Terminological Note  

377

Appendix II: Georgian Literary Sources for the Sasanian Era  

379

Appendix III: K‛art‛velian Kings and Presiding Princes until the End of
the Sasanian Empire  

385

vi The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Appendix IV: Mihrānid Bidaxšes of Somxit‛i-Gugark‛   389 Appendix V: Sasanian Šāhan šāhs   391 Bibliography   393 Index   499 .

Extended coverage has made possible a panoramic examination of the images of Sasanian Iran in Georgian literary and epigraphical monuments. 2  For antagonism. their three authors – and 1  One of these vitae. each of which is encoded with distinctive perceptions of Iran and Caucasia’s relationship to it. social structure and religion. consolidating and enlarging Christianity. see Kekeliże 1955a. were written with the express purpose of defining. This cross-cultural study probes two categories of Georgian texts.1 But in many cases the hagiographers’ attitude towards Iran is ambivalent. scorn is reserved for particular Sasanian officials active on Caucasian soil. Anti-Sasanian sentiment is more common in early Armenian literature. Remarkably. eastern Georgians and Caucasian Albanians. On its largest analytical scale this volume exposes both the fundamental cohesiveness of late antique Caucasia and its active participation in the Iranian world even centuries after the Christianisation of the Armenians. is devoid of allusions to the three Caucasian monarchies and the Sasanian and Roman Empires.Preface and Acknowledgements This project drew its first breath in spring 2009 when Rika Gyselen asked me to catalogue the sporadic Georgian references to the Sasanian Empire for Res Orientales. see Appendix I. popularly termed “saints’ lives”. well after the final collapse of the Sasanian Empire in 651 but just prior to the ascendancy of the Georgian branches of the Bagratid dynasty in 813. 3  Though sometimes awkward. The first comprises the oldest surviving literary compositions in Georgian. sometimes envisioned Iran and Zoroastrianism as imminent dangers. It has also provided an opportunity to interrogate narrative imagery as it pertains to kingship. As we would expect. the generic Passion of the Children of Kolay. The production of historical images and narratives is central to this investigation. For the terminology used in this study. editors and scribes over long periods of time. including the distinction between Mazdaism and Zoroastrianism. The material’s complexity became rapidly apparent and the anticipated article grew into this book-length investigation. and to consider in more depth the close linguistic ties of Iran and Caucasia. These passions and vitae. When it is expressed.2 The historiographical3 sources (“histories”) of the second classification attained their received state around the year 800. contemporaries of the Sasanians. this term is a reminder of the multilayered roles of authors. their ecclesiastical authors. three hagiographical works written between the late fifth and the early seventh century. .

broader literary contexts – especially the neglected pan-Caucasian one – must be taken into account. however. transmission and reception of the narrative host. K‛art‛lis c‛xovreba and Mok‛c‛evay k‛art‛lisay. 4  . whose bonds to Iran have been more extensively studied. 120. shrouded in unfamiliarity and misconception. the perspectives and agendas of their authors. first. there is a relative abundance of evidence.9 But as it is deployed in the following pages. See Frye 1963. 10  I have rejected the term “civilisation” because of its inherent diffusionism. internal structures and functions.The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes xii the sources upon which they rely – openly acknowledge and often positively evaluate Caucasia’s long-term integration into the Iranian world. “Sasanian” also intends the Sasanian phase of the Iranian Commonwealth. within the regional sphere of Caucasian literature. Iranians and non-Iranians actively contributed to this enduring enterprise that stretched from Anatolia and Caucasia to Central Asia. Distortions of the historical picture are the steep wages of the extraction of specific information without a thorough understanding of the origin. In Part II.10 a diverse and cosmopolitan network of cross-cultural exchange and shared social structures. Cf. 9  Pourshariati 2008. eastern Georgians were long-standing members of the This nexus persisted into the Christian period of Caucasian history for more than 500 years. esp. imperialist implications and Eurocentric background. At the same time. the Iranian Commonwealth first came into existence under the Achaemenids.6 Their discrete components are frequently lumped together without adequate regard for authorships. the intricacies of our sources. see now: Daryaee 2009. see the Note on Transliteration. As a consequence.7 In light of Caucasia’s organic and durable connections to Iran. 8  On Ērānšahr. require an examination predicated chiefly upon individual texts. conventions and language. 327. especially as it pertains to kingship and epic imagery.4 While a thematic approach has its virtues. in tandem with the medieval literary collections in which they are now exclusively preserved and. esp. target audiences. 7  This approach entails a certain amount of duplication. The separate examinations of the two literary categories are incongruous owing to the quantity and divergent nature of surviving sources. in a strict sense designating the Iranian core of the Sasanian Empire (Ērān. have been particularly prone to decontextualisation and structural homogenisation. purpose.5 Two medieval corpora. second. 126–135. In Part I minute shreds of Iranian and Iranic material are identified and analysed. this volume proceeds from holistic treatments of individual sources and keeps an eye locked on the cross-cultural conditions of their composition. As I define it. 6  For the rendering of Georgian titles. See Lewis and Wigen 1997. and the epigraph of the Introduction below. Like the Armenians. I argue for the extension of the term “Sasanian”. and Payne 2013. Ērānšahr)8 including what has been dubbed the Sasanian-Parthian “confederacy”. Yet they are monuments whose distinctiveness must be handled. 5  See also Garsoïan and Martin-Hisard 1996. and their place within the Caucasian literary canon. Sanderson 1995.

UCLA. Iranian or RomanoByzantine history..g. While this interdisciplinary exploration is projected through wide geographical.11 Early Georgian literature and the larger Caucasian experience reveal the Iranian Commonwealth to be far more dynamic and heterogeneous than is commonly thought. the preponderance of contemporaneous materials and the interwoven threads of interpretation will. Numerous academic institutions kindly provided access to their libraries. by the advent of Late Antiquity. Armenia and Azerbaijan were supplemented by manuscripts and printed matter consulted in the Russian Federation. temporal and thematic lenses. though some errors undoubtedly remain. tossed aside or never consciously realised. chronologically-arranged political narrative of “what really happened” nor tackles every historical issue in the period. When a particular line of evidence does not live up to its promise. Emory University. 11  . e. Materials collected in Georgia. The patient interlibrary loan staff at the University of Oklahoma (Norman) and Sam Houston State University exceeded my wildest expectations. early Christian Caucasia is a microcosm of the tremendously diverse Eastern Christian/Byzantine and Islamic Commonwealths.13 It strives to recover cross-cultural. the United Kingdom. See. literary tradition and religion that could set them apart.Preface and Acknowledgements xiii Iranian socio-cultural world who simultaneously possessed a language. As we shall see. The principal research and fieldwork for this book was carried out in the three republics of southern Caucasia. It engages specific multifaceted and interconnected problems and sets them within cosmopolitan milieux. Cribb and Herrmann 2007. the peoples of Caucasia had their own hybrid polytheistic faiths which. the Matenadaran in Erevan.12 Through a critical reading and contextualisation of literary sources. my home from 2009 until 2012. featured localised strains of Mazdaism. the Oriental Institute of Oxford University. including Indiana University (Bloomington). Central and Inner Asia also expand our understanding of the heterogeneity and cosmopolitanism of the Iranian world under the Sasanians. I wish to thank the Historisches Institut at the University of Bern and the Centre for the Exploration of Georgian The religious distinction did not begin with the introduction of Christianity. 13  This study accordingly prioritises late antique toponyms and ethnonyms. the Bodleian Library in Oxford and the British Museum in London. transparency and accuracy. the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). I am especially grateful for the opportunity to have worked with the unique collections of the National Centre of Manuscripts (formerly the Korneli Kekeliże Institute of Manuscripts) in T‛bilisi. Turkey. regional and transregional ties that have been forgotten. But it neither articulates an elegant. still validate the central arguments. the University of Bern and the American Academy in Rome. This volume seeks consistency. the University of California at Berkeley. I hope. this study seeks to examine the past “on its own terms” so far as possible. 12  Similarly. it does not attempt to elaborate a comprehensive treatment of Georgian let alone Caucasian. Italy. textual monuments having their own histories. Germany and Switzerland’s Röstigraben.

Numerous scholars across a constellation of fields provided comments. Mary Whitby. At the same time. Amiran Makaraże and Elena Stolyarik for their valuable assistance with these images. Cross-disciplinary work is exciting and perilous: the practitioner must wade and sometimes swim far into unfamiliar waters. Ian Colvin (Nok‛alak‛evi/C‛ixegoji/Archaeopolis). Aram T‛op‛č‛yan. I wish to thank Šušanik Xač‛ikyan. The family of the late Giorgi Melik‛išvili supplied me with a copy of that great scholar’s rare anthology of journal articles. it is not possible to acknowledge all of them here. Parvaneh Pourshariati. Philippe Gignoux greatly assisted with the transliteration of Middle Iranian. Joel Walker. Alessandro Bruni. Anthony Kaldellis. for providing academic affiliations at a vulnerable moment in my career. Gohar Muradyan. Darejan Kldiašvili. My photographs are supplemented by images kindly provided by the Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts (Buba Kudava. But I should like to single out the titanic efforts of Touraj Daryaee (who graciously read the manuscript in its infancy and again as I was submitting it to my copy-editor at Ashgate). sometimes with little advance notice. James Russell. Andreas Furtwängler and Florian Knauss. Alison Vacca and Paul Crego rescued me from the metaphorical Sarlaac Pit by answering specific questions and by helping me track down elusive critical editions and printed materials. Nodar Baxtaże (Nekresi) and Vaxtang Nikolaišvili (Baginet‛i/Armazis-c‛ixe) generously shared their archaeological sites in summer 2013. My understanding of Caucasia’s relationship to the Achaemenid Empire was sharpened by a long conversation with Bruno Jacobs on a brisk spring day in 2011 at the University of Basel and through correspondence with Antonio Sagona and Lori Khatchadourian. Helen Giunašvili. Werner Seibt. Regretfully. Jost Gippert. the Georgian National Museum (Davit‛ Lort‛k‛ip‛aniże. Sophia Vashalomidze. Jefferson Sauter. Zaza Sxirtlaże. Kevin Tuite. Mariam Gvelesiani and others made available their publications. Giorgi Kavtaraże.xiv The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Antiquities at the Georgian University of St Andrew the First-Called in T‛bilisi and their directors. Scott McDonough. Roland Bielmeier exponentially widened my linguistic horizons. the British Museum. director). suggestions and criticisms. T‛amuna Gegia. I am fortunate to have been buoyed by many outstanding colleagues and friends who were unfailingly generous with their expertise. John Fine. and/or provided feedback on specific sections of this volume. the Matenadaran (Hrač‛ya T‛amrazyan. Robert Thomson. particularly with regards to Parthian and Middle Persian. Tim Greenwood. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the financial support of the Department of History at Sam Houston State University (Brian Domitrovic. T‛amila Mgaloblišvili. Rika Gyselen. . Geoffrey Greatrex. Stefan Rebenich and T‛amila Mgaloblišvili respectively. the American Numismatic Society. director). director). Gocha Tsetskhladze. Antony Eastmond and Hirotake Maeda. Chris Sutherns. Tom Schmidt. During the three years I lived in Bern. no academic undertaking is a solo venture regardless of the thousands of hours one might pass in monastic isolation or in near-hypnosis before the flickering light of a computer screen. Farshid Delshad. chair). assisted with bibliographical queries. Robert Hewsen. Mixeil Abramišvili. Giorgi Čeišvili.

Jerry Bentley and Armena Maderosian. Michael Christopher Low. The transformation of this project from manuscript to finished book owes much to the diligence and enthusiasm of Ashgate. wisdom and encouragement of Nina Garsoïan. . Rapp Jr Bern. and Huntsville. Ronald Suny. the Baileys and a fuzzy four-legged ex-Muscovite affectionately named Gorby. under the authority of Title VIII grants from the United States Department of State. Kirsten Weissenberg. Mainz. Kenneth Levy-Church. St Andrews. supported the research and fieldwork leading to this publication. Andrew Lawler. Therefore. USA Funds provided by the Eurasia Program of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) and the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (NCEEER). Ann Arbor. Seattle. Helen Whiting. the Doleshal trio. I am grateful to patient audiences in T‛bilisi. Los Angeles. Errors in fact. Bern. John Graham. Etty Payne and Katie McDonald. Texas. including John Smedley. Irvine and New Haven for their thoughtful feedback on ideas featured in the pages below. Jeff Crane and family. The author is solely responsible for the views expressed here. Humanistic and emotional feats worthy of the bumberazis of old were performed by my resplendent companions Julie and Finn Nelson as well as Gwen and Stephen Rapp Sr. I must stress that all the views expressed in this study are mine and mine alone. Last but not least. Andrew and Suzanne Orr. Sebouh Aslanian. Konstanz. Dean Sakel and my recently departed friends Traianos Gagos. Erevan. interpretation and presentation are entirely my responsibility and in no way should reflect negatively on the expert advice from which I have so handsomely benefitted. Rudi Lindner. Switzerland.Preface and Acknowledgements xv Ian Mladjov produced the beautiful maps. Marina Diamandis. Istanbul. The hyper-politicisation of Caucasian history is the stuff of Promethean legend. Throughout this project’s journey I leaned upon the expertise. Kevork Bardakjian. Gena Fine. Stephen H. this undertaking would not have been possible without the abiding support of my family and friends. Devin DeWeese.

98. 345 Adarnase II 335 Adarnase IV 7 Adarnase. Albanians xi. 279. 160. 170. 323 Gate of Alania 28–9. 25. 293. 367 see also Armina. 203. 283–6. 182. 9. 1. 375. 252. 223. Therefore. 189. 329. 246. 263. 367. 233 Ādurbādagān (Ādurbāyagān. 243. ɣ is equivalent to g. 269. 100. 123. proper nouns and technical terms are prioritised. 160. 97 Ādur Gušnasp 48. 34–5. 198–201. 315 Aderki 197. 373. 76–81. 378 satrapies 8. 335. Abašes 292. 209. 95–6. Abašet‛i. 284. 43. 63–4. 207. 130. š is equivalent to s. 298 Ahura Mazdā 131. 178. 51. 214. see also Conversion of the Armenians. 296–7. 344. 191. ə is equivalent to e. 278. . 239. 105. 182. 224. 78. 308–9. 308. Atropatēnē 25. 212. 107. 37. 189. 240. 211–12. 221. 311. 156. 48. 115. 225–6. 212. 256–8. 65. 126–7. 28–9. 126–7. 362–3. 202. 24–30. 122–4. Frequently referenced categories such as Caucasia. 279. xiv. 240. 245. 372. 171–2. 282. 229–30. 305. 113. 347 Abo. 261. 17. Thus. 21. 131 Ādur Burzēn-Mihr 46. Adarbadagan) 28–9. 150–152. 151. 150. Entries are alphabetised according to English usage without regard for special characters and diacritical marks. 378. 251. Alans 28–9. 280. Mc‛xet‛a and šāhan šāh are limited or excluded. 297. 26. 208. 152. see also Thēbarmais Afghanistan 120. 151–2. 243–4. 53. 267. 177. 235. 78. 291. 202. 182–4. 201 Albania. 157. 54. 2. 95–6. 241–3. 139. 99–103. 229. 318–19. 97–8. 363. 236 Adarnase I 184. Māda Achilles 279 Adami (Ɣadami) 225. see also Armaz Aksum (Axum) 100. 195 Afrāsiyāb 193 Agat‛angełos (Agathangelus) 8. 54. see also Aksum. 123–4. 134. 176–8. 117. 240. 201. 159. 241. 221. 296 Abešura 231–2. 131. 295 aɣmosavlet‛i 138–9 Ahriman (Angra Mainyu) 131. 25. 256. 247–8 Abiat‛ar 111 Abibos Nekreseli 57. 120–124. and so forth. see North Abdulmesiani 41. 213. C‛xorebay somext‛asa Agathias 94. 176–8. Iran. 61. 343 Atrpatakan. 189. 115–16. 199. 286. Valley 25. 67–8. 134 see also Ovset‛i Alazani River. see Habo Aboc‛i 210. 131. 198. 196–7. 78. 269 Achaemenids xii. 228. 95. 136. 106. 132. 238. Ethiopia abāxtar. erist‛avi 311. 23. see also Ethiopia Alania. ł is equivalent to l. 315. 296–7.Index The length and complexity of this study have made a comprehensive index impractical. 57. 245–7. 215. 289–90.

Arabic 2. satrapy 26. 228. 183. 353–4. 171–2. see also Ahura Mazdā Armazel 224. see Albania Amazasp I 164. 124. 120. 368. 224 Amirandarejaniani 13.500 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes 312–13. 225–6. 150. 360. 105. see Aryan K‛art‛li Armaz. 96. 139. 199. 347–9. 374 Abasgia 7. 331. 284. 61. 347 Ałuank‛. 235. 271. 230 Anania Širakac‛i 66. 147. 240–241. 89. 184. 123. 160. 360. 377 Ardān 29 Gates of Albania 28–9 see also Ar[r]ān. 240–244. 74. 291. 52. 306. 323. 221. 207. 257–8. 212. 183. 73. 247–8. 337 Armazis-q‛evi (Armazis-khevi) 19. 205. 355. 115. 128. 35. 9. 67–8. 349. 237. 317–18. 323 Armazi 147. 175–8. Movakan. 203–5. 341. 216. 181. 308. 141. 324. 213. 276. 366. 110. 74. 208. prince-martyr 12. 152. 64–6. 125–6. 241 Ardaxšīr II 269 Ardaxšīr. 23. 57. 132–8. 28. 194 Arč‛il (Arsilios). 204–5. bidaxš 19. 20. 349. 218–20. 241 Caucasian Aršakuni[anni] 63. 144. 234. 65. 80–82. 219. 223–4. 164. 240 Ardaxšīr I (Ardashir) 27. 332 Ammianus Marcellinus 62. 205. 90. 156. 182. 108. 309. 317. 244. see also Ahura Mazdā. king 72. 225. 201. 157. 386 . 271. 20. 143. 223. 144. 347 Aramaic (“Assyrian”) 27. 363. 90 Ap‛xazet‛i (Abkhazia) 7. 140. 272. 132. 269. 102. 52–3. 296. 26. 22. 20. 320. 107. 312. 238. 292–3. 223–4. 164 Amazaspos. 354–5 as K‛asre Anušarvan Sasaniani 193. 199. 67. 71. 140. Armaz Ararat 127. 353. 224 Amazasp II 164. 312. 64. 196. 341–5. pretender = Waručān-šāh Haβzā 50. 47. 210–211. 141. 370. 335. 248. 343. 28. 161. 181 Arianism 72. 242. 215–16. 110 Armeno-K‛art‛velian marchlands Gugark‛ and Somxit‛i 42–4. 62–77. 52. 189. 111. 246. 324. 305. epitaph of 164. 273 Anżianżora 208 Ap‛oc‛i (Ap‛uti) 52. 26. 64. 55. 291. 153. 184. 316. 215–18. 234. 320 Arč‛il. 160. 83. 332. 334. 118. 358. 223. 286. 63. 294 Antioch 29. 231. 337. 127. 324. see also Albania Arsacids Aškānīyāns (Ažaɣanianni) 193–4. 370. 367 Armīniya 26 Ar[r]ān 2. 291 Ap‛šilet‛i 334 Arabia. 371 Armazis-c‛ixe (Armazis-tsikhe) xiv. 298. 278. 230. 144–54. 238. 306. 158 Armazic 64. Arabs. 319–20. 193. 252. 76–9. 193–4. 165. 198. 226 Anāhīd (Anahit) 151–2. see also Armazic Aramazd (Ormizd) 142. 229. 88. 146–55. 41. 196. 344 Antoninus Pius 225. 279. 153. 108. 130. 221 Armazi Bilingual 64–5. 389 Armina. 363. 311. 15. 178. 366 Mt Armazi 111. 240 Amazasp III. 215–16 Armenia Somxet‛i 3. 253. 179. 6. 122. 367 Alexander’s Gate 133–8 Alexandria 106. 292. 240. 212. 260. idol 112–13. 191. 224. 335. Rani Alexander the Great 1. 313. 302. 113. 180–181. 282. 268. 233. 124. 98. 130. 171. 223. 89. 86–7. 349 Ardašēs (Ardašir) 369 Ardavān (Ardam) 200–201 Ardavān IV (Ardawān) 229. 82. 342. 293 Andrew 197–8 anthypatos 292. 368–9 Aragwi River (Aragvi) 3. 215–17. 369–75. 365. 106. 121 Arian K‛art‛li. 298–302. 337. 73.

189 Bartam 250. 378 Aršak I (Ars[ok]) 222 Aršak I. 357–8 Bahrām. 64. 223. 47–8. 272. 389 Beth-togarmah. 318. 297. 30. 158. see also Syria aswārān 237 ašxarawand 59. 318. 118. 280. 212 501 Ažaɣanianni. 225. 231. 334–6. 312. 247. 290. 234. see Ādurbādagān Avesta. 188. 197–9. 253. 340. 95 Aryan K‛art‛li 121–4. 153. 193. 2. 363 Bakur II 86. 145. Babylonia 64. 276–8. 225 Assyria (Asūrestān) 29. 205. 277 berdakal 79–80. 334 Bakur III 42–3. 214. 274. 240–243. chieftain 226 Bazuk. Avestan 47. 322. 181 Berduji River 210. bidaxš 71–5. 122. 170. called Arda[x]šīr 203 Bahrām Čōbīn 195. 263. Mt Ivērōn. 271. 81. 246. Walāxš. see Togarmah . 139. 62. king 226 Behistūn 28 Bēl 126. see Arsacids Azar[d]uxt 263 Azerbaijan xiii. 403 atrošani 56. 65. 146 Atrpatakan. monastery 22. 225–6. 149. 389 A[r]šušay III 42. 79. 188–92. 123. 203. 323 Azoy (Azon) 88. 373 Azēs I 222. 323 Bahrām I (Wahram) 242 Bahrām II 242–3. 311. 311 Babylon. 89. 356 ātaxš ī wahrām 97 Ateni 226 Sioni (Zion) 119–20 Athos. 74. 210. 336. 147. 297–8. 129. 215. 222. 188. 81. 319 Bartom (Bratman) 222–3. 355. 227 aznauri 87–8. 203–9. 289. 175–6. 312. 127. 359 Baxdiad 53 baxt 228. 82. 191–2. 369–70. 174. 312. 196 Balāš (Vālagš. 175. 34–5. 274 Artani 208. 293. 367 Asadī Ṭūsī 350 Ashkenaz 194 Aškānīyāns. 207 Azork (Arsok) 223–4. 131. 319–20 Basil II (Basileios) 349 basileus 6. 190. 237. 294. 258. 212. 262. 139. 233 Aršaket‛i 39. 350. 131. 136–7. 219–22. 385 Artavan 303 Artavaz. 147. 363. 237 Barzaban 292. 288 Bagrat III 6–7. 201–2. 172 Asp‛agur 65. 313. 350. 193–4. 218. 25. 226. 240–241. 343–7 Bak‛ar I (Bakur) 68. 370 Asparug 65 Aspaurouk[is] 65–6. 83. Walash) 41. 329. 149. 389 Artag (Artak) 222. 362. 320 Barzabod 160. 311 Bardavi. 325 Balenduxt 312–14. 245–6. 305 Artanuji 303 Artašēs. 312. 231. 146. 341 as Šāhēnduxt 312 Balkh (Balḵ) 195. see Partaw Bardos 182.Index Parthian 13. 280. 95–6 Arsen Iqalt‛oeli 122 A[r]šušay II 42. 354–5. 39. 226–7. 227 Axalgori 26 Aynina (Ainina) 146. 260. 203–4. 228. 139. 367 Babik of Siwnik‛ 207. 229. Armenian king 323 Aršak II 222. 131. 262 Balʻamī 191. 249 Bahrām V Gōr 45. 152. 7. 92–3. 238–9. see Arsacids Ašot I 4. 227–30. 279. 316 Artawazd I 231 Arvand Gušnasp 38. 183. 238. 218. 231. 65. 64. 237 Bersoumēs (Bar Ṣauma) 65. son of Saurmag spaspeti 286. son of Jojik 43 Artašēsids (Artaxiads) 63. 53. 39. 237. 247 Bazok. 299 Baqat‛ar (Bäqätar) 283–6. 78. 169. 95–6. 72. 342 Bakur-Bak[o]urios.

80. 6. 326 Ctesiphon 15. 216. 69. 137. 354. 176. 259. 95. bdeašx). 6. 260. 128. 332. Fourth Ecumenical Council of 37. 74. 242. 205. 279–80 Borazbod 162. 368. 268. 338. 286. 72. 234–7. 321. see Mihrānids Chronicle of a Hundred Years 319. 345. 207. 354. see Greece čabuki 232. 350 Chronicle of K‛art‛li 6–7. 105–65. 164. 249. 139. 273–4 Caucasus Mountains 1. 73. 303. 358 . 77. 264. 34. 239. 377 Sea of Gurgan 202 Cassius Dio 222–3. 265. 249 Caspian Gates 224. see Epic Histories Buzmihr. 114. 140. 229. 124. 38. 183. 176. 262 C‛xorebay somext‛asa 196. 37. 156. 12. 324–5 church credited to P‛arsman IV 265–7 hoard 324–5 K‛uemo 267 Sioni (Zion) 19. 268. 24. 110. 280 Book of the Cave of Treasures 280 Book of the Greeks 196 Book of Nimrod 197. 247. 366 Bink‛aran 312. 377 Čeliši Codex 17. 356. 63. 49. 251–2. 129. 298. 80–82. see North Cromi (Tsromi) 82. 203 Burzo (Burzōg) 53. 289. bumberazobay xv. 49–50. 174. 34. 144. 106. see also Agat‛angełos Conversion of the Greeks 196. 268. 126. 87–90. 86. 118. 223. 350. 338. 52. 21. 200 bidaxš (pitiaxši. 58. Cilkanelis 144. 144. 264–6 Çırax-qala 136–7. 250. 355. 220 Bolnisi 305–6. 256. 316 C‛urtavi (C‛urtaw. 170–171. 364. 274. 238. 284. 343 Caesarea 29. 342. 259 Cappadocia 29. 251. 106–8. 177. 382 Č‛ermag (Č‛imaga) 264 Chalcedon. 321 Bivritianis 226. 105. 196. 348. see Nok‛alak‛evi C‛ixiagora (Tsikhiagora) 158 c‛ixist‛avi 47. 300 caesar (keisari) 41. 215 Borzo 290. 213. 162. hambarakapet Colchis 3. 253. 263–7. 127. 287. 250. 51. 311–12. 337. 62. 372. 78. 171–5. 202. 211. 125. 44. 69. 345. 106–7. 378 Constantinople 4. 358. 141. 292. 257 C‛xorebay sparst‛a 191–8. 27. see also berdakal. 83. 278. 110. 346. 378 Conversion of the Armenians 196. 62–76. 249. 228. 242. 225. 183–4. 181. see also Egrisi Constantine I (the Great) 111. 46. 183. 161. 354. 320. 135–6. 360 as “Baghdad” 183–4. 110. 288. 366. 253. 179. 258–60. 316–17 Bizintios 130. 28. 201. 368. 52. 345–7 Chosroids (Xosroianis). 105–8. 340. bidaxš 71. 306–9 Cilicia (Kilikia) 29. 98–9. 249. bidaxšates 19. 91. 244. 290 Buzandaran Patmut‛iwnk‛. 98. 179–84. 325–6 Book of the Bee 133. 278. 258–9 Conversion of K‛art‛li 17–18. 389 imperial 62–3. 201 Cit‛eli-cqaro (Tsiteli-Tskaro) 325 C‛ixegoji. 53. 317–18. 284. 365 Bunt‛urk‛s 132–3. 226. 257. 382 Čor Gate (Č‛ołay) 127 Čoroxi Gorge 122 Cqaros-t‛avi (Tsqaros-tavi) 336 č‛rdiloy. 74. 286. 234. 361. 45. 312 bumberazi. Tsurtavi) 44. 171. 179. 252. 277. 251–4. 23–4. 130–131. 354. 295. 265. 95. 226. 348 Cunda (Tsunda) 210. 359 Church of the East (East Syrian) 46. 135–6. 74 Byzantium.502 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Bēvarasp (Bevrasp‛) 191–2. 201. 184 Bori 71. 256. 305. 52–3. 269. 100. 65. 287. 305–6. 260. 308. 306. 98. 284 Caspian Sea 1. 281–302. 357. 322. 42–5. 79–81. 306. 164–5. 291–2 Cilkani (Tsilkani). 268–9. 348–9. 228. 202. 73. 293. 39–41. 309. 85. 162. 305. 298. 71. 123. 273.

100. 67–8. 73. 209. 296. 158. 252 Darband Pass 123. 212. 111. 91. 298. 153. 346. 134. 85. 136. 279. 105–6. 169. 341 Dagestan 136. 222 Erušet‛i 265. 205. 244. 326. 157. 149. 249 Darial Gate/Pass 134. 116. 337–8 Demetre. 78. 248. 36–53. 176. 124. see also Visramiani Farīburz (P‛araborot) 202 Farīdūn (Ap‛ridon) 189. 292. 349 Eguri 208 Ēǰmiacin 56. 228. 96. 117. 287. erist‛avi 263. 136. 232. 246. 311–16. 77. 139. 135. 81. 367 didebuli 113. 243–4. 91. 239 dedop‛ali 69–71. 129 Dedop‛lis Mindori 27. 193–5. King-Prophet (biblical) 5. 78–9. 87. 211. 301 Ferdowsī. 215 Demetre. 315–16 Eruandids (Orontids) 47. 91–9. 152. 122. 263. 228–9. 259. 127. 305. 362. 230–231. 264 Davit‛ Garesjeli 61. 114–15. 292 elephants 289 Ełišay. 353 Durżuket‛i 151 East Syrian Church. 191–3. 196–7. 112. 381 Diocletian 259 Dmanisi 34. 162. 303. 271. 274. 339 dreams 206–8. 226. 103. 198. 197. 182. 220 Gač‛iani. 315.Index C‛xovreba[y] mirianisi 258 C‛xovrebay p‛arnavazisi 205 Cyrus 203. 151. 323–8. 278 Evstat‛i (Eustathios). 151. 279. 200 Dastagerd 178 dast[a]gird (dastakert) 178 David. 92. 96. 243. Šāhnāma 13. 233. 242. 144–7. 220 Gac‛i 113. 292. 313–19. 289. 82. 113. 277–9 Davit‛ II (IV) Aɣmašenebeli 6. 115. 126. 183–4. see presiding principate erist‛avi 15. see also Abašet‛i. 201. 345 Daniel the Stylite 102 Danina 146. 368 Eznik 94. 28 Erebuni 25–6 erismt‛avrobay. 319. 349 lists 210–211. Aksum Euphrates River 257. ex-Gwrobandak 15–16. 127. 334–6. 311. 153. 293. brother of Step‛anoz I 263. 212 Daniel 124. 296–7. 149. 129. 353. 343. 263. 275. 147 Duin (Dvin) 28. 181. 283. 200–201. 374 Domitian 218 drachms 19. Derbent) 123. see Gardabani . 39. 344. 188. 265. 295. 331. 200–202. 89. 284 Darius 28. Vis o Rāmin 13. 288. 123. 201 Damāvand. 271. 358. 319 epitropos 216 Ērānšahr xii. 191–2. 287–9 Druj/Drug 131. 27. 171. 239. 268–9. 322. 94. 152 Darband (Derbend. 229. 63. 86–7. 288 Eusebios (Eusebius) 188. 233. Ethiopians 130. 344 503 Egrisi 22–3. 79–80. 113. 264. 256. see Church of the East Edessa (Urha) 177. 345 Epic Histories (Buzandaran Patmut‛iwnk‛) 8. 369 Georgian version 196 Flavios Dadēs 65 Frāsyiāk 182 Ga (Gaim) 113. 362 feasts 147. 98. 301. bishop of Bolnisi 39. 268. 99–100 dedamżuże 75. 144–7. Mt 192 Danana 146. 296 Faḳr al-Din Gorgānī. apostle 116 Ełišē 76. 207. 68. 225. 315 Derok (Deruk) 224 didebay 6. 208 Dač‛i 44. 341–2. 315 Elamites 110. 141. 37. 210–212. 313 Davit‛. 346 Ethiopia. 289. 207–8. 133. 350. 271. 222.

229. 188. 194. 80.504 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Ɣadami (Ghadami). name 312–13 Gugark‛. 341 Hephthalites 41. 203. name 53 Gwrobandak. 326–7 as Guaram I 326 Gušnasp (Višnasp). 202. 184. 312–13. 131. 190. Colchis. 238. Heraclius) 3. 340–341. 177. see also Gurgen Guaramids 67. 333. 301. 265 gmiri 6. 274. 91. 300. 182. 278. 48–51. 194. 277. 349 Grigol. see Adami Gaianē (Gaiane) 114–17 Ganja (Gəncə) 25. erist‛avi 263. 333. 278–9. 182. 199. 365 Gog and Magog 130. 78. 228 Huns 126. 355. 377 western Georgia. 303. 248. 257 Ḥseparnug (Xēpharnougos) 216. 294 Herakleios (Hērakleios. 218. 169. see K‛art‛li. 246. 194 gōsān (mgosani) 197–8. 350 Ganzak (Ganżak) 46. Lazika Gīlān 293 Giorgi III 139. 253. 270. Wiržān Jurjistān 132 Sak‛art‛velo 20. 290. 346 Helena (Elene). 126. 305. 335. 335–6. 96–9. J̌urǰanet‛) 21. 257. 44. 344 Gregory the Illuminator (Grigor Lusaworič‛) 113. 95. 277 Georgia eastern Georgia. 301 Gourgenēs. 355. 335. 210. 195. 300. 315 Grigol. 350. 200. 233. 315–16 Hermēs Trismegistos 349 Herodotus 24. 268 Ɣart‛iskari (Ghartiskari) 158 Genesis 129. 21. 356 Guaranduxt. second wife of Vaxtang 313. 350. 276 Maguget‛i 138. 253. 277. Hayk (Haos) 126. 218. 340–341 Hormizd IV 42. 133. 92. 200. 140. 368 Hadrian 273 hambarakapet (ambarapet) 47. 188. 362 Helena. 332. Vita Grigol Xanżt‛eli 61. 292. 318 Gumbat‛i 24–5. 105–7. 369 Gurgen 84. 318. 152. 331. 360 Girk‛ T‛łt‛oc‛ 37. 315 Gregory Nazianzenos 287 Gregory Pakourianos 22. 115–16. 345–8. 276 goliat‛i 6. 287. 326. 268. 52 Glonok‛or 162. 238. 233. 275. see Vaxtang I Greece. 237. 179. 184. 202 Gardabani 210. 133–4. 279 Giorgi Merč‛ule. 235. 196. 297 hunting 117–20. 232–3. 188–91. 369 Hṙip‛simē (Rip‛sime) 114–17. 293. 298–302. 300. 276. 228 Hindu Kush 176 Hippolytus of Rome. see Ap‛xazet‛i. 359 hizārmard 237 Hormizd I 241–2 Hormizd II 250 Hormizd III (Urmizd) 43–5. 193. 181 Hambavi mep‛et‛a 359ff. 174. Romans. 136. 80. Virk‛. 243. 322. 271. 87. 123. 332. 242. 341. 343 Hormizd-Arda[x]šīr 241. 269. 358 Hūšang 209 hypatos 338 . 235. 277 hazārbed 53 Hebrew Bible 93. 44. 338. 202. 276 Ag and Magug 138. see Evstat‛i Habo (Abo) 61. Byzantines) Saberżnet‛i 130. mamasaxlisi 81–2 Guaram I 195. 350. 199. 378 Heret‛i 2. 325. 247–8. 202. 201 Gurgān (Jorjanet‛i. 188. 127. 323. 138. 365 Gomer 129. 94–9. 311. 268. 202. see Armeno-K‛art‛velian marchlands Gulanduxt 47. 258–9. Egrisi. 328. 207. 199 Histories and Eulogies of the Crowned 6. 190. 206–8. 29. Chronicle 187–8. Greeks (esp. 285. 133–40. 237. 171. Roman empress 114. 325–6. 188–90. 294. 285. 236.

140. 135. Iranians Sparset‛i. 344. 311. 95. 269. 60. 7–21. 271. 52. 255. Erēz. 129. 296. 216. 72. 359. 99. 369 Israel. 188–9. 378 Iraq 53. 211. 107. 116. 121. 231 K‛art‛li Iberia (Ibēria) 3. 258 Iakob. 235 Justin I (Ioustinos) 84 Justinian (Ioustinianos) 291 Juvenal 108 Ka‘ba-ye Zardošt 24. 331. 284. 131. 142. 257 k‛aji (demon) 208. 245 Kanārangīyāns 245. 226 Julian the Apostate (Ioulianos) 273 Jumber (Juanšer?) 226. 251. 224. 250. 292–3. 39. 331–2 Juanšer. 67. Virk‛. 297 K‛art‛am (K‛arżam) 223. 347 Judaism. 326–9. 314–16 Juanšer of Vaspurakan 311 Juari (Jvari) 20. 367 . 218. 329. 356. 334–5. 191. 220. 343–4. 124 Karin. 340. 140. 264 Iamasaspos 164. 164. 295. 290. 280. k‛aǰut‛iwn 229–30. 106–8. 229. 283. 194 Jason 226–7 Javaxet‛i (J̌avaxk‛. 79. 305. 123 k‛aǰ. 336. 156 Jeremiah 134. 250. 311. 198. 111. 261. 98–9. 248 Iovane Zedazneli 61. 222. Wiržān K‛art‛lis c‛xovreba 5. monastery.Index Iakob C‛urtaveli (Jacob of Tsurtavi). 144–5. 19–22. 81. 188. see Theodosioupolis Kārins (Karēns) 245. 193. 154. Vita Habo 61. 315–16 Zena-Sop‛eli 57. 277. 348–351 Ispahbudāns 53. 67. 172–85. see Patmut‛iwn Vrac‛ K‛art‛los 174. 311. see Athos. 163. 133. 276. 345. Mt Izid-Bozid 264 Jałay 73 Jamāl al-Din Khalil Širvānī 350 Jamšīd 209 Japheth 127. 377. 101 see also Aryan K‛art‛li. 118. 209. 308 Šida K‛art‛li 101. 110–111. 137. 360 Ipajaj 289 Īrāj (Erēch. 196. 227 Iovane Sabanis-że. 317. see Mongol Empire India (Hindo[e]t‛i). Israelites 57. 208. 122–4. 138. Muslims 2. see Spahān Islam. 281. 292. 296–9 Hindūstan 293 Indo-Scythian 222. Iared) 201 Iran. 138 It‛rujan (T‛ruǰan) 92. 216. 342 Jazira (Jaziret‛i) 132. 84–5. 227. 346. see also Kamsarakans Kārnāmag ī Ardaxšīr ī Pāpagān 196. 133–4. 128. Karchēdoi Iberians. 128. Albanian 332 505 Juanšer Juanšeriani 172. 241. 28–9. 252. 345–6 Kamsarakans 221. 213. 133. 297 Jojik (Juik) 42–3. 80 Josephus 130. 92. 283. 74. 348. 367 K‛art‛losianis 218. 141. 319 J̌uanšēr. 264. 340. 263. 250–251. 276. 213. 360. 369 Karchēdoi Iberians 65. 199–200. 75. see K‛art‛li Īlkhānate. 369. 229 Kala 80. 194 Jerusalem 19. 350. Javakheti) 210. 294. 380–381 Armenian adaptation. 143. 323. 67–8. 337–9. 141. 231. Indians 120. 99. 389 Gurzān 21. 364 John Malalas 253 John of Nikiū 188. 131. 91. 273–4. 224 Iberia. spaspeti 277. 348 Jebusites 133. 234. 136 Jovian 273. 331–2. 62. 64–5. 152. priest 52. 98. 288. Jews 45–8. 251. 60. Sparsni 2. 235–6. 227. 128. 134–5. 181. 364–8. 289. 246–7. 227. 146–7 Ivērōn. 153. 76. 245. 313. Vita Šušanik 14–15. 188. 236. 147. 353. 205. 33–103. 193–5. 282 Isfahān. 187.

192. 277. 164. 289. 249. 89. 108. 341. 355. see Vita… (for hagiographical texts) Life of the Armenians. 362 Kebrä Nägäst 279 Kerdīr 29. 120. see C‛xorebay somext‛asa Life of the Iranians. 41–2. 236. 337 K‛urds (Kurds) 297 Kušān. 336. Kushans 29. 184. 245. 277 Kosaro. 314. 357. 95.506 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes katholikos. 308–9. 268. 265. 249. 353. 306. 12. see Xūzestān Khūzistān Chronicle 344 Klarjet‛i 4. 366 K‛uji 207. 15. 46. 226. 245. 181 K‛sani River 177–8. 134. 372 logothetēs 283. 234. 160–161. 124–5. 286. 224. 335. 321. 353. 174. 289–90 . see C‛xorebay sparst‛a Life of King of Kings Davit‛ 202. 184. 83. 143. 331. 361–6. 245. 271. 146–51. Mtkvari) 3. 74. see also Ādurbādagān kust i Atrapatakan 123 K‛usti Kapkoh 96. 65. Khazars 127. 292 Kermān 29. 323. 234. 261. 267. 313. 215. 11–13. 303. 313. 47. Gayōmard) 189. 20–22. 210. 363–4 Life of Vaxtang Gorgasali 7. 247. 69. 25. 156–8. 106. 81. 370. 211. 160. 265. 159. 94. 102. 202. 300. 195. 345 as generic terms 199–202. 329. 223. 348 Khūzistān. 207. 349. 261–4. 267. 296. 240. 184–262. 226. 318. 231 Kura River (Mtkuari. 268. 192. 336. 84. 316. 293. 10. 134. 316. 315. see Xosrov I kouropalatēs (curopalates) 21. 102. 210. 305. 171–2. 74. 200. 96. 172–4. 172–4. 36. 292. 132–3. 189. 299–301. 346. 115. 336–7. 123. 284. 88. 345 Leōn I (Leo) 102. 297–8 kūst-i Ādurbādagān 53. 198–9. 265. 249 Khurāsān (Xwarāsān. 105. 241. 106. 130. 201. 139. 253. 288 Leōn II the Little 288 Leōn. 118–19. 257–8. 100. 361 Lazika (Lazikē). 305. 20. 249–50. 267. 81. 133. 34. see also Khurāsān kūst-i Xwarwarān 53 K‛ut‛at‛isi (K‛ut‛aisi) 102 Kuxet‛i 210. 325 Key Kāvus (K‛ekapos) 189. 176. 141–2. 252. 86–7. 218. 151. 368 Life of…. 228. 172–6. 172. 139. Laz 23. 249–52. 211. 85. 201–2. 324. 123–4. 347 Kayānids (Kayānīyāns) 97. 342. 331–2. 290. 280. 138. 267–8. Koł) 15. 353 Koriwn 73–4. 303. 107. 232. 358–9 Life of the Kings 6. 285. 314 k‛ueli (k‛veli) 197. 176. 331–2. 142. 236–7. 281. 132–3. 210. 271–4. 311. 324. 284–5. 280. 318–19. 272. 153. 354 Kavād II 344 Kaxet‛i (Kakheti) 21. 283. katholikates 47–51. 325. 261–70. 271–324. 43–5. 315–16. 183. 41. 294. 188. 315–16 Kwrion 49. 12–13. 84–5. 80–81. 332. 363. 380 Lermontov. 268. 183–5. 291. 182–4. 229–30. Mikhail 284 Letter of Tansar 363 Lev 225. 225. 320. 138. 294 Leonti Mroveli 8. 144. 68. 353–70 Life of Nino. see also Tao-Klarjet‛i Kolay (Kola. 347 Kavād I (Kabadēs. 111. 283–5. 362 Key Xusrō 202–3. 78. 342–3 K‛ram Xuar Borzard 179. 302. Kawad) 39. 209. 182–3. 42. 199–202. 123 kūst-i Xwarāsān 53. 362 Khazaria (Xazaret‛i). 67–8. Khorasan) 325. 238 Kayōmart (Kayūmarth. 333. 71. 68. see Vita Nino Life of the Successors of Mirian 11–12. 120. 323. 194. 23. 36. 347 Łazar P‛arpec‛i 8. 36. anthypatos 292. 121. 7. 292. 340. 169. 344. 67. 41. 126. 129–30. 182. 363–6. 194. 94. 82. 123.

67. see mowbed Mok‛c‛evay k‛art‛lisay xii. 67. 226. 272. 346 Manichaeism 47–51. 323 Mirvan I 222. 354–6. 230. 256. 229. 302. 17–18. 368–9 Albanian 246 K‛art‛velian (incl. xiii. 37–8. 247. 86. 44. 278. 53. 218. 151. 277. 331–2. 74. 163. 378 Michael the Syrian 188. . 233 Mirvanoz 239. 252 Miϑra (Mithra. 123–4. 315 Mar Qardagh 46. 46–8. 298 Mandaic 35. 287 Mar Yahḅalāhā 308 marzbān. 355. 175–6. 267. 288. 183. 5–6. 239. 229. 205. 92. 130. 145. 100. 247. 184. 101–2. 341. 265. Chosroids) 27. 226. 57. mep‛obay 71. 56. 233 Mirvan II (Mirean) 222. 267. 105–18. 108. 238. mogut‛iwn) 58. 80. 341. 348 mogobay (moguebay. 126. 102. 224. 230. 95. 230. 314. 245. 309 Mithradatēs II. 258. 152. 354 Maštoc‛ (Mesrop) 73–4. 240. 160–162. 141–4. 283. 231. 328–9. 67–9. 208–10. 366 Mirdat II 225. 130 mgosani. 269–73. 156–9. 42. 92. 125. see Gog and Magog mamamżuże 88–9. 231. satrap 124 Mingǝçevir (Mingachevir) 170 Mir (Mihr) 334. 240–241 Mirdat III 263. 181. 313. 247. 339–40. 174–6. 317. 261. 265. 290. 370 Manglisi 305–7. 202–3. 367 Mesxet‛i. 183. 334–6. 188. 112. 128. 329. Musxi) 122. 325 megas domestikos 22 Menander Protector 94. 305. 209. 214. 362–70 Mirianduxt 225. 232. 335. 150–162. 99. 53–4. 205–7. 298. Zoroastrianism) xi. 226 Mamikoneans 43. 111. 349 Miranduxt 312 Mirdat I 224. 71–4. Medes 19. 48. 343–4. 264. 322. 240. 271. 204. 95. 156. 150. 289. 313–14 mamasaxlisi 82. 367 Māda. 90–102. 371 Mihrdat I 223 Mihrdat II 50 Mihrdat. 311–12. 292. 158. 243 Maguget‛i. 86. 213. 156. 89. 320–322. 75. 263–4. 98. 247–8 Mithraism 97. 68–9. 251. 151–2. 195. 64. 96. 296. 77. 361. 277–81. 309. 309. 293. 271. 252. 333. 282–3. 321 mogwi. Macedonians 88. 232. 225. 349. 312 Margwi 210. 184. 261–2. 201. Mesxians (Meskheti. 343–4 Māzandarān 192 Mazdaism (incl. 229–30. 76. 72. 125. 95. 61–2. 269–73. 149. 227. 50. 25–6. 181. marzbānates 38–9. 106. 63. 91–2. 224. 110. 158. 79. 169. 365. 237. 78–83. 97. 202. 262 Maurikios (Maurice) 195. 203. 112. 163–4. 157–8. 302–3. 336. 212. 45–51. 311. 234–6. 237–64. 67–8. 221.Index Macedon. 204. 294 mep‛e. 225. 314. 231–2. satrapy 26 Maežan 226. 214–15. 190. 156. 345. 175. 362–3. 263. 265 Mirdat IV 174. 312–13. Parthian 230 Mobidān (Mobidan) 160–162. Virgin 5. 29. 114. 345–7. 205. 345 Mogut‛a (Moguet‛i) 140–142. 268. 215. 74. 320 Mirdat V 184. 355–6. 71. 294–6. 140 Media. 292–3. 319. 53. 370. 241. 343. 114. 277–8. 111–12. 164. 58. 90. see gōsān 507 Miaphysitism (“Monophysitism”) 71. 277. 209. 163. 142. 355. Mihr) 97. 122. 29. 164. 243–51. 141–2. 245. 368–9. 320 Mirian III (Mihrān. 222. 179. 355–6. 312. Mirean) 3. 277 Mary. 275 Mihrānids 47–8. 82. 232. 183. 194. 378 c‛ec‛xlis-msaxurebay 91. 187. 346. 227. 147. 184. 174. 110. 286. 292.

314. 182. 139. 161–2. 359. 91. 158–60. 354. 142. 121. 214–15. 82–3. 230. 366–7. 128. 210.508 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes 179. 99–101. 311. 125–40. 97. 48. 171. 311. 322. 160 Narseh 29. 332. 134. 236. 131 č‛rdiloy (č‛rdiloet‛i) 125. 249. 188–9. 384 mowbed (mogwi. 134–6. Ovsis 130. 151. 225–6. 6. 121. 232–4. 340 Mtkuari River. 277. 124. 292. 63–5. 123. 151. 161. 341. 210. 312 Nisibis Valley 250 Noah 129. 301. 319. 242. 188–94. 274 Nok‛alak‛evi (C‛ixegoji. 364 Movakan 189 Movakani. 343. 312. queen 112. 88. 302. 309. Book of Nimrod. 213. 136. 58. 8. 221. 350 Monument of the Erist‛avis 314 Moon 93–4. 152. 77. 78. 382 Mongol Empire (incl. 312. 215. 223. Nakhichevan) 25. 115–16. 347. 337. 126–7. 134. 289. 151. 204. 272–83. 150. 290. 140–141. 81. 207. 243. 188–92. 39–41. 265. 177–8 naxapeti (nahapet) 77. 202. 218. 344–5. 99. 198–200. see also Albania Movsēs Dasxuranc‛i (Kałankatuac‛i) 77. 49. 8. 274. 320 mobidani 292. 291. 275. 117. 242 naxarars (nakharars) 5. 145. see Kura River Mūghān Steppe 28. 151. 110. 203. 369 Narts 301–2 Nastakisi (Nastagisi) 23. 208. 188. 246. 123. 188. 294. 285. 182. 192 see also Bēl. 177–8. 28. 112. 134. 249. 364 Nekresi xiv. Alans Ożrq‛e (Odzrkhe) 176. 229–30. 226. 152. 100. 239. 290. 124 Ovset‛i. 333. 237–8. 280 Nebuchadnezzar 188. 153. 68–9. 169. 283–4. 157–8. see Amirandarejaniani Moses 129. 227. 219 Mose Xoneli. 221. 348 Panāgušnasp (Panagušnasp) 53 . 286. 272. 361–2. 297. 188. the 96. 98. 241. 318. 261 Naqš-e Rostam 24. 287. 344. 343. 243. 88–9. 316 pahlawān 237 Pahlawk‛. 243. 201–2. 311. 207 North. 267–8. 375. 105–65. Nebrot‛ianis Nino (Nunē) 3. see also Mobidān mq‛edari (mxedari) 206. 259. 46. 292. 239. 130. 197. 151. 277. 263. 214 “Nestorianism” 46. goddess 152 Nana. 353. 333–4 mt‛avari 15. 77–8. 34. see also Church of the East Nihāvand 348 Nimrod (Nebrot‛i) 126. 120. 267. 190. 317. 284. 204. 98. see also Balāsagān Nak‛ulbak‛evi 182 Nanā. 306. 131–2. 261. 363. 284. 88. 210. 126. 238. 323. 275. 362. 300. 95–6. Archaeopolis) xiv. 377 abāxtar 96. 170. 201. 45. 262. 239. 169. see also Alania. 74. 248–9. 309. 46. 222–3. 245. 265 Mazdean temple 101. 378 Bēl-Nimrod 126. 141. 156. mōbad) 38–9. 122. 95. 355–6. 116. 169. 348. 366 Naxçıvan (Naxčawan. 244. 67. 207. 184. see Parthians Pakur I 225 Pakur II 225 Palestine 19. 207. 89. 284. 96. 158–9. 134. 107. 178. 221. 287–8. 89. 159. 312. 384 Movsēs Xorenac‛i 5. 283–4. 363–4 Ninocmida (Ninotsminda) 305. 114. 349–50. 139. 239. 145–6. 247–8. 232–3. 259. 350 Nebrot‛ianis (Nimrodids) 189. 239 hiwsis 126–7 Northern Caucasia 20. 103. 112. 126–7. Īlkhānate) 2. 139. 136. 82–3. 377 Oğlanqala 25 Oliɣotos (Theothōrsēs?) 248 Opiza 303 Orodēs I 324 Oroz-Moroz 138 Ousas (A[r]šuša[y]) 65. northern Albania 2. 241.

184. 231. 205.-Juanšer 5. 269 Perozak (Pērōzak) 53 Perožavri Sivneli 164 Persepolis 24–5. 65. 377. 195. 124. 334. 311. 226. 228. 184. southern Albania 2. 246. 230. 71. 276. 344. 150. 272. 65. 49. 98–9. 45. 349 Pouplikios Agrippa (Publicius Agrippa) 216 presiding principate (erismt‛avrobay. 280 Ps. 273 P‛arsman IV (Pharsamanios) 41. 74. 341. 228 P‛arnajom (P‛arnajob) 140. in Vespasian’s inscription 224 Pharismanēs. 184. 74. 378 Pasargadae 24. 242. 207. 323. 10. 126. 27–8. 158. 298. 289. 289–91 Pompey 222. 285 Primary History of K‛art‛li 17. 317. 48. see also Albania . 98. 110. Chorasmian 176 Pharasmanēs. 305 509 Pharanousēs 228. 313. 239. 195–6. 122. 319. 355. 241.-Methodios (Ps. 353. 71–5. 242. 248. 203 Rani. 237. 151. 267. 256. 334. 228. 202. 348 Peter the Iberian. 296. spaspeti 226 P‛arnavazianis (P‛aṙawazeans) 68. 279. 272–4. 182–3. 225. 249. 153. 7. 264 Petre. 371. 42–3. 325 P‛arsman I 223 P‛arsman II K‛ueli 197. 230–231. 79. 182–3. 338–9 Paul 33 Pērōz 41. 331. 68. 296 Prometheus 298 Ps. 131. 294.-Kallisthenēs (Ps. 286. 365. 229–30. 336. 366 P‛arsman-P‛arux 284–5. 271. 125. 341. 325. 225. 247–8. 212. 235–7. 355. 293. 325–9. 147. 195. Pērōzabād) 78–9. 297. 120. 234–7. satrap 221 Pharnakēs I 228 Phartazēs 228. 226. 289.-Methodius) 136–8. 239. 203. 175–6. 234–6. 380 patrikios 42.151. ex-Murvanos/ Nabarnugios 15. 341 P‛arsman VI 86. 52. 264 Pharasmanēs. 198 Plato 6. Kipchaks) 132–3. 331–50. 232. 284 Prokopios (Procopius) 83–6. 172–4. 356. 142. 363. 265. katholikos 287–90. 193. 219 Polykarpos 283. 192. 274 Pontos (Pontus) 29. 27 Patmut‛iwn Vrac‛ 8. 239 P‛arnavaz 6. 319–20. 243. 228. 336 P‛arsman. 43. 37. 222. 232–41. 240.-Callisthenes) 197 Ps. 362. 139. 183. erist‛avt‛a-mt‛avarni) 4.Index Pāpag 289 Pāpag. 69.-Sebēos 96. 222. 164. 240–243. 366–7 Priskos (Priscus) 94. 144. 268. 88. 210. 285. 199. 251. 239–40. 128. 274. 176. 271. see also Juanšer Juanšeriani Ps. bidaxš 19. 179–81 p‛ar[n]. 119. 12. 291 Phōkas (Phokas. 63. 344 Pīrāngušnasp (Grigor) 47. 315–17. 370 Pārs 28–9. 224. 356. 231–2. 195. 316. 323. 100. 354 P‛eroz. 367–8 P‛arnavaz. 332–48. 86. 345 Qaracamirlı Köyi 25 Qedar (Kedar) 128 Qivč‛aqs (Qipchaqs. 94. 82. 172. 82. 256. 72. 105. 387 Primary History of Armenia 126. 290. 174–7. 103. 256. 312. 305. 349. 7. 151. 248. 354 Parthia 28–9. 199. 318–19. 355. 67. 173. 283. 160. 226. 248. 219–22. 149. in Armazi Bilingual 216 P‛arsman Avaz 263. 67. 205. 269. 46–7. 203–16. 312 Partaw (Bardavi. Phocas) 333. Laz 228 Pharnabazos. 132– 3. 308 Pīšdādids (Pīšdādīyāns) 189–90. 274. 147. 122. bidaxš 67–9. 146. 306 P‛arsman V 86. 277. 314. 220–221. 263. 366 P‛arsman III 216. 222. 237. 269. 313. 128. 295 Pliny the Elder 96. 353.

130. 370 Royal List II 17. 174–6. 275. 348 Samadlo 23–4. 179. 283. 356–7. 382 Saurmag 149. 297. Arsacid 156. 67. 299. 239. 259–60 Rust‛avi 121. see Georgia Salome Ujarmeli (Sołomē) 69. 158. Lake 25. 222. 161–2. 182. 278 Seljuqs (Seljuks) 21 Sep‛elia 156. 249–50. 264 Šām (Šami) 251. 269. 133. Sinds 120. 249. 123. 192. 182–3. see Greece *Sabostano 121 Safavid Empire 2. Şirvan) 182. 311. 258. 289 Sasanians Sasanianni 193. monastery 5. 179. 120–121. 42–3. 297. 174–6. 117–18. 263–5. 207–9. 234–5. 334–5. 181. 81. 110. 205. 122. 319–21 Sahakduxt 312 Šāhēnduxt. 268. 264. 100. Sarkinelis 177.510 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Ray (Rayy) 29. 353–4. 80. Chosroid 249. 151. 366 Rufinus 72–4. 105. Šioši the Fortunate) 192–3. 133. 302. 214–15. 403 Sindia (Sindet‛i). 350 Sāsān 193. 128 Sinai. 359 Sargis T‛mogveli. see also Scythia Sak‛art‛velo. 205 Samc‛xe (Samtskhe) 210 Samšwlde (Samshvilde) 69–70. 181. 335–6. 351 Sagduxt 292. 153. 164. 123 Sarkine. 123. Scythians 19. 262. 319 as Xuasrot‛ang 312 Šāpūrduxtag 242 Sara Miap‛ori 110 šaravandi 59. 366 Royal List III 17. Sāva) 195. 294. 149. 353–4. 312–13. 240–241 Rēw-Ardaxšīr 225 Rioni River 210 Rip‛sime. 64. 305 Saba (Šāwa. 239–40 Saurmag. 139 Sīstān 120 Siwnik‛ 67. 267. 302. 235. 309. nephew of Saurmag spaspeti 294. 178 Samar 82. Sasanian in Armenia 369 Šāpūr I (Shapur) 28. 178. 212. 321 Šio Mɣwmeli (Shio Mghvime) 99. see Hṙip‛simē Rkinis-q‛evi 234 Rok and Mirdat 224. 315. 164. 249–50. 210. 223 Saka. 313 Scythia. 218. see Greece rōstāg (*rudastagi) 177–8 Ṙotēstak 178 Royal List I 17–18. 170. 240 Serapiṭ 216 Sevan. 303. 146–7. 263. 225. 224 Socrates 6 . 369 Ražden 61. 207. 317 Sioni (Zion) 69–70. 184. 353–4. 142. 67 Šāpūh. 366–78. 222. 261. 62. 160. see also Xuasrovanni Šatberdi Codex 17–18. 222. inscription 28–9. 127 Šida K‛art‛li. 314 Saurmag. 292–6. 278. 262. 156. spaspeti 286. Mt St Catherine. 227. 202. 102. 312. 276. 120. 337 samxret‛i 3. 284 Seleucids 28. 368–9 Rev Mart‛ali. 308. 362 skay (hskay) 121. 236 Rev. 91. 313 Samt‛avro 111. 227. 218. see K‛art‛li Sidonia 111. 144. 241. 151. 212. 65. 334. 265. 294. 344–7. 181–4. 311 Siyāmak 189 Siyāwaxš (Siyāwoš. 260. 13. 199. 139. 260. 293. see Balenduxt Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr 21. 151. 277. 242 Šāpūr II 45. 314. 123. 366 Roman Empire. 311. 235. 121–2. 200. 165. 246. 203. 46. 178–9. 164. 347. 343 Sabastani 120–124 Saberżnet‛i. 257. 360. 347 Req‛i (Req‛ay) 102. 297 ŠKZ. 303. 221–5. 174–6. see Visramiani Sarıtəpə (Sari Tepe) 25. Sakastan 120–121. 202–3 šarvanša[h] 139 Šarwān (Širvān. 61. 268–9. 202. 121. 77.

106–7. 69. 236. 138. 226–7. 34. 209–10. 179. 86. 66. 360 Soxumi (Sukhumi). see also Ādur Gušnasp Theodosioupolis (Karin. Šām al-Ṭabarī 191. see Armeno-K‛art‛velian marchlands Šot‛a Rust‛aveli (Shota Rustaveli) 13. 83. 353. 42–5. 241 T‛arq‛an 283–5. 99. 138. 126. 292. 268 . 127. 56. 53. 297. 294. 202–3. 247. 245 Susa 27 Šušanik (Shushanik) 15. 75–6. 171–2. 333. 134. 363 Ṭāq-e Bostān 301 T‛argamosianis 189–91. 360 Sun 59. 236. 113. 277. 335. sparapet) 53. 209 Spanddād (Spandiat-Rvali) 202–3 Sparset‛i. 342. 183. 93–4. 210–211. 49. 290. 242. 348. 107. 68–9. 347. Karnu-k‛alak‛i) 126. 80. 225. 185. 265. 196 Tacitus 223. 204. 128. 275. see C‛xumi Spāhān 29. 210. 61. 117. 221. 151–3. 350. 188–9. 228. 21–2. 359 Tao-Klarjet‛i (Tayk‛. 107. 178. 214. 226. 197. 7. 105. 275. 337–9. Jazira. Syrians 29. 102. 337–9. 238. 201. 246. son of Artašan 226 Tigris River 95 Tīrdād I 263 Tīrdād II 263 Togarmah (T‛argamos) 129–31. 278–9. 121. 289–90 Suanet‛i (Svanet‛i) 135. 139. 209–11. 335. 206–8. 311 stratēgos 210. 289. 238. 228. 194. 34. 193. Armenian king 29. 290 T‛amar 6. 347 Trdat IV. 118. 259. 71. 160. 334. 233. 344 Tower of Babel 138. 250 Sueti-c‛xoveli (Sveti-tskhoveli) 164. 208. 274 Tigran. 137. 346 Armenian version 150. 311 title tarchan (t‛arxan) 284 Tašir[i] 74. 323. 91. 202 al-Thaʻālibī 191 Thēbarmais 98. see Armenia Somxit‛i. 315 sue (sve) 228–9. 251. 64. 279. 277 Tp‛ilisi (T‛bilisi) 20. 259 Solomon 5. 264–5. 361. 60 Solomonids 279 Somxet‛i. 222. 219. 231–2. 354. 78–82. 62. 87–92. 182. 345–6. 47. 308 511 Syria. 289. 258.Index Sōkratēs (Socrates). 342 stars 93. 219. 263. 200. 303–4. 299. 231 Taurus Mountains (Tauros) 127 T‛avp‛eč‛ag (T‛avp‛ač‛ag) 264 Taxt-e Solaymān (Taxt-i Sulaimān) 97. 344–5 Step‛anos II 328–9. 269. 313–16. 151–2. 46–7. 345. 20–22. 234. 286. 311. 76–7. 283. see also Assyria. 177 Sumbat Davit‛is-że 5–7. 102. 239 spāhbed 53. 311 Surami Mountains 4. 360 as Yovhannēs 264 Trdat. 317 spaspeti (spaypeti. 205–6. 53 Step‛anos I 328–9. 300. 344–5. 221. 96. 37–8. 340. 44. 271. 299 Step‛an-cmida 302 Step‛anē 47. 19. 243. 108. 198. 85. 252. 286 Theophanēs 98. 99–100. 113. 337. 303. 256–61. 119. 121. 100. 219. 203. 298. 306. 196. 219. 59. 275. 181–3. 269. 53. king of K‛art‛li 73. 337 Sulxan-Saba Orbeliani 163. 284. 335. 136. 274 Beth-togarmah 130 T‛omva Arcruni 98. 284. 389 Thirteen Syrian Fathers 15. 230. 230. 333. 298. 368 Tigran I 233 Tigran II the Great 63. 235. 377 Sioni (Zion) 337. 94. 286. 368 Symeon the Stylite 102 Synodikon orientale 98. 68. 12. 203. 106–7. 243. Kłarjk‛) 4. see Iran spasalari 211. 131. 377 Sūrēns 194. 253. 125. 232. 106–7. Ecclesiastical History 72. 76. 349 Strabōn (Strabo) 3. 59. 115. 75–6.

349 T‛urk‛et‛i. 53. 315. 353. 36–8. 318 Vaxtang VI 9. 118. 193 T‛xot‛i. 182. 174–6. see Iakob C‛urtaveli Vnasep Surhap 127 Volga River 129 Vrϑangi 309–10 Všnasp. see also K‛art‛li. 372 as Gourgenēs-Gurgen 85 Varan-Xuasro-T‛ang 310. 185. 229–30 Vespasian 164. Sasanian 284. 74. 197 Vałarš II 127. 67–9. 92. 81. 289. Asp‛uragani) 87. 100. 28–9. 311 Urbnisi Sioni (Zion) 19. 183. 184. 349. 80. 79. 141. 344. 360 Vita Nino 12. Virk‛ Wištāsp (Vištaspa) 202 xanmeti 36 Xazaret‛i. see also Ēǰmiacin Valens 298 Vani (Sourion. 52. 353. 249. 71–3. 317 Vaxušti (Vakhushti) 9. 15. 229 Vahagn 150. 367 Vərəϑraγna (Verethragna) 150. 181–2. Vazgēn) 38. 261. 320. 318 Vita Habo. 263 Varaz-Bakur (Varāz-Pakur). 345 Tūrān 190. see Vistahm Uxtanēs 44 Užiks 110. 360. see also K‛art‛li. 249. 125 Vač‛agan 79. 329. 238–9. 289. 143. 183 Wiržān (Wirčān. 173. 195. 105–65. 21. 201–3 Turkestan 50. 340 Vaspurakan (Guaspuragani. 164. 364. see Faḳr al-Din Gorgānī Visramiani 13. see also Faḳr al-Din Gorgānī Vistahm (Ustam). see Ādur Gušnasp Waručān (Waruzān). 359 Vita Gulanduxt 47. 177. 312. 143. 179. 205. 64. 105 Vita Šušanik. Wiržān Vis o Rāmin. 76–7. 33–103. 238. 68–9. 224 Vēžan Bu[r]zmihr 46–7. 67. 79. Wrwčan. 342–3. 365. T‛urk‛s (Turks) 133. 60 Varamšapoy 105 Varaš 179. 46–9. 43. 329 possibly Ustam 53. 240 Vałaršak 233 Vałaršapat 116. 268 corrupted Up‛rob 183. 123. 264 “Urmizd” 42–3 Uṙnayr 34. 264. 262–3. 71. 81. etc. 331. 201–2. 251. see Iovane Sabanis-że Vita Iovane Zedazneli 61. 287. 319 Varazdat 298 Varaz-Mihr 313 Varaz-Šapuh 78 Vardan Arewelc‛i 264. 238 Tzathios I 85 Ujarma (Užarma) 69. 305. 290.) 3. Mt 118. 43–4. 75–7. 192.512 The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes Trebizond (Trapezous) 131. 183. 269–325. 316 Up‛lis-c‛ixe (Uplis-tsikhe) 158. 283. 242. 172. 192–3. c‛ixist‛avi 47. 124. 329 Vita Abibos Nekreseli 99–103 Vita Arč‛il 12. 259. 181. Varǰan. 198 Vehdenšapuh 80 vengeance 199. 194. 298. 84–5. 79. 251 Vita Children of Kolay xi. 126. 62. 354–5. 274. 251. 91. 329 Vistahm Ispahbudān 53. 279. 226 Vindūyīh Ispahbudān 53 Virk‛ 3. Wiruzān. 53. 42–5. 311. 268 Varaz-Bak‛ar II (Varaz-Bakur). 331–2. 17. 274 Varsk‛en (Vask‛en. 198. see Wiržān Waručān-šāh 50 Wērōy-pahr 21. 368 metaphrastic. 252. 340–342. 173. Surium) 23. 212. 238. 95. 342 Vaxtang I Gorgasali (Vakhtang Gorgasal) 6–7. 52. 359 Vita Evstat‛i 15–16. 357–8. 37. king 68. 23. see Arsen Iqalt‛oeli Vita Peter the Iberian 15. 68. 123. see Khazaria . 251. 213. 79–80. 362. 90. 246 Ustam. 60. 293. 160. 291.

321 Zewaḥ (Zewax. 313. 238 Zadeni. 315 “Xusrō” (K‛asre. 286. 332. farrah. 275 Zaden. 288. 334. 164 Xuaran-Xuara 111–12. 237. 136. 196. 306. 336. 336. 325 Zand ī Wahman Yasn 318 Zarmil (Zarmihr?) 53 Zedazeni. 151. 348 Yodmangan (Iōdmanganos) 216 Yovhannēs Drasxanakertc‛i 44. 325. 296 żużu[y]smtē 89. 365. 226. 227–32. 314 . 344 Xūzestān (Khūzistān) 29. 357ff. 318. 252 Yazdgird I (Yazdgerd) 45. 273. see Užik Xwadāy-nāmag 191–6. Xuasro. 239. 244–5. 318 Yazdgird III 27. 291–2. 269–70 Xunani (Khunani) 210. 306. 350 Żalanduxt 312 Zāmāsp (Jamasp) 41. 273. see Khurāsān xwarrah (farr. 164. 245. 241–2. see Mazdaism Zōsimos 72–3 Zurvanism 50. 357 Xusrō II 42. 117. 252. Xwarāsān. 318 Xuasrot‛ang 312. 194. 114. 296–7. 53. 294–5. 86–7. 322. 369 Yazdgird II 43. 312. 245. see Chosroids Xuara 112. 325. 319 Xuasrovanis 42. 209. 239. 292. 140. 239. 85–6. 45. 362 Yemen (Iamanet‛i) 294. 319. 299. 257–8. 244–6. 212. 370 xwarrah ī kayān 229. 290. 344. 201. 256. 319. 310–311. 319. see K‛art‛li Zendān-e Solaymān 24 Zēnōn (Zeno) 281. 141. 79. 238. 297. 158 Zagros Mountains 348 Zaḥḥāk 192. 236. see also xwarrah Xuaranże 292. 322 xwarrān-xwarrah 112 see also didebay 513 al-Yaʻqūbī 191 Yašts 227 yazatas 152. 178. 246. farnah) 112. 241–2. 270. 356. 140. 141. 348. idol 112–13. 269–70. 86–7. 114. Khosrow). Mt 111. 119. 200.Index Xenophōn 8–9 Xerxēs 28 Xornabuji 306 Xosroianis. 230. 223. 234. 216 Zoroastrianism. 151–2. 354 Xusrō I anōšag-ruwān (Khosrow Anūširwān) 42. 311. Zeuach) 64. 193. 47. 164. 53. 193. 110 Xužik. 221. 146. generic 41–2. Mt 143 Zelenčuk River 285 Zemo Nik‛ozi 264 Zena-Sop‛eli. 151. 368.

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