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THE CESNOLA COLLECTION

OF CYPRIOT ART
Stone Sculpture

contents

THE CESNOLA
COLLECTION OF
CYPRIOT ART
STONE SCULPTURE

contents

contents

THE CESNOLA
COLLECTION OF
CYPRIOT ART
STONE SCULPTURE

Antoine Hermary and Joan R. Mertens

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Print-On-Demand Edition Distributed by Yale University Press, New Haven and London

contents

10

director’s foreword
foreword
acknowledgments

13

introduction

13




20

building the collection of sculpture

23

22

27

catalogue

28









chapter 1. Male Votaries (Cat. 1–186)

160

chapter 2. Female Votaries (Cat. 187–212)

7
9

13
14
17
19

Sculptures Discovered before 1870
The Sculptures and the Sanctuary/Sanctuaries of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
The Nature of the Offerings and the Cult of the Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Other Findspots

20

From Their Arrival at the Museum to the Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus
by John L. Myres (1914)
The Place of the Cesnola Collection in the Study of Cypriot Sculpture

the cesnola sculptures in the metropolitan museum of art

chronology of cypriot sculptures

30
41
47
58
75
84
99
128
132
148

Male Votaries with Conical Helmets (Cat. 1–18)
Male Heads with Other Types of Helmets (Cat. 19–24)
Male Votaries with “Cypriot Shorts,” Heads with a Rosette Diadem (Cat. 25–39)
Male Votaries in Egyptianizing Dress or Heads with a Plain Headdress (Cat. 40–61)
Young Votaries in the Ionian Tradition (Draped Kouroi) (Cat. 62–75)
Bearded Male Votaries with a Wreath of Leaves or a Diadem (Cat. 76–92)
Beardless Male Votaries with a Wreath of Leaves, Diadem, or Fillet (Cat. 93–137)
Male Votaries with Bare Heads (Cat. 138–143)
Statues and Statuettes of Boys (Cat. 144–168)
Various Votive Male Figures, or Fragments (Cat. 169–186)

176
chapter 3. Special Series of Votive Figures (Cat. 213–246)

176
Statuettes of Women Nursing (Kourotrophoi) (Cat. 213–221)

181
Musicians, Male and Female (Cat. 222–234)
181
Aulos (Double Flute) Players (Cat. 222–230)
186
Tamborine Player (Cat. 231)
186
Lyre Players (Cat. 232–234)

188
Horses, Horsemen, Chariots (Cat. 235–241)

193
Banqueters (Cat. 242–246)
196

chapter 4. Masked Votaries (Cat. 247–251)

201

chapter 5. “Temple Boys” and “Temple Girls” (Cat. 252–274)
201
212

Temple Boys (Cat. 252–272)
Temple Girls (Cat. 273–274)

213

chapter 6. Varia (Cat. 275–299)

226








chapter 7. Gods and Mythological Figures (Cat. 300–364)

270

chapter 8. Votive Animals, Anatomical Reliefs, and Various Offerings (Cat. 356–378)

278



chapter 9. Various Offerings (Cat. 379–431)

306

chapter 10. Architectural Sculpture (Cat. 432–436)

310

chapter 11. Sculptured Reliefs on Votive Monuments (Cat. 437–456)

328





chapter 12. Funerary Monuments (Cat. 457–508)

213
217

226
240
242
247
250
252
263
265
268

278
282
284
292

328
342
353
373
376
379

Other Types of Votive Human Figures (Cat. 275–279)
Fragmentary Offerings or Other Objects from Votive Statues or Statuettes (Cat. 280–299)

Herakles (Cat. 300–320)
“Zeus Ammon” (Cat. 321–325)
Apollo (Cat. 326–331)
Pan (Cat. 332–337)
Zeus (Cat. 338–339)
Various Male Mythological Figures (Cat. 340–356)
The Great Goddess (Aphrodite) (Cat. 357–358)
Artemis (Cat. 359–363)
Other Goddesses (Cat. 364)

Incense Burners (Cat. 379–386)
Lamps (Cat. 387–392)
Anatomical Ex-votos (Cat. 393–408)
Other Offerings (Cat. 409–431)

Funerary Stelai without Human Figures except Hathor Heads (Cat. 457–476)
Funerary Stelai with Human Figures (Cat. 477–489)
Limestone Sarcophagi (Cat. 490–494)
Marble Sarcophagi (Cat. 495–496)
Roman Funerary Busts (Cat. 497–501)
Decorated Cippi and Other Funerary Monuments (Cat. 502–508)

384
chapter 13. Other Stone Artifacts (Cat. 509–635)

384
Vases in “Alabaster”: Gypsum or Calcite (Cat. 509–562)

399
Vases in Other Materials (Cat. 563–577)
399
Limestone (or Chalk) (Cat. 563–570)
400
Other Stones (Cat. 571–577)

402
Beads, Pendants, Amulets (Cat. 578–582)

404
Mace Heads (Cat. 583–590)

405
Spindle Whorls (Cat. 591–598)

407
Mortars and Pestles (Cat. 599–625)

413
Whetstones or Polishers (Cat. 626–631)

414
Other Objects (Cat. 632–635)
416
417
421
435

Maps of Cyprus
Concordance
Bibliography
Copyright/Additions and Corrections

Online edition: www.metmuseum.org/research/metpublications/The_Cesnola_Collection_of_Cypriot_Stone_Sculpture

contents

contents

Director’s Foreword

The Cesnola Collection of antiquities from Cyprus was one of
the earliest acquisitions by the The Metropolitan Museum of
Art. In 1872—two years after the Met’s founding—275 crates of
objects were purchased from the man who had energetically
amassed them, General Luigi Palma di Cesnola. Although he had
no archaeological training and restored objects in ways now unacceptable, Cesnola himself came to New York from Cyprus to
supervise the 1873 installation of his finds at the Museum in its
location on West 14th Street. In 1877 he was named Secretary to
the Met’s Board of Trustees, and in 1879, he became the Met’s
first director, a position he held until his death in 1904.
After the disposal of “duplicates” in the 1920s, the over 6,000
remaining pieces of the Cesnola Collection document the art of
Cyprus from ca.  3000  b.c. through ca.  a.d.  300 in all major
media—terracottas, vases, bronzes, gems, glass, silver and gold
plate and jewelry. The distinction of the collection, however, lies
in the stone sculpture that is unequalled in any other institution.
The large-scale sarcophagi, funerary monuments, votive sculptures primarily of the sixth through fourth centuries b.c. testify
to the wealth and power of the individuals that commissioned
them. The exceptional variety of types reflects the succession of
rulers that dominated the island and exploited its resources, notably copper and timber. We recognize the presence of Egyptians,
Assyrians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks and Romans. Moreover,

in the often well-preserved polychromy, we can glimpse their originally bright and variegated surfaces.
Located within the endlessly diverse and changing city of New
York, the sculptures of the Cesnola Collection show us men,
women, and children, the manifestations of their religious beliefs
and mythologies, items of daily life and symbols of power from the
international melting pot that was ancient Cyprus. This first comprehensive publication of these works of art—available on our
website and by print on demand—is the result of the exceptional
work of Antoine Hermary, Professor at the Aix-Marseille
University, and Joan R. Mertens, curator in the Met’s Department
of Greek and Roman Art.
We are also enormously grateful for the support of the J. F.
Costopoulos Foundation, the A. G. Leventis Foundation, the
Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation as well as the
Adelaide Milton de Groot Fund, in memory of the de Groot and
Hawley families. These funders recognized the significance of this
scholarship in its early phases, and the project would not have
been possible without their generous contributions.

Thomas P. Campbell
Director
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

7

contents .

F. together with Carlos A.c. Karageorghis 2000a. the stone sculpture of the Cesnola Collection is by far the most important of its kind. Moreover. produced by myself in collaboration with Gloria S. thus making it available to students of Cypriot art universally. Thomas P. The second publication could not have been undertaken by anyone other than Antoine Hermary. supported the publication of the entire collection in electronic form. The first installment. Cesnola was wrong when he attempted to do so. issues on which I expressed my views in 2000. and its proper study and publication by Hermary represent significant contributions to Cypriot archaeology. known as the Cesnola Collection. The archaic style of Cypriot sculpture represents the youth of Cypriot art. the fact that Cypriot antiquities in foreign museums were usually kept in their Greek and Roman departments placed Cypriot art at a disadvantage. nor will I address the role of Luigi Palma di Cesnola as a scholar and as the first director of the Metropolitan Museum. The four Cypriot galleries in the Metropolitan Museum could not provide adequate space for the whole of the Cesnola Collection.1 The presentation of the best examples of Cypriot art in four galleries of the Metropolitan Museum and the publication of an illustrated catalogue in 2000 constitute landmarks in the history of the study of Cypriot art. As a partial remedy. combining an archaic liveliness and a joie de vivre. G. His catalogue of Cypriot sculpture in the Louvre. 9 .contents Foreword During the last few decades. G. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation. Cypriot sculpture cannot. since it could not compare favorably with the perfection and idealism of Classical art. After the third century  b. as well as the proper publication of the collections of Cypriot antiquities in the main museums of the world. on the contrary. respectively. and should not.. In the past. I will not discuss here the ways in which this collection reached New York. Leventis Foundation. who has devoted a lifetime to the study of Cypriot art. Athenian sculpture nor the passion of Hellenistic sculpture. be compared with Greek sculpture. Now the art of Cyprus is highly regarded and proudly exhibited in various foreign museums. Vassos Karageorghis Emeritus Professor. some of colossal size. with a physiognomy of its own. pp. The pioneering initiative of then-­ director Philippe de Montebello. As noted in the catalogue. there are several statues of which the head does not belong to the body. Picón and other members of the Greek and Roman Department. especially that of the pictorial style. The Cypriot sculptor could not emulate the idealism and spirituality of fifth-century b. The project was initiated in 2002 with the terracotta sculptures and figurines. Thanks are due again to the generosity of the A. Despite Antoine Hermary’s exhaustive research. Philippe de Montebello and his successor. the J. extensive excavations conducted since the island’s independence in 1960 and the prompt publication of findings. appeared as a CD-ROM in 2004. and the Metropolitan Museum’s Adelaide Milton de Groot Fund. esp. Merker and Joan R. V. published in 1989. The same phenomenon may be observed in the art of archaic Cypriot vase painting. Campbell. which for many decades was considered “provincial” and of no particular interest. Archaeologists have pulled down the conceptual walls that once separated cultures in the Mediterranean and Near Eastern regions and replaced them with bridges of communication. Leventis Foundation. It has its own character. and a large portion of it is not on public view. are unique and constitute the pride of the collection. The two sarcophagi. and Cypriot art has been recognized as original. Cypriot art and archaeology have gained a prominent place in the study of Mediterranean culture. The above remarks accurately describe the situation in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The Cesnola Collection includes exceptional examples of Cypriot stone sculpture. Aesthetic interests have now changed. Cypriot sculpture began to lose its vigor. inspired other major institutions in North America and Europe. from Amathus and Golgoi. which did not imitate that of other neighboring countries but. 3–15. The strategic position of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean has proved a great advantage for the new role that this island plays in archaeological research. Mertens. in memory of the de Groot and Hawley families. had occasionally contributed to the artistic development of other Mediterranean regions. the “Cypriot character” mentioned by Aeschylus. Nonetheless. have elevated the status of Cypriot art. is still a basic handbook. the first museum in the world to have acquired a very large group of Cypriot antiquities. a great sense of humor. we still cannot be sure of the exact provenance of each item. thanks to the generosity of the A. University of Cyprus note 1. particularly the sculpture of Cyprus. but at the same time a simplicity and a severitas. the Alexander S. Costopoulos Foundation.c.

wherever they may be. We thank Julie Zeftel and Eileen Sullivan of Rights and Permissions. as has Carlos A. the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. Former director Philippe de Montebello gave it his endorsement. together with Gloria S. Teresa W. Joan R. Jr. Rita Jules. Debbie T. Choi. in memory of the de Groot and Hawley families.. Gallin was the meticulous proofreader and Elizabeth Zechella the attentive coordinator. Liebster. and Michael J.  G. Miko McGinty. former Associate Administrator. We hope that this catalogue of one of the world’s foremost collections of Cypriot sculpture will be informative to both the interested public and the specialist. Aix-en-Provence Joan R. When production returned to the Editorial Department. New York January. meticulousness. Supervising Departmental Technician. Collections Manager. Fabienne Hermary kindly prepared the concordance. During the time the work was in the hands of the Online Publications division of the Digital Media Department. and Amy P. we thank the École Française d’Athènes and its photographer. Brendalen. she brought enormous skill. In the Photograph Studio. Chace. and Tina Henderson marshaled their expertise and style to design the present publication that is available both online and as a print-on-demand book distributed by the Yale University Press. Michael Sittenfeld. Noiseux. for making the many moves that each object required in connection with the catalogue. resolved all computer related problems throughout the duration of the enterprise. Baran. Gagen. Picón. Kuo. our greatest appreciation goes to John F. Campbell. photographer Katherine Wetzel. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Perhaps the single greatest benefit of electronic publication is portability. For the translation of Antoine Hermary’s text and preparation of the manuscript. Administrative Assistant. has been most generous in his continuing support. William Twersky and Alberto Ciaraldi helped with the proofreading. Caruso. photographer Bruce M. Carlos Picón initially invited Vassos Karageorghis. the Alexander S. Leventis Foundation. His successor. Digital Media Department for additional assistance with obtaining photographs. We owe the 10 superb photography to Paul H. Levine. We thank the J. Publisher and Editor in Chief of the Editorial Department. the Princeton University Art Museum and the Michael C. except for some of the stone vases. Curator in Charge of the Department of Greek and Roman Art. Ancient Art from Cyprus: The Cesnola Collection. has been endlessly helpful with the many and varied needs of this enterprise. Carlos Museum. supervised the photography. Merker and Joan R. Mertens. Gwen Roginsky and Robert Weisberg spared no effort in bringing the publication to fruition. Associate Director for Collections and Administration. assisted by Margaret R. General Manager for Imaging and Photography. made mounts for photography and William M. Antoine Hermary wrote the introduction and the catalogue. Adam M. Mark Polizzotti. Philippe Collet. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation as well as the Adelaide Milton de Groot Fund. Matthew A. Richard G. Soupios.contents Acknowledgments Publication. Administrator. Fred A. White. Lachenauer. 2014 . Collections Specialist. in electronic form. he launched the first electronic publication devoted to the terracottas. and Peter Antony lent their essential support. former Collections Management Assistant. handled organizational detail over many years. and Dorothy Abramitis. and participated in every aspect of the production process. Morariu. of the catalogue of Cypriot sculpture at The Metropolitan Museum of Art has extended over many years. Mertens dealt with the remaining stone vases. In the Greek and Roman Department. In the preparation of this work. Richmond. Costopoulos Foundation. photographer Peter Paul Geoffrion. Sherman Fairchild Conservator in Charge. Jennie W. Senior Manager of Collections Information Management. Antoine Hermary. Barbara J. Curator. it appeared as a CD-ROM in 2004. Mertens. attended to the physical condition and appearance of the sculptures. Cypriot scholar extraordinaire. to act as consultant for the galleries of Cypriot art opened in 2000 and as author of the accompanying book. F. Lai devised an innovative and attractive prototype for electronic scholarly publishing. O’Neill. entailing the support and participation of many individuals. Thanks are due as well to Einar J. Department of Greek and Roman Art. of the Sherman Fairchild Center for Objects Conservation. Mike Westfall. Conservator. helped with all issues relating to the Museum database. Bridgers. and Jennifer M. The present catalogue was planned by the late John P. her last major project. former Managing Editor. for making the entire enterprise possible. the A. Professor at the Aix-Marseille University. We express our particular thanks also to Carrie Rebora Barratt. Principal Departmental Technician. converted Antoine Hermary’s text into the Museum’s database. we are deeply indebted to the late Anne Jourlait. Thomas P. endless patience and good humor to this. Philomena Mariani edited the final text with extraordinary care and attention. For photographs of Cesnola objects on loan to other institutions. helped whenever needed. Moreover. Emory University. Fisher. Lawrence Becker. the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. which she developed with Austin C.

contents In memory of Anne October McKenzie Jourlait (1938–2013) .

contents .

Elizabeth McFadden’s biography provides an introduction to the first part of his life. but presented himself as a general. participated in the Crimean War. a few small objects are said to come from the necropolis. also come from these first excavations at Idalion. at least one large sculpture had been found on the site of Golgoi–Ayios Photios before the excavations of 1870. . and then emigrated to the United States—probably around 1858— where he took an active part in the Civil War on the Union side.” while for the other pieces no origin is indicated. page 416) as well as at other sites on the island and to begin his own collection of antiquities. where M. or elsewhere in the United States.2 The presentation that follows focuses on the growth of the Museum’s collection of sculptures and other objects in stone. this unpublished group is numbered TC 6682. Therefore.11 but these did not produce important results at the site of the ancient city. 1868. It is not the object of this publication to review his eventful life.12 Depicting a child on her knees and three children at her feet.5 Several of these heads are in Marseille. American missionaries are said to have drafted a catalogue for him. the United States consul on Cyprus between 1865 and 1876 and who.6 others of unknown origin are in the Louvre.3 In 1869. of the 92 limestone works sold in Paris in March 1870. Cesnola writes: “Recently I found a colossal stone statue (the head and feet broken) that holds in his hand a perfectly preserved head of an ox . even if a very distinctive kourotrophos was found during that period. Toward 1868. opposite: cat. Found at Golgos. 258 13 .” containing about 1. He finished his military career with the rank of colonel. a large archaic bearded head. was the first director of the Museum. he had no particular knowledge of ancient history or archaeology. in a letter dated December 24.”13 This is either the statue Cat.8.1 Several articles by Olivier Masson concern Cesnola’s activities on Cyprus.  251 (see the Commentary on pages 199–200) or the larger one mentioned by Cesnola. this gift certainly included works found prior to the excavations at Golgoi–Ayios Photios. As a matter of fact. 48 were “heads found at Dali. Building the Collection of Sculpture Sculptures Discovered before 1870 When Cesnola arrived on Cyprus at Christmas 1865. Europe. and a statuette of a woman. from May 1879 until his death in November 1904. prior to his arrival on Cyprus. about 50 of the sculptures in the Cesnola Collection at the Metropolitan Museum that have the provenance of “Dali” or “Idalium” without additional details were probably found at this time. president of the New-York Historical Society.8 Among them are a statue of a young man wearing an Egyptian kilt and a diadem with rosettes. Scion of a noble family from the region of Turin.9 The same origin is probable for the majority of the 38 statues that Cesnola donated to the Academy of Sciences in Turin. de Vogüé dug. while Anna Marangou’s book provides considerable documentation as well as a highly critical perspective. he enlisted as a very young man in the Italian army. his personal tastes led him to join the excavations that took place around Idalion (see map of Cyprus. The most important discoveries in the necropolis occurred later.”10 Accepted by the Academy in June 1870. However. It is certain that Cesnola made preliminary investigations around Athienou starting in 1867.4 We have little information about the limestone sculptures collected by Cesnola before 1870. probably. “an offering of firstfruits to his native place. We shall reconsider many aspects of Cesnola’s activity and claim a central role for Cypriot archaeology in this collection. but it is certain that he conducted excavations at Idalion for which he obtained official permission from the Ottoman authorities in 1868. It is not known if other sculptures were collected on this site at the same time. which is unequaled in Cyprus.contents Introduction The Cypriot Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art was acquired between 1874 and 1876 from Luigi Palma di Cesnola. following the visit to Cyprus of Carl Friedrichs. it was sold to Berlin. its whereabouts are unknown. which he would have liked to sell to Hamilton Fish. Finally.7 Several sculptures bought in 1869 by the Berlin Museum. he mentions his “Phoenician Museum. a promotion that President Lincoln purportedly granted him orally. .600 pieces. but lost. The company of other consuls and.

figures holding a dove. This group constitutes the core of the Cesnola Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. These plates provide only limited information about the major excavations of 1870.” the remains of . Cat. works found elsewhere.” an article written for Harper’s in 1872 by Hiram Hitchcock. the 62 plates of this album include. 1871. Not a single object is reproduced in this article. many bases aligned in several rows.contents The Sculptures and the Sanctuary/Sanctuaries of Golgoi–Ayios Photios On two occasions Cesnola recounted the discovery in March 1870 of the most important group of limestone sculptures ever found on Cyprus.  P. statues of “Priapus” (Pan). the heads reproduced on page 191 actually come from Robert Hamilton Lang’s excavations at Idalion. Along the two longitudinal walls. the colossal head is reproduced on the first page.” Cesnola’s point of view is repeated in full in “The Explorations of Di Cesnola in Cyprus.16 Various categories of limestone works are then mentioned: two seats. there were three double rows of pedestals on which it seems that the statues stood. the reason why only the front part of the figure in many cases was worked. which was rather well delineated by the stone foundations that reached a depth of about two meters. né secondo la loro altezza lungo i muri Est e Ovest” (700 and more bases of all sizes.15 The title is Antiquités de Chypre: Photographies des objets trouvés dans le temple de Vénus à Golgos par le Général L. was 60 English feet long. I suppose. at a distance that I was not able to measure. a birth scene.” This interpretation as the temple of Aphrodite had been presented as early as the summer of 1870 to Johannes Doell. near the chapel of Ayios Photios. In the center of the temple. etc. Here are several excerpts from this text: The area of the temple. of all sizes. lamps. kourotrophoi. some were gigantic. toward the center of the temple pieces of charcoal and a sizeable stratum of ash several centimeters high came to light. They were unearthed with care: all were more or less damaged.” Actually. in the region of Athienou. some of them had low reliefs. 30 wide. . About a third of the aforementioned statues were lifesized. 34 inscriptions. lined up but without order. others had Cypriot inscriptions. placed back to back. terracotta and glass vases originating in tombs. where it resides in the Academy of Sciences and where I consulted it. Consul des Etats-Unis. must have served for religious ablutions. nor according to their height. the “temple” and the placement of the statue bases are briefly described in an annotation to the drawing on plate II. which would indicate that the temple was destroyed either by hordes of foreign invaders or by Christian fanaticism. anatomical ex-votos. in a manner satisfactory to me. and the large vase from Amathus in the Louvre is described as a “bronze tazza”! The many drawings include various sculptures “from the temple of Venus at Golgos”. with the caption “The colossus of Golgos. came to light. in addition to a majority of sculptures from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. but in September 1870 Cesnola had sent an album of “photographs of the objects found in the temple of Venus at Golgos” to Turin. 14 introduction introduction In fact.18 In his catalogue published three years later. but most of them without one or the other. Cipro addi 12 Settembre 1870. masked figures. In the 1871 report.” the General thought he had discovered in this rural area of eastern Cyprus the sanctuary of the Aphrodite of Golgoi evoked by several ancient authors. 495. representations of Herakles (one of which is huge) and of Apollo. There are also reliefs and funerary inscriptions. but most probably equal among them. like the anthropoid sarcophagus from Kition.17 The often awkward text is filled with generalities and errors—for instance. great friend and admirer of the General. and one must have been really colossal. Near the southeast entrance at the left and beyond the foundations was found a large vase of stone that resembles the one discovered at Amathus and that. along the East and West walls). vases. 1870. Doell carefully refers to the “so-called temple of Golgoi. with a dedication “a Sua Eccellenza Il Conte Federigo Sclopis di Salerano. The caption for the small bases placed along the wall reads “700 e più piedistalli di tutte le dimensioni schierati ma senza ordine. de Cesnola. “Scoperta del tempio di Venere a Golgos nell’isola di Cipro il 6 Marzo 1870. but more likely the latter.14 As the title indicates. as one can gauge from the head that was found intact. Nowhere is there a mention of the site “West of the temple” from where the most spectacular archaic sculptures come—the colossal bearded head and the “priest with dove. He rapidly adapted to this hypothesis the varied archaeological evidence that had been collected. The first occasion was a paper presented before the Academy of Sciences in Turin on January 8. . animals. Some of the pottery dates to the Bronze Age. sent by the Hermitage to examine the entire Cesnola collection. one meter and two centimeters high . this would explain. In such a tight space about one thousand statues were found.

and that many of its statues and embellishments must have been transferred to a more modern building.” he continued to reject the hypothesis of two distinct cult places advanced by Robert Hamilton Lang. and various objects. This text of Colonna-Ceccaldi. 432. he explained to Colonna-Ceccaldi. all the work done in the temples of Golgos. its branch.32 Thus. still repeated by Sidney Colvin.26 Lang.” He adds that “the sanctuary was populated with a very large quantity of statues in all sizes.” which he discusses in detail and for which he provides two drawings. henceforth.”19 The map that he provides on page 6 is a simplified version of Cesnola’s map of 1871. He mentions and also reproduces various architectural blocks. “had been carried out in two different places.” In a later article. one of which is the capital Cat.20  × 9. who had himself discovered an important collection of sculptures at Idalion in 1868–69. but that the space excavated represented about “80 feet in length by about 40 feet in width (English measurements). 1871. had been found. the zone situated several hundred meters to the west of the principal site is designated only as “the spot West of the temple. therefore.” But. but Cesnola writes that there were 32 of them.20 Nothing is mentioned about the site “West of (or near) the temple.” from which no inscription has come. Cesnola. “all more or less mutilated.10 meters.” the relief of Herakles seizing the cattle of Geryon (Cat. the first discoveries—including the colossal head (Cat.”28 Advances in deciphering the Cypriot syllabary revealed that no dedication found at Ayios Photios was addressed to Aphrodite and led rapidly to questions about this identification.31 Cesnola.” Colonna-Ceccaldi does not specify the number of statues found at this place. but it contains hardly anything new. had “been able to follow from the first day of the discovery. are to be considered the structural remains of the Temple of Aphrodite at Golgoi.” and in the first one. There would have been a total of twelve similar ones in the “temple. “Golgos—Temples. 1) and the “priest with dove” (Cat. sparked a response from Robert Hamilton Lang in the May 1872 issue of the same journal. abandoned his identification as “temple of Venus.” or “the first site. He “regretted that M. dated November 22. “according to the conviction of Mr. given that new surveys carried out in 1873 on the site of the “first temple” did not reveal the presence of any architectural element. The largest ones were stretched out near their pedestals.” He also mentions “pictures engraved or sculpted on stone slabs.” without any discussion about the divinity or divinities worshipped there. even though he had spoken directly to Colonna-Ceccaldi about a possible “round temple. a gray stone cone and a base hollowed out for the insertion of two large statues. with a single caption. in the Atlas.” He further explained that the method of clearing the terrain did not allow the plan of the “first temple” to be drawn. who spoke this time of the “second and great temple of Venus Golgia” and. brother of the French consul Tiburce Colonna-Ceccaldi.” “the site near the temple. “together with a promiscuous mass of fragments of legs. in order to create thus the temple of Golgos. for the most part recalling Egyptian style in the costumes and poses.” Although he noted Cesnola’s drawing of the “second temple. he estimated a distance of 500 yards between the two sites. of which Colonna-Ceccaldi reproduces the drawing provided by Cesnola.” with 26 bases. when he had shown him the site in May 1870.23 The site consisted of a “temple” measuring 18. that had become in a way the metropolitan parish of Golgos.25 the “piedestalli doppi” (double bases) drawn in 1871 on the inside of the temenos are represented as pilaster bases. Moreover. to the west.” he reasserted the existence of “two very distinct buildings. and the investigations at the “second temple” began only about fifteen days later. The map reproduced by ColonnaCeccaldi24 is less complete than Cesnola’s of 1871. Several were colossal. reproduced three statues from “the ancient temple. since it indicates neither the position of columns flanking the entrances nor the bases of the statues or statuettes placed against the two long walls. except that “at the centre of the temple a thick layer of ashes was found with some large pieces of carbonized wood. abandoned or destroyed later. as if they came from only one.30 Richard Neubauer was evidently the first to express disagreement. a specimen of which is now deposited in the New York Museum”. and published shortly thereafter in the Revue Archéologique. de Cesnola thought he had to mix together the objects of both temples.” According to Lang. 22)—took place March 6 and 7 on the site of the “first temple.”33 For the rest. the statues would have been arranged “according to building the collection of sculpture 15 .27 The idea of the “first temple” was immediately picked up by ColonnaCeccaldi.”22 The principal site where the French excavation directed by Melchior de Vogüé had worked in 1862 would have been about 200 meters away. 440). The young French scholar writes erroneously—or is the error due to Cesnola?—that the “priest with dove.29 Based on the works of Moritz Schmidt. the long account of the discovery of the temple and its sculptures34 is accompanied by many illustrations. As on Cesnola’s map of 1877.35 this is not mentioned elsewhere.contents which. “statues.21 The excavations. but not in the type. many had fallen forward and had broken into large fragments that were easy to join. a year later. There is every reason to believe that a circular and very ancient temple had existed there.” Cesnola gave a somewhat different account to Georges Colonna-Ceccaldi. had been found in this place. arms and bodies. there are fifteen of them. Only the “priest with dove” and the huge bearded head are reproduced in the plates. without having seen a single wall himself.

If one devotes oneself to the same exercise using the Museum’s Handbook no. 3. who was present at the discovery of the colossal head.51.”43 When assembling the Atlas. Right from the beginning.”36 This last piece of information must be considered cautiously. under the direction of Kyriakos Nicolaou. Thus. There are 72 photographs. one arrives at about the same figures as in Doell’s catalogue. Photographs acquired in 1998 by the Cultural Centre of the Cyprus Popular Bank give a glimpse of the collection before its dispersal. found in the “city of Golgoi” and not at Ayios Photios. who had supervised the excavations for Cesnola.”44 but this precious document has never been found. in a broad sense. and now owned by Mr. half of which concern sculptures. The temenos of the principal sanctuary. There are obviously several errors of attribution. A passage from his introduction to the 1885 Atlas seems clear confirmation: “The sculptures discovered at these four different spots in the ruins of ancient Golgoi might all be properly classified under the single head of Golgoi. the findspot of these discoveries was forgotten. a roughly identical number can be deduced from the attributions given in the Atlas. the Assyrian in like manner. The works said to originate from the two sites excavated around Ayios Photios represent slightly more than 800 items in Doell’s 1873 catalogue. At the end of the 1950s. 492.”41 It is impossible to determine how many votive sculptures and other objects of limestone were discovered by Cesnola at the two sites excavated near the chapel of Ayios Photios. but the German scholar listed only the works that were the best preserved—those that could interest 16 introduction introduction the Hermitage Museum.37 Subsequently. but for the convenience and facility of the reader each piece of sculpture will be credited to the locality of the four in which it was unearthed.47 The first volume of the Atlas therefore left out a relatively large number of objects. 493) in the list of works presented as originating from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. 776–784 and 824–828 that come from the necropolis of Golgoi. found about 100 fragments of limestone sculptures and some of terracottas in the area of Ayios Photios. indications are missing for the funerary stelai nos. formed a rectangle of about 18 × 9 meters.40 Further investigation of the subject has not progressed because. and the beautiful bearded head no. nearer to the chapel. However. Wilhelm Dörpfeld). one reaches approximately the minimum number of sculptures in the round discovered on both sites of Ayios Photios. since 1974. the necropolis. works catalogued during the summer of 1870 had disappeared from the collection before arriving in New York. He writes that the origin of pieces that do not come from the sanctuary of Golgoi is indicated in the catalogue notes. east of the hill of Teratsovouno. it is only in the area northwest of Larnaca (Kossi-Lympia-Athienou) that rapid sedimentation in open marine conditions yielded thick beds of the creamy chalk that is the product of calciturbidite deposition (foraminiferal sands). the images of Artemis from . the two findspots were several hundred meters apart. identifiable thanks to Cesnola’s correspondence or because of the presence of sarcophagus fragments 74. situated near the “Green Line. This figure may be surprising when compared to the information given in the Atlas. perhaps from a “manuscript book made in Cyprus in 1870. This situation also explains why no research has been undertaken on the soft limestone quarries used for the sculptures from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. both had been led to the site by V. Antoni Litras. the tunnels dug by Cesnola’s workmen could still be seen. the Egyptian by themselves. who arrived on Cyprus in 1878. this is not sufficient to question globally the attributions given in the Atlas. as Myres did.45 but it is impossible to establish an exact inventory of them. Confirmation comes from certain anatomical ex-votos. The latter contains a significant number of fragments that do not appear in Doell. and the Greek and Roman near the western wall.2615/2616 and 74. Adolf Furtwängler. and no one was interested in the question during the first half of the twentieth century. According to Ohnefalsch-Richter. The work of Doell. Max Ohnefalsch-Richter. Paul Åström made a brief investigation in situ. Cesnola therefore drew up a new list of findspots. which establishes an initial inventory of the whole collection during the summer of 1870.  18).contents the art or nationality they represented.” but established that the principal sanctuary was located most probably about 500 meters to the southeast of the chapel of Ayios Photios. situated on the eastern flank of the hill of Teratsovouno. near point 502 of the modern land registry. should constitute the most reliable account. Cesnola probably assembled a collection originating. this zone. whereas the other site was located to the west or northwest. and. Eugen Oberhummer. knew well the site where he brought several German scholars (Ferdinand Dümmler. insofar as neither Colonna-Ceccaldi nor Lang mentions anything about it.46 If one takes into account the number of heads catalogued by Doell. 231 (Cat. conversely. and the site of the city— that could interest the Hermitage or other museums.42 Nonetheless. as recent investigations have shown: “although the Pakna Formation outcrops over large areas. Like enormous mole burrows. It is nonetheless certain that the region of Idalion and Golgoi/Athienou possesses the finest soft limestone quarries on Cyprus.38 Masson did not identify the location of the “first temple. followed by Oliver Masson in 1960. a little less than seven hundred. as can be ascertained for well-identifiable series.51. the Cyprus Survey. since only about 570 heads coming from both sites of Ayios Photios are catalogued there.39 In 1961. and Giorgi Sotiri. He had visited it with Andreas Vondiziano.” is inaccessible. Hiram Hitchcock. from Golgoi—both sites of Ayios Photios.2627 (Cat.

where the Swedish expedition discovered a collection estimated at 2.51 which certainly included a large part of the sculptures published by Haluk Ergüleç. smaller Cypriot cult centers.03 to 0. only one is alphabetic.c. on the site of the city of Golgoi. However. Considering the minimum number of approximately 700 heads. These works were dispersed to various museums and institutions or to friends of Cesnola. such as Hiram Hitchcock or John Ruskin. and several other sites. heavy. and the variety of types that are represented. had discovered near Athienou. it is impossible to say if the important but rather few pieces (32 according to Cesnola.”55 In 1865.63 building the collection of sculpture 17 . The difference is more spectacular for marble statues found at Kourion.” as are three bases for statuettes. 450. and 454 are dedicated to Apollo. The dedications are predominantly inscribed in syllabic script. to which must be added an undetermined number of “duplicates” set aside by Cesnola and about 20 heads discovered by the French in 1862. after the fall of the kingdoms or during the reign of one of the Ptolemies. almost 400 stone objects were given over to the Turkish authorities. Without available evidence.contents Lang’s excavations at Pyla number seven in the Atlas. however. features that make them. in any case. 24 according to the Handbook) found on the site “West of (or near) the temple” belonged to another cult center.54 may seem high given the dimensions of the temenos. “to the god. did not want to renew a firman granted every year since 1867. “about 5[00] to 600 heads of all sizes.52 Finally.. Lang writes. notably the Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota. for their good state of preservation. which consist almost exclusively of limestone works. but it is difficult to say if they came from the excavations at Golgoi. “the headless statues which strewed the ground must have represented 1000 pieces of sculpture. or rather. as concerns the principal site.49 Thus. Even though both sites that produced material were probably separated by 400 or 500 meters.59 Among the syllabic texts. including representations of gods. to Apollo. one base is of marble. of all periods. of the same type as those of the principal sanctuary. Cesnola’s discoveries at Ayios Photios will be considered as a homogeneous ensemble. distance not being an obstacle to transporting large. from 0. Cesnola then had 88 “parcels” sent to Istanbul. above all. are notable. the inscriptions are associated with reliefs that allow one to date them approximately at the end of the Classical or beginning of the Hellenistic period (around 350–250 b. all the sculpted offerings were certainly not visible at the same time and a roughly comparable density is confirmed for other. One can well imagine the rich evidence that a modern excavation could have derived from a site such as this one. a group of votive sculptures unique in Cypriot archaeology.” referring to a local era at the end of the fourth century b.”56 The same observation can be made concerning terracotta statues and figurines from the small sanctuary of Ayia Irini on the north of the island. of all styles and of all types.” evidently do not translate Greek but a local language generally called “Eteocypriot. the monolithic vases of Amathus (the one in the Louvre weighs about 14 tons) were hoisted to the top of the acropolis under far more difficult conditions.48 but 11 in the Handbook. it is probable that the 140 sculptures—of which 119 were heads—given to the Liverpool museum by Captain Fothergill in 1872 had been acquired from Cesnola at Larnaca. about 570 are identified in the first volume of the Atlas. which adds isolated heads. the rest were sold by the Metropolitan Museum and are now scattered in many museums or private American collections. who.). of which nearly 100 were of colossal or heroic size. since the 16 objects on plate 96 of the Atlas become 32 in the Handbook of 1904. as well as thousands and thousands of fragments of all kinds. who had returned to Cyprus when the expedition of 1862 was extended. but the number accounted for in the present catalogue is far less. still today. in the report about the excavations at the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion.53 This minimum figure of about 700 sculptures in the round. this scenario is unlikely. 204 is dated “the year 3. the richness and diversity of the extant material provide a good idea of the cult at the principal site that yielded the inscribed dedications and the great majority of sculptures. 451.”60 In several cases. Kition.62 the two others of limestone. described by Masson as “(extremely) obscure.61 The reliefs Cat. their chronological range. The base of the statuette Cat.58 To the absence of reliable data about the structure of the principal cult center and about the stratigraphic and topographic distribution of objects is added the dispersal of a large part of the collection before and after its arrival in New York.000 pieces for the Archaic period alone. As will be seen. Thus. The Nature of the Offerings and the Cult of the Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Despite the absence of reliable archaeological data and the dispersal of objects.c. and imposing sculptures. several. Florida. Cesnola had assembled a collection of “duplicates” that were probably not catalogued by Doell and likely contained sculptures from sites other than Golgoi. about 50 sculptures were acquired by the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston as of 187250 and.50 [m]. in 1873.57 The offerings from Ayios Photios. for which it is not possible to attempt the kind of study undertaken by Reinhard Senff on the sanctuary of Apollo discovered by Lang at Idalion. the French architect Edmond Duthoit. The statues in this “deposit” being.

who advance toward him by an altar of the same type as the one on Cat. To the evidence afforded by these reliefs is added that of threedimensional images of Apollo. crowned by two breasts. For the earlier periods. The vast majority of the male statues. whereas “Zeus Ammon” unites royal majesty with pastoral functions. the figure is traditionally called Zeus Ammon. since the syllabic references to the Paphian goddess are difficult to interpret. assimilated to Aphrodite. The relief Cat. He is separated from the worshippers. but the figure is first shown as an archer. and 331. associated with Apollo. then as a “master of lions. The dominant divine image is without doubt that of a figure whose essential iconographic features derive from the Greek Herakles. the heads Cat. perhaps through the intermediary of an oracle. images of a seated figure with a ram’s head 18 introduction introduction (Cat.  448 offers the best picture of the cult practiced in the temenos. The statuette Cat. were discovered along with three alphabetic dedications to the Aphrodite of Golgoi. Herakles. however. 357). also had healing powers. The Great Goddess is rarely attested in the sanctuary.” alludes to a supreme and warlike god. he is seated in front of an altar. Its rural character is probably confirmed. the evidence is different and does not rely on inscribed dedications. 334. The miniature sheepfold and the groups of cows or mares nursing their offspring belong to the same sphere. now missing and bearing a dedication to Demeter and Apollo from a certain Timodoros. as is the graffito once read as “tas Paphias” ([belonging] to the Paphian goddess) on the shoulder of the “priest with dove” (Cat. shows the god with his worshippers. which is not earlier than the Classical period. principally female statues. unathletic body. Even though it does not include a dedication to Apollo. In the sixth century b. 329. The god sits enthroned outdoors. who is better represented in the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion by sculpted images and an association with the cult of Queen Arsinoe. and then to which Cypriot city.contents Other inscribed dedications include a “fire shovel”64 and an alabaster pyxis in the British Museum. 446. by an alphabetic graffito on a limestone block. The decoration of the altar Cat. tends in the direction of a cult of a male deity and marks an important difference with the nearby sanctuary at Arsos. Finally. surrounded by dancers and musicians.] The iconography of the reliefs reveals a little more about the principal god and the appearance of the sanctuary. 352. 336. 326 and. The lion skin is a constant element. perhaps by a syllabic dedication to the goddess of Paphos on a small limestone base. 323) are also offered. the relief Cat. 451. or the “master of animals. The alphabetic dedication to Demeter. It is very probable that the region of modern Athienou belonged to the territory of Idalion and that the sanctuary of Ayios Photios was important for protecting the prosperity of this agricultural region under royal authority. 337) are dedicated. is oriented toward the protection of harvests. whereas in the lower register some of the worshippers feast. 451. did the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios belong? The identification of the Cypriot kingdoms and the development of their territories during the Archaic and Classical periods are particularly delicate questions. The figure Cat. This divinity appears under various forms with wider ramifications than those attributed to the “classical” Greek Apollo. There. 22). like Apollo and to a lesser degree Herakles. From an iconographic perspective. 450.66 and finally.c. near one or several trees and an altar of special shape.”65 This small group is completed by the mention on a stone “casket” of a wine offering to Zeus. and until at least the end of the Classical period. but the god is also seated near a vegetal element. the word appears in the inscription). he overcomes a wild animal.67 this text is difficult to interpret. 321. Probably seated on a rock. On Cat. 454 is very fragmentary. and facing a group of worshippers. 322) or a human head with ram’s horns (Cat. as well as others sold in 1928. Several elements characterize this temenos as dating around the beginning of the Hellenistic period. The sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios is therefore comparable to other small cult places devoted mainly to Apollo in the region of Idalion and Golgoi. formalized in the Hellenistic period by images of Pan. This collection of material—dedications and sculpted images—shows that the sanctuary was principally devoted to a male god named Apollo by the beginning of the Hellenistic period at the latest. including images of the goddess. he is seated near a tree in his temenos (his “sacred enclosure”. 333. The connection between the sculptures found . 335. The relief Cat. by the absence of the Great Goddess. clearly attest that the major god of the sanctuary of Golgoi– Ayios Photios was identified as Apollo in the Hellenistic period.68 No literary or epigraphic text attests to the existence of a kingdom of Golgoi. representations of the Greek god Pan (Cat. the god holds a kithara and a phiale.  453 appears to be dedicated simply “to the god. To which kingdom. 435. above all. as confirmed by the presence of small horns. scepter in hand. constitutes a survival of the original type. but it is not enough to confirm a true cult of the goddess.  332. It is possible that she was associated with royal or princely statues in order to form a kind of dynastic group (see Cat. the only really significant offering would be the statue of Aphrodite carrying Eros. and long kilt dissociate him from Herakles and draw him closer to the Cypriot Bes. On Cat. but his “demonic” facial appearance. 328. for all periods. but in the Hellenistic period these representations disappear in favor of the Apollonian iconography.” following a visual tradition well known on Cyprus. in the Hellenistic period. while the anatomical ex-votos remind us that the divinity. victorious over evil powers. [See p. as at Malloura.

contents

at Ayios Photios and those of Idalion seems to confirm this, as
does the discovery at Golgoi/Athienou of several terracottas in
the style of Idalion.69 When the kingdom of Idalion was
annexed to that of Kition between 470 and 450 b.c., it is logical to assume that the sanctuary of Ayios Photios fell under the
control of the kings of the Phoenician city. However, contrary
to what happens to the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion, there is
no confirming inscription, and the figural evidence gives no
exact indication for the period that extends, approximately,
from the middle of the fifth century b.c. to the middle of the
fourth. Afterward, different factors allow the question to be
reformulated. The presence of a graffito with the name
“Pnytagoras” on the “votary with bull mask” (Cat.  251) is
disconcerting. The fact that this rare name belongs to a king of
Salamis and that it appears on a statue particularly well suited
to a priest-king forces the question whether the work, which
was perhaps part of a dynastic group, represents the king
Pnytagoras himself. The inscriptions that accompany votive
reliefs are always in syllabic script, never in Phoenician, which
would be surprising if the sanctuary were at the time part of
the kingdom of Kition. It is possible that these dedications are
later than 312 b.c., the date of the fall of the last Phoenician
king of Kition. Following what the statue with bull mask seems
to indicate, one can also postulate that the sanctuary of Ayios
Photios and the surrounding region had come under the control of Salamis after the middle of the fourth century b.c., and
that certain votive reliefs date from this period. As Markus
Egetmeyer points out, an “Eteocypriot” inscription attested
on several of these reliefs can be compared with certain earlier
texts from Salamis.70 Under the domination of the Ptolemies,
Golgoi enjoyed a certain prestige owing to its cult of Aphrodite,
mentioned by Theocritus (15.100) and Lycophron (Alexandra
588–589). An inscription from Argos seems to attest that at
the beginning of the second century b.c., Golgoi was an independent city.71 This autonomy probably did not last long.
Under the empire, the region of Golgoi was attached either to
Kition, as Terence B. Mitford proposed, or rather to Salamis.72
This does not prevent Zoilos, the sculptor in the funerary
group Cat. 489, from presenting himself as “Golgios” in the
second century a.d.

Other Findspots
As noted, the site of Golgoi furnished Cesnola with other
important works coming from the necropolis near the modern
city of Athienou—in the first place, the sarcophagus with figural decoration Cat. 491, but also many stelai dating between
the fifth century  b.c. and the Roman Imperial period. The
location of this necropolis was known before Cesnola’s arrival.

Several other works come from the “city of Golgoi,” where
Edmond Duthoit had discovered, in 1865, a group of several
hundred sculptures, now in the Louvre.73 I have already mentioned the objects attributed to Idalion, to which one must add
small groups or isolated pieces that come from various findspots in the center, the north, and the east of Cyprus:
Karpassia, Kition, Kythrea, Lapethos, Lefka, Leucolla,
Potamia, Salamis, Soli, Tamassos.
We highlight the site of Pyla, where Robert Hamilton Lang
had discovered in 1868 a sanctuary devoted principally to
Apollo, according to the dedications.74 Four of the inscriptions
(two syllabic and two alphabetic) call him “Mag(e)irios” and
one “Lakeutes.” Lang had given Cesnola a certain number of
sculptures found during his excavations, perhaps in exchange
for objects from Golgoi that interested him (see the introduction to “Other Stone Artifacts” concerning an inscribed alabastron now in the British Museum). Two of Lang’s pieces
feature the dedications mentioned above, Mag(e)irios and
Lakeutes;75 the other Lang works include some statuettes and
heads of Artemis76 and two headless statues of “sacrificers.”77
Only three figures of Artemis are today in the Metropolitan
Museum (Cat. 361, 362, 363). The Pyla sanctuary constitutes
an important point of comparison for understanding the cult at
Golgoi–Ayios Photios, only about 12 kilometers away, as much
for its similarities as for its differences. It raises the question of
possible oracular activity at Golgoi–Ayios Photios, to which
the epithet “Lakeutes” certainly refers.
For the southern part of the island, where Cesnola organized excavations in 1874–75, Amathus produced several
works in addition to the large decorated sarcophagus
(Cat. 490) and the marble anthropoid sarcophagus (Cat. 496),
but by far the most important group is that from Kourion.
These objects come partially from the sanctuary of Apollo
Hylates, identified by Ludwig Ross thirty years earlier, and
others from the place called “Ayia Anna,” located to the southeast of the sanctuary, nearer to the city.78 It is there that about
25 “temple boys” are said to have been discovered, some of
which are in the Metropolitan Museum. Supplementary investigations conducted at this site in 1935 by the American expedition directed by George McFadden show that this
identification of the findspot is very probably exact. The sculptures found by McFadden have remained unpublished, but
half a dozen heads in the Episkopi museum belong to sculptures of children or adolescents. The syllabic dedication to
Apollo of the “temple boys” Cat. 254, 255 indicates that this
group comes from the principal sanctuary, as do several fragments from marble statues of children from the Cesnola collection that are no longer in the Metropolitan.

building the collection of sculpture

19

contents

The Cesnola Sculptures in the
Metropolitan Museum of Art
From Their Arrival at the Museum to the Handbook
of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus
by John L. Myres (1914)
In the introduction to his 1914 Handbook, John Myres briefly
recalled the principal stages of Cesnola’s search for a buyer for
his collection.79 Elizabeth McFadden provides a complete
account, and Olivier Masson furnishes a very useful chronology and supplementary information.80
The catalogue drawn up by Johannes Doell had not
prompted the museum in Saint Petersburg to buy the collection as it existed in 1870; the German archaeologist Carl
Friedrichs had clearly advised against it. By the time Doell
presented his report in December 1872, Cesnola had already
sought other options. When the British Museum failed to pursue his initial proposals, Cesnola contacted Gaston Feuardent,
who, since 1868, had served as director of the Parisian firm of
Rollin & Feuardent, with which Cesnola had concluded an
agreement as early as 1871.81 In London, where 5,756 objects
from his collection had arrived in February 1872, he placed the
British Museum in competition with the Metropolitan
Museum, where Hiram Hitchcock had given a lecture in
March 1872 to play up the discoveries made by his friend
Cesnola. The sale finally took place in favor of the Americans,
but a by-product of the London exhibition was an interesting
album of photographs.82 During his stay in New York, from
January to August 1873, Cesnola concluded a formal agreement with the Metropolitan for the sale of his collection for
£1,200. He also anticipated new excavations to benefit the
Museum. These were conducted principally at Amathus and
Kourion in 1874 and 1875. The purchase of the collection was
officially accepted in May 1874, which explains the accession
numbers beginning with (18)74. But, the second part of the
collection, with the “Kourion treasure,” the Amathus sarcophagus, etc., was bought by the Museum following negotiations in November 1876.83
The years following the installation of the collection at the
Metropolitan were marked by controversy, principally concerning the stone sculpture. The main attacks came from
Clarence Cook and Gaston Feuardent, who were probably
irritated by the outcome of the exhibition in London. They
accused Cesnola of having reconstructed a certain number of
statues from fragments that did not belong together and of
having sometimes made modern additions, thus creating real
fakes.84 The resulting lawsuit led to the creation of a committee of experts whose conclusions were favorable to Cesnola.
The most unfortunate interventions had actually taken place

20

introduction introduction

prior to the works’ arrival in New York, as confirmed by sculptures that were sent to Istanbul and recomposed imaginatively.85 In the case of the Metropolitan’s collection, certain
errors were rapidly corrected, others not. They are mentioned
in the catalogue entries. In most cases, it is a question of statues and, above all, of statuettes receiving heads whose pertinence is erroneous or doubtful. Only some have been removed
(recently); for the others, the problems are indicated at the
beginning of each catalogue entry.
We have no precise information about the restorations carried out on Cyprus by Cesnola’s workmen. Only some photographs from the period and, above all, the drawings in Doell’s
catalogue and the photos from the 1873 album give an idea of
the interventions carried out between 1870 and 1872 on the
most important works. For the restorations made after the
sculptures’ arrival in New York, certain documents in the
Metropolitan’s archives must be taken into account. Thus, on
January 4, 1883, Cesnola wrote to Dr. Schuyler in his characteristic violent tone and provided technical explanations to
answer his detractors.
Dear Dr Schuyler
Yours of the 18th ultimo reached me today, and
explained what was obscure in your former one. You should
always bear in mind, that the Cyprus statues are of a friable
stone, and were repaired not for one or ten years but
forever; consequently they had to be treated and protected
against the climate of this country. These statues arrived
here in 1873, and were temporarily repaired with plaster
and thus exhibited in the 14th Street building, where they
remained for six years exposed to this changeable weather,
without any glass covered [sic] over them. When I returned
from Cyprus, I found that the surface [sic] of the statues
was going on at a fearful rate, and if this could not be
stopped, in a few years they would be lost forever. I
remarked that the disintegration was progressing faster
where plaster had been used to join the fragments together,
and I decided that as soon as the Museum was removed to
the present building, I would remove all the plaster from
them, and I did so; the pieces were joined together with a
particular cement recommended to me as impervious to
the weather, and covered over with a very simple preparation, in which milk, silicate, and okra are the sole ingredients. Then they were put under glass, and have given no
further sign of disintegration since 1879.
Do not make the mistake of comparing the different
treatment of the Cyprus statues in the Museums of Europe,
with that of New York. The climate of Constantinople is
like that of Cyprus, and the statues do not need any glass
cover, or wash, and will not disintegrate. At the British

contents

Museum all the Cyprus sculptures have been long ago
placed under glass, on account of their disintegration. At
the Louvre Museum you have seen them under glass, and
the repairs made there you found to be exactly like those
made here; yet the Gilders, Fords, Joneses, Cooks and
Feuardents, would not dare to find fault with the Director
of the Louvre Museum as they found fault here with me! I
thank God however, that not only the highest scholars of
America are with me, but that of the Trustees of this
Museum, are all educated men of high sense of honor, and
manfully stand by me in this war to the knife, the object of
which is well understood by them all.
One of these vagabonds backed up by a scurrilous art
writer, wanted to compel the Trustees to purchase all the
trash he could fetch from Europe at enormous profits to
himself. He tried bribery, and then flattery, and finally
becoming convinced that I would never condescend to
support his low schemes of money making, from the
Trustees, he gathered around him a set of roughs, would-be
bohemians, who want but cannot crush me! The Museum
affairs are going on splendidly, and you may rest assured,
that no amount of adulation, or vilification heaped upon
me by them, shall make me change one jota from my
adopted line of conduct towards this young institution,
over which I have been appointed to guard and watch like a
faithful nurse, as long as it is in its infancy and needs
nursing. Believe me Truly Yours
LP di Cesnola
The restoration work to which he refers in the letter had
been carried out around 1879–80, after the relocation of the
objects to the new museum building where Cesnola was now
director. This work was entrusted to a team that included
Theodore Gehlen (particularly criticized by Feuardent and
Cook) and Charles Balliard, who, in 1907, left notes from
which a report was written that is now in the Museum’s
Archives. The interventions on each sculpture are described
on the basis of the list drawn up in the Handbook of 1904. The
work had consisted mainly of cleaning the objects, adding copper rods to secure the heads on the bodies, and repairing certain anatomical parts (noses, arms, hands) that had been
damaged. Balliard had left the association of a head with a body
to Cesnola. Balliard was still employed in 1909 when Myres
began to study the collection and was able, therefore, to inform
the English archaeologist directly. Myres had the most important objects cleaned again.86 This succession of interventions
unfortunately makes a technical study of the Metropolitan’s
objects difficult, whether it be a matter of pieces joined
together or the painted decoration (with the exception of the
Amathus sarcophagus, thanks to the study by Elizabeth

Hendrix).87 Toolmarks are, however, mentioned as often as
possible and reproduced on certain photographs. A complete
study of this subject should be undertaken one day.
Leaving aside Cesnola’s general account of 1877 concerning his discoveries, the only work presenting the whole collection of sculpture with photographs is the first volume of the
Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Antiquities
in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, published in 1885
under the direction of Isaac Hall, one of the foremost specialists of Cypriot epigraphy and curator of the sculptures as of
1886. After a general introduction written by Cesnola himself,
the volume, in folio format, includes 1,187 illustrations spread
over 160 plates with commentary reduced to the findspot and
object dimensions. Despite its shortcomings, this work and the
following two volumes (1894 and 1903) remain essential tools
for any study of the Cesnola Collection—but are difficult to
consult in Europe.88 While Cesnola was director, and at the
same time as this enormous undertaking, the Museum published a series of Handbooks, including the Handbook of 1904,
The Stone Sculptures of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote
Antiquities in Halls 5 and 3.89 The author of the catalogue is not
named, but the introduction reproduces an older text by Hall,
who died in 1896: “This hand-book is intended to embrace the
stone sculptures, only, of the Cesnola Cypriote Collection; not
including, however, the inscriptions, which are reserved for
another hand-book. But it includes, for the visitor’s convenience, the alabastra, and some miscellaneous objects found in
tombs, together with a few objects not belonging to the collection, but exhibited in the same halls.” The works of art that are
included, with mention of their findspot and measurements,
number 1,449, to which 365 small objects collected in cases 46
and 47 in Hall 3 are added. This small book of 96 pages, without a single illustration except for a map of Cyprus, offers the
most complete inventory of this part of the collection prior to
the sales in 1928. The number of objects is, however, slightly
lower than the number in the Museum inventory, “Cesnola
Collection of Cypriote Sculpture” (C.S.), that includes 1,873
items versus 1,814 in the Handbook of 1904.
I do not know if a selection of “duplicates” of stone had
been planned in 1904, whereas 5,000 terracotta objects considered as duplicates had been sold to Leland Stanford as of 1896.
This selection took place at the latest in 1909, when John
Myres was officially charged with studying the collection. His
appointment appears on a slip of paper preserved in the
Archives of the Metropolitan and dated April 19, 1909: “Prof.
John Myres, University of Liverpool, engaged for the expertising, rearranging, and labeling of the Cesnola Collection of
Cypriote Antiquities and, in connexion with this, the preparation of a small popular guide to the collection, at a total cost of
five hundred dollars, plus his personal expenses in connexion

the cesnola sculptures in the metropolitan museum of art

21

contents

with this work.” This “popular guide” would take the form of
a nearly 600-page Handbook, published in 1914 and reprinted
in 1974. It constitutes the first scientific work on Cypriot
archaeology. Myres, who arrived on Cyprus at the age of 24 as
a member of the British School of Athens, had excavated on
the island during 1894. At the same time, the British administration placed him in charge of a report about the preservation
of antiquities. This task led him to organize the first Cyprus
Museum, the catalogue of which he published in 1899 with M.
Ohnefalsch-Richter. As founder, in 1901, of the anthropological journal Man, Myres was one of the best representatives of
the generation that had established modern archaeology. In
1913, he returned to Cyprus and excavated several sites, particularly Lefkoniko, where he discovered a sanctuary containing
about 600 sculptures.90 In 1914, he was the Wykeham Professor
of Ancient History at the University of Oxford.
Although Myres’ Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of
Antiquities from Cyprus introduced a modern approach to
Cypriot archaeology and art history, which was then followed
by the work of Einar Gjerstad and his Swedish colleagues, it
has serious limitations. In the first place, it presents a much
reduced Cesnola Collection. The Handbook includes only 420
actual sculptures,91 to which are added 60 objects in steatite
“and other coloured stone,”92 60 objects in alabaster,93 and 40
in “common white limestone.”94 Moreover, there are few illustrations; only 56 sculptures are reproduced, in small photos of
mediocre quality. Above all, since Myres considered the information about findspots provided by Cesnola unreliable, he
does not mention them in his entries. He only briefly refers to
two findspots for sculptures: Golgoi and, for a small series of
“temple boys,” the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates near Kourion.
He adds, laconically, “single pieces from other holy places,
and from tombs.”95 The research of Olivier Masson gradually
produced a critical but balanced view of the findspots indicated
by Cesnola, particularly for the sculpture. To a large extent, I
rely on Masson’s studies, based in part on his long investigations of the General’s correspondence. Unfortunately, Masson
did not have time to write the comprehensive work on Cesnola
for which he had gathered so much material.
The sale of the “duplicates,” put aside before World War I
(with objects from other sources), took place between 1916 and
1926, with the final sales during two sessions organized at the
Anderson Galleries in New York on March 30–31 and April
21–22, 1928. The objects sold are described—and partially
illustrated—in a double catalogue entitled Cypriote & Classical
Antiquities: Duplicates of the Cesnola & Other Collections.96
Some of them came back to the Metropolitan in 1941 as gifts.
More recently, several works have been placed on long-term
loan to other museums. A summary list follows:

22

introduction introduction

Cyprus Museum, Nicosia
74.51.2507. Statue of a male votary (Cat. 55)
74.51.2550. Statuette of a kriophoros (Cat. 171)
74.51.2580. Statuette of a seated lion (Cat. 368)
74.51.2665. Group of two doves (Cat. 377)
74.51.2840. Head of a man (Cat. 81)
Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham,
North Carolina
74.51.2459. Statue of a male votary (Cat. 80)
74.51.2462. Statue of a male votary (Cat. 86). Since 2014,
returned to the MMA. [See p. 435.]
74.51.2469. Statue of a male votary (Cat. 65)
74.51.2817. Head of a man (Cat. 133)
74.51.2839. Head of a man (Cat. 79)
74.51.2847. Head of a man (Cat. 17)
Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta
74.51.2754. Temple boy (Cat. 272)
Princeton University Art Museum
74.51.2470. Statue of a male votary (Cat. 50)
74.51.2496. Grave stele capital with two sphinxes (Cat. 471)
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond
74.51.2468. Statue of male votary (Cat. 11)
74.51.2612. Statue of male votary (Cat. 39)

The Place of the Cesnola Collection in the Study of
Cypriot Sculpture
The discoveries from Golgoi–Ayios Photios, and then those of
the sarcophagi of Amathus and Golgoi, immediately aroused
interest in the scholarly world, particularly in France. The
intense activity of Cesnola demonstrated by Doell’s catalogue,
the exhibition in London, and a voluminous correspondence
with European and American scholars, in addition to his book
of 1877, explain in large part this interest. The publications
of Georges Colonna-Ceccaldi in the Revue Archéologique also
had a considerable impact. In effect, they launched studies
of the typology, style, and chronology of Cypriot statuary.
Similarly, the sculptures from Golgoi underlie the observations of François Lenormant, who, using the pseudonyms of
Papayannakis and de Chanot, considered the various influences on Cypriot sculpture.97 The works of the Cesnola
Collection hold first place in the great book of Georges Perrot
and Charles Chipiez on the art of Phoenicia and Cyprus.98
Published in 1885, the same year as the first volume of the
Atlas, and immediately translated into English, Perrot and
Chipiez’s book enjoyed a much larger circulation and served

contents

as a reference for at least half a century for every study of
Cypriot art. The principal works of art in the Atlas became
widely known very much later through the small line drawings
in the Répertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine by Salomon
Reinach (1924). Meanwhile, the pieces judged to be most
important were reproduced on a large scale in the compendia
of Heinrich Brunn and Friedrich Bruckmann (1888–1900).
However, Adolf Furtwängler, the leading figure in the
study of Greek sculpture during the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries, showed no interest in Cypriot sculpture.
From his visit to the Cesnola Collection, he noted only the
Amathus sarcophagus (which, he said, should be better published), the anthropoid sarcophagus of Kition, and, curiously,
the group with a mother giving birth (Cat. 279). His judgment
of the Atlas is severe: “indeed, Cesnola’s large three-volume
Atlas is made with so little understanding that what is good has
no effect and only what is minor attracts attention.”99 Later,
and despite Myres’ Handbook, the Cesnola sculptures were
taken into account only in a limited way in studies of Cypriot
art and archaeology. Thus, Gjerstad makes proportionately
little use of them in his 1948 summary of Geometric, Archaic,
and Classical Cyprus.100 The observation of Leon Heuzey in
1882, “unfortunately, one must go to New York to look at these
curious monuments,”101 can be applied to many twentieth-­
century scholars who hesitated to make the trip. Thus, Olivier
Masson never studied directly the syllabic inscriptions in the
Metropolitan. The opening of the new installation in 2000,
followed by the “study collection” in 2007, has totally renewed
access to the Cesnola Collection.

Chronology of Cypriot
Sculptures
Since Lang’s discoveries at Idalion and Cesnola’s at Golgoi–
Ayios Photios about 140 years ago, the dating of Cypriot sculpture has been the object of diverse approaches. Some are based
on connections between the style of the works and historical
events (Assyrian domination, followed by Egyptian and
Achaemenid), others on comparisons with more precisely
dated non-Cypriot sculptures, principally from the Greek world.
In his great synthesis of 1948, Einar Gjerstad supplemented
these approaches with stratigraphic observations furnished by
the expeditions he had directed on Cyprus. Thus, the terracottas found in the small sanctuary of Ayia Irini constituted, for
the Archaic period, the essential starting point for a new
chronology, divided into “styles” called “Proto-Cypriote,”
“Neo-Cypriote,” and “Archaic Cypro-Greek.”102 For stone
sculpture, he added, for the Archaic period, “Cypro-Egyptian”
and, for the fifth and fourth centuries b.c., the “Sub-Archaic

Cypro-Greek” and “Classical Cypro-Greek” styles.103 The
discovery of many Cypriot terracottas and limestone sculptures at the Heraion of Samos, in often well-defined stratigraphic contexts, led Gerhard Schmidt and others to propose
new dates. I will not retrace in detail here the evolution of this
research during the last sixty years.104 After stating the grounds
for abandoning Gjerstad’s combination of chronology and
typology, I will emphasize the main reference points for dating
approximately the sculptures from Golgoi–Ayios Photios and
other Cypriot sanctuaries between the Archaic period and the
Hellenistic period. The latter period presents—also for Greek
art—greater difficulties for dating than earlier periods.
In the light of subsequent research, the categories proposed by Gjerstad for the Archaic period cannot be sustained.
The “Cypro-Egyptian” group, a small core of heterogeneous
works associated with the Egyptian domination of Cyprus,
received justified criticism that need not be repeated here.105
The “Egyptianizing” features of Cypriot sculpture are, at
least partially, “Phoenicianizing,” which does not mean that
this type of statue was characteristic only of the Phoenician
population on the island. Based on Cornelius Vermeule’s cautious observations, a typological classification connected to
the various ethnic groups has occasionally been proposed but
has led to an excessively low chronology.106 Further, the notion
of “style” as conceived by Gjerstad, based on aesthetic presuppositions that exclude a large amount of material, is no
more acceptable for stone sculpture than for terracottas.107 For
example, concerning the sequence from “Proto- to NeoCypriote” that the sanctuary of Ayia Irini was supposed to
demonstrate for the terracotta statues and statuettes, Sabine
Fourrier has shown that Gjerstad’s stratigraphy needs to be
questioned and that the works of “Proto-Cypriote” and “NeoCypriote” style found at Ayia Irini were actually contemporaneous. The first represent a local production of the kingdom of
Soloi, the second are imports from Idalion or Salamis.108
For the limestone sculpture, Gjerstad attributes to his
“first Proto-Cypriote Style” “only a few specimens”; like the
colossal head from Golgoi (Cat. 1) and the female statues from
Arsos, they are closely linked to the large terracottas from
Salamis and Idalion. The second phase of this style is defined
by a comparison between two statues that have little in common, a figure wearing an overgarment and conical cap,109 and a
man in Egyptianizing dress (Cat.  60). The group created
around these two works lacks homogeneity and the idea that
“we are still justified in including these sculptures in the
Proto-Cypriote style, because the character of their faces is
altogether Cypriote”110 lacks a sound stylistic basis. Trying
then to define his “Neo-Cypriote” group, Gjerstad admits that
the distinction from the preceding group essentially rests on
external influences. This new phase “is a transformation and

chronology of cypriot sculptures

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development of the Proto-Cypriote style, partly related to
Syrian, Egyptian and Ionian art, but still with the Cypriote
element playing the central combining and dominating role.”111
The “Cypriote element” remains central to later sculptural
production, but, for Gjerstad, the “Proto-Cypriote” style represents the apogee, after which Cypriot sculpture undergoes a
form of decadence that the following judgment expresses well:
“The Proto-Cypriote temperament is active, the Neo-Cypriote
is passive.”112 Today, it is useless to try to fit the sculptures
from the Cesnola Collection into Gjerstad’s categories and, by
extension, into the corresponding chronological slots.
To establish a chronology for Cypriot sculpture, the only
reliable reference points are those emanating from the discoveries at the Heraion of Samos, Cnidus, Miletus, and, for a
much smaller number of objects, Chios, Old Smyrna, and
Ephesus.113 The study of available contexts shows that molded
terracotta statuettes in the style of Salamis, which are closest
to limestone works, were offered at the Heraion of Samos and
elsewhere in the final third of the seventh century  b.c. By
contrast, stone statuettes hardly appear in levels earlier than
around 600 b.c. The problem is, therefore, to ascertain if this
difference existed also on Cyprus or if limestone sculptures
were produced on the island in the final decades of the seventh
century b.c. I have stated previously and continue to believe
that the situation in Samos probably reflects that of Cypriot
sanctuaries.114 Some scholars agree,115 but others are in favor of
dating the oldest works in the second half of the seventh century  b.c., thus earlier.116 The dedication of the Phoenician
sculptor Eshmounhillec on the cippus from Pyla, dated in the
seventh century  b.c. on paleographic grounds,117 indicates
that limestone sculpture was made on Cyprus before the sixth
century b.c., but the head of “Bes” on the cippus has nothing
to do with the rest of contemporary Cypriot statuary, and the
very fact that the work is signed emphasizes its exceptional
character. Be that as it may, the first borrowings from Aegean
Greek sculptures are related to the late Daedalic style, around
600 b.c. or the beginning of the sixth century, but these are sporadic, as are the connections with the so-­called Cypro-Ionian
sculpture. Actually, “until the third quarter of the sixth century
the sculptors on Cyprus adopt quite rarely, in disparate fashion
and preferably on small-sized works, the trends of eastern
Greece, which makes it improbable that all the ‘Cypro-Ionian’
sculptures have been realized in workshops set up to the east
of Cyprus. It is only in the second part of the sixth century,
that is, after the disappearance of the ‘Cypro-Ionian’ productions, that the style labeled ‘Cypro-Greek’ by Gjerstad spreads
widely on the island, first in varied forms until the end of the
sixth century and becoming more uniform thereafter.”118
For the end of the Archaic period, therefore, more precise
reference points exist, even if the dating of the Greek works

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introduction introduction

also gives rise to discussion. It is agreed, justifiably I think, that
the sculptures discovered in the “siege mound” of
Palaepaphos-Kouklia predate the siege of the city by the
Persians at the time of the Ionian revolt, about 498–497 b.c.
By contrast, the sculptures found in the palace of Vouni follow
this date, which marks the beginning of the building’s construction. For the immediately succeeding period, the fact that
a number of Cypriot sculptors followed aspects of Greek
sculpture of the “Severe Style” between about 480 and
450  b.c. provides relatively reliable dates for a significant
group of statues.119 It is not the same for the Classical period.
Only a few works can be placed with some precision between
about the middle of the fifth century b.c. and the time when
Greek styles of the end of the Classical and the beginning of
the Hellenistic periods are established on the island, as over
the entire eastern Mediterranean. This moment is difficult to
define, but can scarcely go beyond the middle of the fourth
century b.c. compared with the evolution of the sculpture on
the Phoenician coast. I think that a series of particularly fine
works—including the statues Cat.  90, 251, 357—belong to
this period.120 This is the time of the last Cypriot rulers, who
also dedicated statues of more prestigious materials, marble
and bronze, in the principal sanctuaries of the island.121 The
clay statues from the “pyre of Nicocreon” at Salamis constitute interesting but isolated evidence for the end of the fourth
century b.c.
For the long period of Ptolemaic occupation, from the
beginning of the third century b.c. to the death of Cleopatra
VII in 30  b.c., we have no exact chronological reference
points.122 Delicate questions about the stylistic and chronological classification of Cypriot statues from this period have been
addressed by Joan Connelly using works found at Arsos, Voni,
Idalion, and Golgoi. For the latter site, Connelly distinguishes
three “masters” whose activity is set toward the end of the
third century b.c. for “Master A,” the beginning of the first
century  b.c. for “Master B,” and toward the middle of the
same century for “Master C.”123 Works from the end of the
Hellenistic period (roughly the first three-quarters of the first
century  b.c.) are, in general, easier to characterize, to the
extent that they abandon certain traditional iconographic features for Cypriot votive statues—like the wreath of leaves—or
because they reproduce a facial style characteristic of the end
of the Roman Republic (Cat. 140). One must admit, however,
the difficulty of defining an exact chronology for productions
of the preceding two centuries, despite connections with certain Ptolemaic ruler portraits and iconographic features like
the “corkscrew curls” on heads of Apollo (Cat. 327, 328, 329,
331), rather indicative of the second part of the Hellenistic
period. In many cases, caution is advised, and I have preferred
to propose broad dates or to add a question mark.

contents

In the Imperial period, the production of limestone funerary monuments is attested principally at Golgoi,124 but by this
time sanctuaries in the region were scarcely frequented, and in
the major cities of the island, bronze and marble sculpture was
much more frequent.
In the present catalogue, I have provided a precise date for
Hellenistic and Roman works when one seemed evident to me;
otherwise, I have given them more general dates of Early
Hellenistic (late fourth century to third century  b.c.), late
Hellenistic (mid-second to mid-first century  b.c.), or Early
Roman (first century a.d.).
notes
1. McFadden 1971, pp. 1–80.
2. Masson 1990a, 1990b, 1990c; Marangou 2000.
3. McFadden 1971, p. 89.
4. Ibid., p. 99.
5. Hôtel Drouot 1870, pp. 20–22.
6. Decaudin 1987, pp. 142–49, nos. 68, 84, 86, 88, 89.
7. Hermary 1989a, p. 20.
8. Archäologische Zeitung 1870, p. 121.
9. Brehme et al. 2001, nos. 139, 142, 162.
10. Lo Porto 1986, pp. 25, 179.
11. Cesnola 1877, p. 109.
12. Archäologische Zeitung 1870, p. 121, no. 8.
13. Masson 1990b, p. 37.
14. Cesnola 1871; an English version of the text is published in Marangou
2000, pp. 210–19.
15. See Marangou 2000, p. 96.
16. Cesnola 1871, pp. 9–11:
L’area del tempio assai ben delineata dalle fondamenta in pietra
che trovai alla profondità di circa due metri, era lunga 60 piedi inglesi,
larga trenta: in uno spazio si angusto furono scoperte circa mille
statue. Esse furono disotterrate con precauzione: tutte erano più o
meno mutilate, il che proverebbe che il tempio fu distrutto o da orde di
invasori stranieri o dal fanatismo cristiano; ma più probabilmente da
quest’ultimo.
Infatti verso il centro del tempio rinvenni carboni ed uno strato
considerevole di cenere alto parecchi centimetri.
Un terzo circa delle anzidette statue erano di grandezza naturale,
parecchie gigantesche, ed una doveva essere veramente colossale,
come si può argomentare dalla testa che si è solo trovata intatta, lunga
un metro e due centimetri . . .
Accanto all’entrata Sud-Est a sinistra ed al di fuori delle
fondamenta, rinvenni un grande vaso in pietra che rassomiglia a quello
trovato ad Amatunta e che, suppongo, dovesse servire alle abluzioni
religiose.
Lunghesso le due pareti longitudinali trovaronsi molti piedestalli
schierati in parecchie file, di tutte le dimensioni; alcuni di essi con
bassi-rilievi, altri con iscrizioni Cipriotte, ma la più parte senza gli uni
e le altre.
Nel centro del tempio, a una distanza che non mi fu dato di
misurare, ma probabilissimamente uguali fra di loro, eranvi tre doppie
file di piedestalli, sui quali pare sorgessero le statue disposte dorso a

dorso; e ciò spiegherebbe, in modo per me soddisfacente, il perchè
molte avessero solo la parte anteriore della persona lavorata.
17. Hitchcock 1872. See McFadden 1971, pp. 119–23; Masson 1990c,
p. 292; Marangou 2000, pp. 77–80.
18. See McFadden 1971, pp. 102–9, about Doell’s visit and the negotiations
with the Hermitage.
19. “sogenannte Tempel von Golgoi”; “sind nach der Ueberzeugung des
Hrn. Cesnola für die baulichen Ueberreste des Aphroditetempels von
Golgoi zu halten.” Doell 1873, pp. 5–8.
20. Cesnola 1871.
21. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1870–71 = Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882, pp. 39–51.
22. Cesnola 1877, p. 130.
23. Ibid., p. 127: “some 200 yards.” Hermary 1989a, p. 16, with reference
to the two sites, A and B, mentioned by Edmond Duthoit.
24. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1870–71, fig. 1.
25. Cesnola 1877, p. 139.
26. Lang 1872.
27. Lang 1905, p. 636.
28. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1872 = Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882, pp. 51–62;
Colonna-Ceccaldi 1873 = Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882, pp. 62–63, pl. IV.
29. In Cesnola 1873, p. 2: “most likely a temple of Aphrodite.”
30. Schmidt 1874, 1876.
31. See Chanot 1878, pp. 192–93.
32. Cesnola 1877, p. 128.
33. Cesnola 1885, passim.
34. Cesnola 1877, pp. 125–64.
35. Ibid., p. 150.
36. Ibid., p. 159.
37. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893, pp. 15–16; see also Masson 1971, p. 311 n. 42.
38. Masson 1961/1983, p. 401.
39. Masson 1971, pp. 306–7, fig. 1.
40. See Ulbrich 2008, p. 30.
41. Kourou et al. 2002, p. 39.
42. Doell 1873, p. 5: “Ausdrücklich hinzufügen habe ich nur, dass bei
denjenigen Kalksteinsculpturen, deren Herkunft in der Beschreibung
nicht angegeben ist, aber auch nur bei diesen, immer der sogenannte
Tempel von Golgoi als die Fundstätte zu suppliren ist” (I must add
specifically only that the so-called temple of Golgoi is always to be
supplied as the findspot for those limestone sculptures whose origin is
not provided in the description, but only for them).
43. Cesnola 1885, [p. XI].
44. Isaac Hall, quoted in Masson 1966, p. 27 n. 5.
45. Masson 1997.
46. Marangou 2000, p. 109, with several reproductions.
47. MMA 1904.
48. Cesnola 1885, pl. CXVIII.
49. Masson 1996a, 1996b.
50. Comstock and Vermeule 1976, pp. 265–86.
51. Reinach 1905.
52. Ergüleç 1972.
53. Droop 1931a, 1931b; Masson 1996b, p. 26.
54. Hermary 1989a, p. 16.
55. Lang 1905, p. 42.
56. Hermary 1989a, p. 17; the majority of these works are in the Louvre.
57. Ikosi 1992, p. 268.
58. Senff 1993.

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59. Masson 1961/1983, pp. 286–99; Masson 1966, pp. 23–27; Masson 1971;
Ulbrich 2008, pp. 300–301.
60. Masson 1961/1983, nos. 295–299.
61. Ibid., no. 276.
62. Ibid., no. 275.
63. Ibid., nos. 276, which preserves a figure’s foot, and 300.
64. Ibid., no. 284.
65. Ibid., no. 271.
66. Masson 1971, p. 327, no. 5.
67. Masson 1961/1983, no. 286.
68. See the summary in Iacovou 2002.
69. Fourrier 2004, p. 199; Fourrier 2007, p. 45.
70. Egetmeyer 2012.
71. Aupert 1982; Hermary 2004b, p. 49, fig. 4.
72. Mitford 1971; Hermary 2004b, p. 59.
73. Hermary 1989a, pp. 17–19.
74. Masson 1966, pp. 1–21.
75. Masson 1961/1983, no. 305, fig. 89 (74.51.2340, Cat. 422), pl. LIII.1;
Masson 1966, pp. 20–21, fig. 15 (74.51.2392).
76. Cesnola 1885, pl. CXVII.848–854; see also commentary before
Cat. 359.
77. Ibid., pls. CXXIV.915, CXXV.916.
78. Cesnola 1877, pp. 344–45; Young 1955, p. 7 and Plan 2.
79. Myres 1914, pp. xvi–xix.
80. McFadden 1971, pp. 95–181; Masson 1961/1983, pp. 22–24.
81. Barnett 1977, pp. 157–58; Masson 1990c, pp. 291–93.
82. Cesnola 1873; Marangou 2000 reproduces the photographs in random
order.
83. McFadden 1971, p. 174; Dietrich von Bothmer, cited in Masson
1961/1983, p. 24 n. 3.
84. See the detailed presentation in McFadden 1971, pp. 190–229;
Marangou 2000, pp. 297–329.
85. Ergüleç 1972.
86. Myres 1914, pp. xxii–xxiii.
87. See Hendrix 2001.
88. Cesnola 1885, 1894, 1903.
89. MMA 1904.
90. Myres 1940–45a.
91. Myres 1914, pp. 141–251, nos. 1001–1420.
92. Ibid., pp. 266–71, nos. 1501–1560.
93. Ibid., pp. 275–78, nos. 1601–1660.
94. Ibid., pp. 278–81, nos. 1661–1700.

26

95. Ibid., p. 123.
96. Anderson Galleries 1928.
97. Papayannakis 1877; Chanot 1878.
98. Perrot and Chipiez 1885.
99. Furtwängler 1905, p. 278; “freilich ist Cesnola’s großer dreibändiger
Atlas so wenig verständig gemacht, daß das Gute gar nicht wirkt und
nur das Geringe sich breit macht.”
100. Gjerstad 1948.
101. Heuzey 1923, pp. 118–19.
102. Gjerstad 1948, pp. 92–117.
103. Ibid., pp. 117–24.
104. See Hermary 1990c, pp. 16–19; Counts 2001, pp. 147–52; Stylianou
2003; R. Bol 2009.
105. See Markoe 1990; Hermary 2001b, pp. 28–29; Faegersten 2003,
pp. 18–19; Senff 2008.
106. Vermeule 1974; Gaber-Saletan 1986, pp. 57–62; Markoe 1990.
107. Senff 1993, p. 21; Fourrier 2007, pp. 14–15.
108. Fourrier 2007, pp. 89–91, 104–5.
109. Cesnola 1885, pl. XLVII.284.
110. Gjerstad 1948, p. 102.
111. Ibid., p. 109.
112. Ibid., p. 108.
113. Recent clarification in Fourrier 2007, pp. 106–7; Henke 2009a, 2009b;
Kleibl 2009.
114. See Hermary 1991b, p. 146: “I would readily believe that Cypriot stone
sculpture mainly developed after and in imitation of terracotta
statuary.”
115. Höckmann 2007, pp. 80–81; see also Faegersten 2003, pp. 104–5, for
the Egyptianizing sculptures.
116. Senff 1993, pp. 26–29; R. Bol 2009.
117. Hermary 1989a, no. 593.
118. Hermary 2009b, p. 246.
119. Hermary 2005.
120. See also Senff 1993, pp. 39–42, but Connelly 1988 proposes dates that
are clearly later.
121. For Amathus, see Hermary 1983.
122. Cf. Senff 1993, p. 86: “so gut wie kein durch äußere Daten gesicherter
chronologischer Fixpunkt” (as good as no chronological point
confirmed by external evidence).
123. Connelly 1988, pp. 81–85.
124. Pogiatzi-Richter 2009.

opposite: cat. 424
introduction introduction

contents CATALOGUE .

as shown in a terracotta example from the Heraion of Samos. But it appears to spread more widely. the edge is indicated in relief. 1 is. The same is true of the headdress. or Archaic heads in terracotta. but it is not always visible on statuettes. from the end of the seventh century b. 28 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries The nature of the garments is not always easy to define. and then rises as a narrower panel onto the left shoulder. this type of image is sporadically attested before the middle of the seventh century  b. by their dimensions. on this last point. a series of terracotta figurines that must date from the second half of the seventh century  b. probably. for the bearded figures. falls to the level of the right knee. 235 and the head Cat. from the third quarter of the century. their rank in religious ceremonies.6 and a head fragment in the British Museum7 were certainly used as models for Cat.18 From the Cesnola excavations. beardless. 1. the beginning of the sixth.and large-size heads. In large-scale terracotta sculpture.contents catalogue chapter 1 Male Votaries Introduction Works of this type constitute the largest group during the first phase of Archaic sculpture. belonged to groups of the same type that was very rare in limestone sculpture of this period. Similarly. On almost all the medium. heads with long beards and helmets with raised flaps certainly existed in the second half of the seventh century b. They probably show the princes and dignitaries of the largest Cypriot kingdom of the period as followers of an unidentified deity. in the principalities of the Levantine coast and Cilicia. The himation covers the bent arm. but one can suppose that they are “dignitaries” whose elaborate garments reveal their high social status and. A terracotta statuette from SalamisToumba10 clearly attests to two long superposed garments and a fringed overgarment that. On an example in the Louvre. 12 and Cat. as far as terracottas are concerned.1 The original Assyrian model. One notes that the headdress is a wide headband and not a helmet with flaps. covers the bent right arm.9 however.19 others are almost certainly in Istanbul.c. The colossal terracottas that stood there.. show figures—principally bearded— who wear the same himation with a fringed edge that covers the bent right arm. The eastern origin of the dress and. On large-size works like Cat. adopted with a few changes at the end of the eighth and the seventh centuries b. an exception that must be compared to certain terracotta works.13 The bust Cat. which reach and exceed lifesize and are sometimes truly colossal (at least one and a half times lifesize). by terracottas from the Heraion of Samos.23 a dozen large . The relief decoration shown on Cat.11 The cap of these figures represents the same type of helmet as the one shown—with the flaps raised or lowered—on a quantity of statues. probably. the bearded type spread principally in Kazaphani and Patriki.c. figurines. as certain elements in the excavation report indicate. 12 is distinguished by the vertical position of the right arm and the very probable presence of two thin superposed tunics and a narrow pleated mantle draped only on the left shoulder. 9.8 but the type of the youth became more widespread. more generally. 17 indicates that the cap was made of leather. The prestige attached to these representations is indicated. Most frequent seems to be the short-sleeved chiton that falls to the feet and is covered by a kind of himation that drapes over the right shoulder. two large terracotta statues from Ayia Irini wear two superposed chitons. the edge of the himation is indicated by an incision and the fringe is painted red.16 as well as two smaller ones with a short beard17 and two others. on which the flaps are lowered. is also adapted on Cyprus.3 In larger-scale sculpture.15 on which the cords that are attached around the peak fall to the back. but whose headdress varies in form. there are works dispersed in the Anderson sale of 1928: the bust of a bearded dignitary wrapped in a fringed himation and wearing a bracelet around his upper left arm. in the traditional style.  11. a bearded head went to the Louvre. The sculptures of this type in the Metropolitan Museum represent only a small portion of those that come from the site of Golgoi–Ayios Photios.4 The most numerous and finest heads of this series—despite their fragmentary state—come from the sanctuary of Salamis-Toumba5 and undoubtedly date to the same period. to the third quarter of the sixth century b.14 without showing the two cords ending in tassels that tied the flaps under the chin. of the manner of depicting these figures has been recognized for a long time.22 Above all. a helmet that appears to suggest a military function as well. In Cypriot sculpture. The identity of the figures represented is difficult to determine. the flaps are raised. The large statue Cat. The colossal head Cat.2 On the island itself. The French expedition in 1862 had discovered previously and transported to the Louvre a fine series of large bearded heads.c.c.20 Boston.21 and Toronto.c.c. and.12 The military significance of this headdress is obvious on the groups in chariots.

31 In 1862. 1937. III. 13. 20. is said to come from the same site. 62. 32.or large-size bearded heads. Ibid.30 Similarly for the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. 10. pls. 4–11. . 4. 8. no. . introduction 29 . Törnqvist 1972.. 24. 24. Karageorghis 1961. nos.34 However. at Malloura. 418. 73. 13. 159. 43. XIV. LIV. Romano 1999. 9. 30. pp. Karageorghis 1993. p. nos.24 as well as a statue25 and several beardless heads. 286. fig.. Karageorghis 1961. 36–38. . said to come from the region of Athienou. 1891. 21.2. LVIII–LXXI. Six bearded and one beardless: Ergüleç 1972. 87. LIX. pls. Lembke 2004. pls. 26. 52.8 cm. Nicosia. Hermary 1989a. the head belonged to a statue approximately two meters high. from the second quarter or the middle of the sixth century b.29 and two fragmentary statuettes. 302. V. It is the case. XIII. pp.293. V.. 10–11. XVI. 39: Lithrangomi. IV– IX. pl. 9–14. pls. Counts 1998. unpublished. nos. Karageorghis 1993. Hermary 1989a.262. 1. Cesnola 1885. pls. 45–49. Karageorghis 1993. 7. C74. 518–22. 6b. 58 cm. Fourrier 2007. no. G. statues of three and a half to four meters high. 29. 34.36 On the site of Kition-Bamboula. LIII. 22–23. nos. XX. 2. 7. A head found in the city of Golgoi is an exception: Hermary 1989a. Senff 1993. 51e.420–427.. 27. 15.contents bearded heads. pp. old photos show terracotta bearded heads. 26. a statue of a dignitary.42 Outside Cyprus.32 Before 1998. pl. 3–7. Henke 2009a. pp. pp. no. Ibid. 45 cm. several beardless heads. V. 3. passim. nos. .28 the large head with the short beard already mentioned. V. twice normal size. p. . . Karageorghis 1995. a superb large bearded head. now in Stockholm. where Edmond Duthoit found three medium. also bearded. 23. 13. Schmidt 1968. 25. pp. about 37 statues of long-bearded dignitaries. pp.33 At Lefkoniko.. no. and fragmentary statuettes. 42. 13.3–8.287. 286. XLI. 24–25. Ibid. in Sarasota. Tatton-Brown 2000. Karageorghis 1993. nos. Karageorghis 2003a. but on a much smaller scale. 5. Schmidt 1968. about ten smaller beardless heads. no. first. Munro et al. 146–47. V. 6. 2. 14. Karageorghis 1995.. 24.291. passim. 19. Myres 1914. 181. pls. XLI. Karageorghis 1993. no. Karageorghis 2001.4. 670. Cesnola 1885. no. 31. 185. Buchholz 1991. 29. LI. nos.290. A head with a short beard and a beardless head of normal size: Comstock and Vermeule 1976. . 133–34. 11. Monloup 1984. no. Myres found only a single large bearded head. 31–33. . XXII.. 26–29. Ibid. Ibid. pp. 419. Hermary 1989a. 36. 41. 30. one might add an unpublished bust from the Zintillis collection at Nicosia. Karageorghis 2003c. 93. Karageorghis 2003c. Fourrier 2007. Ibid. 16. This group clearly outnumbers the statues of short-bearded or beardless figures that never exceed lifesize. VI. p.402. Karageorghis 2003b. no. pp.T 1690. 12–14. XV. The distribution of this kind of image on the Syro-Phoenician coast is well attested by the discoveries from the sanctuary of Amrit44 in the form of statues known at Naucratis and in the sanctuaries of eastern Greece. Myres 1940–45a.344. 22.. would have originated from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. see also Yon 2005. pp. 180. 30. 99–100. 11. and commentary p. 27.288. compare a head of unknown origin in Copenhagen. 55. 75. 33. 19. Senff 1993. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 7–16. Hermary 1989a. 4. 22. . 173–75. pls. Hermary 1989a. no.37 Probably from the same sanctuary comes a very large bearded head. the French discovered six large bearded heads and an under-lifesize beardless head.26 A large number of other statuettes and isolated beardless heads found on the site have also left the Metropolitan Museum. 23. fragmentary. 62–64.. pls. 19–22. G. no. V. 48–50. Yon 2005. 25. where Lang discovered several large bearded heads and numerous statuettes and small beardless heads. 39. V. 15. fig. 678. 303. pls. pl. 33. notes 1.406. LVI. nos. pp. 41.27 In all. 50. 14. XXIII.. pl. 35.c. pl. 5–8. pp.299–301.4: preserved height of 41. XLIX. VIII–XI. LV. XXVI. pl. XXI. p. Ibid. fig. 7. 40.349. Finally. 3.260.38 Other particularly impressive bearded heads come from the excavations of Robert Hamilton Lang at Pyla39 and from other sites—one from Oura in the Karpass Peninsula. V. 6–10. 2. XX. 28. XL.264. no. 61. Ibid. XLIX. Ibid. 17. 12.258. 44. ranging from normal size to colossal proportions.259. For example. V. V. 4b. others are of unknown origin. 18.1–2. 34..351–354. V. but many beardless statuettes. pls. pls. the American expedition discovered a large fragmentary bearded head. and a beardless statuette. Hermary 1989a. 33–34. XII. 5. no. nos. Markoe 1987: H. XX. pl. Karageorghis 2002. H. nos. 32. LXI. a large bearded head said to have been found at Byblos43 is closest to the sculptures from Golgoi and its region. 20. V. 3b. pp. Cyprus Museum A 111. pp. pl. Ibid. V. 23. pl. V. 12. a rather poorly preserved head comes from Arsos (Cyprus Museum B 140). pp. pls. 21. pls. pl. in the city of Golgoi.403. nos. XLVII.40 a region from where a poorly preserved statue of a bearded dignitary originated (V. 39: Lithrangomi)41. no. nos.35 For the sanctuary of Apollo at Tamassos-Phrangissaa. p. Gjerstad et al. fig. 53. 16. no. no. V. Pryce 1931. 12.3. 38.254–256. 37.6–7. The same distribution is found in other male sanctuaries on the island. Ibid. XLV. which is also one of the latest in the series.360. the Swedish excavators discovered a statuette and several beardless heads of later date.5.

is visible. The inside of each nostril is also slightly hollowed out. A thin. the upper edge of which is marked by a thin raised band. commentary  The discovery of this head launched the excavation of the two sites at Ayios Photios.3 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. which is almost entirely broken. The beard is divided into four strands. 1 Colossal bearded head wearing a conical helmet Late 7th or early 6th century b. (88. This fragment of a colossal statue (its full height must have been between 3. the eyelids are carefully delineated. “near the temple” Myres 1257 The Cesnola Collection. The ears slant forward. just below the lips. The width of the nostrils is emphasized by the hollowing out of the outside furrow. At its base are two cords with tassels at each end. The contour and the interior of the cheekpieces are marked by summarily incised lines. Along the neck. that projected above the head. straight raised band edges the leftmost and rightmost strand. Limestone H. The very wide nose juts forward.contents cat. The top of each eyeball forms a wide. is preserved.c. On the forehead. At the center of this band. Purchased by subscription. The face has a stern expression.5 and 4 meters) still constitutes today the most spectacular testament to the first Cypriot limestone sculptures.2857) description  The colossal dimensions of the head are accentuated by the long rectangular beard (traces of black paint). The choice of huge scale is probably explained by direct contact with the Egyptian world through the Greek trading post at Naucratis. protruding half-moon. 1–18) Cat. is a small round protuberance. the central part of the helmet is raised. the top of the mass of hair. Only part of the peak. the upper lip is 30 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries thicker than the lower. the mouth is stiff. revealing small curled locks. There is no reason to think that this figure represents a god or . 1874–76 (74.51. at the end of each is a large curl directed outward. 34¾ in. 1 Male Votaries with Conical Helmets (Cat. the tragus is emphasized. the curve of the thick eyebrows continues the line of the nose.

R. 1874–76 (74.  XLIX.2 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. 1–18) 31 .4 Finally. 3. pp. 354. pl. The very flat forehead is partly covered by the helmet. the form and expression of their facial features as well as the row of small curled locks on the forehead. pl. Hermary 1989a. but the connection with a series of terracotta heads from Salamis is obvious. XX. XXXIX. Masson 1971. are in the shape of half-moons.  372. p. no.  XXIV. Senff 1993. fig.c. Stylianou 2003. His subject may represent a ruler of Idalion.289. pl. p. 3. 45. One is more inclined to connect his exceptional size with his social rank or his religious functions. (45. 1. is similar. The eyeballs. 4. no. also from Golgoi–Ayios Photios.2).  31 p. pl. fig.253. 24. p. 5a–c. Limestone H. V.3 A third. fig. no. Cf. pls.3–4. the arch of the eyebrows follows that of the upper eyelids.2. The short wide nose and the stiff mouth have been partially restored in plaster. references  Cesnola 1885. The lips show a faint smile. The absence of a stylistic link with Greek works makes dating difficult. A fragmentary head in the Louvre. p. 2 male votaries with conical helmets (cat.2850) description  The beard assumes a roughly rectangular 6. Purchased by subscription. 2 Over-lifesize bearded head wearing a conical helmet Late 7th or early 6th century b. Hermary 1989a. which is broken. pl. 96.1 The thick rolls at the end of the beard are original. pl.51.3 (legend should read “Cesnola 1257”). 31.6 In any case. the kingdom to which the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios was dependent at the time. more generally. pl. The sculptor from Golgoi reproduces. Ibid.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1259 The Cesnola Collection. V.  50–51. no. 5. V.. pl. Myres 1940–45b. VIII. shape. 18 in. the peak of which curves in at the back of the head. pl. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. XXV. 237. C67. 521. Cat. 2. an over-lifesize head from Pyla shows a more severe version but is finely executed. no. XXV.a–b. Cesnola 1885. 4. which protrude more at the top than below. It is composed of four smooth strands separated by incised lines and rounded off at the bottom. one can consider the artist of the colossal statue of Golgoi as one of the founders of regional workshops and. of the same origin. 15. Karageorghis 1993. p. offers a different version of the face and beard. cat. in a relatively coarse manner. Karageorghis 2001. of the large-scale Cypriot limestone sculpture.2 Another. Gjerstad 1948. Gjerstad 1948. 5. 123. no. p.  III. 1873. Cesnola 1877. p. Karageorghis 2000a. Myres 1940–45b. Two earrings were probably attached to each schematic and partially broken earlobe. 3. 28. II. 171. 96. Doell (legend should read “Cesnola 1259”). 2. no. pl. Pryce 1931. 312.5–6.5 A very similar example is in Copenhagen. Bol 2009.6. has coarser features. 123 with fig. p. p. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1870–71 (dated November 1871). from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. but does not show the small curls under the helmet. pp. 44–46.contents a hero. 4.

reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. description  The body is very flat.c. 4 Cat. 12 no. and there are many toolmarks.51. the right arm is bent under the himation.2590) description  The bare feet are placed on a slanting plinth. The beard is unarticulated. The himation flares at the bottom. The nose is wide. pl.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1004 The Cesnola Collection.c. The cheekpieces of the helmet are shown. Purchased by subscription. (60.51.298.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1001 The Cesnola Collection. XLII. I. simply roughed out at the bottom. The back is flat at the top. pls. 4 Statuette of a beardless male votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Late 7th or first half of the 6th century b. the eyes bulging. There are remains of red paint. 6. (36. Limestone H. The very summary lowered left arm is shown with the hand grasping a round object. p.268. 23¾ in. pl. 3 cat. The long face has a serious expression.4 . references  Doell 1873.355.2576) Cat. placed on a slanting plinth. LI.contents cat. Limestone H. The facial expression is stern. the wide bare feet are The body is very flat. LV. 3 Statuette of a bearded votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Late 7th or first half of the 6th century b. 32 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The back is flat. 14½ in. the border of which is beaded. The nose is broad and the large eyes protruding. The right hand is placed on the chest. Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74. the top of the crest is still apparent.

reference  Cesnola 1885. another. pl.356.c.c.51. (15.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1005 The Cesnola Collection. 6 in. Part of the himation covers the left shoulder.contents cat.380.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1002 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. LVII. the nose has been traces of red at the bottom of the garment. The back is smooth and flat. 5 cat. There are toolmarks on the flat back. Purchased by subscription. falls the entire length of the left side of the body. 5 Statuette of a beardless male votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Late 7th or first half of the 6th century b. 6 Cat.51. The face is serious. the edge of which is visible on the upper left arm. Limestone H. male votaries with conical helmets (cat.2570) Cat. The figure is dressed in a short-sleeved chiton. The features of the beardless face are only roughed out. painted red.2556) description  The statuette is very small and flat with description  The feet are missing. 1–18) 33 . 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. LV. and a himation that covers the bent right arm. 1874–76 (74. 19⅛ in. The body is very long and flat. (48. with the features summarily indicated. pl. 6 Statuette of a beardless male votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Late 7th or first half of the 6th century b. restored.

The throat is thick. 10 in. The ears are summarily rendered. Purchased by subscription.  31. 8 . Limestone H.51. The face has a serious expression. pl. the nose is broken. but smiling mouth. The helmet is set low. (25.2474) description  The feet and the plinth are modern. The eyes are asymmetrical. The features show a very small. The back is flat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1354 The Cesnola Collection. 7 34 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. Two rings are attached to each earlobe. 63⅝ in. Purchased by subscription.contents Cat.  LVI. The left arm is held to the side of the body with the hand closed. form a flat band that ends before the nose.51. Myres 1940–45b. the hair forms a smooth wide mass that widens out to the level of the shoulders. It covers the bent right arm with the hand closed.359. set high. and low. 1874–76 (74. On the back. (161. Limestone H. Cat. 7 Lifesize beardless male votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet First half of the 6th century b.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1274 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. scarcely articulated eyebrows. 8 Lifesize beardless head wearing a conical helmet First half of the 6th century b. hiding the forehead almost entirely. A wide mass of hair falls to the shoulders. The eyebrows. pl. The helmet peak is broken. XLVI.c. The extremely flat body is dressed in a chiton and an unarticulated himation that appears to fall to the feet. cat. stiff.c. almond-shaped eyes. pl.2492) description  The nose is partially restored. the upper part of the eyeballs and the eyelids protrude more than the lower. pointed chin.5 (legend should read “Cesnola 1274”). reference  Cesnola 1885.283. the peak is set on the top of the head.

creating a faint artificial smile. The forehead is mostly covered by the helmet. 10 Over-lifesize bearded head wearing a conical helmet First half of the 6th century b. The almond-shaped eyes are bulging. XXXV.51. 1874–76 (74. cat. Gjerstad 1948. pointed nose. 7¾ in. p.c.361. reference  Cesnola 1885.c. 14½ in.2543) description  The smooth beard with a central incision description  The cheekpieces of the helmet cover the references  Doell 1873. small elongated eyeballs.  45. hatched eyebrows. the peak curves back and the end is broken. with protruding eyelids. p.10. (36. V. the eyebrows form a slightly curved band.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1258 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription.51. (19.  243. Protruding from under the helmet in high relief is a row of curls. 10 male votaries with conical helmets (cat.222. Cesnola 1885. 1–18) 35 .1–2. The ridge of the nose is broken. 1874–76 (74. 100. and four curves delineating the end of each strand juts out sharply. cat. The cheekpieces are not shown. 9 Under-lifesize beardless head wearing a conical helmet First half of the 6th century b. Purchased by subscription. and low-set.contents shows fine features.  VIII. pl. There are toolmarks on the back and under the chin. Limestone H. no. pl. LVI. The lips are stiff and the cheekbones prominent. 9 Cat. The face pl. Limestone H. ears. A smooth mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. pl.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1276 The Cesnola Collection. The helmet peak is mostly missing. a slightly hooked. but two cords are tied at the top of the head in a Herakles knot. a faint smile and stiff mouth.2860) Cat.

pl. The himation forms a panel with a raised border that is draped over the left shoulder. description  The figure stands on a small. visible on the left arm. courtesy Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. and a and Bruckmann 1888–1900. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. I. (166 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1353 The Cesnola Collection. Brunn plinth. 2. references  Doell 1873. fig.51. 131. Bands mark the edge and the center of the helmet’s cheekpieces. The feet. the eyeballs are turned slightly inward and the eyebrows form a flat. p. Cesnola 1877.1. the six strands in the center end in a hook. covering the bent right arm. fig.c. 11 Cat. 12. p.contents cat. and the base of the peak projects from the top of the head. fig. while high on the forehead a smooth band also indicates hair. cat. 518. p. pl. He wears a short-sleeved chiton. 65⅜ in. 201. Spiteris 1970. 11 Lifesize bearded votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Second quarter or middle of the 6th century b. Richmond. 1874–76 (74. three fingers of the closed hand are missing. gently curved band that ends before the nose. The nose is hooked. The beard is rendered with smooth strands. A smooth mass of hair flares over the nape of the neck. 36 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . no. Photo: Katherine Wetzel. Limestone H. 131. hand closed. apparently bare. p. slightly slanting Cesnola 1885.11.2468) (on loan to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.281. XLIV. pl. The face has a rather discreet smiling expression. 353. 12 himation that falls to the right knee. The left arm is held against the body. are placed side by side. Purchased by subscription. Richmond) Photo © Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.

407. above all. which appears to belong to the body. The full and rounded beard is made up of rows of small curly strands under a kind of net in relief. with a flat ridge.  15. appears on the left shoulder and covers the left breast.1. The partially broken nose is slightly hooked. IV. [191. no. Markoe 1987. pl. 1. Cat. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. slightly bumpy at the level of the buttocks. at the bottom and over the arms. with narrower eyes and.  31. Purchased by subscription.. with the left foot slightly advanced.2.  122. fig.  29. The shape of the left leg is suggested under the garment. p. 9⅛ in. Cesnola 1877. the eyebrows form a curved band that descends almost to the nose. has a smiling face with stiff. The peak. of which only the lower border. The large head from Lefkoniko2 belongs to the following generation.1 suggesting a date around the middle of the sixth century b. and finally. no. still limited. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. that of the last heads wearing conical helmets. A row of very small locks appears on the forehead under the helmet. (185 cm) (75½ in. pp. 22). characterized by its pleated fabric and its thick and raised crinkled edge. Mylonas 2003. The introduction of pleats on the garment.13. with side locks forming large curls. pl. and high cheekbones. LVII. pl. The large ears are summarily rendered. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1873. 13 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a long garment and a conical helmet Second or third quarter of the 6th century b.2460) description  The figure stands on a rectangular plinth. p. pl. This change.4 and 7 (head only). A wide mass of hair is spread over the nape of the neck. and the right thigh. 54. Cesnola 1885.  XLII. curved lips preserving traces of red paint. The face recalls that of the Rampin rider and comparable works. reference  Cesnola 1885. p. cat. Markoe 1987.c. He appears to be wearing two thin superposed garments: a chiton.  201. and the ends of the sleeves in the middle of his forearms are visible. 1874–76 (74. and a tunic.  173. There are many toolmarks. p. 1–18) 37 . The eyeballs are slightly protruding. 1874–76 (74.8 cm] with the plinth) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1352 The Cesnola Collection. are inspired by Aegean Greek models. Karageorghis 2000a. fig. the facial expression. of which the edges. The chiton is almost entirely covered by the tunic. 13 male votaries with conical helmets (cat. the detailed strands of the beard and hair. at the level of his ankles. The back is flat.c. 2. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. Limestone H. 4. (23. A third garment. barefoot. LX.contents Cat. a wide smile.  I. the left arm is held to the side of the body. p. pl. stop just above those of the chiton. pl.51. The back is flat. pl. Both arms are held at the side of the body with hands closed. p. commentary  This statue represents an important stage in the evolution of the type. hands closed.2548) description  There are traces of fire on the feet and the left side. references  Doell 1873. 143 with fig.366. The cheekpieces of the helmet are not shown.1. in the style of the Greek kouroi. It has flaps and its surface is decorated with small lozenges between vertical strips. but it occurs earlier than the “priest with dove” (Cat.2).  350. Purchased by subscription. pl. is not easy to date.  I.2 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882.  513.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1009 The Cesnola Collection. 72⅞ in. 151. The right arm is bent under the garment. Limestone H. 12 Over-lifesize bearded votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Second or third quarter of the 6th century b.c. Rolley 1994a.51. falls toward the back. the abdomen. VIII. The head. partially missing. The facial features are summarily rendered. 281–82.

A himation covers the bent right arm. with toenails clearly shown.4 cm) Myres 1275 The Cesnola Collection. (52 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1003 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. 14 Under-lifesize beardless head wearing a conical helmet Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. On the back is just a bit of the hair that projected below the helmet. the nose is slightly hooked. 15 . Purchased by subscription. cat. indicated by an incision. The garment partially covers the belt. 20½ in. Cat. stand on a horizontal plinth. the frontal locks jagged. A part of the cloak is draped over the left shoulder. the eyes almond-shaped.51.2557) description  The face has a smiling expression. 1874–76 (74.c. 15 Statuette of a beardless male votary wearing a long garment and a conical helmet Middle of the 6th century b. the ends are broken.c. 7¼ in. Limestone H. The garment consists of a short-sleeved chiton that flares out at the bottom. the ears schematic. 14 38 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. The tall helmet has a smooth surface and the peak is nothing more than a stump. the chest. 1874–76 (74. the eyebrows high and thick.contents Cat.51.2535) description  The small bare feet. references  Unpublished. and the right hip. Purchased by subscription. (18.

turn inward. A row of thick. The eyes. thick eyebrows are high-set. 15 in. Limestone H. the relatively short. Limestone H. male votaries with conical helmets (cat.2851) description  The rounded beard is smooth. references  Cesnola 1885. reference  Cesnola 1885. the cheekpieces of which are clearly outlined. a smooth band indicates the locks that show underneath the helmet. curled locks. curled locks covers the upper forehead as far as the ears. 540–520 b. p. Except on the back. with slightly protruding eyeballs. Two rings are attached to each earlobe. XL. 1874–76 (74. 17 Lifesize bearded head wearing a conical helmet Ca. XIV.c. pls. A mass of smooth hair flares onto the nape of the neck. 114. the eyes are almond-shaped. The face is delicate. The small eyes are almond-shaped and turned inward.contents cat.51.51. Purchased by subscription. (31. 12¼ in. Duke University) Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. with the central part jutting forward. On the forehead. The ears are correctly delineated. description  The beard—the end of which is broken— consists of three rows of curled strands.258. the hair consists of two rows of thick. Cat. the peak is no more than a stump.267. The peak of the helmet falls to the back. (38. reference  Cesnola 1885. There is a small mustache above the upper lip. the features delicate. On the nape of the neck. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion. 16 Lifesize bearded head wearing a conical helmet Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. only the base of the peak is shown. separated by smooth bands. Purchased by subscription.c. The back is flat. Cat. 1–18) 39 .2847) (on loan to the Nasher Museum.328. 16 The smiling face is rounded. with horizontal lower eyelids and low-set eyebrows that are not hatched. pl. the entire surface of the helmet is divided into rows of small rectangles. LIII.1–2.292. XLIX. pl. The ridge of the nose is flat and there is a small break at the tip. the nasolabial line is shown. the expression faintly smiling.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1260 The Cesnola Collection. pl. the expression is smiling. The upper lip protrudes more than the lower and there are traces of red paint on the mouth. The face is thin. 1874–76 (74.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1283 The Cesnola Collection. they are distinctly separated from slightly curved eyebrows. Gjerstad 1948. XLII.

18 40 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .contents cat. 17 cat.

(39 cm) “City of Golgoi” Myres 1282 The Cesnola Collection. p. (11. pl. cat. p. high-set eyebrows. Limestone H. Romano 2006. Purchased by subscription. 19–24) Cat. thick. A head from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion belongs to the same phase. but the Cypriot sculptors never seek to copy faithfully these models. pointed nose.  45. There are traces of red paint and the base of the peak is indicated. 1874–76 (74.1 These heads retain the traditional hairstyle on the nape of the neck.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1051 The Cesnola Collection. LIX. A row of curled locks projects below the helmet. the shape of the eyes. The surface is covered with diamond-shaped lozenges. 17 and 18 belong to the latest representations of bearded dignitaries wearing a helmet with cheekpieces. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. no. Purchased by subscription. LXXXI. and well-defined ears. 540–520 b. whereas the “priest with dove” (Cat. 19 Small beardless head with a helmet of Greek type Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. pl. description  The beard. the structure of which is clearly detailed. 4⅜ in. very large eyes with thick eyelids. C76. The left ear is partially missing. which has a smiling face. references  Doell 1873.c. 1874–76 (74. 22) adopts the Greek style of long locks near the ears. there is no mustache.2849) From the same period and in similar style. and smooth hair under the helmet. pl. a head in the University of Pennsylvania Museum2 no longer wears the helmet but has fully curled hair and a knotted headband. and the smiling expression also refer to contemporary creations of the Aegean Greek world. pl. 29. placed high. 2. wide-open eyes with almost flat eyeballs and delicate eyelids.l. A mass of smooth hair flares onto the nape of the neck.536. 7d–f.  231. 15. Cesnola 1885. The eyebrows. Limestone H. is divided into rows of large curled strands. 15⅜ in. Pryce 1931. 18 male heads with other types of helmets (cat. 1. Male Heads with Other Types of Helmets (Cat. no. broken around the lower edge.405. 19–24) 41 .c.  VIII. He has a smiling curved mouth with the nasolabial line shown. 18 Over-lifesize bearded head wearing a conical helmet Ca.contents cat. Senff 1993. 19 Cat.2689) description  A helmet of Chalcidian type with a crest covers the small head. a pointed nose with hollowed nostrils. commentary  The heads Cat.51. no.

The inscription on the helmet. 20 Cat. (7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1050 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. reference  Cesnola 1885.c. Purchased by subscription. cat. 21 Small beardless head with a helmet of Greek type Late 6th or early 5th century b.2693) description  The head wears a helmet of Greek type. pl. is difficult to interpret. composed of five syllabic signs. 1874–76 (74.534. more probably. 540–520 b. references  Cesnola 1903.contents Cat. 22 Over-lifesize bearded male votary wearing Greek dress and a decorated helmet. (217. 287 (cf. and smooth ears. 21 42 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .c.2312) description  The small helmeted head is beardless.51. LXXXI.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1880 The Cesnola Collection. Masson 1961/1983. lidless eyes.51. 1874–76 (74. p. commentary  The forward position of the head suggests that it belonged to a figure in a chariot or. He has a smiling face. The head leans forward.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios.1–2. the crest of which is painted red and black and falls to the back.51. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. Cat. 85½ in. pl. 2¾ in. (11. Limestone H. known as the “priest with dove” Ca. 20 Small beardless head with a helmet of Greek type and a syllabic inscription Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. “West side near the temple” Myres 1351 The Cesnola Collection. pointed chin.c. to a group of the three-bodied Geryon.  CXXXI. 417).2466) cat. 4½ in. no. Purchased by subscription.

and more or less folded back on the chest. the right one is lowered.] The beard.contents description  The feet and the plinth are modern. is made up of four rows of curled locks. it was sculpted separately. which has thick. 19–24) 43 . the front part of which is subdivided into eight vertical bands decorated with U-shaped volutes containing sprouting plants. under a band decorated with flowers and lotus buds. The left leg is clearly advanced. and left forearm. very wide red line at the base of the neck would tend to provide confirmation. The nose is short and pointed. a horizontal length of material is either a fold of the himation or. The top of the helmet is in the shape of a bovid head cat. more probably. high-set. but the remains of four claws are visible between the figure’s forefinger and middle finger. The top of the head is covered by a helmet. The body is massive. the left farther from the nose. where they fall the length of the left leg. are asymmetrical. hands extended forward. 22 male heads with other types of helmets (cat. A row of large scalloped curls stands out in relief in the middle of the forehead. The himation. The double. Both arms are bent. A dove rested on the left hand. the stomach. form a slightly curved roll that ends before the base of the nose. of which only the lower portion is pleated. part of a third garment. The forearms were worked separately and set in at elbow level. as is probably the rear portion of the wings. short lips marked by lateral dimples and a central hollow on the upper lip. and forms with the forehead a receding profile. The bird was added shortly after the discovery. Under the left breast. with the root of one handle at the back. the lobes hollowed out. The body and the upper arms are probably covered by two chitons. which juts forward. The ears are quite roughly outlined. It is clearly separated from the mouth. The eyebrows. Its head is modern. 435. with very wide shoulders and thrust-out chest. The almondshaped eyes. The right hand holds a footed cup. A short syllabic inscription that appears on the left shoulder was once read as: “tas Paphias” (I belong to the Paphian Goddess). surrounded by carefully outlined eyelids. placed on the right shoulder. [See p. as on the smooth mustache above it and which is exactly the same size. is animated by numerous pleats along the right side and from the stomach down to the bottom of the legs.

contents with short horns and creased dewlaps. he merely repeats the information conveyed afterward by Cesnola. near the elbow. the other on the forearm.c. At . was found shortly after”. one on the hand. two mortises intended for the fastening of the bird were visible. Geometric patterns (a stroke between two lines of three points and a cross surrounded by four points). Three beaded locks begin behind the ear and fall on the chest and the upper arms. is very rare in Cyprus. therefore. in fact. 117. The pegs were replaced by brass rods. but the identity of this creature is far from certain. to adapt two forearms belonging to another statue with the same dimensions and dating from the same period. glued with some material similar to plaster. as well as the layer of hair on the back. as is the vase that is joined to the right hand. genuine Cypriote work. and Doell says explicitly that he did not see it during the summer of 1870. 111. a dove. It is. as far as I know. At the time of the discovery. The “priest with dove” is. commentary  Note in the Museum’s archive based on a report by Charles Balliard: “Head broken off: both feet and the base (a new base was made by Balliard from a tombstone that came from Cyprus) broken off: both wrists broken: repaired by Balliard. After removing the dirt Balliard discovered the Cypriote inscription on the left shoulder of the figure. 22 elbow. of about the same period as the body. It is therefore very probable that the forearms and the hands are those of the original statue. the dove restored on the figure’s hand toward the end of 1870 appears to be too small if one compares it to the surviving claws and to the two mortises. 128). when he was drafting his catalogue on site. also in red. As for Colonna-Ceccaldi. however. An extraordinary combination of circumstances would have been necessary for Cesnola. Of the many traces of polychromy mentioned by Myres. who describes the mortise hollowed out at the level of the left 44 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. Such an eventuality is all the more improbable because the technique of joining parts. The back of the helmet is smooth. The dove does not appear in the first known photos of the statue. Cesnola probably did not want to show this exceptional work without the bird held originally in the hand. are painted on the upper borders of the two chitons. Each wrist was fastened originally with a square wooden peg. they are. 110. I hesitate to follow Myres on this point. Some red is visible in several places on the himation. The forms at the back are summarily defined and there are toolmarks. within a matter of weeks. except for an incised hook above the left ear. This is ancient. impossible to be certain that the present arms are the original ones: probably they are not. current in Archaic Greek art. Myres writes: “The original arms have been broken off.. few survive today. fixed to the fist by wooden dowels. the votary holding a dove by its wings against his thigh is well known (Cat. Was it necessarily a dove? In Cypriot sculpture of the fifth century b. the only Archaic Cypriot statue that displays both arms extended in this manner. with an indication of the means of fastening the creature to the hand unconfirmed by Myres.” As far as the forearms are concerned. and the broken surfaces have been seriously defaced in refitting. but birds carried on the fist are infrequent and rarely well preserved. The tail of the dove is made partly of wood and fastened to the arm with a square wooden peg. he simply notes that “one of two attributes. contrary to what Myres writes.” Even though he is the only one to have observed the body after the removal of the arms. Actually. 85. The remaining claws on the left hand show that the figure held a bird. 116.

it is a very worn dove(?) that has alighted on the forearm of a young woman. 29. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. 67.c. The sculptor who executed this work is certainly one of the masters of the Golgoi workshop in the second half of the sixth century  b.1–2. if not to the same sculptor. Boardman 1978. fig. 142. Cesnola 1877. p.2 our Cat.” had led to accepting the restitution of a dove. 11. it is also a bird of prey that rests on the forearm of the Apollo from Voni. The U-shaped volutes (see the Amathus sarcophagus Cat. A bird in relief. as indicated by Myres: the two small horns and the dewlaps indicate that this is certainly a bovid. known as Zeus Keraunios. Karageorghis 2000a. pls. 133. rightly or wrongly. pls. 1. 132. fig. The artist knew how to adapt the faces of contemporary Greek sculpture—the sculptures of the Aegina pediments offer a good example1—to the traditional Cypriot iconography. it would have been of metal partly gilt. as Colonna-Ceccaldi thought. and the pleated himation draped over the shoulder. II–III.contents Salamis–Ayios Varnavas. (44.51. 96. in Myres’ day still enhanced by traces of red. heads with wreaths (Cat. on the coins of the kings of Paphos. One is tempted to attribute to the same workshop. commentary  This head is one of the finest Cypriot creations of the end of the Archaic period.c. and reproduces the long locks near the ears. as suggested by the traces of yellow paint—particularly on the animal’s head—or a leather helmet with the forepart of a bull in gold or gilded bronze. Yon 1974. pp. From the same period. this exceptional offering has been linked to the goddess of Paphos. 173. If the sculptor was inspired by an actual model. nor that of a griffin. The nasolabial line is indicated. 1937.  94). The nostrils are hollowed out and their contour carefully rendered.  XXIII– XXIV. Purchased by subscription. 32.  23. The high cheekbones give the face a smiling expression. Another exceptional element is the decoration on the cap or the helmet worn by the figure. that the figure portrayed held a very high social position and one is tempted to consider this the representation of a king of Idalion at the end of the sixth century b.4 Are these patterns political and/or religious emblems belonging to important Cypriot families? The bird of prey and the bull without any doubt are animals linked both to the cult of important male divinities of Cyprus and to royal power. awkwardly reproduced here. I. Masson 1961/1983. pp. The animal head placed at the top is not that of a lion.12. practically a contemporary of the “priest” of Golgoi. Connelly 1988. 17½ in.c. no. 5. 47–48. “I belong to the Paphian Goddess. Greenewaldt and Heywood 1992.431.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1284 The Cesnola Collection. Gjerstad et al. The lower part of the helmet is decorated with a kind of fringe. XV. Hermary 2000a. in any case. 107. and there is an indentation under the lower lip. no. figs. which is perhaps the reason why. The ridge of the nose is delicate. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1870–71. no.  370–72. 139. J. 23 Over-lifesize bearded head with a decorated helmet Late 6th or early 5th century b. fig.1 A bird of prey is rightfully restored on the left hand of a fighting god from Kition-Bamboula. p.c. 510. 6. fig. Cesnola 1885. Masson and Hermary 1993. fig. XIV. 3. Limestone H. 2. 48–50.  490) complete the decoration of a headdress that is unique in its kind on Cyprus. pls. no. Cat. An unarticulated mustache falls to each side. 167. It is clear.1). VIII. wearing a double Egyptian crown with a winged uraeus and surmounted by a stylized feather pattern. Maier 1989. in Chicago. He is familiar with Ionian works of the third quarter of the sixth century  b. Its very worn head is at the front and its wings and tail spread behind. the swelling of the chest. V. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. The large. but in all likelihood the inscription was added after the statue was set up and cannot be used to support a precise identification of the bird. and metal plaques decorated in relief.  23 and the one found in the “siege mound” of Palaepaphos. K. 262. with a small break on the tip. 66.2848) description  The long beard juts forward and is divided into rows of small curled strands. The most similar face is perhaps that of a work in Philadelphia (cf.  172. fig. yellow. Doell 1873. fig. a head wearing a helmet with cheekpieces. 4. pp. 1. 18). and a head from Malloura in the Louvre that is almost male heads with other types of helmets (cat. pp. There are three rows of small curls on the upper forehead. 13. curved mouth is half-open.2 In the Hellenistic period.  76) or diadems with rosettes (Cat.5. 349. 40. The eyebrows extend the ridge of the nose and continue nearly to the ears. pl. Karageorghis 2005. 19–24) 45 . probably a falcon. and black paint. A thick mass of hair consisting of small curled locks covers the nape of the neck.1 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. LXV. Cat. pl. Nicolaou 1964. 60). 82. p.c. The eyeballs protrude perceptibly and the lower eyelids sag slightly. p. p. 206. pls. pp. 377–80. at least two other sculpted heads are known that bear a comparable headdress with figural decoration: the head Cat. covers the front of the helmet.5 They are associated throughout the fifth century b.6 A similar type of face is found on works in the Cesnola Collection belonging to different iconographic series: a bearded figure that wears an Egyptianizing crown (Cat. 72. 1874–76 (74.3 The graffito inscribed on the left shoulder. pp. One thinks of models like the seated statue of the Samian Aiakes. p.

1.c. pl. indicated by the representation of the ears.11. prior to the intervention by Balliard. which is unique in its type. (32.  45. The use of Corinthian helmets on Cyprus is attested by one found at the Persian “siege mound” of Kouklia. he adds that here it is a hybrid form. A note in the Museum’s archive based on a report by Balliard mentions: “The helmet was broken across the cheek-pieces. Rolley 1994a.2 indicating a date at the very end of the Archaic period or even later. 174. It is probably a bird of prey.406. near the lips. perhaps. and the helmet recall the statues of the east pediment of the temple at Aegina. “We could reasonably take this Cypriot sculpture as good evidence that late Corinthian helmets with hinged cheek guards were at least known of in late sixth century Cyprus and could even have been produced there.  235. that in addition shows small locks of hair in front of the ears. V. 480–460 b. thus a symbol of power. figs. The nape of the neck is broken.1 It appeared. Limestone H.5 . and these points of the cheek-pieces were restored by Balliard. the shape of the beard. 23 the same.3 A particular meaning is given to the work by the bird on the helmet. p.”4 However. The eyebrows and ears are carefully rendered on the surface of the 46 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries helmet. 12¾ in. pl.c. pp. Cesnola 1885.51.  IV.” The face has a severe expression. pl. commentary  This representation of a warrior wearing a helmet is rare in Cypriot art and of high artistic quality. 1874–76 (74.  VIII. which juts forward and is divided into rows of small strands.  33. Purchased by subscription. A ridge divides the upper part of the helmet from the lower. as well as the line of the eyebrows. There are several breaks as well as traces of red paint. pl. 187–190.404. Cesnola 1885. It would not be surprising if the figure were a ruler of the kingdom of Idalion. projects below the smooth. no. during a more thorough cleaning. 258. 3. He compares it (as Hermann Pflug indicated to me) to an “exuberant West Greek helmet” found at Olympia and dated around 500 b. 202–3. as shown by the shape of the eyes. Karageorghis 2000a. no. references  Doell 1873. The expression of the face. A crenelated ornament that indicates the hinge of the cheekpieces is not visible on the first published photograph of this head. Hermary 1989a.3 and about the head studied here Alastar Jackson notes. the lower edge of which is thickened.  LIX. 2. Masson and Hermary 1993. no.contents cat. 24 Over-lifesize bearded head with a Corinthian helmet Ca.2810) description  The beard. Cat. LIX. p. close-­ fitting Corinthian helmet.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1285 The Cesnola Collection.

Hurschmann dates the production to the entire sixth century b. These young men who wear “Cypriot shorts” are never taller than lifesize. (Bade)hose in German—is satisfactory.c. on certain black-figured vases. 27. Jackson 2008. pl. in several cases. The terms “short chiton” and chitoniskos will be avoided because they suggest a kind of undershirt or T-shirt. 25–39) 47 . 5.688. in most cases. Mallwitz and Hermann 1980. The garment that covers the buttocks and the lower abdomen of the figures is difficult to name.. references  Cesnola 1885. 57. The oldest may be a bronze statuette from the Heraion of Samos that shows a bearded figure as a warrior. 56. appears to be wearing shorts of the same type. the Apollo shown on a famous Melian.  104. 37. He concludes that the figures exercised a precise cultural function in the sanctuaries. no. The study led by Rolf Hurschmann about this series of representations provides a catalogue and suggests six groups (plus four others for isolated heads). and the beginning of the fifth and gives essential information about the distribution of the works on Cyprus and beyond.) presents a fine example in the amphora of Herakles and Nessos on which the hero wears a perizoma marked with a large rosette. the rings attached to the earlobes. fig.5 This fashion is confirmed in male votaries with “cypriot shorts. actually Parian. Male Votaries with “Cypriot Shorts.c. although the presence of a short beard on several statues connects the two series. an incised or painted decoration. 24 1.c. p.contents cat. I do not think that it is a Cypriot work. However. 25–39) This iconographic type complements that of the bearded dignitaries with conical helmets. Hermary 2003. the context in which it was found gives a date prior to 670/660 b. is worn by athletes. on condition the word not be applied simply to the G-string that. On Cyprus. 276. 3. apparently without the thin tunic. on a series of works from the seventh century b. Jackson 2008. 2. This form of dress is attested. amphora. 4.4 About the same time. The youth of the figures is indicated by their garment and. short pagne or caleçon in French. None of the terms used in modern languages—“shorts” in English.1 I will take up these points again and emphasize the importance of the group found on the site of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The best equivalent is the ancient Greek perizoma.3 Middle Proto-Attic pottery (second quarter of the seventh century b.” heads with a rosette diadem (cat. which indicates that they do not perform as important a function in the Cypriot kingdoms as the bearded men who wear a long garment and a helmet with cheekpieces. the absence of a beard. pl.2 From the same sanctuary comes a slightly later relief in wood showing a young god or hero who grasps the left shoulder and the right breast of a woman dressed in Daedalic style. 95. and. as well as the nature of the garments and the diadem. p.” Heads with a Rosette Diadem (Cat. the bracelets on their arms indicate a relatively high social position. p. these “shorts” are always associated with a thin tunic that covers the torso and the upper arms and bears. in particular that of performing sacrifices. in several cases. p. Ibid. Cesnola 1873. the rosette diadem around the head. probably associated with a religious function. Pflug 1988. 5. Snodgrass 2008.  CV. more or less similarly. fig. 275.c. pl.

Contra Jantzen 1972. this light outfit belongs to figures in action. 47–48.18 This is actually an isolated representation and nothing clearly indicates that the animal will be sacrificed.11 Toward the end of the seventh century  b. Boardman 1998. the same is true for the rosettes on the shorts. They are lifesize and among the earliest examples. In Greece proper. The third is the diadem with rosettes. no. as the wearing of a short garment could indicate. But this type of representation is also widely distributed on Cyprus.23 Hurschmann highlighted the regrouping that can be established between the main works.contents Proto-Corinthian art by several figures on the Chigi vase. First. 7. and. notes 1.c. who also wears a thin decorated tunic and a kind of cap on the head. characteristic of an age group. The importance of the region of Golgoi in the production of these works is confirmed by several works in the Louvre bought in 1862 in the village of Athienou. which is not. 37). 178. bracelets. a short-sleeved tunic and “shorts” decorated with a rosette in the front and on the side..12 One of the figures is Perseus fleeing with the head of the Gorgon and another.17 However.2. Hurschmann wondered quite rightly if these diadems were of the same kind as the examples in gold found in Cypriot tombs. several figures. fig. The vegetal rosette. by three or four fragmentary statues. however.16 Nothing actually proves that they are bands of precious metal or even metallic rosettes sewn on a backing of leather or fabric. is connected to the iconography and cult of the Great Goddess. His “AyiosPhotios-Gruppe” assembles only four or five sculptures found by Cesnola. including the Minotaur. a certain social position. more often beardless. These kouroi “in the Cypriot style” are worshippers of the divinity differentiated from the plentiful series of young men draped in a long garment and wearing a helmet with cheekpieces by a more dramatic appearance and a more original dress. the choice of rosettes as a motif is not irrelevant: they indicate the importance of the vegetation in the celebrations carried out in the sanctuaries of the island. the wreaths of leaves and flowers represented a little later by sculptors give a more expressive representation. 250. fig. pp. a religious function. a statuette. 39. This element adds weight to the suggestion that these figures played a role in religious ceremonial. and a fine torso discovered by the American expedition22 may be added to a head with a short beard in the Louvre. allowing one to establish more precise connections. is probably borrowed from earlier Greek models and applied.10 The most interesting is Theseus. 2. 45. pl. as on Cyprus. a bearded hunter carrying his game on his shoulder. to young men whose authority is less than that of the bearded men with conical helmets.9 It is to Cretan models that the painted decoration of a Sicilian jar in the Louvre refers. B252. 6. Hurschmann 2003. in a ritual context. sometimes. None of the stone statues or the terracotta figurines of this type carry an object (knife. in Syria. without reaching a definition of one or several workshops with a truly characteristic style. Lebessi 1985.20 The discoveries at Golgoi were widely scattered: of 17 statues or statuettes and 16 isolated heads. who can be gods or heroes as well as hunters or anonymous warriors. whereas it continues on Cyprus until the end of the Archaic period. Boardman 1978. two painted metopes from the temple of Apollo at Thermos show figures in action who wear. however. the genitalia of the young men are sometimes visible.. always included..c. fig. which develops principally in the first half of the sixth century b. 210. 5.. in Athens just before the middle of the sixth century  b.24 As for the other series. on three representations of Theseus attributed to the black-figure painter Lydos. the complex arrangement of the “shorts” on a certain number of examples—the lower layer of fabric appears actually to be covered by a band of another material (leather?). 141–42.6 and on Crete by a bronze statuette of a ram-bearer. 43. the perizoma with rosette is still attested. fig. in partic- 48 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries ular. attached by a cord (Cat. wear a perizoma. In Cypriot sculpture.c. Whatever the material of the diadem. Schefold 1964. one must interpret cautiously the terracotta group found at Meniko that shows two small figures wearing Cypriot “shorts” and diadems surrounding an enormous bull.c. potentially that of the sacrificer. .7 as well as bronze plaquettes from the sanctuary of Hermes and Aphrodite at Kato Symi Viannou.. ax) that identifies them as sacrificers. but who certainly belong to the upper classes of the kingdoms. The second feature is the presence of earrings and. Some wear a decorated tunic/T-shirt and a painted or tattooed rosette on the shoulder. the study of the heads is more informative than that of the bodies. with five examples coming from the Persian “siege mound” at Palaepaphos. since a statuette found by Cesnola at Golgoi14 and another from Tamassos15 wear a conical helmet. A lifesize head.8 on which. only 15 sculptures are now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum.13 It disappears thereafter. pl. The originality of the Cypriot limestone works lies in three features.21 Further confirmation comes from the discoveries in the sanctuary of Malloura. Ibid. Ibid. The origin of the statues and the isolated heads19 shows that the group from Golgoi–Ayios Photios is by far the largest. 3. It is therefore clear that in the iconography of the seventh century  b. 8. 4. ­without the T-shirt. and it is represented in the sanctuary of Amrit. perhaps. this fashion. pp.

above the waistband of the shorts. 1874–76 (74. Alexander 1928. Purchased by subscription. 5. 25 Cat. 21. (73 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1045 The Cesnola Collection. 203–6. pp. 59. 170–75. pp. The figure is very flat. 7. short-sleeved tunic. Karageorghis 1995. pl. references  Doell 1873. The torso. pl. 12. Hermary 1989a. Counts 1998. narrows below the chest. 54. A fringe of hair is in low relief on the forehead. cat. Hurschmann 2003. The borders and the center line of the shorts are in low relief and the decoration consists of three relief rosettes. L. V.contents 9. 99. 109. short-sleeved tunic.51.  23. On the head is a diadem bordered by two raised lines except at the back. the left leg is slightly advanced. The chest is barely suggested under the garment. 23. the upper border is in low relief. the eyebrows low-set. There is the hint of a smile on the rigid mouth. the nose is hooked. 19. 1874–76 (74. 151–52. fifteen small vertical marks. pls. Hermary 1989a. hands closed. pp. no. is slightly raised. fig. Ibid. pp. 19. 22. the corners of the tight mouth male votaries with “cypriot shorts. pp. The torso is covered with a thin. Beazley 1956. 10. The shorts bear no decoration. no. p. pl. 21. 14. with sloping shoulders and both arms held against the body. 22–25.5. 18. 24. 26 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem First half of the 6th century b.  71. covered with a tight-fitting. leaving an open space at the arms. Schefold 1964. 18. pls. (73 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1044 The Cesnola Collection.51. 42. but curls are not shown in front of the ears. 190. 25–39) 49 .c. Hurschmann 2003. There are two earrings attached to the lobe of each ear. pl. Limestone H. p. 17. 15. fig. The forms are barely roughed out on the back.” heads with a rosette diadem (cat. 41. The eyes are almond-shaped and protruding. p. 28¾ in. Cesnola 1885. 178. the breasts are very slightly indicated. placed on a long neck. 20.. Cesnola 1885. 29. LII. with a date between 670 and 640 b. 13. 25.296.450. Limestone H. nos. 28¾ in.. 22. Hurschmann 2003. Ibid. p. Lembke 2004. The hair is smooth and flares onto the nape of the neck.5. The body is very flat. Woodford 1992. nos. p. pp. Hurschman 2003.A35. no.A44. pl. Purchased by subscription. 56–59. 16. Ibid. hands closed. The head.. Cat. 61. 174. 136–39. 6*. no. A spiral bracelet circles each upper arm. 11.  III. LXVII. pp. 58. 189–90. in the center of which three small superposed stylized chest hairs are incised and. no. 25 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem Early 6th century b. both arms are held to the sides.2622) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. Pryce 1931. Devambez and Villard 1979.2479) description  The legs are missing from the middle of the thighs down.c. C7.c.

285.  p. Hurschmann 2003. p. pp.  169. A mass of hair flares out on both sides. cat. The short-sleeved tunic bears an indistinct incised design. low-set eyebrows.51. and rings attached to each ear.  III.  XLVIII.2549) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. The front part of the triangular shorts.  68. Purchased by subscription. almond-shaped.2. Bonfante 2003. The forms are summarily rendered at the back.c. pl. The eyes. There are breaks on the nose and the mouth.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1043 The Cesnola Collection.6 (considered as a female statue). 56.277. Hurschmann 2003. There is a spiral bracelet on each upper arm. XLII. p. are surmounted by thick eyebrows. The face is smiling and has asymmetrical eyes.  130. pl. 1874–76 (74. There is an undecorated headband over the forehead and the crown of the head is smooth. 26 droop. 26⅞ in. pp. A diadem with three relief rosettes is placed at the front of the head. fig. divided by a vertical line. no. references  Doell 1873. Mylonas 2003. The right arm is partially restored. The back is roughed out and there are many toolmarks. 27 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem First half of the 6th century b. cat. fig. references  Cesnola 1885. 167.  34. 189–90. Spiteris 1970.  114 n. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. Karageorghis 2000a. 27 50 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . Limestone H. is decorated with three circles. The hair is smooth and flares onto the nape of the neck. 189. pl. no. 4.  22. pl. Cesnola 1885.contents Cat. the hands are flat. p. fig. 3. (68. 38. Two earrings are attached to each lobe of the large ears.

” heads with a rosette diadem (cat.c. the arms fall the length of the body. the left one advanced. 29 Cat.2604) description  The legs are almost entirely missing. The shorts. The right arm is partially broken. Purchased by subscription.  23. 29 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem First half of the 6th century b.2584) Cat. The upper part of the head is flat and there is a wide mass of hair on the nape of the neck. references  Cesnola 1885. hands closed. 25–39) 51 . 28 cat.63.51. The mass of hair at the back is articulated with a rickrack pattern. p. male votaries with “cypriot shorts. the left arm. covers the top of the forehead. 1874–76 (74.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1046a The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription.  76. 187–88. taut mouth and elongated eyes with thick eyelids. Limestone H. Hurschmann 2003. 18⅞ in. There are two earrings attached to each earlobe. The face has a broken nose with a small.l. 189. LIV.c.contents cat. The headband. (48 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1040 The Cesnola Collection.51. The borders are in relief and the diamond-shaped center is decorated with a relief rosette. 28 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem First half of the 6th century b. the left had the same position. Cesnola 1885. The shorts display traces of red paint. front and back. The head is surmounted by a wide headband painted red and decorated with three relief rosettes. no. The description  The lower portion of the legs. The back is flat and the buttocks appear to have been restored. torso is wide and very flat. are decorated with a large relief rosette that also appears on the buttocks. The torso is covered with a tight-fitting. The legs are entirely separated. (18. Hurschmann 2003. the upper edge of which is visible on the shoulder. short-sleeved tunic. and the right hand are missing. painted red.  III. pl.348. the calves excessively large. 1874–76 (74. Limestone H. p. 77⁄16 in. The very flat torso is covered with a thin tunic decorated with vertical bands of red paint. references  Doell 1873. The right arm is bent and held away from the body. pl. The face is faintly smiling and has almond-shaped eyes and hatched eyebrows. pl. the thighs are short and poorly shaped. which ends at the ears. pp.XXV.

Purchased by subscription. the left earring is only partly preserved. a small stiff mouth.2544) description  The back of the head is broken.6 (legend should read “Cesnola 1254”).contents Cat. Limestone H.  31.c. pl. Purchased by subscription. are held to the sides of the wide. 6⅝ in. and discrete.2861) description  The thin face is well developed and has a description  The legs are almost entirely missing. decorated with six relief rosettes and a seventh unfinished one above the left ear. ears cursorily outlined. The face has a rather serious expression. Hurschmann 2003. the left arm is partially restored. XLII. 17½ in. 197. pl. Hurschmann 2003. short nose.c. 1874–76 (74. (16. The figure is dressed in smooth shorts with a diamond-shaped opening and a short-sleeved tunic. The top of the head is smooth. a short nose. 32 Under-lifesize beardless head with a diadem First half of the 6th century b. pl.51. bulging asymmetrical eyes. flat body. Cat. Purchased by subscription. pl. pp.2574) Cat.XIX.36.  103. a very small mouth with a faint smile. asymmetrical narrow eyes. (44. references  Cesnola 1885.30. 197–98. Limestone H. 71⁄16 in. painted red. with taut lips painted red.  XIX. 1874–76 (74. and two earrings attached to each lobe. A thin fringe of hair appears under the wide diadem. Limestone H. Both arms. The top of the head is flat and smooth and a mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. large. hands closed. The rest of the surface is decorated with incised diamond shapes. protruding eyeballs. 31 Under-lifesize beardless head with a diadem First half of the 6th century b.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1042 The Cesnola Collection.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1255 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. 30 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and an Egyptian crown First half of the 6th century b. cat. The face is faintly smiling. Two rings are attached to each earlobe. There is a break on the nose. p.51. decorated with wide vertical stripes. 30 52 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The diadem consists of a wide headband decorated with a rosette at the center and a disk above each ear. p.51.c. low-set eyebrows. and low-set eyebrows. references  Cesnola 1885. The head wears a double Egyptian crown rather than a helmet with straps. Myres 1940–45b. The forms are roughed out on the back.271. reference  Cesnola 1885. (18 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1254 The Cesnola Collection. low eyebrows.

” heads with a rosette diadem (cat. 32 male votaries with “cypriot shorts.contents cat. 25–39) 53 . 31 cat.

 33 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem Second quarter of the 6th century b.266. The nose is pointed. The diadem is painted red. p. the left one slightly advanced.  III. The figure is wearing a short-sleeved tunic with traces of red paint and shorts without sculpted decoration.  23. cat.51. There are two rings attached to each earlobe. Cesnola 1885. 35 . (38.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1041 The Cesnola Collection. p.  73. but the knees are carefully indicated. the almond-shaped eyes lidless. There are short red lines at the top of the thighs. most clearly on the right side.c. the legs are thick and stiff. the expression smiling. The face is triangular.contents Cat.2524) description  The bare feet stand on a small plinth. XLII. Purchased by subscription. pl. references  Doell 1873. 1874–76 (74. no. Hurschmann 2003. 185. 33 cat. 34 54 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. The top of the head is flat.2. the body forms on the back are roughed out. 155⁄16 in. Limestone H. pl.

51. Cat. decorated with five summarily executed rosettes. hooked nose. (23. 197–98. The back has been carefully worked. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 9⅜ in.385. Hurschmann 2003. and elongated eyes with thick eyelids above which eyebrows form a sharp ridge. front and back.160. Limestone H.51. description  The back of the head and a part of the face have been restored in plaster.2859) description  The face is youthful and has a small. Gedney Beatty. 1941 (41. references  Cesnola 1885.410) between the arms and the torso. A band of smooth hair shows beneath the diadem. On the head is a headband with five relief rosettes.2568) description  The legs are missing.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1252 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885. faintly smiling mouth. 5 in. There is open space pp. 25–39) 55 . pl. The wide diadem is decorated with three relief rosettes. The shorts are painted red and decorated with a large rosette. 34 Under-lifesize beardless head with a diadem Second quarter of the 6th century b. 1874–76 (74. (12. Limestone H.  LVII. male votaries with “cypriot shorts. 35 Statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem Second quarter or middle of the 6th century b. 187–88.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1046b The Cesnola Collection. The flat crown of the head is smooth and a mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. 1874–76 (74.309. The delicate smiling face has lips painted red and elongated eyes with thick eyelids. A mass of smooth hair widens out onto the nape of the neck. The eyes are elongated under large eyebrows. hands placed flat.c.c. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. Both arms are held to the sides of the body.29. A red trapezoidal band probably marks the edge of the tunic. pp.” heads with a rosette diadem (cat.  XIX. Cat.contents cat. (18 cm) Bequest of W. LII. 36 Cat. Hurschmann 2003.c. Limestone H. 36 Lifesize beardless head with a diadem Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. 71⁄16 in.

the stiff mouth is barely smiling.contents joined by a Herakles knot. 39 Bearded statuette of a male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b.2863) description  The face smiles very slightly. 197–98. and left arm. p. A row of curls appears under the diadem decorated with five rosettes. p. 38 Lifesize beardless head with a diadem Middle of the 6th century b. are short and thick. thick ears. Richmond) Photo © Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. elongated eyes.  170. 27¼ in. The thighs.  III.51. pl.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1047 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. Cesnola 1885.  46. Richmond. pl. Karageorghis 2000a. 103. 11⅜ in.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1251 The Cesnola Collection.51. 1874–76 (74.c. no. (69. XIX.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1256 The Cesnola Collection. references  Doell 1873. Purchased by subscription.  181–82.1 The left leg is slightly advanced. no.c. The space between the arms and the torso is hollowed out and the left leg is advanced. A mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. fig. The facial features are sharp. Photo: Katherine Wetzel. The flat head is smooth. no.  IX. (92. pl. 37 Under-lifesize male votary with Cypriot shorts and a diadem Middle of the 6th century b. The shorts fit tightly around the stomach and form two wide panels. A mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. (28.32. pl.  32. 193. fig.2612) (on loan to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Gjerstad 1948. 103. 371.9.2. Myres 1940–45b. p. V. 36½ in.c. references  Doell 1873. Myres 1940–45b.2473) description  The legs are missing from the knees down. pp. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription.51. The head probably belongs to the statuette. 1874–76 (74. p. the one above the left ear is not articulated. painted red and 56 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries 1251”). 37 Cat. p. The upper part of the eyes protrudes. The diadem. 544. and a hooked nose that is partially broken. description  The legs are missing from the lower thighs down. Hurschmann 2003. Cat. pl.4. On the back. It has a small stiff mouth. Limestone H. the forms are roughed out and there are toolmarks. which reveals hair above the right ear. 31.  67. the right arm is partially restored. left thigh. Cat.  330.  22. Both arms fall the length of the body. The rounded torso is covered by a short-sleeved tunic. 1874–76 (74.13. Purchased by subscription. There are losses on the chest. Cesnola 1885.l. XI. Two rings are attached to each lobe of the high. X. courtesy Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. Hurschmann 2003. like the bust. is decorated with nine relief rosettes. pp.2 (legend should read “Cesnola cat. 4. pl. . pl. The slightly bulging crown of the head is smooth.

the nipples of the asymmetrical breasts show under the short-sleeved tunic. form an arch. pl. 588. in high relief. Two rows of curls. The curled hairstyle derives from Greek models. even if the smile remains faint.1. There is only a small open space between the arms and the torso. references  Doell 1873.62.  77.  24. XXV. male votaries with “cypriot shorts. that shows a figure with a bull mask on the top of his head.” heads with a rosette diadem (cat. the outside corner extended by a relief line. 39 locks drawn toward the back and with triangular incisions all over. 25–39) 57 .2 1. A spiral bracelet circles each upper arm. The furrow between the nose and mouth is indicated. Bonfante 2003.  III. The ears are not very detailed. The physiognomy and the short smooth beard evoke a head in the Louvre. painted red. this statue is an exceptional example in the series. fig. They are decorated with three rosettes. made with a flat blade. The shape of the buttocks and thighs is roughed out at the back. commentary  If the head does belong to the body. in the front. under a “diadem” that consists of a smooth headband at the back and. 40. with clean edges. The eyeball is almost flat. The torso is almost cylindrical. no. and Hurschmann 2003. 177. The face is thin. The high-set eyebrows are long and thick. the stiff mouth is smiling. Cesnola 1885. there are two rows of curls on each side. 38 hands closed. p. 168. found at Ayios Photios. pl. and there are traces of red paint. where many toolmarks. Contested by Pryce 1931. Hermary 1989a. a fourth is placed at the level of the genitalia. as does the face. The head is covered with cat. appear on the forehead. p. 2. are visible. p. no. The panels of the shorts. the corollas of which are alternately flat and hollowed out. of twelve rosettes. the eyelids are very carefully drawn. p.contents cat. 7. The mass of hair forms a triangle on the nape of the neck. The figure’s beard is short and smooth. 13 n.

These works interested specialists less than the male votive statues. it is important to differentiate between the general appearance of works or certain iconographic details relating to the artistic Egyptian tradition and those works that are “naturally” Egyptianizing because they represent divinities like the goddess Hathor or the god Ammon with a ram’s head as well as figures with the head of a bird of prey (Cat. the “Cypro-Egyptian” style is explained by the political control imposed by Amasis. 26. however. in religious iconography and representations related to royal power. the excavations of the Swedish Cyprus expedition brought new clarification as part of a general classification of local sculptural traditions. considered as the most significant testament to the Egyptianizing style on Cyprus. spread over the chest. 60). A small granite head in the Cyprus Museum could be an example of Egyptian sculpture imported to Cyprus if the findspot were known. Other features are the crown (most frequently the pschent.” Moreover. two viewpoints developed: one associates this style with Egyptian domination established from around 560 b. with the exception of two statuettes from Ayia Irini that are certainly not Egyptian. The association of all or a majority of these elements certainly constitutes a work that can be defined as “Egyptianizing. like the smooth “wig.3 the absence of any dorsal pillar and hieroglyphic inscriptions distinguish local production from works created by Egyptian artisans. assuming that the cultural influence of the Egyptians had rapidly filled the vacuum left by the collapse of the Assyrian empire. 40–61) The adjective “Egyptianizing. It is also necessary to differentiate between strong Egyptianizing elements.4 The features defined as “Egyptianizing” concern body posture (the advanced position of one leg and that of the arms and hands) as well as the approach to anatomy (broad shoulders.10 Add also two kilt-wearing figures. which more often than not are associated with religious functions. and sometimes separated in squared-off locks. the garment (a kilt with a front panel.. called the shemti. the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt). those that are commonplace. a limestone relief fragment found at Marion shows a figure in authentically Egyptian style. “wig”). égyptisant). but Cesnola’s discoveries at Golgoi in 1870 spurred a closer examination of this linkage. as well as the head in Liverpool wearing a pschent that comes from the Persian “siege mound” at Palaepaphos.contents Male Votaries in Egyptianizing Dress or Heads with a Plain Headdress (Cat.) and refer to the models provided by Egyptianizing Phoenician ivories. the forms derived from Egyptian art maintained considerable vigor until the beginning of the fifth century b. These observations do not mean. like the upper arm ­bracelets—sometimes seen on non-Egyptianizing sculptures (Cat. 27)—and the facial features. that in most cases has figural decoration). For Gjerstad. Essentially they would mainly be orders emanating from the Phoenician population of Cyprus.6)—and forms of representation in the local sculpture.7 but the group of works under consideration lacks heterogeneity.1 However. like the kilt with a front panel. contrasts with “Egyptian.” and those that are ambiguous. Relying on the low chronology proposed by Cornelius Vermeule (1974).9 Following others in recognizing the lack of substance in Gjerstad’s “Cypro-Egyptian” group.c. Fr.” This is the case for several sculptures from the Cesnola Collection. he argues that the male statues presenting the main characteristics defined above date only to the final decades of the Archaic period (from around 520 b. small smiling mouth. however. narrow chest. the bracelets circling the upper arms). that certain of the most remarkable Egyptianizing works discovered on Cyprus do date from the end of the Archaic period.” to the degree that the works in question are considered not to have been made by sculptors working in the workshops of Pharaonic Egypt. ägyptisierend. rounded abdomen) and facial features (round shape. as for Colonna-Ceccaldi in the preceding century.6 As for so many questions concerning Cypriot archaeology.5 the other argues that it originated in the preceding century. and the jewelry (the wide necklace ousekh. which is not the case.8 which can now be compared to the many terracotta female figurines discovered on the same site during the excavations of Markides. which emphasizes the roundness of the head and falls in a thick mass onto the nape of the neck. It is beneficial to break away from the idea of a close relationship between Egyptian political domination under Amasis—attested by Herodotus (II:182) and Diodoros (I:68.c. elongated eyes). 249). Very rapidly. is in general smooth. This is the case for a statue from the Cesnola Collection (Cat. The hairstyle (the klaft.c.” widely used in archaeological literature (Ger. The group is built principally around a colossal head from Arsos. 58 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries One of the earliest articles devoted to Cypriot sculpture (Stark 1863) established a connection between the takeover of the island by the pharaoh Amasis and the dissemination of the Egyptianizing style. without introducing the notion of “style.11 A further example is the large Hathor capital from the palace of Amathus. Markoe (1990) proposed a different explanation for an Egyptianizing style in Cypriot sculpture. that Egyptianizing trends are absent from Cypriot sculpture during the earlier part of the Archaic period. but the fewer the features the less this characterization applies.2 For limestone sculpture in the round. Even if one sets aside the two totally distinct statues with dorsal pillars from Ayia Irini and unless one rejects .12 The Hathor capital shows that. It is clear.

is simply a matter of fashion explained by the Egyptian domination of Cyprus.1–2. Kition and Amathus. The hairstyle is. especially on the earliest examples. 3. it seems that this kingdom did not have at its disposal the most accomplished sculptors for depicting dignitaries or local rulers. and the iconography of the representations show that. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. They wear a kilt with a central panel and. Gjerstad 1948. p. as the group found at Amrit illustrates in particular. If it is again at Golgoi that the series appears to begin (Cat. The statues from the Cesnola Collection in the Metropolitan Museum indicate the general evolution of these works: the progressive adoption of the principles of Greek art for the facial features and the treatment of the locks of hair and strands of beard (Cat. near Salamis. pp. without its being necessarily applicable to Phoenician rulers. two large examples of fine quality—a head with double crown and a torso with shemti—come from the region of Salamis. pl. 4. pp. Actually. the only preserved head wears a double crown. 44. Nor is it necessary to assume that the bracelets circling the upper arms recall a real gift from the pharaoh. . other types of statues wear this jewelry.contents all chronological criteria based on depiction of the face. as a rule. a group of works found in the Persian “siege mound” at Palaepaphos attests to the prestige gained by this kind of representation in the final decades of the sixth century  b. a fragmentary statue from Sidon. 2. Like the head with a double crown from Palaepaphos. pp.c. Myres 1914. these works were produced by very high-quality workshops that were not those of Golgoi and worked for the most important kingdoms (Paphos. 52). 51). Kourion and Paphos. 151.c. 45. 1935. or jewelry of Egyptian origin date back to the first half of the sixth century b. 47. 43. that show the figure with both arms held to the side of the body and a delicately pleated kilt. 48.22 The sculptures of the Egyptian goddess Hathor. it is clear that various male figures with the hairstyle.13 as did I for a statuette in the Louvre from the Cesnola Collection.14 This is certainly also the case for several sculptures in the Metropolitan Museum (Cat. 46. from the end of the seventh century b.23 The nature of the limestone used. however. the double crown (an exception comes from Golgoi. from Aloa20 and from Krina. 51. the jewelry consists of a pectoral and bracelets around the upper arms.21 Above all. 51). 27. 40–61) 59 .. unlike the double crown. and. When present. Several of them are now in Sarasota. generally bearded. Pryce 1931. Childs 2008. the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios belonged to the kingdom of Idalion. as is very likely. around Idalion and Golgoi. 16–18. 49. more marginally. 169–70. as is probably the case for the figure wearing the double crown (Cat. are shown walking with one arm held to the side of the body and the hand of the other arm closed over the abdomen. during most of the sixth century  b. or the beginning of the sixth. despite the comparison with the dedication from the Greek officer Pedon. of which the figures who wear the pschent give a concrete picture. If. 525–26. complete this picture. 41. pl.15 The presence of Cypriot sculptors at Naucratis.19 However. 7. 1. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1872. the replacement of the smooth wig by the double crown (Cat. p. between Limnia and Styllos. 40. these examples represent more than half the total and a quarter of them are from Golgoi– Ayios Photios.  60). 6. Amathus. the central panel of which is decorated only with two uraei. As for the figures who wear a long garment and a helmet with cheekpieces or the younger men who wear Cypriot shorts. 51). fit neatly into the small group formed by the two statues of Palaepaphos and the one from Krina.. p. Senff pointed this out for several heads from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. Gjerstad et al. kilt. Faegersten 2003. the central region of the island. and the beginning of the fifth mainly involves the cities on the southern coast of the island. sculptors who came from Cyprus or trained on the island filled orders placed by the worshippers of the local god. also represented at Arsos.c. 5. which includes about 90 limestone sculptures found on Cyprus. CCXXXIX. As in Egypt. 42.25 There is little doubt that these artisans worked mainly in the kingdom of Idalion for the sanctuaries of the city or those in the region of Golgoi.18 As we have seen. certainly identified with the Cypriot Aphrodite. the Egyptianizing Cypriot statuary is widely spread on sites along the Phoenician coast.24 the style. a short-sleeved tunic that is the same as that of the figures who wear Cypriot shorts. None­ theless.” male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. 198. notes 1. Lawrence 1926. more precisely. Salamis. which indicates that the king Psammeticus gave him a gold bracelet and a city as testament to his merit. provides the most numerous and spectacular examples throughout the sixth century b. . the goddess legitimizes and protects royal power. In the catalogue prepared by Fanni Faegersten (2003). 224–25. and the disappearance of the traditional short-sleeved tunic (Cat. the distribution of the two-sided Hathor stelai in the second half of the sixth century  b.c. and we can assume that Egyptian honorific finery (pectorals and bracelets) are a relatively widespread sign of excellence. Cat.17 the figures rarely wear the royal symbol. pp.c. this type of sculpture is widely dispersed through the rest of the island. 457). 50. the smooth klaft without a central part or narrow band. Hermary 2001b. or even to the end of the seventh. In the early series. 60). or Sidon in Phoenicia). 357: “Cypro-Egyptian sculpture . None of the Museum’s statues.16 The figures.c. pp. certainly played an important role in disseminating the Egyptianizing style on Cyprus. 7–8. 66.26 or the large Hathor capital from Amathus.

 2. pp. p. 50–56. (31. p. 40. The beard is short and unarticulated. 1874–76 (74. pl. 11. draped in a Hermary 2001b. fig. Höckmann 2007. no. VII. 82–117. 291.2–3. Gjerstad et al. fig.3 cm) Myres 1273 The Cesnola Collection.c. 3. 22. The top of the head is particularly elongated on the upper portion. 52–58. p. pl. Faegersten 2003.2870) description  The back of the head is missing and the left Cat. 2. The face shows a smiling expression.2592) 60 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries side is more completely preserved. p. 43. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. XXXVI.1 (legend should read “Cesnola 1261”). XXXIII. 218–19. Limestone H. 19–20. 19. 269. pls. fig.i. The elongated eyeballs protrude and are surmounted by thick eyebrows that merge. Purchased by subscription. p. 15–21. p. 291–93. 9. Cat. R. pp.50. nos. 17. pp. 48. pls. Hermary 2000a. Cesnola 1885. Faegersten 2003. 21. XXII. pl. Markoe 1990. pp.2-3. remains. nos.2. 42. 13. Lembke 2004. 64. II.contents cat. Markoe 1987. pp. 29. Costas Xenophontos. p. pp. 25. 270. Lembke 2004. 24.4. Karageorghis 1961. 5¼ in. Faegersten 2003. The hair is smooth. 125⁄16 in. no. pl. Karageorghis 1999. pp. Hermary 2001b. Faegersten 2003. Bol 2009. Stylianou 2003. 29.9. 20.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1261 The Cesnola Collection. See also Faegersten 2003. 15. garment. 41 Fragment of an over-lifesize bearded head with a plain headdress Early 6th century b.a. Maier 1974. 14. p. fig. p. pl. 42. pl. V. Senff 1993. 1. 22. no.3–4. nos. 31. pls. description  The top of the right shoulder. 40 8. p. 7. 53. no. 23. references  Cesnola 1885. CLXXXIX. 2. 286.232.51. 18.c. 10. Limestone H.1. J. pls. 34–36. p.51. Gjerstad 1948. 969. 3. 124–25. 2. 31. 50–53. p. in Lembke 2004. Brönner 1994. pl. The protruding eyeballs of the large eyes are surmounted by low-set.212: Faegersten 2003. The features show a stiff upper lip and a long hooked nose. Myres 1940–45b. 26. 104–7. 14. 49 (d). pp. (13. 12. p. 20–30. 112. 49 [c]. 144–48. Nick 2006. Masson and Yoyotte 1988. p. is a small mustache. Hermary 1989a. Above the stiff lips. V. Brönner 1994. 7. 20. There are two rings attached to the lobe of each ear. 103. 1937. fig. painted red. Karageorghis 2007. 31. references  Unpublished. pp. no. The nose is hooked. Faegersten 2003. . pl. 40 Small bearded head with a plain headdress Early 6th century b. 52. An unarticulated mass of hair flares onto the nape of the neck. 16. 287. 23. Haider 2001. VI. pl. The strands of the short beard are indicated by a rickrack pattern. herringbone-like eyebrows.

pl. Limestone H.51. The head is covered by a smooth.contents cat.2478) description  The lower part of the legs is missing and the left one is clearly advanced. 31 in. XLVIII. with the hand closed and placed on the abdomen. the peak of which curves to the back. The right arm is bent.c. 1874–76 (74. short-sleeved tunic and a short kilt with a smooth. Purchased by subscription. and elongated eyes within very thick eyelids surmounted by low-set eyebrows. The left arm is held to the side of the body. with long. The flat back has toolmarks. The features show a broken nose. The figure wears a smooth.286. wide belt. 40–61) 61 . (79 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1037 The Cesnola Collection. thick lips. male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. conical helmet. The face has a severe expression. with the hand closed around an oval object. cat. 42 Under-lifesize bearded votary in Egyptianizing dress First half of the 6th century b. 42 reference  Cesnola 1885. 41 Cat. thin arms. The pronounced lower border extends into the mass of hair and widens out onto the nape of the neck. The body is very elongated.

remains. They are painted cat. fig.51. The point of attachment of the hand at the level of the thigh is very small. references  Cesnola 1885. The top of the kilt is visible below the belt. 44 Fragment of an over-lifesize male votary with an Egyptianizing kilt First half of the 6th century b. 283.5 cm).c. 37. p.4. Karageorghis 1998. The work is cursory and the left arm is very poorly rendered. in addition to part of the belt. Faegersten 2003.51.2676) description  A part of the abdomen. pls. 33. 1874–76 (74. (21 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1371 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. he is depicted thrusting his sword into the lion while seizing its right front paw. The belt is decorated with a frieze of bearded sphinxes that are crouching and turned to the right. The thumb is excessively large.2571) the belt remains. 32. 43 Fragment of an over-lifesize male votary with an Egyptianizing kilt First half of the 6th century b. the left one is very fragmentary. The left arm was originally held to the side of the body.7 cm). and the left hand are missing. references  Cesnola 1885. 8¼ in. no. 45 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress First half of the 6th century b. 1874–76 (74.51. Purchased by subscription. p. The left leg is advanced. p. (19. 8. L. pl. 43 62 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. Several syllabic signs (graffiti) are inscribed on the top of the kilt. 6½ in.3. There is a “paradise flower” on both sides. 1874–76 (74. no. 283. (12. W. V. Wearing the lion skin. 44 . 4⅞ in. (?) Limestone H.90. 29. The right arm was bent with the hand closed and placed on the upper abdomen. Each sphinx wears a helmet with cheekpieces. Purchased by subscription. 83.c. The front panel of the kilt is decorated with two uraei. decorated with a bearded Herakles.c. pl. which has a very description  A section of the upper part of the kilt and of Cat.  XXVII.80. both arms. 30.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1370 The Cesnola Collection. 12½ in. Purchased by subscription. 8. XXVII.2594) worn surface. (16. (31. Faegersten 2003.4 cm) From a tomb at Amathus (?) Myres 1033 The Cesnola Collection. pls. 7¾ in. (?) Limestone H. description  The legs below the knees.contents Cat. Cat.

no. Sophocleous 1985. pl. references  Unpublished. pp. A necklace. (67 cm) Myres 1038 The Cesnola Collection. the eyelids thick. On the head is a helmet with cheekpieces and a peak. Tore 1995. 2.  2. no. pl.3–4. The back is arched and the buttocks protrude. 452. 30.  45. The right hand is placed on the abdomen. 1.215.2 and II. The pupils. V. 25. 45 black. pl. The structure of the torso. Hermary 1981. as are the borders of the kilt and the front of the belt.1 If this sculpture does indeed come from Amathus. The back is summarily rendered. The stiff lips show a faint smile. is quite athletic. Karageorghis 2000a. See Hermary 2001b. commentary  This statuette differs from the small. references  Cesnola 1885. The garment consists of a smooth kilt and a thin tunic.  XXXIV. Faegersten 2003. widely distributed Cypro-Ionian sculptures of the same period. no. The flesh parts of the body are covered with pinkish paint. Gjerstad 1948. its originality is all the more striking.2553) description  The legs are missing from the knees down. 289. 46 Cat. which consists of four relief bands. and compare the small group Cat.c. 49. with two rows of teardropshaped pendants. The second row of the belt is divided into rectangles. The head is extremely large in comparison to the body. painted black. II. male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. 46 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress. Hermary 2001b.1.51. The prominent lips are painted red. 40–61) 63 .contents cat. The eyes are elongated. 28. as are the rectangular locks of the wide “wig” that covers the forehead and pushes the ears forward. The breasts and the navel are indicated by a darker red. as the reddish color of the skin indicates. 179. The large ears are schematic. The locks are less detailed on the back. Purchased by subscription. since limestone sculpture there is extremely rare before the fifth century b. pls. with its flat abdomen and the outline of the thoracic arch. pl. p. pl. The back is less well rendered. and eyebrows are black. The triangular-­shaped face shows a faint smile. covers the upper chest. 276. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. eyelids. cat.  VI. p.c.32. wearing a helmet First half of the 6th century b. It is more closely related to Egyptian models. 26⅜ in. indicated by the lozenge shapes incised on the torso.

Smooth hair widens out slightly at the back. 47 Small beardless male head with a plain headdress First half of the 6th century b. Faegersten 2003. The smooth hair widens out above the shoulders. The face shows a severe expression. 1874–76 (74. p.c. (12.227.contents cat. Gjerstad 1948.51. VIII. 413⁄16 in. Limestone H. 30. The left arm was held to the side of the body.2 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. Two rings are attached to each earlobe. They are surmounted by low-set.3. description  There is a small break on the nose. 285. with the hand closed and placed on the abdomen.51. Purchased by subscription. The pinched eyeballs of the elongated eyes are clearly separated from their thick eyelids. The thin face has a rather severe expression. references  Cesnola 1885. pl. Stylianou 2003. (17. pl. XXXVI. 48 64 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .c. The front of the kilt is very short. 1874–76 (74. The belt is shown at the back. Cat.2567) description  The legs below the knees and the greater part of the left arm are missing. 615⁄16 in. The buttocks are summarily rendered. pl. p. The nose is short and the eyes are extremely elongated within very thick eyelids. pl. no. smooth eyebrows. 40.l. Purchased by subscription. XXXIV. A fine line above the arms indicates the edge of a tunic. The crown of the head is flat. 36.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1039 The Cesnola Collection. The torso is flat. cat. 1. The belt is wide. “near the temple” Myres 1277 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. references  Cesnola 1885.2501) revealing part of the thighs. thick. pl.219. 47 Cat. The legs are clearly separated and the left is advanced. 48 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress First half or middle of the 6th century b. The right arm is bent.

The lower abdomen and most of the thighs are covered by an Egyptianizing kilt. Limestone H.contents Cat.51. with the left leg advanced. cat. 49 cat. There are small breaks on the right cheek.5 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. 1874–76 (74. and the left arm. 40–61) 65 . the hand is closed around a small oval object. held apart from the body. “West of the Temple” Myres 1361 The Cesnola Collection. (136. The thumb is very large. The right arm is held to the side of the body. 53¾ in. The left arm. 49 Over-lifesize bearded male votary in Egyptianizing dress Second quarter of the 6th century b. Over the left thigh. The edges of the belt are in relief and the central decoration is virtually worn away. Purchased by subscription. the kilt shows traces of pleats that would originally have been painted. the left hand. 49 cat. with the hand closed around a small oval object and placed on the upper abdomen.2467) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. the front of which is decorated with barely visible uraei. 49 male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. The figure is walking. attached to the thigh. The remains of a small support behind the left thigh is visible. The upper arms are rendered as muscular.c. is bent.

White. The face shows a serious expression. The left arm was bent.53 (in Sarasota). there is a group of vertical incisions. 24. The protruding upper part of the eyeballs assumes a half-moon shape. A syllabic inscription appears on the left arm: “I belong to Timagoras” (written “Tamigoras”). pl.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1362 The Cesnola Collection. There is a small break on the right cheek. XXIII. pl. 19. 53¾ in. no. the right eyebrow. Karageorghis 2000a. fig. p. 31. 1. 56). fig. There are breaks on the right hand.1 but here part of the body is preserved. 529. no. references  Doell 1873. II. The features include a very protruding chin.7. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. The beard is short and smooth. Cat. commentary  The head of the figure. Masson 1971. with the hand between the breasts. V. the volume of which is very pronounced. short-sleeved tunic through which the nipples of the widely separated breasts appear. a stiff mouth. and poorly shaped arms attest to a certain clumsiness in adapting Egyptian models.contents The belt is shown at the back and the buttocks are particularly small. The rounded shoulders are very broad.c. The torso is covered with a thin. The structure of the torso is Egyptianizing. 49.7.2. III. 50 description  The legs below the knees and the left arm are missing. 1874–76 (74. 101. pl. no. p. The front panel of the kilt is decorated with two uraei wearing a solar disk and surmounted by two smaller coiled serpents.1. with its smooth hairstyle and short beard. is covered with a smooth wig that hides the forehead almost entirely. Cesnola 1885. The torso presents an attempt at articulating the musculature of the abdomen and the . no. is comparable to those of other works from the sanctuary of Ayios Photios (Cat. 356. The very thick eyebrows. His narrow chest.51. while its wide side pieces end at the level of the shoulders. Faegersten 2003. the same may be true for the decoration incised on the tunic. 279. 81. the mouth. Limestone H. the hairs of which are shown by diagonal hatching. The left leg is advanced and the right arm is held to the side of the body. the ears are carefully rendered. the upper arm is separated from the torso.5. It is very likely that the inscription on the arm—which probably gives the name of the person who made the offering—dates from after the work. 181. very wide shoulders. 51. 315. pls. Purchased by subscription. fig. the hairs of the mustache are indicated by irregular incisions. 5. Myres 1940–45b. 66 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. Mylonas 2003. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. IX. Cesnola 1885. and lozenge shapes on the right shoulder. 9. p.2470) (on loan to the Princeton University Art Museum) Photo © Bruce M.1 and 27. The head. with a visible narrowing below the chest and a slightly rounded abdomen. p. and the left eye. a jagged line that probably indicates the seam on the left shoulder. and a pointed nose with narrow nostrils. 50 Lifesize bearded male votary in Egyptianizing dress Second quarter of the 6th century b. pl. the nose. are low-set. 59. 263. pl. The tunic shows incised vertical lines. 202. pls.6. Masson 1961/1983. (136. p. p. 7. On the front.

Cesnola 1877. references  Cesnola 1885. Markoe 1990. 5. The edge of a tunic is visible at the base of the neck. male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. 282. within thick upper eyelids. 30. and a rounded abdomen. 17. pls. references  Doell 1873. 154 with fig.2 and 28. p. like a conical helmet. IV. In the middle of the belt.5. Limestone H. CXI. pl. and an eyebrow. l. 281. no. Spiteris 1970. smooth beard is typical of the production at Golgoi during this period.7. 11. two pairs of crossed scepters surround a disk. 51 description  The legs are missing below the knees. The left leg was advanced. Cat. 39. and pear-shaped pendants. fig. The front of the kilt is decorated with two winged serpents that wear the Egyptian double crown and extend their forked tongues. The weapon that the figure probably holds in his hand reinforces the expression of royal power.contents pectorals. Mylonas 2003. 51 (m). curved motifs. Cesnola 1885.2603) cat. Faegersten 2003. Marangou 2000.51. is roughed out.7. There are breaks on the nose and many traces of fire on the head.” The hair is delineated by a delicate band beneath the crown and a mass of hair widens out onto the very damaged back. which showed a smiling expression. pl. Faegersten 2003. teeth bared. 10. Two rings are attached to each earlobe. smooth wig.2. narrow chest.A. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 18. Picón et al. which is partially broken. p.1. a bit of which appears under the break of the left forearm.279. with broad shoulders. the curved part of the “red crown” with a frieze of “paradise flowers. The back. Two straps on the left shoulder support a quiver (or the scabbard of a sword?). XCI. no. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893. 176. 7. an eye. pl. The left arm was bent and the hand extended forward. 40–61) 67 . The center of the “white crown” is adorned with a rosette.. II. commentary  This work is entirely original because the figure wears the royal double crown—probably the first example in Cypriot sculpture—and he probably held a bow in his hand.  XLII. p. A spiral bracelet circles each upper arm. Sophocleous 1985. 7. 359. p. pls.4 and 29. p. pl. Wilson 1975. The eyeballs protrude and the line of the thick eyebrows stops before the nose.c. pl. p. commentary  The sculptor tried to reproduce faithfully the garb and jewelry of Egyptian statues. XVI. with hand closed. fig. pl. triangles. The upper chest and part of the shoulders are covered with a wide necklace consisting at the top of heart-shaped fruit. but the expressive face depends on Ionian models and the short. 170. fig. A smooth beard covers the lower part of the face. and “drops” separated by smaller triangles. 159.6. a head of “Bes” (unusual iconography of the god). has cheekpieces and a peak flanked by two lotus flowers. and a protective eye surmounted by an eyebrow. pl. 26. 23¼ in. 1. There is also a grimacing bald head with tongue extended. p. Brönner 1994. The left forearm is missing and part of the right shoulder is restored. p. are dominated by a low-set eyebrow arch. pls. a flat. The head is covered with a wide. fig. p. Purchased by subscription. the lower part of which have been cut. p. 40. (59 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1266 The Cesnola Collection. indicated by the crown. no. 1874–76 (74. The eyeballs. The torso is rendered in the Egyptian manner. A spiral bracelet circles the upper arm. 20. figs. the right arm is held to the side of the body.c. 58. The head and the greater part of the forehead are 1 covered with a double crown that. His kilt is decorated with an accumulation of apotropaic symbols treated in the Cypriot manner: winged cobras. 2007. The delicate features of the thin face show a smiling expression. Karageorghis 2000a. no. 51 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress Second quarter of the 6th century b. 280.  533. V. The chest and shoulders are covered with a wide necklace consisting of triangles.

 4. the commentary by Nick 2006. Purchased by subscription. 117⁄16 in. (11. The eyeballs of the elongated eyes protrude and the eyebrow line extends the ridge of the nose. the side pieces of which cover the hips.51.2600) cat. (29. The lips show a smiling expression. 53 Small statuette of a “hunter” in Egyptianizing dress Second quarter or middle of the 6th century b. 48. commentary  The face is very similar to that of a head in the Louvre. 32d–g (but which is not of a musician: cf. pl. 1874–76 (74. 107.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1271 The Cesnola Collection. no. pl.c. 4½ in. p. unlike a statuette from Naucratis. Limestone H.56.2589) Cat. Pryce 1931. (27 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1049 The Cesnola Collection. 8. references  Cesnola 1885. 65. commentary  The quiver could designate the figure as a hunter. Senff 1993. C31. Two rings are attached to the lobe of each ear. 52 Lifesize bearded head with a plain headdress Second quarter of the 6th century b. Purchased by subscription.375. Limestone H. even though the latter is beardless. 37. Hermary 1989a. no. Compare a very small statuette from Idalion. The torso is covered with a tunic. A wide belt holds the kilt. the front of which is partially visible. 52 68 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . p. A bow case and a quiver—from which arrows project—are suspended behind the left shoulder. pl. pp. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. 48). The hair is smooth.1 description  The legs are missing below the top of the thighs. Faegersten 2003.c. no. The lips of the thin face show a stiff smile. Limestone H. references  Cesnola 1885. 1. no. no. 30. 35–39. LVII. p. The edges are indicated by a double line in relief.  285. Faegersten 2003. but. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.51. 54 Statuette of a warrior with an Egyptianizing kilt Second or third quarter of the 6th century b.  XXIII. Cat. A thick.contents Cat. The features are worn. pl. with the lower edge of the hairline articulated on the back.2874) description  The beard is short and smooth.51. The ears are schematic.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1052 The Cesnola Collection. p. 10⅝ in.c. smooth mass of hair flares out to the sides. 7. p. The delicate hooked nose is partially broken.1 no animal is shown.2 1. 1874–76 (74. The left leg is advanced.  299. Nick 2006. The form of the buttocks is suggested. 2.

 177. with hand closed. The body is articulated on the back. summarily rendered. short-sleeved tunic. The head is raised and the face shows a smiling expression. The chest is covered with a smooth. no.2 and 30. male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. The right arm is bent. Karageorghis 2000a. The front is decorated at the center with two uraei wearing solar disks as a headdress and tongues to the sides. references  Cesnola 1885. no.265. 35. 40–61) 69 . p. V. pls. The left leg was advanced. 284. is held to the side of the body.contents cat. Faegersten 2003.and cheekpieces. 53 cat. 9. The left arm. There are breaks on the top of the helmet and on the right hand. The head is covered with a Greek type of helmet with protective nose.  XLII. The hand held the hilt of a sword within the scabbard suspended from a baldric across his chest. pl. The features show protruding eyes. schematic eyelids. 54 description  The legs are missing from above the knees. and thick eyebrows. commentary  The association of the Egyptianizing drapery and the Greek type of helmet is unique. beneath which projects a wide mass of hair. The kilt is held by a wide belt with three bands.

pl. The narrow chest is shown in the Egyptian manner. Purchased by subscription.  XXVI.c. Faegersten 2003. references  Cesnola 1885. 25. Purchased by subscription. 13¼ in. Photos: Philippe Collet. The almond-shaped eyes protrude beneath the upper eyelids. The left leg is advanced. The eyelids are not shown in relief. The facial features are sharp. (31. The right arm is bent and the hand is placed on the upper abdomen.70. pl. 129⁄16 in. Cat. The lips have a smiling expression.9 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The depression above the knee is accentuated. with hand closed. 1874–76 (74. 55 Cat.51. Nicosia) Photo © École Française d’Athènes.2873) description  The upper border of the tunic is preserved. p. 1874–76 (74. description  The lower part of the legs is missing. “West of the temple” Myres 1036 The Cesnola Collection. 27. Limestone H.7 cm) cat. The short. It has a decoration of triangles that probably belonged to a pectoral. pointed nose is partially broken. The left arm is held to the side of the body. The pleats over the entire front of the kilt are slightly rippled. (33. 56 70 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . no.51.c.  279. 55 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress Middle of the 6th century b.contents cat. Limestone H.2507) (on loan to the Cyprus Museum. 56 Over-lifesize bearded head with a plain headdress Middle of the 6th century b. The smooth beard is short. Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1272 The Cesnola Collection.

 57 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. 28.  141. The ears are thin and elongated.1 and 30. p. 40–61) 71 . The plinth and the poorly executed feet do not belong to the statuette. The forehead is partially hidden by thick. is placed on the abdomen. male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat. The right forearm. The left arm is held to the side of the body. pl. 57 which jut out farther. 1874–76 (74. no. with hand closed.51. The center of the kilt. Cat. Purchased by subscription. fig. two vertical knotted bands. the lower right leg is modern. pl. The belt consists of vertical rectangles. p. Faegersten 2003. references  Cesnola 1885. shows stacked irregular rectangles.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1267 The Cesnola Collection.52. no.  p. Cesnola 1885. The left arm and hand are very damaged. The facial expression is smiling. There are breaks on the right arm and the nose. pl. damaged at the bottom.  XXIII. and two uraei. on the sides. than the lower eyelids.  XXX.201. 281.  284.2658) description  The lower left leg and the right ankle are restored in plaster. the hair forms a row of curls that merge into the mass of hair on the back. The rounded chest is covered with a pectoral and a short-sleeved tunic decorated with horizontal and vertical bands of vegetal motifs. references  Cesnola 1877. On the forehead. Limestone H. smooth eyebrows end before the ridge of the nose. The thick. 28. smooth hair that widens out onto the back. (71. pls.c.contents cat. 28¼ in. Faegersten 2003. 34. 9. the chin prominent.

Perrot and Chipiez 1885. Richter 1970. pl. 7. rare on Cyprus. There are visible toolmarks.1 1. references  Cesnola 1885. The left leg is advanced.c. There is nothing—helmet. 59 Lifesize beardless male votary in Egyptianizing dress Ca. 39. pl.  468.  XVI.1 left leg is advanced. The same motif is found vertically on the front of the kilt. On both sides. He wears an Egyptianizing kilt with a smooth front and a tunic with elbow-length sleeves preserving red paint at the top. as on the head Cat. 130. 11. 58 Cat. The body is stocky. fig. Höckmann 2007.  286. 529. Traces of red paint on the chest probably belong to a pectoral that was entirely painted. 31.10.2552) description  The head may not belong to the rest of the statuette. commentary  In an entirely original manner. The oval-shaped face shows a smiling expression. Faegersten 2003. thin lips that are faintly smiling. If the head were not preserved. the shoulders broad. 67). Purchased by subscription. 37. fig. Above are four rows of thick. late 6th century b. He holds all four feet in his hand.51. there are three long elements with pointed ends. where it separates the uraei crowned with solar disks. nor in the hairstyle that associates small locks jutting out on the upper forehead. and the abdomen rounded. Compare. 381–383. 182–83.  III. 1. 355.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1066 The Cesnola Collection. (body). V. no. p. The facial features are worn. p.  X.  21. The hair is short and curly. figs. crimped. (head) Limestone H. p. Purchased by subscription. holding a goat Second half of the 6th century b.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1356 The Cesnola Collection. pl. p. no.51. with hands closed.2471) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. Small almond-shaped eyes within carefully drawn eyelids are surmounted by thick eyebrows. Only a small space is hollowed out between the upper arms and the torso. no.3 and 28. it would have been impossible to imagine the extent to which it differs from heads on Egyptianizing works from Cyprus. bordered by bands in relief. 58 Statuette of a male votary in Egyptianizing dress. The head is of the Greek Ionian type. transversal locks of Samian type. Cesnola 1877. pp. IX. commentary  This type of representation. 29.23. and somewhat stiff. Gjerstad 1948. The cat. 41¼ in. short-sleeved tunic. no. for Naucratis. Karageorghis 2000a.ll. fig. p. The facial features show a protruding chin. partially painted red. eight rows of three. Faegersten 2003. 105⁄16 in. other locks fall vertically to the neck. Hermary 2007. is decorated with three rows of horizontal strips. 180. no. 1874–76 (74. fig. A spiral bracelet circles each upper arm. no.  71 with transversal locks on top of the head (see Cat. this small statue shows the association of a body in Egyptianizing dress and jewelry with a head entirely inspired by Ionian models. The belt. diadem. The hair above the forehead is short and vertical (“crew-cut” style). 145.  62. (104. (26. Both legs from the lower thighs down and the right forearm are missing.contents Cat.c. the figure clasps a small goat close to his body. The breasts are visible beneath the close-fitting. They are not shown on the nape of the neck. The entire back is left roughed out. Limestone H.c. headband. Richter 1942. p. p. 1874–76 (74. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. pl. With the left arm. 111. Cesnola 1885. references  Doell 1873. or crown—on the head that corresponds to local traditions. 281. The rather fleshy torso and slightly prominent breasts refer to Ionian Greek sculpture rather than Egyptian. pl.2. Lembke 2004. pl. 54. pls. for eastern Greece. N21. slightly hooked nose. is attested in the sanctuary of Amrit on the Syrian coast. 72 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 550–540 b.

1874–76 (74. 40–61) 73 . The bent right arm is clearly detached from the body.contents cat. 60 Lifesize bearded votary in Egyptianizing dress Ca.51. 60 description  The legs are missing below the lower thighs. (130. 540–520 b. 51¼ in. with hand closed and placed male votaries in egyptianizing dress or heads with a plain headdress (cat.c. particularly on the right arm. with little open space between. 59 Cat. Purchased by subscription. The mortise in the break of the right leg and the one that is hollowed out diagonally behind the left thigh are not mentioned by Charles Balliard as modern restorations. There are many marks from blows. The left arm is held to the side of the body. The left shoulder and the left arm were “repaired by Balliard” (partly restored?).2472) cat.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1363 The Cesnola Collection. The left leg is advanced. Limestone H.

Hermary 1981. its antlers very evident.” the fragmentary element in relief is probably an uraeus. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1873. Faegersten 2003. Cesnola 1877. Markoe 1990. fig. is decorated with three rows of. noticeably smaller. the double crown very probably identifies the figure’s royal status. 14¾ in. pl. Separated by a band in relief is a lion overcoming a cervid. 11. 31. no. If the mortises hollowed out on the legs are ancient. with traces of red paint. 5. p.c. Gjerstad 1948. 1874–76 (74.347. pl. pl. which is decorated with groups of four small. The left leg is advanced and both arms are held to the sides of the body. The forehead is surmounted by two rows of small curls. pl. p. on the top. The head is covered by the double crown. 182.  131.  526–30. pl. pp. Each wears a solar disk on its head. The head.  XLIII. The narrow. a teardrop motif. pls. 6. with a rickrack motif. as the navel is visible. fig.a.  36. commentary  The face is similar to that of the “priest with dove” (Cat. fig.  290. p. The forms are summarily rendered on the back and there are toolmarks. The facial features show a smiling expression and a slightly hooked nose.contents on the upper abdomen.  18. no. fig. an exceptional phenomenon on Cyprus. The beard consists of four rows of short. Cat.  8. Faegersten 2003.  II.  113–14. references  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. Brönner 1994. The front of the kilt forms an elongated trapezoid. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. . a row of hook-shaped locks projects beneath the crown. pl.9.l). IV. pp.  43.2605) 74 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. The tear duct is not closed. in the middle. Tore 1995. Wilson 1975. fig. almost cylindrical torso appears to be bare. and that it. pl.b–c. V.5 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1035 The Cesnola Collection. to which they are entirely attached. The flat back has toolmarks. 22). The smooth eyebrows continue the line of the nose. A wide pectoral. p. From top to bottom. the lower part of the arms. which is adorned by two uraei crowned with solar disks. The victim is on the ground.  31.  100. below them appears a very fragmented floral and lotus-bud motif. hatched triangles.  28.280. no. On the front of the “white crown. It marks one of the last attempts to preserve the prestigious Egyptianizing style at a time when Greek models were already widely established. (37.3 and 33. There are traces of red paint. pl. 21. A double bracelet circles each upper arm. therefore. pl. had particular importance within the sanctuary. Hermary 1986a. no.1 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882.  12. thus giving the torso a curious appearance. 61 description  The surface of the stone is pinkish. and the left leg from the lower thigh are missing. they indicate that the statue has been repaired.  p. There are traces of red paint inside the nostrils. The short-sleeved tunic of the votary includes two deep vertical incisions that define a central band. stands on the back of the cervid. fig. The wide-open eyes are turned toward the center. The feline. its hindquarters raised. curled strands. the nipples of which are well indicated. pp. Two clumsily rendered winged uraei follow. 2. 50 (i). 277. p. their flat bodies.  358.C.  LIV. the mouth is closed and the features are completely human. six persea fruit. no. As noted in the introductory commentary. p.  18.  114. protrudes. p. I.2. 11. Markoe 1990.  202. On the back. pls. (?) Limestone H. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. The rounded abdomen pushes down the belt.51.8.1 and 26. 61 Statuette of a male votary in Egyptianizing dress Early 5th century b. 62–63. Karageorghis 2000a. and on the bottom. The chest. stacked strips.  99–100. p.  454. no. partially cover the front.  50. cross one another. pp. The pleated panels of the kilt. XV. the decoration consists of a head of Bes with a rounded beard and a not very Egyptianizing face. Cesnola 1885. the right leg below the knee. The head rests on a very thick neck. fig. but this statue is a little smaller. Myres 1940–45b. references  Doell 1873. with fringed edges.

3 As indicated in the Chronology section pages 25–27. the head Cat. Limestone H. On the back.c.51. revealing the genitalia.. Purchased by subscription. (43. commentary  This statuette is one of the oldest sculptures found on Cyprus that shows a figure draped in a chiton and a himation. statuettes (see. Cf. 62–75) 75 . with space between the upper arms and the torso. p. the three types described above are decidedly in the majority. 3. For Idalion.  65). The other locks form a small triangle at the front of the head and two locks at the ears fall to the shoulders. 13.2 but a lifesize example comes from the sanctuary of Lefkoniko. The innovations do not include adoption of the nude kouros type. is draped between the left shoulder and the right hip. the connections to sculpture from eastern Greece allow more precise dates for works from Golgoi–Ayios Photios and other sanctuaries on the island. It is represented most frequently by statuettes. without the locks near the ears.3. 64. As in the Aegean Greek world. 62–75) Of the male representations of the first half of the sixth century b. 32. 17¼ in. and the locks by an incisorlike motif. 1874–76 (74. with a narrow bust in the Egyptian style. characterizing a new type of draped kouros widely represented on Cyprus until the end of the Archaic period.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1060 The Cesnola Collection.2523) description  The lower part of the legs and the feet are missing and the face has been reattached. notes 1. pl. 180. pl. the dress and the hair on the front of the head. are comparable. The body is very cat. The nose is very hooked. which remains almost unknown on Cyprus until the end of the Archaic period. but the development of “Cypro-Ionian” styles and contacts with the principal workshops of eastern Greece.1 young votaries in the ionian tradition (draped kouroi) (cat. Myres 1940–45a. The upper part of the eyeballs protrudes. p.1 These new fashions concern. larger statues (Cat. The comparison with the “Cypro-Ionian” sculptures is evident. The fabric clings to the body. 63). The lips show a faint smile. from the middle of the century. A rolled headband or a braid of hair obscures the forehead. The forms of the body are summarily rendered.. no. the edge of which is visible at the base of the neck and on the upper left arm. however. The figure wears a chiton. painted red. these figures are most often beardless young men with long hair. Cat. in particular Samos. but short hairstyles appear gradually in the second half of the sixth century b. and falls in vertical folds between the legs. The left leg is advanced and both arms are held to the sides of the body.c. 65). 62 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress First half of the 6th century b. A narrow himation. the end of the hair is indicated by a horizontal incision. first. an Ionian-type head can be associated with an Egyptianizing body (Cat. see Senff 1993. 10f–h. in particular with an animal-bearer from the Heraion of Samos. introduce changes that become established in the second half of the century. 62 elongated. but rather the assimilation of garments characteristic of the Ionian Greek world—the long thin tunic (chiton) and the ­mantle draped over one shoulder (himation)—as well as hairstyles that leave long hair exposed and sometimes held by a headband. Two rings are attached to each earlobe.contents Young Votaries in the Ionian Tradition (Draped Kouroi) (cat. 2. then. Hermary 2009b. Surprisingly.c.

On Cyprus. pl. and slightly hollowed-out nostrils. The elongated eyes are surmounted just above by thick. 245.2 1. fig. But the headband and the small triangle. 11.2 1. 4. fig. and the front part of the head remain. references  Cesnola 1885. references  Hitchcock 1872. as on Egyptianizing sculptures. Limestone H. p. Cat.51.  p. smooth eyebrows. Hermary 2009b. link it to “Cypro-Ionian” works.54. Hermary 2009b. fig. a pointed chin. p. a statuette now in Athens that follows this tradition is made out of gypsum.  194 (“Dali”). 1874–76 (74. stiff. A headband in the form of a roll covers the forehead but does not extend behind the ears. Small locks seem to be lightly incised on the cheeks. pl. 64 Over-lifesize beardless male head with a fillet First half of the 6th century b. p. The features of the thin face are a delicate. not limestone. There is a .  XX. a broad nose. Hermary 1989a. (30. no. p. The upper eyelids protrude and are clearly more arched than the lower ones. V. 54. Purchased by subscription.c. 2. Hermary 2009b.39. Kyrieleis 1989. The back is flat. the hairs of which are indicated by triangular incisions. 12⅛ in. Purchased by subscription. however. 4. indicating that the figure wore a new beard.c. Hermary 2009b. no. Its Cypriot origin remains uncertain.1 The fact that here the headband stops suddenly in front of the ears shows that the sculptor did not follow his models correctly. p.contents cat.8 cm) Myres 1269 The Cesnola Collection. 54. Cat. (38. Kyrieleis 1989.2872) description  The face. 1. suggesting a central part. no. like the kouros C266 already mentioned. the ridge of which is flat. fig. Limestone H. Hermary 2009b. minus the left ear. 197. are low-set. commentary  This large head preserves the convention of smooth hair with two masses that fall and flare out onto 76 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries the sides. Cesnola 1885. 11. fig. The eyebrows. the nose slightly hooked. bearded and has locks near the ears may be compared. V. Karageorghis 2003a. Karageorghis 2000a. p. 189. 63 Interestingly. The smooth hair assumes a triangular form on the forehead and creates a mass that widens out onto each side of the neck. 68. fig. 3. p.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1270 The Cesnola Collection. 7. 2. 245. but smiling mouth. fig. 1874–76 (74.51.2869) description  The facial features are asymmetrical and the expression is serious. 15¼ in. XXIII. a head from Malloura that is. 63 Over-lifesize beardless male head with a fillet First half of the 6th century b. fig. 245. 245. 245. The mouth is stiff.

references  Unpublished. Small toolmarks on the head represent locks. and large ears summarily rendered. are surmounted by thick eyebrows. the origin of which is controversial. P. not even in “Cypro-Ionian” sculpture. turned slightly inward. Cat. 65 Statue of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Middle of the 6th century b.2469) (on loan to the Nasher Museum. Gloskiewicz 1978.1 1. (121. stiff. It consists of two parts with smooth leaves. The figure is covered with a cat. 65 smooth chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1357 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. the neck thick. closed lips. The chest is barely articulated. The right hand holds a branch vertically. 4711⁄16 in. young votaries in the ionian tradition (draped kouroi) (cat. high cheekbones. leaving the left flank exposed. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion. Four layered folds fall from the chest and widen out between the legs. A tight roll of hair over the forehead develops into a central part. description  The legs are missing from the thighs down. the ivory “lion master” found at Delphi. commentary  This head is included in the series of kouroi inspired by eastern Greece despite the probable presence of a new beard and the original arrangement of the hair. Amandry 1944–45. The ears are schematic. Limestone H. Duke University) Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. the nose is partially broken. The left leg is advanced and the very thick arms are held to the sides of the body. The facial features are rather coarse: a pointed chin.51. At the front of the head.contents cat. 1874–76 (74. The almond-shaped eyes. It falls to above the right knee. to which they are joined. The latter knows no equivalent on Cyprus. On the forehead appears a row of hook-shaped curls. The shoulders are broad.c. 62–75) 77 . but is found on an older work. 64 break on the left eye.

c. The remaining hair is smooth except on the sides. as well as the disposition of the hair. Limestone H. pl. It is probably a symbol of participation in a religious celebration. 29. with hands closed. Stucky 1993. 20 in. The pleats of the himation resemble those of Egyptianizing kilts.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1055 The Cesnola Collection.10. 203. 1874–76 (74.  254. The entirely new element is the figure’s branch. 66 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Middle of the 6th century b. The left leg is advanced and both arms are held to the sides of the body. no. The garment consists of a chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder. p. The back is flat. p.  III.51. commentary  The conception of the body and the face. 62. The zigzag design of the locks incised on the sides is represented on the “Cypro-Ionian” bust from Samos already mentioned (Cat. A broad lock falls to the front of each shoulder.  16. no. 65 the hair is divided into four large. references  Doell 1873. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. The Egyptianizing hair is smooth. with the exception of a slight projection that indicates the buttocks. references  Doell 1873. 59. It is found again on a bust from the sanctuary of Eshmoun at Sidon. pl. p.8. transversal locks. p. 63).1 The figure wears the same garment. Cesnola 1885.  21. which is later abundantly attested on male votive statues. XXXI.  I. pl. 78 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 71. 59.  p. elongated. 66 Cat. no. Cesnola 1877.10. 9.  145. Cesnola 1885. are closely related to those of Cat. The body is very 1.2513) description  The feet are missing. (50. but his finer facial features are more comparable to those of Cat. pl. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. Purchased by subscription. pl. but the transversal locks actually revive a fashion attested on Egyptian ushebtis. where fine locks have been incised.  61.  VIII. pl. The thin face has a smiling expression and both the chin and the nose are pointed. fig.204. slightly crimped.1. The forms are summarily rendered on the back. The hair is of Samian type.  3. 195. cat.contents cat. the fabric of which forms two panels of drapery that overlap in the front. fig. except for the locks on the forehead.

51. 2. 13–16. (body) Limestone H. (39. (18. no. The forms are summarily rendered on the back and there are toolmarks. Limestone H. fig. Three locks fall to the front on each shoulder. 356.contents cat. The figure wears a smooth chiton. V. The figure is dressed in a short-sleeved chiton. The round face shows a smiling expression and elongated eyes. 32–33. narrow lidless eyes. 15⅜ in. 28. with a headband (?) at the center. Hermary 2009b. p. p. pl. 67 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Middle of the 6th century b. with hands closed. and unarticulated ears.2621) cat.51. 163.c. 1874–76 (74. no. pl.1 cm) Myres 1057 The Cesnola Collection. Hermary 2009b.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1065 The Cesnola Collection. pls.4–5. fig. 3. painted red.3 whereas outside of Cyprus the hairstyle is attested only on two alabaster kouroi. Gjerstad et al. with a fold on the left hip and a flat fold between the legs. The large feet wear shoes. The left leg is advanced. Karageorghis 1978. Höckmann 2007. 62–75) 79 . 246. 7¼ in. Hermary 2003.2525) description  It is not certain that the head belongs. The left leg is advanced and both arms are held to the sides of the body. Statuettes with the same hairstyle were found at Idalion. Senff 1993.  56. 68 references  Cesnola 1885.2 and Kazaphani. second half of the 6th century b. is draped over the left shoulder. pl. 43. pl. p. 42. 11d–i. XXV. Purchased by subscription. description  The lower portion of the legs is missing. The hair is long on the back. p. Cat. commentary  This statuette is another good example of the introduction to Cyprus of Ionian dress and hairstyles (see Cat. A himation. IX. Purchased by subscription. (head).  XX. 67 Cat. which is merely roughed out.40. young votaries in the ionian tradition (draped kouroi) (cat.  62). 246. There is a diadem on the top of the head. The body is very elongated.c. 4. The face has a smiling expression.1 Kition. The locks are arranged transversely on the front of the head. 1937. no. 9. pp.c.4 1. references  Unpublished. 68 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Second quarter or middle of the 6th century b. 8. 1874–76 (74. a hooked nose.

A disk is attached to each earlobe.3 cm) From Idalion Myres 1056 The Cesnola Collection. wide-open eyes. The face is damaged. The figure wears a chiton that falls below the knees. The left leg left leg is slightly advanced and the left arm is held to the side of the body. 2215⁄16 in. 69 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. The figure wears a chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder. The forms are summarily rendered on the back and there are toolmarks. and schematic ears. There are abundant traces of dark red paint on the two garments. (40. with hand closed. The locks on the forehead form a roll and the hair falls to both sides. Limestone H. with hands closed. pl. 70 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b.c. The description  The thin body is very elongated. reference  Cesnola 1885. A flat lock falls forward onto each shoulder. 1874–76 (74. the closed hand placed on the abdomen.51. The shoes are painted red. and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder.68. with several incised folds. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. is slightly advanced. 69 cat. 80 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries reference  Cesnola 1885.c. The right arm is bent. 70 Cat.2540) Cat. 1874–76 (74.51. The face has a smiling expression.contents cat. Purchased by subscription. The forms are summarily rendered on the back and there are toolmarks. Limestone H.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1054 The Cesnola Collection. The Egyptianizing hair is smooth. (58. 15⅞ in. XXVI. . Purchased by subscription.202. pl. a large nose. XXXI.2511) description  The statuette is flat and very elongated.

contents cat. 59. the hair is divided into large transversal locks that form a kind of arch on the back. A row of locks rises above the forehead.2518) description  The facial features are delicate.  246. 1874–76 (74. 71 Cat.c. The ears are carefully articulated. The line formed by the eyebrows is long and thin.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1307 The Cesnola Collection. the eyes wide open. with traces of red paint.51. The nose is slightly hooked. 62–75) 81 . commentary  The hairstyle refers to the same Ionian models as the statue Cat. 6⅛ in. 11. show a smile.  LXXI. p. young votaries in the ionian tradition (draped kouroi) (cat. Limestone H.463. 71 Under-lifesize beardless male head Third quarter of the 6th century b. references  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. The details are indicated by small triangles. Hermary 2009b. but the fineness and expression of the face show a sensitivity and technical mastery rarely attained by Cypriot sculptors. pl. fig. On the head. (15. The lips.

The neck is very thick and the face shows a smiling expression.c. LXVII. LIV. The head is covered with curls that are partially rendered on the back. with hands closed. draped over the left shoulder. 73 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Late 6th century b.438. The figure wears a short chiton and a himation over the left shoulder. Purchased by subscription.51. 72 Cat.contents cat. Limestone H. Limestone 82 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. 19 in. The lips show a faint smile.350. 74 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Late 6th century b. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. Limestone H.c. Purchased by subscription. more summary curls on the top of the head. 1415⁄16 in. 73 H. 1874–76 (74. (33 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1064 The Cesnola Collection. The forms are blocked out on the back and there are toolmarks.51.c.2536) . with hands closed. Cat. The forms are roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. The left leg is clearly advanced.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1059 The Cesnola Collection. The eyelids are not shown. pl. 1874–76 (74. but the facial features are awkwardly rendered. (38 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1063 The Cesnola Collection. The fringe shows on the chest. A bracelet circles each upper arm. There are breaks on the nose and lips. The figure wears a smooth chiton and a himation.2601) description  The right leg from the knee down and the lower portion of the advanced left leg are missing. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74.2575) description  The feet are missing. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. There is a row of curls on the forehead and large. reference  Cesnola 1885. (48. The hair on the nape of the neck is short. that forms superposed folds on its nearly full length. Cat. 13 in. The head is round.51. 72 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Late 6th century b. pl.

The hairstyle consists of a row of curls on the forehead. 74 cat.2634) description  The legs. pl. commentary  The head wears a helmet without cheek­pieces. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. The head has a faintly smiling face and wears a conical hat without articulated cheekpieces. have belonged to a statuette of the same type and not to a figure in Ionian dress. Hermary 1989a. A mass of hair that falls on the shoulders is indicated only on the sides.c. The body is covered by a chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder. 35. which are almost side by side. On the forehead is a row of curls and a mass of hair widens out onto the nape of the neck. The himation is draped over the left shoulder and falls in stacked folds over the proper left side of the body. 75 description  The head may not belong because the mass of hair does not fall to the shoulders. 75 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress Late 6th century or early 5th century b. Purchased by subscription. held by a thin headband.1 It could.449. The head is slightly askew. The face has a smiling expression and the elongated eyes are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. the central edge of which is indicated by a flat fold. Cat. 1874–76 (74. pl. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. 26¼ in. There are toolmarks. no. with hands extended slightly forward. L. are broken from the knees down. young votaries in the ionian tradition (draped kouroi) (cat. 1. (66. with hands closed. The left leg is advanced. and straight locks on the top of the head. 62–75) 83 .51. Limestone H. The feet are missing and the right hand is broken. therefore. The back is flat except for the roughed-out buttocks. LXVII. The figure wears a close-fitting chiton.contents cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. as on a small bust found at Idalion.294. reference  Cesnola 1885.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1067 The Cesnola Collection. remains of red appear on the right upper arm.

allowing one to follow the evolution of the type into the second half of the fifth century b. the meeting places par excellence. undoubtedly. a means of evoking what the god is supposed to offer to mortals: renewal of vegetation and vital forces. This fashion is also well attested in Attic black-figure vase painting of that generation. because at the same time. the representation of the hair allowed sculptors to give the head more volume than it had had before. harmony with the world.2 The presence of a vegetal wreath does not. Exekias and others frequently represented figures wearing a wreath of leaves and the associated fruit in various contexts. These wreaths are.. The reference to Aegean Greek models is. especially for the Archaic period. around the head.c. 76 Bearded Male Votaries with a Wreath of Leaves or a Diadem (cat. 76–92) In the second half of the sixth century b. However. Statues of very young children do not have this attribute—in any case. wears the chiton and the himation and. joy. The appearance. From the end of the sixth century  b. The sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios has provided the best-preserved examples.. therefore. then a small box and a bird. statues wear the same type of wreath in different 84 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries sanctuaries on Cyprus. then the cities—in sanctuaries and. a vegetal wreath. 90). a new way of expressing the piety of the figures and their participation in cult activities. In large-scale works. (Cat. instead. does not indicate that the worship of the god Dionysos has joined that of other divinities.contents cat. whoever the principal divinity is. holding a branch. In general. The type is represented by several other complete statues and.1 One is tempted to think that in a sanctuary such as that of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The identification of the plant depicted in these wreaths is difficult. at the end of the Archaic period. at Golgoi– Ayios Photios as elsewhere. it is.3 It reappears and is widely adapted to the style of the period in the second half of the fourth century b. considered to be the plant of Aphrodite. by many isolated heads. instead.c. The appearance of the wreath does not reflect changes in religious practices. the use of laurel would be more suitable than that of myrtle. above all. in the Greek manner.c. perhaps hope of life after death.c. Rather. the latest Cat. at the time of the kingdoms—indicating that they are not yet of age to participate in basic religious acts. constitutes the new image of the Cypriot dignitary. Greek votive sculptures like the korai from the Acropolis wear wreaths. later. 86. where the god is named Apollo in the syllabic dedications (see the Introduction). indicate social status or a precise religious function. . 80. it is identified as a laurel or myrtle leaf. usually metallic. The earliest statue is Cat. fundamental. The addition of other vegetal elements is similar: budding flowers or open blossoms that recall narcissus. male or female figures who wear it participate in ceremonies practiced by the social community—within the kingdoms. of a laurel wreath on the head of a certain number of votive statues. a type of representation that remains predominant in Cypriot sculpture until the end of the Hellenistic period gradually becomes established for bearded and beardless male statues: that of the figure who. in spaces like gymnasia and theaters. on statues of crowned bearded figures.

the conception of the face is the same and three braided locks fall in front of the shoulders.2. references  Doell 1873. The eyes.c. The large statue from Pyla in Vienna provides the most spectacular example of this type of crowned dignitary. A thin relief line indicates its limit on the cheeks. cat. for myrtle in Greek ceramics. The nose is delicate and pointed. 60. 2. 76–92) 85 . 77 3. no. Idalion: Pryce 1931. 1874–76 (74. 77 Lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Third quarter of the 6th century b. Hermary 1989a.51. A head of the same origin. pl. 11¼ in. Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. the nostrils deeply hollowed out.4 The statue has a long beard with a mustache in three rows. p. which is stiff toward the front. pl. 4.1 cm) From Karpassia Myres 1281 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H.  VIII.2864) bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat.. pp. (28. the hair also falls to the sides and there is a vegetal wreath. the statue was of an important dignitary from the kingdom of Salamis. 1.3 but clearly much larger. 2. pp. in high relief. are separated from each other and from the high-set. 34d–i. Cassimatis 1982.  p.2 Although it is smaller and wears a headband with rosettes rather than a wreath. no. Cat. 158–59.51.540. (38. pl. placed low under the lower lip. The remaining hair consists of large. hatched eyebrows. 5. with protruding eyeballs.1 this one shows transversal locks above the vegetal wreath and long locks falling to the back in the Ionian tradition. See Hermary 2005. The short beard. is surmounted by a small mustache in three rows. figs. Cesnola 1882.  IX. Senff 1993. consists of five rows of small curled strands. C12.  LXXXII. Markoe 1987. 162–63. 3–7. has only a mustache. A row of curls on the forehead ends in front of the ears with a flat surface. a thick lock falls behind each ear. The same is true of the large bearded head from Lefkoniko5 and of the one from the Paphian “siege mound” in Liverpool. pp. no. Purchased by subscription. 51–52. Limestone H. 76. C10. 8.  46.c. 76 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Third quarter of the 6th century b. 259. no. see Kunze-Götte 2006. Yon 1989. 185.contents notes 1. 15 in.9. The facial expression shows a broad smile. like the two heads from Arsos. fig. V. Cat. Ibid.  141. A wreath with two rows of leaves. fig. appears on the front of the head. 3. pl. commentary  Whereas the other rare large heads with short beards wear the Egyptianizing wig. as well as a part of the right ear and lower hair locks. The mouth. Seipel 1999. nos. If the findspot given by Cesnola is correct. Karageorghis 2000a. wavy locks that are parallel to the forehead. no. There is an overall brownish patina.6 cm) Myres 1279 The Cesnola Collection. Cesnola 1877. A.2836) description  The left side and the back of the head have been restored.  344. A good comparison is provided by a head in the Louvre from Arsos. Cassimatis 1982. Purchased by subscription.

The beard is indicated by a slight projection on the cheeks. Two rows of small curls jut out above the forehead. painted red.c. which is short at the back. wide open. as are the smooth.8 cm) Myres 1280 The Cesnola Collection. The eyes. not shown on the back. A line painted red indicates the edge of the garment at the top of the shoulders. 1874–76 (74.51. 78 description  The neck is extremely thick. The nose is partially broken. are turned inward and the tear duct is open. set on the smooth hair. 78 Lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 6th century b. Limestone H. 86 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. references  Unpublished. The marks of a very fine rasp attest to the polishing of the surface of the face.2858) . is very narrow. The upper eyelids are very arched. Purchased by subscription. 9¾ in. the mouth.contents cat. They are surmounted by a wreath of elongated leaves. (24. high-set eyebrows. The execution of the ears is summary. The chin is large.

pl.1 1.  76. The eyeballs are flat within very arched upper eyelids. The rest of the head is covered with crimped locks radiating out from the crown. The ears are summarily rendered. turned slightly inward. Only the stem is shown at the back. references  Doell 1873.contents cat. p. 1874–76 (74. 219. the eyes. are framed by carefully drawn protruding eyelids. They are surmounted by a flat headband that passes above the ears. bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat. Cesnola 1885. smooth mustache. The absence of its findspot is regrettable. Duke University) Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 10⅝ in. even though they differ in several details. no. On the forehead. combed strands that end in curls. fig. Limestone H. Cat.  IX. The hatching of the high-set eyebrows shows a herringbone motif. 76–92) 87 . The head is massive. smiling mouth. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion. The nose is pointed. An unworked space remains on the left side of the back. They form a delicately combed mass on the nape of the neck. including the nose. 77) probably come from the same workshop. 175. commentary  The extreme care with which the features are rendered and the treatment of the beard and hair suggest a Greek bronze model from the end of the sixth century b. p.2839) (on loan to the Nasher Museum. The back of the head and the nape of the neck are covered with large curls. no. commentary  This head and the preceding one (Cat. with a short beard that consists of curled strands. which suggest a smile. 79 Over-lifesize bearded head with a diadem Late 6th century b. references  Unpublished. combed mustache. The elongated eyebrows are high-set. (27 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1290 The Cesnola Collection. the corners of which are slightly open.468. 268. Curls jut out above the forehead. These are slightly less meticulous variants of the head Cat. but a relatively similar example comes from Malloura.c. two rows of small locks are surmounted by a wreath with two rows of leaves disposed horizontally rather than vertically around the head. 79 description  The face is partially damaged. It consists of fine.  355. The ears are shown in a quite realistic manner. Richter 1949.  46. principally on the right side. description  The semi-long beard forms a line almost parallel with that of the nose. Purchased by subscription. Hermary 1989a. LXXII. is surmounted by a short. painted red. are surmounted by a short. The small. pl. The lips.12.c.51.

80 88 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .contents cat.

Both arms are held to the sides of the body. The left hand holds a small box. Purchased by subscription. The forehead is partially covered by three rows of curls. pp. a branch. commentary  I did not reexamine this statue when writing the catalogue. 1. elbow-length chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder. 81 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Late 6th or early 5th century b. now in the Louvre. 76–92) 89 . Cesnola 1885.” belongs to the statue.469. 220.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1355 The Cesnola Collection. The locks on the head are pulled toward the back. 1874–76 (74. 81 Cat. The partially opened eyes are surmounted by eyebrows. (27. one of which comes from Malloura.  195–98. Hermary 1989a. The wreath consists of rosettes and two rows of leaves. Purchased by subscription. no. description  The semi-long beard forms a line parallel to that of the nose. Limestone H. It consists of three rows of curled strands. 10⅞ in. The long hairstyle is abandoned and the hands hold objects evoking offerings presented by the worshipper. There are several small breaks. description  It is uncertain that the right forearm. wears a pleated. The stiff mouth is smiling. The himation covers the greater part of the left arm with three overlapping folds above the wrist. pl. Duke University) Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat.contents cat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1289 The Cesnola Collection. The facial expression is smiling. with a wreath of leaves and flowers. is long on the back. Limestone H. pl. LXXII. The work initiates the new type of representation for bearded dignitaries. with broad shoulders and a rounded chest. pl. references  Chanot 1878. The folds over the torso form a zigzag on the left flank and a wide paryphe on the abdomen and between the legs. divided into picked locks. There are open sandals with laces on the feet. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion.51.c.c. The front of the head is covered by a wreath with two rows of closely spaced leaves. Two rows of curls jut out on the top of the forehead. the line of which continues the ridge of the nose. Del Chiaro 1962. including one on the nose. The semi-long beard is divided into rows of small curls. the right one.  3. Nicosia) Photo © École Française d’Athènes. 1874–76 (74. holding a bough and a box Late 6th or early 5th century b. The hair. “repaired by Balliard.2840) (on loan to the Cyprus Museum. Cat. 80 Over-lifesize bearded votary in Greek dress. the nose short and pointed. The almondshaped eyes are surmounted by slightly arched eyebrows. 73 in. The hair on the nape of the neck is arranged in three rows of curls. The body. fig. Photos: Philippe Collet.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. LXII. Several heads can be compared. but traces at the level of the knee pose the question whether originally the hand held a bird instead.2459) (on loan to the Nasher Museum. The flattened ears are high-set. with the foot turned slightly outward. A mustache with fine hairs falls to the sides. The left leg is advanced.428. (185.1 1.

contents Cat. 115.2 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. Limestone H. 14 in. fig. The thick lips are surmounted by a fine mustache. Three rows of curls rise above the forehead. 404.14. pl. The eyes. cat. Gjerstad 1948. consists of six rows of small. The eyelids of the small.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1286 The Cesnola Collection. p. 591. straight locks.470. Purchased by subscription. curled strands. Doell 1873. follow a sinuous outline. V.2841) description  There are several breaks. On the nape of the neck are four rows of curls. 1. Limestone H. rows of tight vertical strands.51. 82 90 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .  V. The beard. Two rows of curls rise above the forehead. rounded beard is divided into six one on the nose. The smiling expression is reinforced by the high cheekbones. p.2842) Cat. 13½ in.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1287 The Cesnola Collection. The eyebrows. thin. (34.  IX. pl. Purchased by subscription. 83 Lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Early 5th century b. The hair is full above the nape of the neck.51. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1872. pl.  223–24.c.541. turned inward. The crown of the head. 1874–76 (74. The nose is long.2). no. with narrow nostrils. 186. pp. 258. 1874–76 (74.  46. is covered with large. 1885. LXXII. pl. commentary  A head from Malloura1 comes indisputably from the same workshop and perhaps was executed by the same sculptor.  XXI. slightly asymmetrical eyes are carefully rendered. Hermary 1989a. The central and lateral ribs are carefully articulated. fig. p. are surmounted by very long eyebrows. 82 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of flowers Late 6th or early 5th century b. p.  352. which extend the ridge of the nose. which is slightly pointed in shape. no. 141. and pointed. The ears are quite carefully articulated. Cesnola 1877. LXXXII. The locks on the crown of the head radiate out from the center. (35. The facial expression is smiling. The lips are surmounted by a mustache that falls to both sides. pl. which juts forward. They are surmounted by a headband covered with open blossoms (narcissus?). They are surmounted by a broad wreath with two rows of large vertical leaves attached to a twisted stem that circles the head.c. Cesnola 1885. no. Karageorghis 2000a. Perrot and Chipiez references  Cesnola 1885. including a major description  The long.

pl. 12 in.5 cm) “From the ruins at Idalium” Myres 1288 The Cesnola Collection. A wreath of one row of small leaves circles the head. The eyes are surmounted by low-set.c. The beard is divided into rows of small. crimped locks.2835) description  The neck of the very damaged face is thick. curled strands. 1874–76 (74. which is summarily rendered in small locks. bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat. the hair.542. On the nape of the neck. 76–92) 91 . Purchased by subscription. 84 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Second quarter of the 5th century b.51. The nose is seriously damaged. the rendering of which is neglected. 84 Cat. LXXXII.contents cat. which is covered with fine. is pulled up. almost horizontal eyebrows. particularly thick in front of the ears. reference  Cesnola 1885. (30. A small protuberance is shown on the lower lip. Limestone H. A mustache falls to either side. Two rows of curls on the forehead form a curve. The stiff mouth has a smiling expression. 83 cat.

the hairstyle. p. pl. Karageorghis 2000a. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1873. 86 Over-lifesize bearded male votary with a wreath of leaves.c. The left arm is held to the side of the body. 34. The perpetuation of the Archaic style is evident. and a phiale Second half of the 5th century b. C154. 195–98. The body has no volume at the level of the hips and the right leg. no. p. pleated chiton buttoned on the right arm and shoulder. 336. The nose is pointed. 64¾ in. A mustache with fine undulating strands falls to the sides.3). particularly in front of the slightly protruding ears.51. I. Limestone . smiling expression. separate strands of the beard show that the sculptor did not know contemporary Greek works. LVIII. Cat. A large bust found in the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion belongs to a comparable stage of evolution. highset eyebrows. covers the left arm entirely. Limestone H. pl. holding a pyxis and a bird Ca. But the shoulders are broad and the neck very thick. At the bottom. p.3 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. The right arm is detached from the body. whether in the attitude of the figure.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1407 The Cesnola Collection.2461) 92 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries 1877. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. Pryce 1931. 18a–g. 5. pl.9. pp. Hermary 2005. particularly in the mass.  IV. the smiling face. pl. no.453. which holds a small pyxis. a branch of leaves. The folds are deep. 103. The muscles of the forearm are summarily rendered. The eyes are circled by thick eyelids that are surmounted by long.1 1. Cesnola 1885. is attached to the hip by a tenon. V. pp. The edge of the fabric is decorated with a small tassel.2. 85 references  Doell 1873. A himation. draped over the left shoulder. 1874–76 (74. The back of the body is summarily blocked out. IV. (164. 31.  p. pl. 85 Lifesize statue of a bearded male votary. 470–450 b. holding a box. no. Chanot 1878. commentary  The remarkably well-preserved statue attests to the evolution of this type of representation during the period of the Greek Severe style. separated from one another. Hermary 2005. 36–37. 7. The beard consists of three rows of small. pp. Cesnola Cat. The left hand holds a dove by the wings. fall vertically. fig. with the outline of the knee carefully rendered under the garment. Spiteris 1970. The thick eyelids and the lowest. p. Purchased by subscription. curled strands. The locks are surmounted by a thick headband decorated with open blossoms (narcissus?) and with a wreath consisting of one row of leaves.  24. cat.c. 149. which falls diagonally from the shoulder to the knees. or the pleats of the himation. flowers. The figure wears an undulating. The left leg is advanced. but the quality of its execution is clearly superior. and berries. There are toolmarks. Senff 1993.  80. The three rows of locks on the forehead form a projecting curve. pl. particularly the bronzes.contents description  The feet and the plinth are modern. The right hand. 8. twisted strands. figs. The spread lips and the high cheekbones give the face a broad. Stiff locks on the crown of the head are pulled up toward the top. fig. 62–63.  167.  203. pl.

76–92) 93 . and very slightly bent. the upper tongues of which are in the shape of half a star. is modern. from which the forearms are detached.contents cat. bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat. 1874–76 (74. There are closed sandals on the feet. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. 86 H. Purchased by subscription. (179. turned slightly outward. from the elbow to the hand.51.2462) [See p. Part of the branch and the extremity of the left foot are broken. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion. A tenon joins the hands to the body. 435. The left leg is advanced. description  The right forearm.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1408 The Cesnola Collection. 70½ in.] Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The lips. The long. elbow-length chiton. At the top are pointed leaves with detailed ribs that present at their base a “pistil” in high relief. thin eyebrows are finely hatched.c. Senff 1993. The two rows of locks on the forehead are partially hidden by the wreath. 340. 14. and pointed. p. fine lips that project forward hint at a smile. Limestone H. which consists of a heavy stem decorated with open blossoms (narcissus?) at the center. Cesnola 1885. 23. At the bottom are ivy leaves and. are framed by eyelids in high relief. no. pl. are surmounted by a mustache with twisted strands that falls to the sides. the right holds a phiale. A thick mustache. and.  LXIV. covers a large part of the head. Cesnola 1877. The edge of a cat. in the position of the slightly bent left leg. are separated by a central part. Hermary 1989b. p. below. p. references  Doell 1873. V. wavy locks.2 1.  p. falls to the middle of the leg. C 158.contents commentary  This statue is one of the last to preserve the traditional principles of representation. The nose is large. fig. no. consisting of well-combed strands. that dates from the middle of the fifth century b. draped over the left shoulder. found in the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. The locks on the head. however. revealing a garment underneath. p.  IX. The ridge of the nose is straight. the ribs of which are detailed. The beard is divided into four rows of very tight corkscrew curls and. . the edge of which forms a triangle on the chest.51. 22. 22. 86 The left hand holds a box and a small branch. 107. The semi-long beard is divided into rows of well-separated spiral strands.6. LXXXII. 105.5.c. The rendering of the ears is rudimentary. which ends in a point. the face is very similar to that of the satrap Tissaphernes on coins issued in 412/411 b. no. Hermary 1989b. 31. The head can be compared to one in the British Museum. fig. 25. pl. On the nape of the neck are short. The figure wears a pleated. The eyes are deep-set in their orbs under raised eyebrows. pl. hooked. It differs.  346. 1874–76 (74.8.  151. A himation. fig.2837) description  The neck is thick and flat. 27. Hermary 2005. at the center. 22. on top. 30. Hermary 2005.6. The hairs of the long. The forehead is surmounted by two rows of tight curls similar to the strands of the beard. and the facial structure.430. The asymmetrical eyes. references  Doell 1873. The rendering of the ears is careless. 94 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries garment is shown at the top of the shoulders. V. pl. spreads out to the sides. figs.1 Seen in profile. 19e–g. p. a row of wavy strands. the “modernized” drapery. Cesnola 1885. despite the persistence of the smile. The top and the back of the head are covered with large. A triangular protuberance is visible beneath the lower lip. Purchased by subscription. the pupils of which are marked by a circle of red paint. open at the back. 87 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves and flower buds Third quarter of the 5th century b. The wreath.11 and IX. fig. Cesnola 1877. 81. figs. faintly smiling.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1291 The Cesnola Collection. 14⅛ in. It consists of ivy leaves at the bottom. laurel or myrtle leaves. roughed-out curls. (35. p. Cat. pls. 112. 37. 153. or a little after.  181. figs. 2. The himation forms a roll across the abdomen. It covers the arm and forms a zigzag fold on the torso and the length of the left leg. p. Hermary 2005. small berries circling central wavy locks.539. the nostrils are not hollowed out. p.10.  46. Karageorghis 2000a.c. smooth flower buds at the center.

1874–76 (74.  CV. 88 Cat. XVIII. p.689. are deep-set in their orbs. There are traces of red paint on the right eye. is long and delicate. references  Cesnola 1885. The eyes. but not the tight curls on the upper forehead. 88 Over-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 5th century b.c. On Cyprus. The face is elongated and the nose.51.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1309 The Cesnola Collection. 12½ in. for which a date at the end of the Hellenistic period cannot be excluded. The hair is turned up on the nape of the neck.2827) description  The surface is worn and damaged. The mouth is half open. pl. The head is circled with a wreath of leaves that is badly preserved. The back of the head is rounded.” The artist abandoned the smile that still characterizes the works seen earlier. Purchased by subscription. within very thick eyelids. bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat.l. (or late Hellenistic period?) Limestone H. unknown in the “Parthenonian” style. Gjerstad 1948. the end of which is broken. in partic- ular on the sides and back.c. commentary  Gjerstad considered this head “an imitation of the style represented by the Olympian Zeus of Phidias.contents cat. 87 cat. within the framework of a return to stylistic principles of the beginning of the Classical period. He reproduces with a certain awkwardness the thick eyelids attested on the Greek works of the years 460–440 b. its surface worn. The beard consists of corkscrew strands. pl. The mustache falls to both sides. The forehead is surmounted by tight curls.  124. 76–92) 95 . (31. this is an original work.

as are those on the nape of the neck. from which it falls to the level of the knees. Its upper limit is delineated by a line of vertical incisions. The eyes are deep-set beneath the elongated arches of the eyebrows. Below there are spearlike leaves with a visible central rib. references  Cesnola 1885.3 as well as heads from Idalion4 and Potamia. and the forehead. surmounted by a mustache that falls to both sides.c. see Cat. he holds a small pyxis. draped over the left shoulder. the hair is parted.c. The hair is pulled back on the nape of the neck in wavy locks. On top are laurel leaves. Most of the garment envelops the abdomen in a thick mass of folds and falls to a point. holds a vegetal sprig. A himation. Toward the center are small berries. open at the center. with V-shaped pleats below the neckline.2823) description  There are small breaks on the right cheek.c. Limestone H. 89 Under-lifesize bearded head with a wreath of leaves 4th century b. The facial expression is serious. the right leg is slightly bent.c. at the time of the last Cypriot kings. The forehead is framed by snail-shaped curls. circles the head. (23. Purchased by subscription. at the waistline. 63¾ in. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. pl. the nose. The right hand.  124..3. The arch of the eyebrow is elongated. with the mouth half open. At the top of the head.2465) 96 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries description  The lower part of the legs is missing.665.2 Note the archaizing snail-shaped curls (see also Cat. 251. particularly the right one. The short beard consists of tightly curled strands painted in red. with tassels. hints at a smile. but it seems better placed in the tradition of the statues from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.  XCVII. pl. In the left. 89 Cat.1 thus in the middle or the third quarter of the fourth century b. the side seam of which is shown. The strands of the short beard are rendered with strokes of a pointed tool. 1874–76 (74. They are partially covered by a wreath with two rows of leaves.contents cat.51. (161. The ears are poorly articulated. A small tenon connects the box and the hip. . Cat. placed against the thigh. as on late Archaic or early Classical statues.51. XVIII. There is a ring on the right third finger. with a tassel at the end. 1874–76 (74.. The man wears a chiton with elbow-length sleeves. The forehead is surmounted by a row of snail-shaped curls. covers the side and arm. 89) and the branch and pyxis held in the hands. The back is barely roughed out. Gjerstad 1948. on the left thigh. A very prominent.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1406 The Cesnola Collection. The body rests on the left leg. The upper lip is surmounted by a long mustache. wide wreath. commentary  Joan Connelly proposes to date this work to the middle of the third century b.5 For the figure’s possible relation to the statue with the bull protome. The half-moon-shaped eyes are deep-set in their orbs.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1310 The Cesnola Collection. 90 Over-lifesize statue of a bearded male votary with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 4th century b. p. One may compare a small beardless statue from Idalion. 9¼ in. The ears are summarily rendered. The mouth. The locks are summarily indicated.

 91 Lifesize head of a bearded male votary with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 4th century b. no. 192. 42. CXXVII.921. pl. 90 1.51. pl. Cat. 40. Chanot 1878. no. p. Karageorghis 2000a.1.116. pl. 26h–k. p. pl. references  Doell 1873. Treasured Masterpieces 1972. 5. 211. 4. or 1st century b. p. 160.  31.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1327 The Cesnola Collection. 32. 1874–76 (74. fig. pp. 40.  38. no.  84. 19. Connelly 1988.c.  30. 402. 13.contents cat. p.  123. figs. p. delicately bearded male votaries with a wreath of leaves or a diadem (cat. Ibid. XXXVI.2811) description  The head was probably turned toward its right. Cesnola 1885. p. Boardman 1995. pl. 20. Picón et al.  VI. The face. pl. 3.c. Ibid. Connelly 1988. (28.4.. Smith 1991. V. 256. no. 88. fig. 298. See also Senff 1993. p. fig. (?) Limestone H. 2. Purchased by subscription. 2007. fig.. 26a–g. 76–92) 97 . 11⅜ in. with a short beard and a drooping. Cesnola 1877.

 93. a terracotta head from Marion2 attests to comparable realistic features in the second half of the fourth century b. pl. 1874–76 (74. 2. CV. no. Purchased by subscription. references  Cesnola 1885. pl.16. Cesnola 1885. no. the treatment of the hair on the back recalls instead that of the head C 176 from Idalion. figs. The crown of the head is rather flat. 1. 97. pl. It was dated to the first century b. Koiner 2013. (28. which is unique for its type on Cyprus. the central depression and visible ribs of which are shown. Connelly 1988. 11¼ in. However. The facial expression is smiling.  47. open at the center. Karageorghis 2000a. no. the forehead. p.c. 80–81. by Joan Connelly.  X. 26j–k. following the layers of the stone. It is broken on the back. The short. is that of an elderly man. commentary  This head. 89. 153. Connelly 1988. figs. A short beard with wavy strands is visible on the cheeks. Fourrier and Queyrel 1998.c. no.6 cm) “From a ruin at Pyla” cat. 120. Myres 1315 The Cesnola Collection.690. wavy locks are surmounted by a laurel wreath. pp. p. pp. 718. the small eyes deep-set. The comma-shaped locks on the forehead are thicker in front of the ears. 42. 152. followed by Vassos Karageorghis. 91 combed mustache.contents cat. V. 48. The deep lines on the cheekbones.  546. Cat. Cesnola 1877. The leaves circle a stem covered with berries. references  Doell 1873. 151. and around the deep-set eyes surmounted by thick eyelids confirm his age. fig. But the ironic smile gives an impression of caricature.1 Although it does not have the same grimacing expression.51. Senff 1993. led Cesnola to question whether it might represent the philosopher Zenon from Kition.684. 33.2788) description  The surface is very worn and the nose broken. Connelly 1988. no.  CV. 92 Lifesize head of a bearded male votary with a wreath of leaves Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. fig. pl. 119. The wreath consists of two rows of laurel leaves. 411.  84. p. 92 98 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries .

are surmounted by thick.51. draped over the left shoulder. projects beneath the wreath.c. elements borrowed from Ionian works (pleated himation. asymmetrical beaded locks fall onto the chest. where the forms of the body were simply roughed out. 78. one of which is missing. this small statue constitutes an interesting testament to the association of traditional features (shortsleeved tunic. Limestone H. The group found in 1865 at Golgoi (site of the city). or fillet (cat. The hair fell onto the damaged back. diadem. no. Both arms are held to the sides of the body.  III. the upper part of which is more prominent. smiling mouth. Hermary 1989a.  24. 93 Under-lifesize statue of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b.446. Three long.1 1. But the modes of representation change in the Hellenistic period and in the large male statuary the figures are almost always beardless.c. 24 in. commentary  In Cypriot sculpture of the first half of the sixth century b. today in the Louvre.1 From the end of the Archaic period to about the middle of the fourth century b. He has a bracelet around each upper arm. forming an unarticulated crimp in front of the ears. has four flat folds. 187. pl. no. The latter consists of small vertical leaves arranged in cat. 93–137) The statues representing beardless figures wearing a vegetal wreath constitute probably the most important group of all Cypriot sculpture. we have seen the uncertainties that remain about the dates of many of these works. The partially damaged face has a delicate. references  Doell 1873. The figure. and other elements that are more “modern” in Cypriot art (the wreath of leaves and the branch held in the hand). bracelets around the upper arms). The almond-shaped eyes. V. or Fillet (Cat.c. wears a short-sleeved chiton. LXVII.contents Beardless Male Votaries with a Wreath of Leaves. The small ears are summarily rendered.. note 1.. as dignitaries are still being represented most often with a beard.7. The left wrist has been restored. Cat. The head is flat. high-set eyebrows. but the number of images of children and adolescents is relatively large. Purchased by subscription. a smiling facial expression). Diadem. pp. Compare a bust in Vienna: Seipel 1999. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. In the Chronology section pages 25–27.  78. 133–218. with heavy. no. large-size works are relatively rare. 93 two rows. Cesnola 1885. A row of small locks on the forehead.2646) description  The legs are missing and the nose is broken. sloping shoulders. A narrow himation. It reaches as far as the bent elbow. 1874–76 (74. The number of statues of this type found in the sanctuary of Ayios Photios is impossible to determine exactly. (61 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1062 The Cesnola Collection. p. Karageorghis 2000a. 93–137) 99 . the top one ending in a zigzag. pl. is a significant sampling of at least 150 heads of wreathed young men and children. locks near the ears. The right hand holds a branch with five shoots.

(20 cm) Myres 1306 The Cesnola Collection. 9⅝ in. 100 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat.contents cat.51. 1874–76 (74. 95 Cat. 1874–76 (74. references  Unpublished. The nose is short. smooth eyebrows. The small. There are coarsely curled locks on both the top and sides of the head.c. 95 Lifesize beardless head of a male votary with a wreath of rosettes Last quarter of the 6th century b. The back has been left flat.c. Limestone H. (24. are surmounted by high-set. A row of corkscrew curls on the forehead is surmounted by a flat headband decorated with five rosettes. 540–520 b. Limestone H.2816) .51. with flat eyeballs. 7⅞ in. The large eyes. commentary  Compare the head of the “priest with dove” (Cat. Purchased by subscription.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1301 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. 22).2846) description  The head is rounded. 94 Under-lifesize beardless male head Ca. 94 Cat. painted red lips of the very thin face show a smile.

Purchased by subscription.  X. reference  Cesnola 1885. The locks are surmounted by a headband.2830) description  The stiff lips of the delicate face show a smiling expression. 7¾ in.  359. Three rows of corkscrew curls on the forehead cover the upper part of the ears. high-set eyebrows. references  Doell 1873.480. 77⁄16 in. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves.51. which shows a smiling expression. pl. LXXXI. A headband decorated with small rosettes is attached on the back by a cord.481. The ears are well delineated.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1302 The Cesnola Collection. (19.533. The long nose is pointed. The nose is pointed. Limestone H. Cesnola 1885. Limestone H. 96 Lifesize beardless head of a male votary with a wreath of rosettes Last quarter of the 6th century b. 96 description  There are breaks on the right side of the back. LXXV. the eyeballs of which show traces of red paint. finely twisted locks on the forehead are surmounted by a headband.contents cat. The small mouth is painted red. are set within carefully articulated eyelids.1. damaged on the front and decorated with very small rosettes.51. and extend over the nape of the neck. LXXV. The top of the rounded head is covered with irregular straight locks. Above a thick. Cat. 1874–76 (74. the delicate features of the well-constructed face show a faint smile.c. Cat. pl.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1304 The Cesnola Collection. the nose is pointed. p. The locks jut out sharply. crimped locks on the top of the head and short hair on the back. with the glottis and the side muscles visible. (18. The slightly opened eyes are surmounted by high-set. The long locks on the forehead end with a curl. Long.  46. The eyebrows. diadem. smooth eyebrows that extend the ridge of the nose.2650) description  The back of the head is partially broken. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. 93–137) 101 . pl. the hairs of which are incised in a herringbone pattern. The massiveness of the neck and the chin contrasts with the delicate features of the face. are high-set. or fillet (cat. no. The almond-shaped eyes. with breaks on the left side. There are fine.c. Purchased by subscription. carefully articulated neck. from which hang elongated schematic flower buds. 97 Under-lifesize beardless male head with a wreath of flower buds Late 6th century or early 5th century b. 1874–76 (74. On the top of the head are beaded locks that are coarsely curled on the nape of the neck. the small almond-shaped eyes are surmounted by long.

1874–76 (74. 97 Cat. The pointed nose is set far from the mouth. Limestone H. 98 102 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The left ear is partially missing. cat. reference  V. 6¾ in. Karageorghis 2000a.c. no. 337.51.1 cm) Myres 1303 The Cesnola Collection. There are thick locks on the top of the head that are not rendered on the back.contents cat. The small eyes are turned inward. the ears summarily articulated.2632) description  The thin face has a smiling expression. Above are two rows of thick curls on the forehead beneath a fillet that is tied in a Herakles knot. 98 Under-lifesize beardless head of a male votary with a fillet Late 6th century or 5th century b. (17. Purchased by subscription.

in an excellent state of preser- vation. 99 Lifesize beardless head of a male votary with a wreath of leaves Late 6th century or first decade of the 5th century b. or fillet (cat. 99 Cat. the nose pointed. the locks of which are simply roughed out. The curved lips show a smile.51. On the nape of the neck is a roll of hair. (27. the nostrils hollowed out and accentuated by incisions.7. references  Doell 1873. The almond-shaped eyes are surmounted by high-set eyebrows that form slightly rounded projections.  X. pl. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. The chin is rounded.483.c. diadem. attests to very careful work. A wreath that consists of two rows of leaves. pl. no.contents cat. There is a dimple above the upper lip. Cesnola 1885.2834) description  The surface.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1300 The Cesnola Collection. is set on the head. The straight locks on the top of the head are well articulated on the back. Two rows of curls on the forehead end in front of the slanted ears. 93–137) 103 .  371. LXXV. 1874–76 (74. 1015⁄16 in. several of which have ribs indicated by incisions. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves.  46. p.

2832) . Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1305 The Cesnola Collection.411) description  The nose has been restored. A headband surrounds the head. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. Limestone H.51. 1941 (41. The delicate facial features show a smile. Gedney Beatty. 5¼ in.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Bequest of W.501. 100 Cat. (19.c.c. 101 Under-lifesize beardless male head with a wreath of ivy leaves Late 6th or early 5th century b. (13. There are slightly crimped locks on the top of the head and two rows of thick curls on the nape of the neck. Limestone H. LXXVIII. 104 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat.160. 100 Under-lifesize head of a male votary Late 6th century or early 5th century b. The eyebrows are high-set.contents cat. 711⁄16 in. The two rows of projecting curls on the forehead end in front of the ears.

The head is covered with schematic locks that curl around the forehead. 1874–76 (74. The delicate nose is slightly hooked.c. are surmounted by high-set. The surface exhibits careful work. references  Cesnola 1885. There is a break at the center. The small eyes. V.482.contents cat. Purchased by subscription. is short. 93–137) 105 . Karageorghis 2000a. Cat. Straight locks cover the head. the tip of which is worn. 102 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. pl. (13. 102 Head of a beardless male votary Late 6th century or early 5th century b. Limestone H.8 cm) Myres 1077 The Cesnola Collection. 338. references  Unpublished. They are partially shown on the nape of the neck. thin eyebrows that are regularly arched. no. 101 description  There is a break on the right side of the neck. cat. At the center are two bunches of small flower buds. The nose. 57⁄16 in. show a faint smile. Two rows of corkscrew curls on the forehead cover the upper part of the ears and extend over the nape of the neck. The lips. diadem. with carefully articulated eyelids. the eyebrows are high-set. painted red. The ribs of the ivy leaves on the wreath are visible.2630) description  The face shows a faint smile.51. The back is more carelessly rendered and part of the hair is smoothed. or fillet (cat.  LXXV.

The body is covered by a chiton. pl. The nose is partially broken. The drapery is bunched over his left arm. The corkscrew curls on the forehead are placed in two rows that cover the tips of the ears.c. Cesnola 1885.c. Purchased by subscription. There are straight locks on the head. 103 Under-lifesize statue of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late 6th or early 5th century b. The delicate features of the carefully polished face show a smiling expression.2618) .  27.51. (37. commentary  This statue constitutes one of the finest examples of a Cypriot “draped kouros. The left leg is slightly advanced. it was added by Charles Balliard. 2007. Karageorghis 2000a. fig.51. Picón et al. pl. no. with elbow-length sleeves and deeply cut folds that mold the form of the chest. LXIX. The himation is articulated on the left side of the back.  97. Limestone H. as in other beardless heads that attest to the mastery acquired by the Cypriot sculptors at the end of the Archaic period and to their knowledge of contemporary Aegean Greek art (see also Cat. The form of the genitalia is suggested.contents Cat. The right arm. the nipples of which are indicated.454. consists of two rows of leaves separated by rosettes. 335.  IV. A large tenon serves as a support behind the right leg. with the end visible on the back at the level of the thigh. references  Doell 1873. The almondshaped eyes. was placed higher than the left one. no. the line of which extends the ridge of the nose. knotted at the back. clearly unattached to the body. Both arms are bent. are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. (114 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1359 The Cesnola Collection. 44⅞ in. 103 Cat. p.” The shape of the right breast and the very slight projection of the genitalia emphasize the thinness of the garments. 14¾ in. Its border is indicated at the center by marks of the point. A rectangular mortise is hollowed out on the back at the level of the knee.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1075 The Cesnola Collection.8. 291. with a smooth border and diagonal folds is draped over the left shoulder. The articulation of the face is very sensitive. 1874–76 (74. 101). V. Limestone H. A himation. with carefully articulated eyelids. The right side of the back is simply roughed out. The wreath. 104 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a diadem Late 6th or early 5th century b. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.2457) description  The lower legs and the forearms are missing. 106 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat.

The hair on the top of the head is straight and full on the nape of the neck. the right forearm. the border is painted red. A bird. rests on the left forearm. 93–137) 107 . 104 description  The head is askew but most likely belongs. the upper ones of which are twisted. The lower part of the legs.444. pl. of which only the tail and the feet remain. There are breaks on the mouth and nose. diadem. The pleated chiton emphasizes the volume of the chest. The forms of the body and the contour of the himation are indicated on the back. The ear canals are deeply hollowed out. and the left wrist and hand are missing. LXVII. reference  Cesnola 1885. The left leg is advanced. The himation is draped over the left shoulder with a mass of stiff folds falling between the legs. or fillet (cat. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. The elongated eyes are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. The arms were bent. The rest of the pleats are soft. There is red paint on the edges of the fabric and on the seams over the arms.contents cat. The face shows a faint smile. A smooth diadem rests above two rows of curls on the forehead.

The rounded head. . and elongated eyes. The eyes are slightly open. (27.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1299 The Cesnola Collection.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Bequest of W. (23. Thick locks on the forehead extend above the ears onto the nape of the neck in two full rows. 105 description  The surface is worn and there are breaks on Cat. 1874–76 (74. The wreath consists of rounded leaves placed head-to-tail on both sides of a twisted stem. The twisted locks on the forehead lengthen toward the sides. 105 Lifesize beardless male head with a wreath of flower buds Early 5th century b. 1874–76 (74.2833) description  The well-articulated neck is thick.570. Gjerstad 1948. 1941 (41. a pointed nose. pl. 5⅜ in. The top of the head is flat. crimped locks. LXXVIII. pl. 106 Lifesize beardless male head with a wreath of rosettes Early 5th century b. Gedney Beatty. LXXXVI.484. largely broken at the back. The head is surrounded by a headband decorated with large rosettes in relief.2808) 108 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries the nose and the mouth. has a smiling expression. The two rows of corkscrew curls on the forehead form an angle in front of the right ear and hide the top of both ears. p. Purchased by subscription.contents cat. covering almost entirely the temples and the ears and continuing onto the nape of the neck. references  Cesnola 1885. (13.51. 9⅛ in.160. LXXV. reference  Cesnola 1885. reference  Cesnola 1885. Limestone H. is covered with fine locks and with short curls on the nape of the neck.c. with locks to either side of a central part. 107 Small beardless male head with a wreath of leaves Early 5th century b. Cat. pl.c. Limestone H.412) description  The face has a smiling expression.496.c. Purchased by subscription. 115. The top of the head is covered with fine.51. Limestone H. The asymmetrical features of the youthful face show a smiling expression. The locks are surmounted by a wreath of small leaves in low relief and by long flower buds.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1297 The Cesnola Collection. the features of which are damaged. 1013⁄16 in. Cat. The oval-shaped face.

contents cat. 93–137) 109 . 107 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. 106 cat. diadem. or fillet (cat.

The right hand holds a dove by the wings. 23¾ in.2602) description  The feet are missing. The left leg is advanced and the arms are held to the sides of the body. is draped over the left shoulder and forms small zigzags on the vertical edge.c. The elongated body is thin. Purchased by subscription. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back.51. 1874–76 (74. The face has a smiling expression. LXVII. 110 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat.2645) description  The forearms and feet are missing. 24 in. The left leg is clearly advanced and both arms are held to the sides of the body. Limestone H. A himation.c. 108 Cat. Limestone H. twisted locks on the forehead and the nape of the neck. with diagonal folds. (61 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1076 The Cesnola Collection. The figure wears a pleated chiton. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. .3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1074 The Cesnola Collection. 109 The leaves of the wreath rise from a circlet with diagonal striations. the borders of which are marked by a flat band.447. The nose is partially broken. Cat. 109 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a fillet Early 5th century b. pl. The elongated body is thin. On the top of the head are straight locks to either side of a central part. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription.51. (60. There are long. 108 Statuette of a beardless male votary in Greek dress with a wreath of leaves Early 5th century b.

  91. A wreath with vertical leaves is set on three rows of locks on the forehead. The curls extend onto the nape of the neck.contents cat.  26. references  Doell 1873. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. with a bunch of superposed folds that fall so as to emphasize the woven border. The himation is draped over the left shoulder. The right hand holds a bird. Limestone H. Cat. are surmounted by a headband painted red. a strong chin. 110 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. upside down and partially broken. The face has a smiling expression. 1874–76 (74. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back and there are many toolmarks. in high relief. Two rows of corkscrew curls on the forehead. The neck is very thick.51. The left leg is advanced and both arms are lowered. There are beaded locks on the top of the head. There are toolmarks on the simply roughed-out back. Purchased by subscription. 110 The figure wears a pleated chiton with elbow-length sleeves. 93–137) 111 .2624) description  The elongated body is thin. The delicate face has a smiling expression.c.445.451. under which appears the full chest.  IV. LXVII. pl. or fillet (cat. (75. Cesnola 1885. Both are smooth. and elongated eyes with rather thick eyelids that are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. reference  Cesnola 1885. pl. LXVII. holding a bird and a pyxis First quarter of the 5th century b. no. The elongated eyes are surmounted by rather high-set eyebrows. a partially broken nose.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1068 The Cesnola Collection. pl.7. the left hand holds a pyxis. 2911⁄16 in. p. diadem. There are straight locks on the back and on the nape of the neck. The young man wears a chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder.

the tip of the nose is broken. with a stippled surface. The left hand holds a sword in its scabbard and a rounded object. arched eyebrows. The head has a headband decorated with rosettes. The pleats are heavy over the thighs. A long garment with U-shaped folds is draped over the shoulders and chest. The figure is dressed in a short undergarment forming generally horizontal folds between the legs. Limestone H. U-shaped folds and a pleated surface. and nape of the neck is a roll of rectangular locks. over which pass two panels of a smooth. is draped over the left shoulder. short-sleeved tunic. covering the torso up to the base of the neck. Over the forehead. The face shows a faint smile.c. The chin is strong. The hair is short and the locks are twisted on the forehead and the nape of the neck. no. Purchased by subscription. ears. 111 Cat. references  Doell 1873.contents Cat. the right. LXVII.c. The chest is full. (81. reference  Cesnola 1885. The almond-shaped eyes are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. must be explained by the status of the figure or the circumstances of the offering. The more or less contemporary representation of Perseus on the Golgoi sarcophagus (Cat. folded flat. with locks summarily indicated. 1874–76 (74. LXXIII.51. with the two ends passing under the belt in front and back. 113 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Second quarter of the 5th century b.2482) . (62. certainly a small perfume vase. 491) is comparable. pp.8 cm) Myres 1069 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. holding a bird. The body is covered by a chiton with long. They are pulled in at the waist by a belt tied in a Herakles knot. unique of its kind.51. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. The left hand holds a bird and a small pyxis. pl. 112 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries are missing. above which are twisted and crimped locks.2458) description  The lower part of the legs and both hands cat. Limestone H. 113.10. 111 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves.475.51.c. 112 Statue of a beardless male votary. The neck is thick. The left leg is advanced and to one side. but nothing suggests that he is a hero. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. 32¼ in. The left leg is advanced and both arms are lowered with hands extended. the shoulders broad. The forms of the body are rendered on the back.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1308 The Cesnola Collection. and a branch with leaves Ca. A length of cloth. a pyxis. A wreath of vertical leaves is set on the rounded head. a branch attached to the arm. holding a dagger and an aryballos First half of the 5th century b. 24¾ in. commentary  This statue. IV. (104. Cesnola 1885. 411⁄16 in.452. Limestone H.2647) description  The feet and the right hand are missing. pl. The space separating them from the torso is hollowed out. The eyes are elongated and the slightly protruding eyeballs are surmounted by long.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1358 The Cesnola Collection. Both arms are lowered. 29–30. The figure would thus be defined as a traveler. but too large. The genitalia are partially restored. 480–470 b. Purchased by subscription. Cat. pl. The face has a smiling expression.

barely detached. are smiling. The left arm is held to the side of the body. bent.  114.  CIII.677. commentary  Like that of the preceding statue (Cat. The body is covered by a long chiton with elbow-length sleeves. The right arm. painted red. V. diadem. are surmounted by high-set eyebrows. the overfold falls to the level of the thighs. The left leg is clearly advanced. 339. paryphe). it should be interpreted as an offering.  364. 112 description  The lower part of the legs and the fingers of the right hand are missing. The hand. pl. 93–137) 113 . holds an elongated object. On the forehead are two rows of curls cat. the tenon that reinforced the extended right arm. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. p.  V. or fillet (cat. pl. Cesnola 1885. while wavy hair falls behind the ears. the iconography of this little statue is original for the garment.  539. 112). Between the legs is a wide band of smooth fabric (in Greek.contents cat. is reinforced by a tenon. references  Doell 1873. 113 that jut out sharply and upon which is set a wreath of pointed vertical leaves. If the object is indeed an alabastron.12. the nose is pointed. p. The ears are summarily articulated. The very elongated eyes. fig. Karageorghis 2000a. no. The rounded top of the head is covered with coarsely rendered locks. the hand was extended. The lips. probably an alabastron. no. set close together with thick eyelids. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves.  30. and the object held in the left hand.

(17. the eyebrows high-set. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. asymmetrical eyes are slightly open.51. The elongated. Cat. holding a bird Second quarter or middle of the 5th century b. CXI.2822) cat. pl. (23. Purchased by subscription. 9⅛ in.762. The carefully rendered eyelids protrude at the outer corners. Five rows of full locks cover the nape of the neck. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. There are locks on the top of the head and three rows of curls on the nape of the neck. 115 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Second quarter of the 5th century b. reference  Cesnola 1885. 17⅛ in. Four rows of squared locks on the forehead are surmounted by a wreath of long leaves with a central rib and a kind of flower bud at the center. 114 Head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Second quarter of the 5th century b. The head has a wreath of slender leaves and flower buds.c. description  The head is broken at the top of the neck and the tip of the nose.2682) description  The oval-shaped face has a smiling expres- sion.51. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. (43. The face is faintly smiling.c.c.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1079 The Cesnola Collection. There are incised locks on the top of the slightly rounded head. 1874–76 (74.488. pl. 115 114 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . cat.2 cm) From Idalion Myres 1298 The Cesnola Collection. the eyebrows are low-set.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1183 The Cesnola Collection. 6¾ in. 114 Cat. LXXV. 116 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves.contents Cat.2619) reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. The curls on the forehead jut out in front of the ears.51.

Wavy locks cover the top of the head. The lowered left hand held a bird. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. draped over the left shoulder. The smiling face.2674) description  The right arm and the left hand are missing. on which is set a wreath consisting of two rows of leaves.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1072 The Cesnola Collection. 116 description  The lower portion of the legs and the hands are missing. (70. the nose of which is restored. Cat. There is a roll of fabric around the waist.448. A wreath with a single row of leaves is set on the locks that jut out on the forehead. 93–137) 115 . The forms of the body are roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. shows straight locks. diadem. There are breaks on the right arm and the left hand. or fillet (cat. The garment consists of a long chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder that covers the lower part of the body from the waist to the middle of the lower leg. pl. which comes to a point at the back. holding a bird Middle or third quarter of the 5th century Limestone cat. A himation. The left hand held a bird. The young man wears a long-sleeved. 117 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. covers both arms and falls lower on the right side. the nose pointed. 117 H. Purchased by subscription. The shape of the genitalia is suggested. The top of the head. The elongated eyes are set within thick eyelids. belted chiton with wavy folds on the chest and transversal ones on the legs. The shoes are laced and have large tongues. full locks fall on the nape of the neck. The back is simply roughed out and there are many toolmarks. 1874–76 (74. 27⅞ in. There are buttons on the right shoulder.51. The face is discreetly smiling. reference  Cesnola 1885. reference  Cesnola 1885. LXVII. of which only the point of attachment remains. CXIV. The left leg is slightly to one side and bent. is surmounted by thick curls on the forehead.813. pl.contents cat.

(29. thin.51. Twisted full locks cover the nape of the neck. The head.c. wavy locks cover the ears and the nape of the neck. The wreath consists of laurel leaves in high relief. CX. (24.c. Purchased by subscription.2826) description  The head.414) description  The oval-shaped. long.2. Similar but shorter locks cover the nape of the neck. 9½ in. commentary  The treatment of the hair. The thick locks on the forehead are pulled up. smiling face has a long pointed nose.contents faintly smiling lips. 119 Under-lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Middle or third quarter of the 5th century b. See Hermary 2005 and Bouquillon et al. pl. is covered with fine. The head is covered with wavy locks and comes to a point on the top and back. 120 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Third quarter of the 5th century b. 116 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. 11½ in. The upper eyelids protrude more than the lower. thick. . with fine straight locks.485. and low-set eyebrows. set on a long. pointed nose. the upper lip is stiff. the top of which is marked by an incision starting below the ears. The eyes are deep-set. cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. pointed at the top. The facial features are very carefully articulated: strong chin.  X. 75⁄16 in. fig.160. pl. hatched eyebrows. The wreath consists of a double stem and a single row of laurel leaves. p. thin neck. Limestone H. Two separate lines form the eyebrows. The rounded head. is slightly raised. There is a small depression on the forehead surrounded by thick locks of wavy hair that cover the ears entirely. 1941 (41.  46. LXXV. pl. 118 Lifesize head of a male votary with a wreath of leaves Middle or third quarter of the 5th century b.2824) description  The thin face is slightly smiling. pl. Cesnola 1885. slightly narrowed eyeballs within thick eyelids and surmounted by long. 1874–76 (74. Limestone H. bulging eyeballs with thick eyelids. is inspired by the large Greek bronzes from the end of the Severe Style.  358. Cat. 1874–76 (74. wavy locks.51.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Bequest of W.486. LXXV. 2006.736. Above the forehead. 118 Cat. Gedney Beatty. (18. no. references  Doell 1873. 141. under which are flower buds pointing downward. The freshness of the surface is exceptional. p. reference  Cesnola 1885.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1312 The Cesnola Collection. Cesnola 1877.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1313 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. is circled by a wreath consisting of two rows of laurel leaves. Limestone H.c. unusual in Cypriot sculpture.1 1.

120 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. or fillet (cat. 93–137) 117 . 119 cat.contents cat. diadem.

There are traces of red paint. see Cat. 122 commentary  For the offering of a goat or a kid.808. The youthful face is smiling.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1338 The Cesnola Collection. the rear legs are partially restored. 67⁄16 in. The bent left arm holds against his side the elongated body of a goat. . are painted red. reference  Cesnola 1885.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1179 The Cesnola Collection. with large lidless eyes. Above the curve of the locks on the forehead is set a wreath with a single row of laurel leaves and flower buds. 121 Cat. 121 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. Purchased by subscription. The face is faintly smiling. (16.2631) description  Both hands are broken. (48. set within thick eyelids. A wreath consisting of a single row of laurel leaves is open at the center and set on long.51.750.51. Purchased by subscription. 122 Under-lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 5th century b. wavy locks on the forehead. The right arm is lowered. The very elongated body is thin. Cat. 19⅛ in.2644) description  The back and the right ear are broken. CXI. The young man wears a chiton with elbow-length sleeves and a himation draped over the left shoulder. 1874–76 (74. The pupils of his eyes. CXIV. 118 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat.contents cat. 58 and Hermary 2007. reference  Cesnola 1885.c. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. pl. The forelegs are broken. Limestone H.c. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. pl. The hair on the top of the head is parted in the center and there are full locks on the nape of the neck. holding a goat Second half of the 5th century b.

2711) cat. The broken right forearm was raised in a sign of veneration. (61.51. ivy on the bottom. There are wavy locks on the head. The figure wears a chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. The wreath consists of a single row of leaves. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. The elongated body is very flat. The face is smiling and the large eyes are lidless. Both arms are lowered and the left hand holds a stylized branch. the hand’s point of contact on the chest survives. CXIV. holding a branch Late 5th or early 4th century b. The right leg is to one side and slightly bent. A himation is draped over the left shoulder. Purchased by subscription. holding a pyxis Second half of the 5th or early 4th century b. Limestone H. 124 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. Purchased by subscription.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1181 The Cesnola Collection. 18¾ in. The figure holds a pyxis in his extended left hand. diadem. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74.c.c. and small berries at the center. or fillet (cat. 123 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. there are traces of red paint. description  There is a break on the right side of the head.contents cat. 241⁄16 in.2679) description  The head appears too large for the body and may not belong. 93–137) 119 . Limestone H.806.2 cm) Myres 1189 The Cesnola Collection.51. The head is circled by a wreath consisting of laurel leaves on the top. 124 Cat. The figure wears shoes and a chiton. The elongated face is faintly smiling. reference  Cesnola 1885. The forms of the body are barely roughed out on the back. beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. 123 Cat. references  Unpublished. pl. (47.

(20.2685) description  The statuette is very flat.6 cm) Myres 1347 The Cesnola Collection. the large eyes are lidless. 1874–76 (74. 126 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves 4th century b. no.51. p. The tall wreath consists of a single row of laurel leaves. 81⁄16 in.  V.51. A wreath consisting of a single row of leaves is set on unarticulated locks on the forehead. The face is faintly smiling. references  Doell 1873. The long nose is pointed. There are traces of red paint on the garment and the lips. .3.  149. The garment consists of a short-sleeved chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. Purchased by subscription. pl. CXIV. There are traces of fire on the head. reference  Doell 1873. 125 Cat. Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. The back of the head is missing. p. Cesnola 1885. (49.  33. The garment is indicated on the back. His arms are lowered. Hard limestone H. the nose pointed. in the right. 127 Under-lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Second half of the 4th century b. reference  Cesnola 1885.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1187 The Cesnola Collection.c.820. painted red. 1874–76 (74.c. The left arm was leaning on a small pillar that is in large part broken.18. pl. 125 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves. as is the remaining hair. A wreath consisting of two rows of laurel leaves open at the center is set on the comma-shaped locks on the forehead. cat.  X. The back is flat and there are many toolmarks.811. The young man wears a chiton and a himation draped over the left shoulder. holding a branch Late 5th century b. Limestone H.  417. The oval-shaped face has fine features and shows a serious expression. no. The top of the head is covered with wavy locks. pl. 8½ in.  47. The face is smiling. CXIV. Purchased by subscription.2793) description  The surface of the face is worn. probably a small object. The figure wears shoes. 197⁄16 in. (21. CXXXVI.c. It falls to the lower legs and forms an overfold on the abdomen.2710) description  The left forearm is missing. 120 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. The left leg is bent and slightly advanced. The right hand is placed on the hip. Purchased by subscription. Large locks on the forehead are painted red.51.contents Cat. He holds a branch in the left hand. pl. the slightly asymmetrical eyes are set within thick eyelids. Limestone H.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1182 The Cesnola Collection. are set within thick eyelids.1011. The pupils. pl. ending in a tassel.

126 cat. 127 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves.contents cat. 93–137) 121 . diadem. or fillet (cat.

809. Masson 1961/1983. A wreath of leaves and berries circles the head.” references  Cesnola 1885. The right arm is held to the side of the body. 1874–76 (74. with its flat face and lozenge-shaped eyes. pl. Mitford as “(I belong) to the god Lenaios. no. 129 Cat. CXIV. (44. On the front of the plinth is an inscription of six syllabic signs interpreted by Terence B.2668) cat. the left holds an object at the level of the abdomen.51. The figure wears shoes. or early Hellenistic period Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. The lowered right hand holds a ball or a piece of fruit. The faintly smiling face has heavy features. pl. 1874–76 (74. 128 Cat.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1178 The Cesnola Collection. 186. There are rectangular locks on the nape of the neck.c. The young man wears a short chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder and falls under the left wrist—unless it is a separate piece of clothing over the arm. 169⁄16 in. no. the left holds a schematically rendered bird against his abdomen. (42 cm) From Kourion. CXXVII. The body appears more childlike than the head. 21. A double wreath of leaves surrounds the head. 128 Statuette of a beardless male votary. It is not certain that the head belongs. pl. 129 Statuette of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves and a syllabic inscription Early Hellenistic period Hard limestone H. holding a bird 4th century b. Mitford 1971. belted chiton with short sleeves and a himation that covers the left arm and falls on the sides to the feet.564.contents cat.5. Cesnola 1903. description  The dense limestone has a pinkish color and the surface is crackled in several places. reference  Cesnola 1885. The right leg is slightly to one side and bent.  LXXXV. as it appears slightly older than the body. the right one is slightly bent. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1845 The Cesnola Collection. The back is coarsely roughed out and there are toolmarks. Purchased by subscription. The space between the legs is solid. 17⅝ in.2337) description  The statuette is very flat. 122 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The space between the legs is solid. The young man wears a short.51.

126. a delicate. 100. or fillet (cat.51. figs. 131 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. references  Cesnola 1885. no.2806) Cat. diadem. Connelly 1988.9 cm) “From a ruin at Kythrea” Myres 1314 The Cesnola Collection.51. (30 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1316 The Cesnola Collection. no. (22. no. They are surmounted by a wreath consisting of two rows of thin leaves wide open at the center and on the back. 1874–76 (74. is rounded toward the back. deep-set eyes. pl. V.2805) description  The youthful head has thick lips that are description  The head is tilted backward and turned faintly smiling. A wreath consisting of two rows of overlapping leaves. Vessberg 1956.  CV. 1874–76 (74. CXXXIX. 404. The upper eyelids are attached to the arches of the eyebrows.  36. 130 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Early Hellenistic period Limestone H.2. is set on the short locks on the forehead. especially the left one. pointed nose and small.c. three-quarters to its right.contents Cat. references  Cesnola 1885. There are curved locks to either side of a central part on the top of the head. 1113⁄16 in. 130 cat. Long. covered with wavy locks. The hair around the face is curly. V. 406. The nose is partially broken and the half-open lips of the small mouth protrude. Karageorghis 2000a. 93–137) 123 . 88. The surface is worn. 32. 118. Connelly 1988. Purchased by subscription. p. (?) Limestone H.  91. pp.  84.  125. no.685. 9 in. Karageorghis 2000a. wavy locks on the forehead extend onto the temples.1035. The eyes are deep-set in their orbs. The head. beneath the rounded arches of the eyebrows. figs. 131 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Early 2nd century b. pl. open at the center. 117. Purchased by subscription. pl.  XVII. p. cat.

Two rows of short curls on the forehead. are surmounted by a wreath consisting of two rows of small. 124 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. the nose partially broken. Limestone H. pp. 1011⁄16 in.contents cat. 11⅜ in. 90. Purchased by subscription. the left one is broken. The evenly rounded head is covered with short curls that are worn. The evenly rounded head is covered with short curls. The chin is marked by a round dimple. The ridge of the eyebrows is indicated. 90.  81. 81–82. There are sideburns on the cheeks. Two rows of short curls on the forehead. no. pp. The small mouth is well articulated.2804) description  The head is turned toward its left. with fully rounded jowls. particularly that of the right eye.  CXXXIX. (28.686.  CV. 132 Cat. p. figs.2817) (on loan to the Nasher Museum. are surmounted by a wreath consisting of two rows of small. 122. pl. The contour of the head is oval.c. 34. 256. 124. description  The head is turned toward its right.1040.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1342 The Cesnola Collection. 121. figs. no. Smith 1991.2. references  Cesnola 1885. fig. which extend onto the nape of the neck. The right ear is very hollowed out. There are sideburns on the cheeks. The tear duct is open. 133 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late 3rd or 2nd century b. overlapping leaves.c. The head is high and domed. Connelly 1988. The rounded globes of the deep-set eyes look upward beneath thick upper eyelids. 132 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late 3rd or 2nd century b. 1874–76 (74. Connelly 1988. Duke University) Photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. overlapping leaves. . references  Cesnola 1885.51. which extend onto the nape of the neck. The facial expression is serious. 211.51. (27. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. 123. 1874–76 (74.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1341 The Cesnola Collection. pl. 35. Photos: Peter Paul Geoffrion.

and the upper eyelids sharply arched. 37. Connelly 1988. comma-shaped locks in front of the ears.51.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1343 The Cesnola Collection. 133 Cat. A wreath consisting of two rows of laurel leaves is slightly open at the center. Limestone H. no.  CXL. (26.1044.  91. 134 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves 2nd century b. 10⅜ in. pl. p. The high forehead is circled by quite thick. 1874–76 (74. or fillet (cat. 128. The head is very rounded toward the back and is covered with comma-shaped locks. Purchased by subscription. 134 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves.contents cat. references  Cesnola 1885. cat. figs.2799) description  The delicate face shows a serious expression The chin is pointed. the eyeballs slightly pinched. 127. diadem.c. 93–137) 125 .

  CXXXIX. 8½ in. 136 Over-lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. There is a dimple on the chin and a depression under the lower lip.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1317 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. Connelly 1988. There is a light and very worn beard under the ears.51. 85. wavy strands.1041. The long nose is pointed. head are broken. comma-shaped locks. 38. 1874–76 (74.  CXL. no. Small. Purchased by subscription.  92. references  Cesnola 1885. the nose long and pointed. 131. The bare forehead is surmounted by thick. The slightly asymmetrical deep-set eyes are set within eyelids the edges of which form a protruding ridge. At the center of the forehead is a slight depression. Purchased by subscription. (21. the almondshaped eyes deep-set under the arch of the eyebrows that forms a high ridge. references  Cesnola 1885.1048.51. description  The upper right portion and the back of the There is a small dimple on the chin and a depression under the lower lip. 132. Circling the head is a thick wreath. p. The mouth is half-open. pp. 126 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 135 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. 12⅝ in. Connelly 1988. On the right side is a depression in front of the temple. 39. comma-shaped locks surround the forehead and thicken in front of the ears. pl. The sideburns consist of delicate.2809) description  Only the regular oval of the face remains. figs. The locks are barely roughed out on the top of the head. 129. 1874–76 (74. It consists of overlapping pointed leaves with central ribs. 135 Cat. pl. 130. open at the center.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1345 The Cesnola Collection. figs. which was probably rounded toward the back. The mouth is half-open and the expression is faintly smiling. (32. no. A wreath consisting of two rows of overlapping laurel leaves is set on the comma-shaped locks on the head.2800) Cat. 92.

The very high forehead is surmounted by wavy locks. diadem.  47. no. cat. the eyes asymmetrical. (29 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1346 The Cesnola Collection. V. no.1042. 142. 136 Cat.51. figs. Connelly 1988. 1874–76 (74.  44.  141. 137 beardless male votaries with a wreath of leaves. The thin nose is pointed. pl. pointed leaves.  82. or fillet (cat. There is a large triangular fragment on the base of the neck. no.  416. pl. The wreath consists of two rows of small. p. The cheeks are flat. The ears are carefully rendered.  X. references  Doell 1873. 93–137) 127 . The youthful-looking face has a smiling expression. Karageorghis 2000a. 137 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. The inner corner of each eye is very deeply set in its socket. The rounded head is covered with very worn small locks. 117⁄16 in.2803) description  The head was probably turned toward its left.15.  CXXXIX. Cesnola 1885. 95. Purchased by subscription.contents cat. the jawbones poorly separated from the neck. 405. but better preserved on the nape of the neck. pp.

commentary  This small head is of the same type. no. 11⅛ in. 234. 138–143) 1.c. Roman modes of representation characteristic of the late Republican and early Imperial periods. Cat. but maybe slightly older. The presence of a wreath of leaves is almost the rule in Classical and Hellenistic statuary on Cyprus.2787) cat. There are short curls on the head that extend over the middle of the forehead and are carelessly rendered on the back. The locks on the forehead are very thick and curled. whereas it is rare in Aegean Greek statuary.). but the eyeballs protrude within thick eyelids. 149. At the end of Ptolemaic domination on the island (middle of the first century  b. The ears are unarticulated. under Egyptian and Ionian influence. CXL.1046. 2006. pl. definitively.c. There are traces of red paint. no. 138 128 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 257. The expression is faintly smiling. 1874–76 (74. pp. He was perhaps turned to his right. The tear ducts are wide. 138 Under-lifesize head of a beardless male votary Third quarter of the 5th century b. The eyes are deep-set. as that of a bronze statuette from the Cesnola Collection found at Kourion. 150.51. (28. 117⁄16 in. 12. no.51. Karageorghis 2000a. V. 369. figs. Bouquillon et al.2 cm) Myres 1340 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885.c. 47. (29. in 30 b. 34. Connelly 1988.2790) description  The head has quite coarse features. figs. The half-open mouth has a severe expression. From the Archaic period on.. but this mode of representation disappears almost completely afterward except in the case of very young children (see the section on “temple boys”).2690) description  The face of the youthful head appears asymmetrical. Purchased by subscription. references  Unpublished. The small ears are carefully rendered. 139 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary Late Hellenistic period Limestone H. The lower portion of the face is heavy. V. The use of marble becomes predominant on the principal sites of the island.1 inspired by the statue of the Diskophoros by Polykleitos.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1344 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription.contents Male Votaries with Bare Heads (cat. for male figures. Cat. 1874–76 (74. Karageorghis 2000a. A wrinkle begins at each side of the partially broken nose. Limestone H. 140 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary First half or middle of the 1st century b.51. 407. Limestone H. Dedications end entirely in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The eyebrows are elongated.c. pp. 97. dedicators abandoned this old tradition and adopted. male figures with bare heads occur. 80. 4 in.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1323 The Cesnola Collection. Cat. The eyelids are heavy beneath low-set eyebrows. the chin juts out. (10. 1874–76 (74. then.

158. 49. Myres 1940–45a. 15. around the mouth. 83–85. 2007.contents cat. XIV. no. is one of the finest adaptations in Cypriot limestone sculpture of the late Republican portrait style. 403. 64. and on the forehead. Advancing age is indicated by the wrinkles under the cheekbones. pp. pl. 98. The head is turned toward its right. for Delos. Karageorghis 2000a. 410. Vessberg 1956.  CXXXIX. 2. figs. no.. 139 cat. no.1. Connelly 1988. 138–143) 129 . no. male votaries with bare heads (cat. 303. pl. 1996. 96. p. 157. 153.1034. references  Cesnola 1885. Cf. Hermary et al. already marked by age. 1. 140 description  The surface is worn. V. commentary  This expressive face. Picón et al. The hair consists of short curls. fig. pl. The facial expression is severe. The eyebrow arches sag onto the eyelids. 154.1 The models probably came from Greece2 rather than Italy. One can compare a poorly preserved head from Lefkoniko.

2802) Cat. the left one shifted outward owing to the position of the head. 142 Under-lifesize head of a beardless male votary Second half of the 1st century b. 50. A small piece of stone remains in place behind the nape of the neck. Karageorghis 2000a. 10⅞ in. XCVII. The small eyes are deep-set in their orbs and the eyeballs are elongated.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1324 The Cesnola Collection. There is a depression on the forehead and short. There is a depression on the forehead.contents cat. V. no. The delicate mouth shows a serious expression. 99. comma-shaped locks cover the entire head. The facial expression is severe. Limestone H. The head is turned toward its right. 141 Lifesize head of a beardless male votary 1st century b.51. (27. 160. 156. Purchased by subscription. The head is turned slightly to its left. 130 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries references  Cesnola 1885. The eyes are very deep-set in their orbs. Purchased by subscription. CXL. Connelly 1988. reference  Cesnola 1885. 141 Cat.51. on the left ear. 159. 1874–76 (74.1045. particularly the right one. Limestone H. 83–85. 155. The right part of the neck is restored. 815⁄16 in. (22. Much of the thin nose is broken. 409. The Adam’s apple juts out visibly. pp. The eyelids are thick. pl. pl. .664.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1325 The Cesnola Collection. figs. no. His age is indicated by two deep furrows that start at the sides of the nose and surround the mouth.2801) description  There are breaks on the right side of the description  There are breaks on the back of the head and head and the nose and the surface is very worn. 1874–76 (74. which is surrounded by short curls.c.c.

The chin is square. The nasolabial furrow is well indicated. 143 Over-lifesize head of a beardless male votary Late 1st century b. The ridge of the eyebrows and the edge of the arches of the eyebrows are articulated. 1874–76 (74. 85. 96.51.contents cat. The front part of the neck is flat. Limestone H. no. 408. pp. the half-open mouth hints at a smile. The delicate pointed nose is slightly asymmetrical.  CXXXIX. Karageorghis 2000a. 142 Cat. The eyes are deep-set in their orbs and the upper eyelids protrude more than the lower ones. 143 male votaries with bare heads (cat. Purchased by subscription.d. There is a depression on the lower lip. cat. 123⁄16 in. 144.1038. V. pl. or early 1st century a. particularly on the left side. Connelly 1988. 138–143) 131 . no.c. (31 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1326 The Cesnola Collection. figs. 143. 45. but the greater projection on the right side indicates that the head was turned to its left. references  Cesnola 1885. The bare forehead is surrounded by very worn short curls that are better preserved on the nape of the neck.2789) description  The surface is worn.

cat. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. The locks on the forehead extend in two long tresses that cover the ears. most of the bent right arm is missing. pl. 157). Here the figures stand.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1180 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. 145 Statuette of a boy holding a dove Second half of the 5th century b.2686) description  The neck is restored in plaster. the chain of amulets (Cat. Their youth is expressed by facial features. The figure wears a long crinkled tunic that designates him as a child. 1874–76 (74. the hand is missing. and low-set eyebrows. The rounded head is surrounded by a wreath consisting of a single row of leaves.817. The back is only partially worked. but also by the small duck held in the hand (Cat. very slightly bent. but the head probably belongs.contents Statues and Statuettes of Boys (Cat. frequently wearing a wreath of leaves. The face has a smiling expression. 144 Statuette of a boy Third quarter of the 5th century b. 144–168) This group does not include the special category of “temple boys. 158). CXIV. is clearly advanced. (28. 156). (45.” very young children who are seated.51. The figure wears a long pleated and crinkled tunic that designates him as a child.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1186 The Cesnola Collection.2684) description  The right leg is slightly advanced and bent. by special features of their garments. 132 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The smiling face has delicate features. large eyes.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. Cat. Limestone H. 17¾ in. a mass of hair falls on the shoulders. and they may hold the same objects as adults. The right arm was bent. like the long beltless tunic. Purchased by subscription. 144 Cat. He holds a dove in his lowered left hand.c.c. or the Macedonian type of flat cap. 11⅛ in. The lowered left hand holds a small object. The right leg. the kausia (Cat.

The lowered left hand holds a dove.c. statues and statuettes of boys (cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. The left leg is placed to one side and bent.814. CXIV. The long crinkled chiton designates the figure as a child. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. The right forearm was raised in a gesture of worship.51. Cat. 146 description  The head and the right forearm are missing.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1073 The Cesnola Collection. which is covered with summarily rendered locks. 146 Statuette of a boy holding a dove Second half of the 5th century b. The fringed border at the top of the neck probably belongs to the same garment. There are many traces of red paint on the garment and the lips. 18⅞ in. His genitalia are suggested.contents cat. (47. The forms of the body are barely roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. The back is worked on the upper part and on the sides. pl. Purchased by subscription. pl. 144–168) 133 . resulting in a pleat in between the legs.807.2723) cat. Full hair covers the nape of the neck. Limestone H. 145 A wreath consisting of a single row of leaves is set on the pointed head. CXIV.

 123⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. his description  Both forearms are missing. disproportionate head is surrounded by a wreath consisting of a single row of leaves.2669) cat. There are thick. There are traces of red paint. CXIV. There is red paint on the garment and on the lips.contents cat. squared locks on the forehead and on the nape of the neck. 147 Statuette of a boy holding a bird Second half of the 5th century b. CXIV. (31 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1185 The Cesnola Collection.819. legs spread. 148 Cat. the nose broken. Limestone H. The head is surrounded by a rolled turban. and well-articulated eyes. held by a band passing over the top of the head. the right hand also held an object. 147 Cat. pl. 101⁄16 in. The left arm is bent. The face has a smiling expression. 1874–76 (74.57. (25. He wears a long tunic that designates him as a child.51. The lowered left hand held a bird that is partially missing. pl. The left leg is to one side and bent. The face is smiling.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection.24) description  The figure is standing on a slanted plinth. the hand held an object that is missing. the hand held another object that is also missing. The figure wears a long crinkled tunic that designates him as a child. Purchased by subscription.c. 134 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 148 Statuette of a boy with a turban Second half of the 5th century b. The flat. The right arm is lowered. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. a large nose.c.816. the eyes lidless. reference  Cesnola 1885.

(71. painted red. The back has been coarsely roughed out and there are toolmarks.c. The face has a smiling expression. pl. 149 cat.2697) Cat. There are full curls on the forehead and a wreath of laurel leaves is set on the wavy locks of the head. Limestone H. Limestone H. The lips. 1874–76 (74. The figure description  The head probably belongs. Purchased by subscription. slightly to one side and bent. 283⁄16 in. the head of which is missing.51.contents cat. 150 Cat. The right leg is wears a long chiton—with many traces of red paint on the sides—that designates him as a child. (49.815. CXIV. pl. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1196 The Cesnola Collection.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. The top of the head is flat.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1184 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. 150 Statuette of a boy holding a bird 4th century b. The body is covered with a long tunic with short sleeves. 1911⁄16 in. 144–168) 135 . In the right hand is an unidentified object (a pyxis?). In the right hand is a branch held against his chest. Purchased by subscription. statues and statuettes of boys (cat. and full locks on the forehead that are surmounted by a wreath consisting of a single row of laurel leaves. 149 Statuette of a boy holding a bird and a branch of leaves Late 5th or first half of the 4th century b.2702) description  The right leg is slightly bent. In his left hand the boy holds a bird. In his lowered left hand he holds a dove. of the round face show a smiling expression.845. the feet of which are tucked under and painted red. 1874–76 (74. CXVI.7 cm) From Kourion. elongated eyes.c. The ears are schematically rendered.

poorly articulated at the center. reference  Cesnola 1885. The small eyes are set within thick eyelids. To it is affixed a wreath of overlapping leaves. (?) Limestone H. are surmounted by a smooth band that is not shown on the back. 1874–76 (74.751. Purchased by subscription.51.contents cat. 151 Lifesize head of a boy with a fillet and a wreath of leaves 4th or 3rd century b. The comma-shaped locks on the forehead.2785) 136 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries description  The youthful face has a smiling expression and there are traces of red paint on the lips. (19. pl. . is covered with schematic wavy locks.c. CXI. 711⁄16 in. The head. pointed at the back. 151 Cat.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1336 The Cesnola Collection.

There is a wreath of ivy leaves and.752. 152 Cat. at the center. statues and statuettes of boys (cat. pl.contents cat. (18. 152 Lifesize head of a boy with a wreath of leaves 4th or 3rd century b. The flat eyes are deep-set in their orbs and the pupils are painted red. (?) Limestone H. Hair falls to either side of a central part and U-shaped locks cover the nape of the neck. CXI.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1337 The Cesnola Collection. 77⁄16 in. There are furrows at the corners of the mouth and around the nose. 1874–76 (74.c. reference  Cesnola 1885. small berries are applied to the head.2791) description  The youthful head has a smiling expression. Purchased by subscription. 144–168) 137 .51.

The flat back is smoothed. The description  The lower part of the legs is missing. The left hand reference  Cesnola 1885. The oval-shaped head is wreathed. 154 Statuette of a boy holding a pyxis and a branch of leaves Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. the right grasps the panel of the himation that is draped over the left shoulder.2 cm) From Kourion. (48 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1190 The Cesnola Collection. ending in a tassel. a break on the lower left leg that is bent. A double panel of fabric.2696) Cat. The boy wears a short-sleeved chiton with many traces of red paint. The facial features are coarsely worked. 1715⁄16 in. 153 Statuette of a boy Early Hellenistic period Limestone H.871. there is lowered left hand holds a small object. falls along the side. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1177 The Cesnola Collection.51. 153 cat. (37.51. Purchased by subscription.2778) description  The figure’s weight is on the right leg. 1411⁄16 in. pl. Purchased by subscription. A himation. 154 Cat. 1874–76 (74. CXX.contents cat. draped over the left shoulder. 1874–76 (74. covers the arm. 138 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . falls on the left thigh. and forms a large roll around the waist.

  32. 155 Head of a boy with a wreath of leaves Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. and hair and blue-green paint on the top of the head. pupils. The pointed nose is partially broken. The head is rounded toward the back and covered with short wavy locks. p. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. A wreath of overlapping pointed leaves is set on the wavy locks on top of the head. 4½ in. CXXXIV. and a pointed nose. 144–168) 139 . a well-articulated small mouth painted red. references  Unpublished. the pupils of which are painted red. There is a dimple on the chin. (11. The high. no. 155 holds a pyxis at the level of the abdomen. Under the plump chin. The wreath consists of a simple row of laurel leaves and is open at the center. comma-shaped locks that are thicker in front of the ears. statues and statuettes of boys (cat. The very youthful face has a serious expression. The deep-set eyes. pl.989. Cesnola 1885. There is red paint on the lips. references  Doell 1873. pl.51. the lowered right hand.  135. flat forehead is surmounted by small. the eyelids are thick. a sprig of greenery. almost personalized. smiling mouth. are wide open.2751) description  The face is expressive. folds of skin extend toward the half-open.6. Purchased by subscription. Cat.  VI.4 cm) Myres 1339 The Cesnola Collection.

156 Cat. no.9. 158 Statuette of a boy with a kausia Hellenistic period (Early Hellenistic for the head) Limestone H.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1191 The Cesnola Collection. 157 Statuette of a boy with a chain of amulets Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. The lowered right hand holds a large round object (a ball?). The left leg is to one side and bent. 140 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. CXXXVII. (43. (54.51. 17¼ in. no. Many traces of red paint remain.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1198 The Cesnola Collection.contents Cat. 1874–76 (74. The face is smiling. . a support has been left in place. The nose is very pointed.51. 1874–76 (74.  34. (68. cat. almost circular basin. CXXXIV.2749) description  The head probably belongs. The right arm and the left hand are missing.  34. CXXXIV. There are toolmarks on the back with additional detail above the waist.8. 156 Statuette of a boy holding a duck Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. There are short locks on the head. a crescent. The plump face is smiling. Small locks on the forehead are surmounted by a wreath of overlapping laurel leaves. the edges of which are broken. pleated tunic with short sleeves and two small tassels on the edges. p. He also wears shoes.1026. Cesnola 1885.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1188 The Cesnola Collection. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. The fabric forms a roll at the waist. The boy wears a short-sleeved chiton and a himation draped over the disproportionately small left shoulder. Against his abdomen.51. pl. pl. Behind it. a small. a comblike element.  153.2701) description  The neck does not fit the torso. but the features are coarse. On the head is set a Macedonian kausia. p. 1874–76 (74. he holds. 26⅞ in. the left holds a duck. The boy stands barefoot on the rounded plinth. pl. Purchased by subscription. From his left shoulder and over his chest is a band with a dozen amulets: double axes. There are wavy locks to either side of a central part. the pupils of the wide-open eyes are painted red.994.  152. 21⅝ in. summarily pleated chiton that has traces of red paint and is also articulated on the back.2775) description  The left leg is bent and the position of the right hip accentuated. pl.995. Marks of several tools appear on the back. Purchased by subscription. it is attached to the right leg and the left calf and heel. and elongated pendants. He wears a long. Cesnola 1885. plump face is smiling. references  Doell 1873. references  Doell 1873. Purchased by subscription. rings. The boy wears a short. The boy stands with his right leg slightly bent.  V.  V. The round. with both hands.

158 statues and statuettes of boys (cat. 157 cat. 144–168) 141 .contents cat.

7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1246 The Cesnola Collection.51. at the level of the hip. (53. on the back. The right leg is to one side and bent. 211⁄16 in.2713) description  The head seems too large in comparison to the body. does not belong to the body and gives the impression of having been recut. Purchased by subscription. cat.2771) description  The head does not belong to the body. There are many toolmarks. 159 Cat. (68 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi Ayios Photios Myres 1193 The Cesnola Collection. with vertical incisions.51. 159 Statuette of a boy Hellenistic period Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. The feet are shod. reference  Cesnola 1885. The left hand holds. reference  Cesnola 1885. which is draped over the left shoulder and forms a thick roll over the chest. He holds a large bird in his lowered left hand and touches the beak with his right hand. The face shows a serious expression. pl. The surface of the beak is very worn. pl. pl. CXXXVII. The missing right forearm was raised and the hand held an object. The boy wears a short. Purchased by subscription. CXVI. 161 Statuette of a boy holding an amphora Hellenistic period (Late Hellenistic for the head?) Limestone H. a small amphora. There are breaks on the nose and the mouth. (59. The left leg is advanced and bent. CXXXIV. suspended from a leather thong or cord. The lowered left hand holds a pyxis. The feet are shod. 2613⁄16 in. The boy wears a long chiton with traces of red paint. His smiling face has a wide nose and very wide-open eyes. 160 Statuette of a boy holding a pyxis Hellenistic period (Early Hellenistic for the head) Limestone H.996.1024. The right leg is to one side and slightly bent. The eyes are very wide open within thick eyelids. with its coarse features. The boy has a rounded abdomen and wears a short-sleeved chiton almost entirely covered by a himation.843. The space in between the legs is solid.contents Cat.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. The broken right arm was bent. Purchased by subscription.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1199 The Cesnola Collection. which is painted red. There is red paint on the garment and on the eyes. The boy wears a Macedonian kausia. 1874–76 (74. The surface is crackled. 23½ in. The wreath consists of overlapping leaves.2726) description  The head. 142 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries Cat. 1874–76 (74. . belted chiton on top of which is draped a kind of chlamys that falls to the knees and lower over the back.

160 cat.contents cat. 144–168) 143 . 161 statues and statuettes of boys (cat.

The locks are suggested. the head of the bird resting on the box has been restored. Cesnola 1885. At the level of the abdomen. almost concave. no.51. 162 Statuette of a boy holding a pyxis with a bird Hellenistic period Limestone H. He wears laced sandals with a double tongue at the center. 163 Statuette of a boy holding a pyxis Late Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74.2.  32. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription.2779) description  There is restoration in plaster in the area of the feet.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1195 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. It is not certain that they or the plinth belong to the statuette.1028. The left arm leans on a pillar. pleated chiton is covered on the left shoulder. p.51. pl. 2915⁄16 in. The ears are summarily rendered. 2515⁄16 in. pl. Cat. the weight is on his right leg and the left leg is clearly bent. the left hand holds a large circular box (pyxis). The head is rounded toward the back. The back is flat. The right hand rests on the hip. The straight locks on the forehead are surmounted by a wreath consisting of two rows of laurel leaves. with the index finger extended. The boy . CXXXVII. 162 Cat. arm.  136.  VI. The short-sleeved.2774) description  In this large statuette of a boy. and the lower part of the body by a himation. The rather flat face shows 144 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries a faint smile. (76 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1202 The Cesnola Collection. (65. references  Doell 1873. which forms a twisted roll extending from the right hip to the left armpit. The right leg is to one side and slightly bent.

pl. statues and statuettes of boys (cat. and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. consisting of a single row of overlapping laurel leaves. CXXXVII. 29½ in. The feet are shod in sandals with laces and double tongues. Purchased by subscription. The face.  32. There.1027. wide-open at the center. In his partially broken left hand he holds the himation at the level of the abdomen.2769) description  The head probably belongs. 164 Statuette of a boy with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic or early Roman period (?) Limestone H. the border of which is painted red. Another panel falls under the left arm.1025. The lips are painted red. 1874–76 (74. and very wide-open eyes. The boy wears a chiton. Rounded toward the back.7. 163 wears a chiton that is visible on the chest. The pupils are painted red. CXXXVII. The right arm is missing. pl.contents cat. no. a pointed nose. The lowered left hand holds a small box (pyxis). There is red paint on the lips and the pupils. There is a dimple on the chin. Cesnola 1885. The neck shows wrinkles. Cat. 164 The Cesnola Collection. and a himation that is draped over both shoulders covers the greater part of the body. 144–168) 145 . with pronounced features. The right leg is to one side and slightly bent.51. the head is covered with wavy locks. references  Doell 1873. The comma-shaped locks on the forehead are thicker on the sides. The right hand grasps part of the garment. They are surmounted by a wreath consisting of two rows of overlapping laurel leaves. (74. and it covers the left thigh. The back is not worked. The face has a serious expression. with a tassel at the end.  V. There are traces of red paint. and very thick eyelids. p. the garment forms an overfold. a pointed nose. shows a smiling expression. reference  Cesnola 1885.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1192 cat. The rounded head is covered with wavy locks to either side of a central part.  145. pl. Above the comma-shaped locks on the forehead is a wreath.

(71.1029. one side and bent. the nose is pointed. The lips are painted red. Above the full locks on the forehead. The head is covered with wavy locks. Behind the right ear is the beginning of a “Horus lock. the left hand holds a circular box (pyxis). The face has a smiling expression. He wears a short-sleeved chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder and falls to the middle of his calves. 1874–76 (74.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1194 The Cesnola Collection. pl.” The back is not worked and there are toolmarks. 166 Cat. pl.2748) Cat. while the right hand lifts the cover. (65. 165 cat. 166 Statuette of a boy holding a pyxis Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1201 The Cesnola Collection. 2511⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74. and the eyes have thick eyelids. Purchased by subscription. The heavy face has a broken nose. At the level of the abdomen. 28 in. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription.2772) description  The boy stands. The head. 165 Statuette of a boy holding a bird.51. The left leg is to between them is solid. and unarticulated ears.842. The boy wears a chiton under a himation that is draped over the left shoulder and covers the lower part of the body from the hips down as well as the left forearm from which a panel of fabric falls to the calf.51. is very youthful. CXVI. CXXXVII. At the level of the hip. legs spread. half-open lips. 146 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . The lowered right hand holds a large round object (a ball?). the left hand holds a bird with an apparently hooked beak—perhaps an eaglet rather than a dove. turned toward its right. a wreath consisting of a single row of laurel leaves sits high on the head. with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic or early Roman period (?) Limestone H. The space description  The head probably belongs.contents cat. reference  Cesnola 1885.

2481) description  The lower part of the legs stands out in relief from the solid block of stone. The extended left hand holds a round object. with a wreath of leaves Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H. The garment is suggested on the back. visible only at the bottom of the legs and on the chest. pl. The head is tilted forward. cat. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. 144–168) 147 . but not certainly. The locks on the forehead. (101 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1349 The Cesnola Collection. A himation that is draped over both shoulders covers the arms and the rest of the body. 1874–76 (74. CXXXV. Purchased by subscription. are surmounted by a wreath of overlapping leaves. It probably belongs to the body.contents Cat. The smiling face is very youthful. The boy wears a chiton. 39¾ in. The rounded head is covered with wavy locks. The left leg is to one side and bent. The right hand grasps the edge of the garment. 167 statues and statuettes of boys (cat. standing up at the center and thicker in front of the ears. The feet and the front part of the plinth have been restored.998. probably a ball or a piece of fruit. 167 cat. 167 Statue of a boy holding a ball or a piece of fruit.

2783) description  The very youthful face is smiling and perhaps turned slightly toward its left. or Fragments (cat. A mass of hair falls onto the shoulders. Curls cover the head. (10. pl.51. 5¾ in. Purchased by subscription. The forehead is bare and short. Various Votive Male Figures. CXLIII.6 cm) Myres 1348 The Cesnola Collection.2563) description  The small figure is seated on a high-backed chair with his hands placed on the armrests. cat. Purchased by subscription. 168 148 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . 169–186) Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. The nose is pointed and the protruding eyeballs are set within thick eyelids. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. The head wears a conical helmet with cheekpieces. the central opening of which is indicated by an incision.contents Cat.1089. (14.8 cm) Myres 1133 The Cesnola Collection. The facial features are very worn.51. He wears a long garment. 169 cat. 4¼ in. 168 Lifesize head of a boy Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H.c. 169 Small statuette of a seated beardless male votary with a helmet First half of the 6th century b. The sleeves are short.

1 1. no. Tuna et al. p. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. and the heavy eyebrows meet on top of the nose. fig. 170 Statuette of a kriophoros (ram-bearer) Second quarter of the 6th century b. 112. Cat. 1874–76 (74. fig. fig. no. pls.2 and Knidos. 10. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 33–34. The fleece is indicated by zigzag incisions. pl. Karageorghis 2001. The ­asymmetrical head of the animal gives the impression that it is smiling. 8. The p.  589. the statuette of the Cesnola Collection can be considered exceptional. which designates him as a divinity (Cat.  XVI. no. Rhodes. or fragments (cat.2 1. Limestone H. 150. 2. pp. with references. 61. and carries a ram on his shoulders. 39. Karageorghis 2000a. 2009. description  The legs are almost entirely missing.1 but rare on Cyprus itself. figure wears a tunic. He holds the excessively long legs of the ram in each hand. 321. references  Unpublished. p. commentary  Statuettes of figures carrying a small sacrificial animal on their shoulders (a goat more often then a sheep) are common in small “Cypro-Ionian” sculpture. 169–186) 149 .  200.2533) wide belt. 23. 153. fig. 2. 138. 153. 85. Nick 2006. A variant presents the figure with a ram’s head. 111. Berges 2006. V.  402. (32. where limestone sculptures are rare in the Archaic period. Nick 2006. II. pl.7 cm) From Kourion. 14.contents cat. 170 commentary  This type of representation is known through the “Cypro-Ionian” statuettes from Naucratis. Karageorghis 2006. The beardless face of the man has a serious expression. p. figs. fig.3 The Naucratis statuette wears a helmet with cheekpieces. It is almost contemporary with the famous “Moscophoros” (calf-bearer) from the Acropolis.1–2. 223. Rolley 1994a. V. 22.c. 234. Purchased by subscription. Senff 2009. various votive male figures.51. but the right arm is bent. 322). sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1120 The Cesnola Collection. 3. the folds of which fall to each side of a no. The nose is hooked. p. references  Cesnola 1885. The wavy locks of hair on the forehead are shown by zigzag incisions. nos. Boardman 1978. especially if it indeed comes from Kourion. 154. the eyes are elongated. V. 12⅞ in.1–2.21. Of larger size and superior quality of execution.

flared above the feet. (24.22. Photos: Philippe Collet. no. The body of the animal is positioned very far back. 255. cat. 171 Cat. references  Doell 1873. p. The beardless head of the man bends forward.2550) (on loan to the Cyprus Museum.51. Höckmann 2009. pl. description  The figure stands with his large bare feet side by side and wears a long tunic. commentary  Ursula Höckmann has emphasized that the way of holding the animal.  VII. 911⁄16 in. the hair short. p. She sees here a “Greek remodeling— German Überformung—of the basic Cypriot type.  43. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.”1 1.c.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1119 The Cesnola Collection. was rarely attested on Cyprus.3.  202. Nicosia) Photo © École Française d’Athènes. 171 Statuette of a kriophoros (ram-bearer) Second quarter of the 6th century b. (?) Limestone H. Cesnola 1885. The facial features are coarse. 171 150 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries . holding two legs in each hand. with two feet in each hand. XVI. He carries a ram.contents cat. pl.

2572) description  The flat body is awkwardly represented. or fragments (cat. The back is flat. The figure stands on a small plinth. various votive male figures. and a smooth Egyptianizing hairstyle. but the mass of hair forms a ridge. 172 Statuette of a male votary with a long garment and a plain headdress Middle of the 6th century b.c. The right hand is placed on the abdomen. The schematically rendered bare feet are side by side. There are traces of red paint. thick.211. 173 Cat. narrow plinth.c. reference  Cesnola 1885. pl. Limestone H. 172 cat. 53⁄16 in.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1010 The Cesnola Collection. 173 Small statuette of a male votary with a long garment and a plain headdress Middle of the 6th century b. 1874–76 (74. 9 in. XXXIV. Purchased by subscription. The description  The long bare feet of the figure stand on a right arm is completely disproportionate.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1008 The Cesnola Collection. pl. (29. Purchased by subscription. 169–186) 151 . He wears a long. (?) Limestone H.2503) Cat. The left arm is held at the side of the body with the hand closed on a round object. pleatless garment with a small opening at the level of the waist.contents cat.51. The face has a smiling expression.51.217. low-set eyebrows. The right arm is bent under the garment. The partially broken face has very elongated eyes within thick eyelids. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing in style. (13. 1874–76 (74. XXXII. reference  Cesnola 1885.

 207. “on the field West of the temple” Myres 1257 A The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. 13⅛ in. no.c. commentary  The bottom of the legs just above the feet was naked. L. Faegersten 2003. is a syllabic inscription of three lines: “Ephodos has erected (this) for the amphidexios god.51. LVII. no. Limestone H. CXXV. suggesting that the figure was of Egyptianizing type. pl. . pl. There are traces of toolmarks behind the left foot.51. pl. 437. 1. 152 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries references  Cesnola 1877. The toes are very long and there is considerable separation between them. Masson 1961/1983. Florida.5 cm) “From Palaeo-Paphos” Myres 1843 The Cesnola Collection. 22.”1 It is in the Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota. There is some damage to the right foot near the heel. The toenails are carefully articulated. (18 cm).4. fig. in front of the right foot.554.50. Purchased by subscription. Limestone W. A fragment of a colossal statue with an Egyptianizing kilt was found by Cesnola in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. 6. p. This feature distinguishes the feet from the large head Cat. pls.  1 (associated by Myres). 175 Plinth with the feet of a male statuette and a syllabic inscription Middle or second half of the 6th century b. p.2 and 26. and between the left heel and the support. the body of which would have been covered with a long garment. 71⁄16 in. (33. description  Two bare feet stand on a plinth.1. reference  Cesnola 1885. The left one the left advanced. The stance and the shape of the feet recall those of Greek kouroi. pl. The right foot is of a piece with what appears to be some kind of support. Purchased by subscription. 3. no. LXXXV. p. On the plinth. is advanced. 174 Cat. also “West of the temple.2336) description  The feet stand on a remarkably thin plinth.2683) Cat. XXII. to good fortune. (21.c. on the top of the plinth. 278.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. 174 Plinth with the feet of a colossal male statue Middle or second half of the 6th century b.” commentary  The meaning of the epithet amphidexios has not been elucidated. 335. Cesnola 1903. 87⁄16 in. Cesnola 1885.

V.3.  III. Purchased by subscription. A garment draped over both shoulders falls to the hips in two separate panels. the hair forms a long. both arms were detached from the body. Above long flattened locks on the forehead is set a cap or a pointed helmet. the left arm. no. Cesnola 1885. the flaps of which are attached at the front by a Herakles knot. pl. with wavelike pleats.2599) description  The lower part of the legs.51.c. the locks on the forehead (a hairstyle more likely female). 17⅞ in. and part of the right arm are missing. (45. Limestone H.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1061 The Cesnola Collection. p.  24. the left one in particular. 1874–76 (74. no. 176 garment divides the small of the back and covers the buttocks.274. XLII. On the back. 530–520 b. The chin juts out. The face and the locks near the ears indicate a date close to that of the “priest with dove” (Cat.contents cat. The ears are carefully articulated. commentary  The work is entirely original and probably one of its kind on Cyprus: note the treatment of the garment that falls on the torso. smooth mass with no locks articulated. The left leg is advanced.  79. On the back. The figure wears a thin chiton through which the genitalia are visible. 175 Cat. Karageorghis 2000a. 22). or fragments (cat. 169–186) 153 . the eyes are almond-shaped beneath high-set eyebrows. references  Doell 1873. 176 Statuette of a male votary with a high-peaked cap Ca. The oval-shaped face is smiling. various votive male figures. the cat. 188. Three locks fall on the rounded chest. and the very tall cap.

the eyebrows are very thick and hatched. reference  Cesnola 1885.contents cat. LXXXVII.51. (38. Limestone H. The eyes are elongated within thick eyelids. (30 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1058 The Cesnola Collection. Cat.2620) description  The lower part of the legs is missing.51. The left leg is clearly advanced. A mass of smooth hair falls on the back. 1. despite the modest size and execution of the work.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1071 The Cesnola Collection. pl. Limestone H.c.1 and the turban that fits tightly around the head seem to indicate the high rank of the figure. 178 Nude male body with weapons and a bag Late 6th or early 5th century b. 1874–76 (74. 76. Purchased by subscription. 177 Statuette of a bearded male votary in Greek dress Second half of the 6th century b. The space between the legs is solid. 15 in. Seipel 1999. Purchased by subscription.2593) . The body appears to be covered only by a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. like a large statue from Pyla. Several locks of hair are visible at the center of the forehead.573. 178 commentary  The nude body represented under the himation. 1113⁄16 in. Both arms are held to the sides of the body with hands closed. 154 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries cat. 1874–76 (74. no. The head has a smooth beard that is broken at the bottom. The buttocks and the back of the legs are articulated. 177 Cat. A turban is wrapped unevenly around the head and forms a coil at the top.c. The head probably belongs.

a sword. The chest is prominent. Two red bands hang from the top. Purchased by subscription.c. The center and the edges of the garment form bands divided into rectangles. references  Cesnola 1885. the right arm. the lips. Karageorghis 2000a. are shown. commentary  The figure is difficult to define: the weapons suggest Herakles. reference  Cesnola 1885.386.2566) description  The lower part of the legs. the overfold of which partially covers the belt. the navel and the pubic hair. because of the nude body. A bow and a bag or wineskin are hung from the left shoulder. the right forearm. with the left leg clearly advanced. which is long and pointed at the ends. 179 Statuette of a warrior holding a shield Late 6th or early 5th century b. The body is nude except for a garment draped over both shoulders. A wide mass of hair with beaded locks spreads over the back and covers the garment. the tip of the nose is broken. and the helmet. and both legs below the knees are missing. A mass of full hair falls on the nape of the neck.  XLII. pl. (16. 178 description  The head. cat.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1048 The Cesnola Collection. the central ridge of which is shown in relief. 179 various votive male figures. or fragments (cat. Limestone H. cat. no. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. pl.51. but the bag (or wineskin) would be unusual. and the eyebrows are high-set. 169–186) 155 . the edges of the garment. The figure holds a round shield on his left arm. 67⁄16 in. The broken left hand probably held something (arrows?). There are traces of red paint on the perimeter of the shield. and a kind of disk. LVII. 1874–76 (74. The figure strides forward. 204. The possibility of a traveler is uncertain. the left hand. Above the locks on the forehead is set a conical helmet.contents Cat. The pleated panels fall to the hips. the face has a smiling expression. The neck is massive. He wears a tunic. Under the left arm appear in relief a quiver(?).272. The leg left was advanced. V. and a part of the shield are missing. the decoration consists of zigzags.

reference  Cesnola 1885. A Phoenician inscription from Kition. the lower part of which has been hollowed out. 180 Statuette of a seated beardless male votary Second half of the 5th century b. 181 Cat. (29. On his knees is a wide-open scroll on which he appears to be writing. 180 Cat. CXIV. The face has a smiling expression and the nose is broken.2 The youthfulness of the figures and the absence of particular features support the hypothesis that the offerings evoke learning to write or training to become a scribe. 11½ in. 181 Statuette of a seated beardless male votary. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.51.2695) description  The young man.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1235 The Cesnola Collection. On the back of the head. One figure from this group comes from the sanctuary of Lefkoniko.818. There is a wreath of leaves on the head. In his left hand is a partially missing bird.2671) cat. 12 in.51.1 the origins of the others are unknown. A wreath of a single row of leaves is set on thick locks on the forehead. 1874–76 (74. Limestone H.c. Both hands are missing. 156 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries description  The head is disproportionate to the body. (30.contents cat. writing on a scroll Late 5th or early 4th century b. Purchased by subscription. The back is partially worked. pl. the figure wears a chiton with many traces of red paint. The figure wears a chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. The face is very worn. below the wreath. but it certainly belongs. Limestone H. occupies a seat without a back. Seated on a chair without armrests. more or less .5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1234 The Cesnola Collection. the hair is articulated as a crosshatched mass. The pointed head is disproportionately small. who leans backward.c. commentary  This statuette belongs to a small group quite homogeneous in date and style.

 590. shown against his side. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1236 The Cesnola Collection. 127⁄16 in. mentions a “chief of the scribes” among the servants of the temple of Astarte. pl. appears behind the missing left forearm. Karageorghis 2002.2740) level of his sword hilt. Hermary 1989a. offered to the god of Kourion. no. pl. no. unique among Cypriot limestone sculptures. The helmet shows lateral scrolls next to which are attached two long twisted elements painted red that fall to the shoulders. with his legs wide apart. and expressive warrior could be the portrait of some Hellenistic ruler or officer. pl. The warrior references  Cesnola 1885. p. 66. Hermary 2003. The top of a sword. 1078. 76 (the mention of a “missing bird” is incorrect). 2. stands. Masson and Sznycer 1972. Yon 2004.3 However.5 cm) From Kourion.  CXVI. 287–289. (31. 1. 184–85. 3. The right arm is bent and separated from the body. V. LVII. Cat. the battered forehead. various votive male figures.1 indicating a possible date in the Early Hellenistic period. Miller 1993. no. is fastened on the right shoulder. Tsimbidou-Avioniti 2007. A red chlamys. 1. or fragments (cat. The left one is slightly bent. 184. p.840. description  Most of the legs are missing. 426. pp. p. but the helmet recalls examples painted in Macedonian tombs. covering the entire back. and the thick eyebrows give the face a distinctive expression. 182 Statuette of a bearded warrior Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. reference  Cesnola 1885.  133. It is difficult to propose a date for this work. 17. 12h. The preserved curving edge suggests a shield. 1874–76 (74. 53–54. under a breastplate that accentuates the paunch. commentary  This statuette is.362. other representations indicate that the figure is close to the divinity and partially takes on its appearance: see Cat. nos. pp. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. The accentuated lips. fat. The hand is broken. Myres 1940–45a. 169–186) 157 .51.contents cat. pl. 182 contemporary with the statuettes. 53. to my knowledge. The old. Purchased by subscription. The man wears a beard and a mustache. The warrior wears a short-sleeved tunic painted red. Broken from his left side is a form that comes to a point at the no.

A thick panel of drapery falls over the left thigh. 1874–76 (74. 7¼ in. The figure occupies a seat without a back. (38. His hands are clapsed over the left hip. elongated lips that are carefully articulated. given the shape of the horns.1 1. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1232 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. rests on his left arm.51. Purchased by subscription. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. 183 Fragmentary statuette of a male votary Early Hellenistic period Hard limestone H. 15¼ in.contents cat. 184 Statuette of a seated young man holding a scroll and a stylus Late Hellenistic period (if the head belongs) Limestone H. a delicate nose. (18. the back of the seat is hollow.51. A bird. 183 Cat. CXX. Smith 1991. reference  Cesnola 1885. 39.2707) cat. 158 catalogue chapter 1 male votaries description  The head probably belongs. commentary  For the position of the hands. The surface is crackled. in large part broken. flanked by animals that. and eyes that are slightly open. A wreath of leaves is set on the wavy locks that cover the head.7 cm) “From the ruins of the city of Golgoi” Myres 1233 The Cesnola Collection. On his knees he supports an open scroll and holds a stylus in his right hand. The figure wears a shortsleeved chiton and a half-length himation that is draped over the left shoulder. There is red paint on the uprights. compare the statue of Demosthenes by Polyeuktos. The youthful face has a smiling expression. He wears a chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. .2708) description  The head and the lower part of the legs are missing. His hair falls on the sides in long twisted curls painted red.4 cm) From Kourion. 184 Cat. pl. fig. The figure’s shoes are painted red.874. 1874–76 (74. The back is not worked. are cervids rather than goats.

67. would be a Hellenistic adaptation of the Archaic image of the scribe with a falcon head or mask (Cat. Purchased by subscription. fig. pl. Animals are actually associated with Apollo and the bird on the arm recalls the one on a statue found in the sanctuary of Voni. references  Cesnola 1885. (4. 185 Front of a left foot Roman period Black marble with white veins L. 331). 169–186) 159 .5 cm).23) description  It appears that the object was broken at the level of the ankle. 185 1. Karageorghis 2000a. 186 references  Unpublished.2879) description  Preserved are the toes and the sole of the sandal. 186 are two of the rare fragments of marble statues that have remained in New York. (13.838.  185. 66. There is a short projection from the sole next to the big toe. It may be that he transcribes his oracles. probably Parian L. The hairstyle with corkscrew curls reinforces the resemblance with the god and points to a date at the end of the Hellenistic period (see the heads of Apollo. 1¾ in. commentary  The feet Cat. XXV.2 cm) The Cesnola Collection. p.  79. Purchased by subscription.1 These iconographic similarities do not indicate that the figure is the god himself. The end of the big toe is missing. 1874–76 (74. 5¼ in. pp.3 cm) The Cesnola Collection.  CXVI. 249). p. Still preserved on the top of the foot are two thongs that are attached between the big toe and the second toe. or fragments (cat. 327. figs. therefore. 1874–76 (74. Cat. the contour of which follows the outline of the foot.51. The lifesize right foot is shod with a sandal that covers the heel. Connelly 1988. 47–48. 181. Cat. pl. references  Unpublished. Connelly 1988. the others were sold in 1928. Cassimatis 1991. W. The laces are knotted under a central tongue. cat. This. no. 329. 104. various votive male figures. 53⁄16 in. 114.contents commentary  The cervids that surround the young man and the bird on his arm distinguish the statuette from Cat. V.a. but the toolmarks under the sole show that there was no plinth. 413. 186 Lifesize right foot Roman period White marble.57. Cat. cat. but probably that the young scribe performs a function that associates him closely with Apollo. (13.

however. very elongated body wears a long. 30 in.c. The features of the elongated. The small breasts are separated from each other. (The “paradise flower” is a stylized lotus. Anderson Galleries 1928. Cesnola 1885. document an ­evolution from flat. 187 Statuette of a female votary holding a “paradise flower” First half of the 6th century b..2541) description  The feet and the bottom of the garment were reattached some time after their discovery. Purchased by subscription. CI. Limestone H. very like the large terracottas from Idalion and Salamis (see Introduction). to veiled figures of the Hellenistic period. faintly smiling face are worn. 187–212) Female statues and statuettes are rare in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios—which was dedicated essentially to a male god—and therefore rare in the Cesnola Collection as a whole. are characterized by the wealth of the jewelry. (76. XC. pls.c. Kythrea. Florida. 343.contents catalogue chapter 2 Female Votaries Introduction (Cat. There are several interesting works said to come from Kourion. nos. Cat. stiff figures of the first part of the sixth century b. through adaptations of the Greek kore.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1263 The Cesnola Collection. see Yon 1974. and “Palaeo Castro.c. The works from the sixth and fifth centuries b. The right arm is bent and the hand holds a “paradise flower” against the abdomen. For this feature and the general evolution of the figures. 1874–76 (74. pleatless tunic that flares at the bottom. 187 . The works that remained in New York. 588.” near Pyla.) Around the neck are two necklaces of biconical beads and a central pendant. The ear caps consist of an upper scallop-shaped shell and two long hooked 160 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries cat. CVIII.1 They were sold in 1928 to the Ringling Museum in Sarasota. 328.2 notes 1.51. The flat. It is not certain that they belong. They are missing in the work of Doell. The chin is pointed. The left arm is held to the side of the body with hand closed. 2.

p. The back is flat.2 However. Cat. 98. The 1. 9. pl. 1874–76 (74. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing. p. no. XXXIV. references  Doell 1873. Limestone H. 14.c. 188 Upper part of a small female votary. p. pl. The breasts are visible under the pleatless garment.216. holding a vase Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. 61–62. Karageorghis 2000a. and a bead necklace remain. a triangular nose. 184.contents cat.160. 189 Upper part of a small female votary Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. description  The head. Hermary 1989a. 164. Gjerstad et al. pl. The hairstyle is Egyptianizing. unlike the statue from the Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. Karageorghis 2005. pl. Mylonas 2003. 666. commentary  The work reproduces a type well known from a group of statues found in the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Arsos. The hair is smooth and thick on the sides. Shefton 1989. The figure wears scallop-shelled ear caps and two rings on each earlobe. X.417) 2. Gedney Beatty. 20. The flat back has many toolmarks. The “paradise flower” is not an offering but suggests fertility and immortality. no. 53⁄16 in. p.8. nos. 187–212) 161 . a protruding chin. reference  Cesnola 1885. Cat. 188 cat. 61⁄16 in. 635. and schematic ears with scallop-shaped ear caps and rings. Cesnola 1885. 189 pendants. CLXXXV–CLXXXVII.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1012 The Cesnola Collection. fig. The thin face has a smiling expression. barely articulated eyes.2 cm) Bequest of W. Bol 2009. 7. description  The body above the abdomen remains. pls.c.1. I. these women hold an animal or a vase. pp. 634. references  Unpublished. 166. The left arm is bent and the hand holds a small vase. fig. 1937. R. V. left shoulder. stiff lips. (15.1 also attested on other sites in the region. The face has a smiling expression.51. (13. 21. 1941 (41. fig.2545) right arm is held to the side of the body. female votaries (cat. Limestone H.12. 6. J.

The face has a smiling expression. Limestone H.2521) description  The elongated flat body wears a long. 1874–76 (74. 162 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries There is a wide choker around the neck. 191 Cat. Around the neck is a bead necklace with a central pendant. 190 Statuette of a female votary holding a small object Second half of the 6th century b. 192 Statuette of a seated woman (from a chariot?) Second half of the 6th century b. Gedney Beatty. 191 Small female head with a plain headdress Second half of the 6th century b.51. (40. 1874–76 (74. and the lidless eyes are surmounted by thick eyebrows. (9. . 15⅞ in.c.419. the elongated eyes barely articulated. Cat. The features of the faintly smiling face are coarse. probably female. XXVI. “West of the temple” Myres 1007 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. There are red bands painted on the chest and on the sides. cat.51.415) description  The head. (11. 1941 (41. the lips are painted red.4 cm) “In a tomb at Amathus” Myres 1134 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. pleatless garment.c. The right arm is bent and the hand holds a small object. is a hole that could have once fitted a wheel. Purchased by subscription. The smooth hair falls to both sides. to the base of the neck. The left arm is held against the side of the body. remains. 190 Cat. pl. 3¾ in.2564) description  The figure.contents cat. is seated. She wears a long tunic with red paint on the sleeves and on the edge of the garment. The lower part of the seat is perforated transversely. pl. Purchased by subscription. the lips are painted red. her hands on the armrests. The face has a smiling expression.c. reference  Cesnola 1885.5 cm) “Found in the ruins of Idalium” Bequest of W. The back is flat and there are toolmarks.3 cm) From Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The ear caps are schematic. There are scallop-shaped ear caps and rings on the ears.66.160. The hair appears as rectangular units on the head and back. The hair is smooth. Limestone H. LXI. 4½ in. On the viewer’s left.

V. reference  Cesnola 1885. The nose is partially broken. 192 cat. The lowered left hand grasps the edge of the garment. Hermary 1981. The chin protrudes. references  Cesnola 1885. There are breaks on the right side.2820) description  At the base of the neck are the remains of two large necklaces. which would also be remarkable. There is a diadem on the hair and locks fall over the shoulders at the front. 1874–76 (74.41. 5⅞ in.2546) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. 193 Small statuette of a female votary. 202. 117⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.51. commentary  If the figure originally represented a woman seated in a chariot. A choker. Limestone H. and the mouth hints at a smile. that the statuette was reworked. no. the right hand rests on the chest. It is possible. The high-set eyebrows form an elongated arch.51.c. pl. Limestone H. 187–212) 163 . would have received the axle. (29 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1295 The Cesnola Collection. at the top of the seat.  LVII. A third hole is on the back. Purchased by subscription. The worn face has a smiling expression. are surmounted by a flat band. the type would be exceptional. which circles the neck.contents Another circular hole. however. Cat. consisting of biconical beads and two smaller ones.372. The three rows of corkscrew curls. The quite rudimentary statuette wears a chiton and a himation.c. interrupted by a small break. 193 female votaries (cat. cat. no. There is a mass of hair on the back. The slightly opened eyes are surrounded by carefully articulated eyelids. of kore type Last quarter of the 6th century b. The back is flat.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1011 The Cesnola Collection. three rings. Purchased by subscription. and two pendants. (14. perforated on the legs. There are red and black lines on the uprights. the cheekbones are prominent.  25. The top of the head is covered with crimped locks. consists of a complete row of beads and four others abutting a central plaque. The ear caps consist of a scallop shell with two rows of rectangular plaques. pl. 194 Lifesize head of a female votary Late 6th century b. Long curls fall to the sides. Cat. Karageorghis 2000a. and now filled. XX.

Limestone H. pl. part of the back is broken. 46. fig. 194 commentary  Large-size female heads are rare in this period. which is draped over both shoulders and drawn like a veil behind the head. no. 141 with fig.5. p.  155.537. The very worn face has a smiling expression. Richter 1949. She may have been paired with a male figure. to either side of a central part. p.249. 164 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries .51.  499. references  Doell 1873. The right hand held an object (a flower or a piece of fruit?) at the level of the chest.  267. 166. fig. the elaborate jewelry is traditional.  342. Purchased by subscription.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1132 The Cesnola Collection. There is a necklace consisting of large beads. description  The woman is seated on a high-backed chair with thick uprights. 101⁄16 in. The left hand held an object on the knees. p. Cesnola 1885. V. reference  Cesnola 1885. The chiton is almost entirely covered by a himation.  175.. Karageorghis 2005. Cesnola 1877. IX.2514) J. 1874–76 (74. Karageorghis 2000a. no. There are toolmarks on the uprights of the chair. 500. The hair. 308. 165. Richter 1968. (25.c. figs. p. no. Cat. pl. pl. There is no reason to think that she is a divine figure but rather a woman of high social status. The face reproduces one of various beardless male statues from the end of the Archaic period.contents cat. 195 Statuette of a seated female votary Late 6th century b. The surface is crinkled on the legs. XXXVIII.  LXXXII. covers the ears.

 7½ in. protrud- cat. 187–212) 165 . reference  Cesnola 1885.c. 196 Cat. CIX. of kore type Late 6th or early 5th century b. The locks on the forehead are thick.416) description  The face has a smiling expression.160. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. Limestone H. Gedney Beatty. (5. A himation is draped over the right shoulder. 25⁄16 in. 197 Small female head Early 5th century b. The right holds a flower or a piece of fruit against the abdomen. Limestone H. each decorated with a scallopshaped piece of jewelry. 197 ing eyes. The left leg is advanced. Purchased by subscription. pl. (19. A diadem painted red is set on the top of the smooth head and there is a mass of hair on the back. as is the mass that falls on the back. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. The lowered left hand grasps the edge of the chiton. and unarticulated ears. references  Unpublished. female votaries (cat. The hair on top of the head is smooth.8 cm) “From the ruins at Idalium” Bequest of W.51. 1941 (41. 196 Small statuette of a female votary.c.2547) description  The surface is pinkish. Cat. The features of the smiling face are coarse.1 cm) Myres 1081 The Cesnola Collection. The squared locks are surmounted by a diadem. 195 cat.732.

c. The head is circled by a double headband that extends to the very worn ears. no. The right one is broken. 1937. 2.2 1. However. distinguished by the hairstyle and jewelry from works of the sixth century b. Gjerstad et al. (32.2825) similar to that of the “kore from Vouni. and the top of the left shoulder remain. the head of a Hathor stele from Amathus.7 cm) From Lapethos Myres 1296 The Cesnola Collection. the necklace with a pendant. 198 Over-lifesize head of a female votary Early 5th century b.”1 as are the decorative elements: rosettes on the head and earrings. Hermary 1985. pl. pls. carelessly articulated.538. the head in New York has preserved the traditional ear caps. LXXXII. 16. references  Cesnola 1885. 285. Karageorghis 2003c. Purchased by subscription. Two rows of locks on the forehead form a thick mass in front of the very slanted ears. Compare also. 1874–76 (74. that are surmounted by long eyebrows. L–LIII. 198 166 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries . 198 Cat. no. Three beaded locks fall in front of the shoulders and are bound by a ribbon at the level of the necklace.51.contents cat. Gjerstad 1948. V. 12⅞ in. p. a protruding chin. it is decorated with rosettes. for the facial features and expression. each of which is decorated with a scallop shell on top and a rosette on the lobe. 230. commentary  This is one of the finest female heads from the end of the Archaic period. and elongated eyes. p.c. The top of the head is smooth. 115. The nose is broken. The face has a smiling expression. description  The neck. The face is cat. Limestone H. decorated with a necklace consist- ing of a pendant in high relief.

4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1080 The Cesnola Collection.51. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. 187–212) 167 .2530) description  The body is long and narrow and the feet are shod. The left arm is lowered. The back is flat and there are toolmarks.67. 12¾ in. XXVI. with red bands painted on the sides. reference  Cesnola 1885.2642) description  The bust of a small kore wears a pleated chiton and a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. and the eyelids are carefully articulated.3 cm) “Found in the ruins of Idalium” Myres 1082 The Cesnola Collection.437. the large nose is partially missing. Summarily represented ear caps and rings adorn each ear. pl. the right holds an open flower at the level of the chest. 200 Cat.c.51. pl. (32. (?) Limestone H. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. the left one is longer.c. cat. 199 Statuette of a female votary holding a flower Early 5th century b. Purchased by subscription.contents Cat. The face shows a faint smile and has lidless eyes. reference  Cesnola 1885. Around her neck is a large necklace with a central pendant and a choker with a pendant. 199 female votaries (cat. The hair falls to the sides. There are thick locks on the forehead beneath the sakkos decorated with a pointed leaf above the right ear. The facial expression is smiling. The body and the arms are covered by a pleatless garment. 200 Upper part of a small female votary Late 6th century b. (20. cat. LXVII. Above the locks on the forehead is a headband. 8 in. 1874–76 (74.

Purchased by subscription. Seven rosettes decorate the sakkos on the front. Limestone H. 19¾ in.c.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1083 The Cesnola Collection. is worn.2608) description  The head does not belong to the body. holds two. Purchased by subscription. 201 Statuette of a female votary holding pieces of fruit Middle or second half of the 5th century b. LXVII. Its surface is worn. 201 Cat. The right hand. (43. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. Above the thick curls on the forehead is a sakkos. Cat. there are a half-dozen round pieces of fruit. with a severe expression. Limestone H. pl. (50. 202 Statuette of a female votary holding a flower Late 5th or early 4th century b. The lower part of the legs is missing.contents cat. On the ears are ear caps consisting of a scallop shell and a circular earring.2643) . The hairstyle on the back is incompatible with the sakkos. On the back is a wide mass of hair that consists of three rows of superposed locks. 202 by the left hand. a bracelet on its wrist. The himation covers the legs and falls under the left arm.c.51. open at the top and showing crossed bands that hold the hair.439. The face. supported 168 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries cat. The right leg was to the side and bent.2 cm) “From the ruins of Idalium” Myres 1084 The Cesnola Collection. 17¼ in. The pleats are indicated by incisions and there are traces of red paint.51. At the level of the abdomen. 1874–76 (74. The woman wears a pleated chiton with elbow-length sleeves and a himation draped over the left shoulder. in the overfold of the fabric.

flat eyes and circular earrings. Masson 1961/1983. 187–212) 169 . (69.440. the head of which is missing. “in the year 3.  I. around the neck. whose body is very flat. Lines and dotted circles are well preserved on the back. pl.1. The figure wears a necklace with long pendants and. The woman.2303) cat.” references  Cesnola 1903.7 cm) Myres 1197 The Cesnola Collection. which hints at a smile. W. a choker with circles painted red. Cat. XLV. The inscription mentions the dedication of the statuette to Apollo(?). p. The child stands with the left leg slightly to the side and bent. The figure wears a long. (22 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1887 The Cesnola Collection. pl.51. pl. references  Unpublished. The back is not worked. 5⅛ in. 204 Plinth with a syllabic inscription and the feet of a female statuette (?) Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H.1. A diadem is set on the short hair. no. Above the full locks on the forehead is a sakkos decorated in red. references  Doell 1873.51. The lowered right hand holds a rounded object (a piece of fruit?) and the raised left hand clasps a bird. the right hand holds a flower at the level of the chest. Purchased by subscription. (13 cm). 204 female votaries (cat. wears a chiton and a himation that is draped over both shoulders. The lowered left hand grasps the garment. 203 description  Two sculpted toes stand on the viewer’s right edge of a fragmentary plinth. Purchased by subscription.contents description  The feet are missing. The face.3.  14. Cesnola 1885. The flat face has a severe expression. 811⁄16 in. cat. pl.2725) description  It is not certain that the head belongs. They are covered by a garment and are elevated on thick soles. LXVII. 1874–76 (74.  27. no. 1874–76 (74. Cat. 277⁄16 in. has large. 276.  CXXXII. pleated tunic with elbow-length sleeves and the feet are shod. 203 Statuette of a girl(?) holding a bird Early Hellenistic period Limestone H.

205 cat. 206 170 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries .contents cat.

three tassels fall to the hairline. The small mouth is closed. the right ear is worn.contents cat.660.”). commentary  Like the omission of a wreath for male figures. There is a fold of skin on the neck. no.4 cm) “From the ruins of Idalium” Myres 1330 The Cesnola Collection.2818) description  There is a long crack at the center of the face. 164. The veil covers the greater part of the head. p. references  Doell 1873.  X. The flat forehead is surmounted by wavy locks and a smooth headband. The nose is short. On the back.51.2807) description  The facial expression is smiling. The thick. the pupils of the small eyes are painted red. On the top of the head are wavy locks to either side of a central part. Connelly 1988.  544. 1874–76 (74. The eyes are asymmetrical within arched upper eyelids. CV. 9¾ in. as proposed by Joan Connelly (“mid–late first century b. but the expression hints at a smile. the surface of which is worn.2819) description  The head was turned slightly to its right. 163. pp. no. Cesnola 1885. (26. figs. (25. 81.5. and a long pendant is missing. There is an unusually deep hollow below the lower lip and at the corners of the mouth. Purchased by subscription. 187–212) 171 . 109⁄16 in. 52. The large eyes are set within full eyelids that are surmounted by very arching eyebrows. Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. The idealized face has delicate features and hints at a smile. The ears are partially covered by the locks that frame the face and are worn up over the sides.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1329 The Cesnola Collection. Cat. the absence of the veil could indicate a date at the end of the Hellenistic period. On the back is a small chignon.  47. 100. 206 Lifesize head of a female votary Late Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. The wavy curls on the forehead become full on the sides above the ears. references  Cesnola 1885. arched upper eyelids are surmounted by the long arch of the eyebrows. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. XCVII. The hair was painted red.683. pl. The head was perhaps turned toward its left. pl.681. (24. the ears schematic. The nose is partially broken. Another headband that passes under the locks is knotted on the front of the head. 1874–76 (74. the hair is gathered in a large chignon worn high. CV. There is a pendant on the left ear. pl. 207 Under-lifesize head of a veiled female votary Hellenistic period Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. A chignon projects on the back. A headband secures the chignon and extends back to form a support on the nape of the neck. 207 Cat. pl.51.c. female votaries (cat.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1328 The Cesnola Collection. On the top of the head are straight locks to either side of a central part.51. 10 in. They partly cover the flat headband. 205 Lifesize head of a female votary Hellenistic period Limestone H.

5. XI. pl.51. 209 Statuette of a female votary Hellenistic or Early Roman period Limestone H. Karageorghis 2000a. 75½ in. 208 Over-lifesize statue of a veiled female votary Late Hellenistic or Early Roman period Limestone H. but with a veil on the head. pl. 87.contents Cat. 16⅞ in. The face has a sullen expression. covers the abdomen and the thighs. J. The wavy locks are pulled back on the sides. flat neck. 89. no.51. Purchased by subscription. 166. At the level of the hip. with diagonal pleats. references  Cesnola 1885. 2.855. 1874–76 (74. like the “large Herculaneum Woman. On a statue in Nicosia. fig. draped over both shoulders. A necklace circles the lower part of the thick. of which the position of the hands was inspired by the “small Herculaneum Woman” type. Purchased by subscription. which is separated from the head by an incised line.”1 This rather commonplace type of representation could as well be a funerary as a votive statue. The right hand grasps the edge of the fabric. A himation.8 cm) “From the ruins of Golgoi” Myres 1404 The Cesnola Collection.3. 88. (191. Cat. 428. (42. p. the broken left hand held the panel of fabric that falls from the right shoulder to the left knee. stiff lips.2724) cat. The garment consists of a long chiton that covers the feet almost entirely and forms prominent folds between the legs.  CXVIII. The weight of the wide. a small girl stands against the woman. Vessberg 1956. 208 172 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries . figs. The lower part of the body is barely worked on the back. Smith 1991. and small eyes set close together. V. commentary  This large statue belongs to a group of works represented here by the statuettes Cat.2456) description  The left arm and adjacent part of the back are missing. Another panel of the himation. flat body rests on the right leg. Karageorghis 2005. 171. 211. the left leg is to the side and very slightly bent. Part of the veil is restored.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1247 The Cesnola Collection. 209. Both shoulders and the left foot are broken. 210. 1874–76 (74. IX. p.2 1. p. Vessberg 1956.  87. A restored pendant is attached to each ear. pl. extends like a veil over the back of the head and covers the bent right arm.

 CXX. The lowered left hand is concealed under the garment. The lowered left hand holds an object. 210 Statuette of a female votary Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H. There are toolmarks on the back. There is a pendant on each ear.2730) description  The left foot is clearly to the side. 187–212) 173 .51.990. 209 description  There are small breaks on the plinth and the face. XVI. The very large right hand grasps the edge of the fabric at the level of the chest. The figure is covered with a thick chiton that falls to the feet and with a himation that is pulled up like a veil behind the head. 210 Myres 1248 The Cesnola Collection. CXXXIV. The woman wears a long chiton and a himation that extends like a veil behind the head and also covers the bent right arm. pl.  208. pl. The type is derived from the “large Herculaneum Woman” (see Cat. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. reference  Cesnola 1885. The facial features are barely roughed out. the nose is broken.3.contents cat. Commentary). Cesnola 1885. There is a pendant on each ear and wavy locks on the forehead.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios cat. Purchased by subscription. The locks on the forehead are pulled back on either side of a central part. 1874–76 (74. p. (58. 231⁄16 in. which is not otherwise worked.870. The facial expression is smiling. 301. The right hand holds the edge of the fabric that falls in front of the left shoulder. female votaries (cat. Cat. pl. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882.

no. and cat. The stiff.2709) description  The left leg is to one side and slightly bent. (29. (46. with its serious expression.  81. 211 part of the left eye are restored. the edges of which are sharp. Commentary). figs.contents Cat.  CV. The woman wears a long. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. 174 catalogue chapter 2 female votaries . The face. is in large part destroyed.682. the hair is separated by a central part. 18¼ in.991. The protruding eyelids. is farther forward on the left side. pl. The type is derived from the “large Herculaneum Woman” (see Cat. On the head.51. suggesting that the garment was being grasped by the hand.51.2 cm) From Salamis Myres 1322 The Cesnola Collection. The slightly narrowed orbs of the deep-set eyes are painted red. The back is flat. pl. The lowered left hand holds an object that ends in two small balls. partially covering a flat headband painted red. The right hand grasps the edge of the fabric that falls in front of the left shoulder. 161. 212 Lifesize head of a veiled female votary Late Hellenistic or Early Roman period Limestone H. 211 Statuette of a female votary Hellenistic or Early Roman period Limestone H. part of the nose. From the concealed left ear hangs an earring consisting of a disk and a pendant. 99. 11½ in. coarsely pleated chiton and a himation that extends like a veil behind the head and also covers the bent right arm. references  Cesnola 1885. There are folds of skin on the neck: two Venus rings.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1249 The Cesnola Collection. are surmounted by the elongated arch of the eyebrows. The bare forehead is surrounded by wavy locks that are pulled back on the sides. 1874–76 (74. The veil. which covers the chignon. half-open mouth is carefully articulated and hints at a smile. 208. Connelly 1988. 162. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. CXXXIV. 51. pp.2812) description  The front of the veil. Cat.

187–212) 175 .contents cat. 212 female votaries (cat.

She wears a long garment. 123. no. Even though no particular attribute characterizes the woman in the large majority of cases. See Hadzisteliou Price 1978. no. 22. CCXIV. 419–29: a dozen examples. Purchased by subscription. pl. Nick 2006. 2.6 Cat. The small groups found on Cyprus never show the woman nursing the child. others from a sanctuary situated in the city.c. She rests her right hand on her right knee. XXXVIII. Around her neck is a necklace with a large pendant. the edges of which are painted red. On her knees she holds a large child wearing a long tunic. CCXIV. CCVIII. Ibid. notes 1. cat. 3. and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1125 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. one is tempted not to see a mortal mother holding her child. pp.2528) description  The head of the woman.4 On several statuettes that are probably not earlier than the Hellenistic period. excavated in 1865.5 Although the head is missing. 213 176 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures . see also Koiner 2007. 5. pp. growth. in Greece. pp. with an interpretation “possibly Cybele and Attis” that is to be discarded. The massive body of the woman occupies a seat with a back and armrests. Hermary 1989a. The dedication to Demeter found at Ayios Photios (see the Introduction) makes clear the presence of offerings of this type in the sanctuary. Her bare feet rest on a small plinth. Hermary 1989a. watch over the health. A certain number of these kourotrophoi come from Idalion. 213–221) Statuettes showing a seated woman holding a child on her knees were produced in large numbers on Cyprus between the sixth century b. from the region of Golgoi-Idalion. 222–27. and education of the young. is probably also identified by her hairstyle as a divinity. nos. (12. Vermaseren 1982. but rather a divinity taking the newborn under her protection.3 but the series from Golgoi is particularly important.contents catalogue chapter 3 Special Series of Votive Figures Statuettes of Women Nursing (Kourotrophoi) (Cat. 6.251. like the Nymphs in the Greek world. it could be a goddess of lesser status. 55. the woman wears a crown that confirms her divine nature.1 The established type in Cypriot sculpture is that of a veiled woman holding on her lap an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes with the head covered by a hood. 68. This divinity is not necessarily the Great Goddess of Cyprus herself. Some were originally from the sanctuary of Ayios Photios.51. 226. 695–720. unlike an example of Cypriot craftsmanship found at Naucratis2 that very likely makes the connection with the Egyptian goddess Isis nursing little Horus.c. that of the child. The row of red dots on the upper chest of the child could indicate the necklace of a little girl. 419–39. reference  Cesnola 1885.. therefore. 897–899. pp. 28 examples. Limestone H. 213 Seated kourotrophos Second half of the 6th century b. They were given the name kourotrophoi after other representations of women carrying a child and in reference to the divinities that. p. pl. who protects two children. 4. and the top of the chair back are missing. An important group of statuettes of kourotrophoi in Istanbul very likely comes from the Cesnola Collection. 5 in. nos. 719. 221. the woman in the group Cat. see also Vermaseren 1982. pls. pl.

The woman occupies a seat with a high back. 1874–76 (74. 613⁄16 in.2522) description  There are breaks on the right of the seat back description  The woman occupies a seat with a partially and on the left armrest. There are locks on the forehead under the veil. 7⅛ in. broken back and armrests. (18. 214 Seated kourotrophos Second half of the 6th century b. Purchased by subscription. She wears a long tunic. The features of the round face are coarse.394. The baby wears a hood. pl.2526) Cat. The right hand of the woman rests on the child’s knees.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1126 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. the ear caps are schematic. covers the arms and falls over the legs. high-set breasts frame the very large central pendant of a bead necklace. Limestone H.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1124 The Cesnola Collection. and the hair smooth. Her right hand rests on the child’s knees. 214 cat.51. (17. Her small. There is a bracelet on the right wrist and a necklace at the base of the neck. statuettes of women nursing (kourotrophoi) (cat. which extends over her head like a veil. 215 Cat. The himation. Limestone H. the edge is painted red. 213–221) 177 . reference  Cesnola 1885. LVII. Purchased by subscription.contents cat. On her knees she holds a swaddled baby whose face is very damaged. pl. the ends of which have a flat top and armrests.247. XXXVIII.51.c. The face has a smiling expression. On her knees she holds a small baby who wears a hood. 215 Seated kourotrophos Late 6th century b. 1874–76 (74.c. Her bare feet rest on a small plinth. She wears a chiton painted red on her chest.

The top of the child’s head is missing. reference  Doell 1873.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1130 The Cesnola Collection.2510) cat.51. Limestone H. The woman’s chiton shows horizontal folds on the chest and a crinkled texture over the legs. 1874–76 (74.c. 217 description  The group is flat.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1128 The Cesnola Collection. whose body is of a piece with hers. (18. references  Unpublished. 218 .8 cm) Myres 1127 The Cesnola Collection. 77⁄16 in.16.51. Cat. 178 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures cat.contents cat. 77⁄16 in. She rests her right hand on the child’s knees. pl. There are breaks on the top of the seat back. VII. pl. and armrests.2512) description  The group is very flat. Cat. Limestone H. pp. The woman occupies a seat with a partially broken back and armrests.c. (15. She wears a long garment forming a veil over her head. On her knees she holds a baby. broken on the top. Purchased by subscription. He has locks on his forehead.2527) description  The woman occupies a seat with a back. 217 Seated kourotrophos Late 6th or early 5th century b. 207. 218 Seated kourotrophos Second half of the 5th century b. The woman wears a long garment with traces of red paint. 1874–76 (74. She holds a baby. LVII. 216 Seated kourotrophos Late 6th or early 5th century b. Purchased by subscription. 63⁄16 in. 216 Cat. swaddled and hooded. The facial features are worn.51. wearing a hood. 1874–76 (74. The features of the smiling face are asymmetrical. forming a veil over her head. On her knees she holds a baby. Limestone H. reference  Cesnola 1885. 43–44. no. Purchased by subscription. wearing a hood. The woman occupies a seat with a back and armrests.398. (18. whose body is of a piece with hers. A himation covers the arms and sides and extends like a veil over her head. whose raised head is smiling. There are many traces of red paint.c.

There may be a wreath on the top of the head. 59⁄16 in. On her knees she holds a baby wearing a hood.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1131 The Cesnola Collection. The woman occupies description  The group is flat. Purchased by subscription.2559) description  The group is very flat. reference  Cesnola 1885. The checkered pattern of the back is painted red and the upper right corner is broken. The features of the smiling face are only roughed out. LVII. the edges of which are painted red. The a seat with a back and armrests. 220 Cat. Purchased by subscription.396. pleated chiton and a himation that extends like a veil over her head. She wears a chiton and a himation.c. 220 Seated kourotrophos 4th century b. woman occupies a seat with a back and armrests.contents cat. (22.51. LVII. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74.2520) Cat.395. statuettes of women nursing (kourotrophoi) (cat. Her right hand rests on the child’s knees. it extends over her head like a veil.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1129 The Cesnola Collection. The upper part of the back is broken. (?) Limestone H. the surface worn.51. 219 cat.c. (14. pl. On her knees she holds a baby whose body is elongated. reference  Cesnola 1885. 9 in. 219 Seated kourotrophos Second half of the 5th century b. 213–221) 179 . pl. She wears a long.

c. A long lock falls on either side of the chest. a good-sized baby wears a chiton that reaches to the knees. 221 Seated kourotrophos with another child standing 4th century b. the right one of which is to the side and slightly advanced. The head of the woman and that of the baby are missing. LXVI. Moreover. The woman occupies a wide seat. There is a bracelet on the right wrist. Its right hand rests on the left breast of the woman. Near the right leg of the woman stands another child. that the two children are placed here under the protection of the goddess. Purchased by subscription. One can surmise. and most of the legs.51. the garment. Limestone H.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1237 The Cesnola Collection. 16½ in. She wears a chiton with traces of red paint. A thick cushion is placed under her buttocks and there is a stool under her feet. (41. of which only the right profiled leg and the crosspieces remain. and the gesture of the child lying on the knees of the woman indicate that the figure is not a baby. 1874–76 (74. An unpublished statuette in Berlin shows four children associated with the woman.436. Lying on her knees. reference  Cesnola 1885. . There is red paint on the garments. the long locks of the woman probably indicate that she is not a mortal.contents cat. who wears a long chiton and a himation. but the interior of the seat is hollowed out and the mortise is modern. commentary  The size. The mid-length hair worn full around the neck suggests that the child is a little girl. 221 Cat. therefore. It is mostly covered by a himation that 180 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures extends like a veil over the head and covers the left shoulder and arm.2712) description  The figural group is solid. pl.

that recalls terracottas in the style of Salamis. See. 1874–76 (74. commentary  Aulos players are rarely female in Cypriot sculpture. Limestone H. 222 Upper part of a statuette of a female aulos player First quarter of the 6th century b. Cy6. the aulos (double flute). The woman holds in each hand a reed of the aulos that she plays. Each ear is covered by a shell and two rings are attached to each lobe.1 cm) Found “in the ruins of a temple at Amathus” Myres 1027 The Cesnola Collection.3 These comparisons offer a good chronological point of reference. nos.46. The main instruments were the lyre or the kithara. 491. the aulos and tambourine are rarely represented after the Archaic period. T600. cat. The identification of the god of Ayios Photios with Apollo explains the success of the stringed instrument. p. G. but probably only painted. 491). male and female (cat. The nose is very hooked and the orbs of the eyes are bulbous. 1. 222–234) 181 . however. no. Hermary 1989a. The head is surrounded by a headband knotted at the back. The findspot given by Cesnola is problematic because sculptures in soft limestone are practically unknown at Amathus before the fifth century b.1 but women play this role on metal bowls2 and. The strap that holds the pipes of the aulos (phorbeia) was not represented in relief. The quality and the originality of this work are reflected in the treatment of the hairstyle. 41.c. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893. 6¾ in. which is traditionally associated with him in the Greek world. 790. Purchased by subscription. 222 musicians. 222) and the tambourine is almost exclusively a woman’s. 71. references  Cesnola 1885. 222–234) As in all ancient civilizations. As on Samos. Aulos (Double Flute) Players Cat. Cat. no. pl. Cy3. Markoe 1985. 23. Unlike the lyre or kithara. (17. no.c. CCXIV. the aulos is more a man’s instrument (despite Cat.51. If one relies on the images of musicians in sculpture.11. they enliven banquet scenes (see the Golgoi sarcophagus. p. carefully represented on the back. The hair forms a mass on the back that entirely covers the shoulders and falls to the front in braided locks. as in Greek art. Male and Female (Cat.contents Musicians. 2. 3. pl. pl.  XXI. Hermary 1981. music occupied an important role in religious rituals.2532) description  The lower half of the body is missing and the surface is damaged. Schmidt 1968. and the tambourine.

who wears a short-sleeved tunic. (16. p. is disproportionately wide and flat in the front. XIII. holds in each hand a reed of the instrument that he plays. 1874–76 (74.  12. reference  Cesnola 1885. Cat. 141. 126.c. pl. 1874–76 (74. fig. Purchased by subscription. The head is tossed back. Bittel 1963. Cesnola 1885. The space between the reeds is solid. 224 Golgoi–Ayios Photios. It is probable that they belonged to the same votive group. 15¾ in. 232 are stylistically comparable.15. the eyes barely roughed out. no. 223 Cat. The horizontal band of the phorbeia is indicated in relief. the back rounded. The nose is flattened. . 52. Limestone H.2519) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. dressed in a smooth tunic.  4.contents cat. 223 Statuette of a male aulos player First half of the 6th century b. Karageorghis 2000a.49. Bélis 1986.51. The body. “West of the temple” Myres 1264 The Cesnola Collection. p. Two rings probably were attached to each earlobe. 19. is preserved. no. Karageorghis 2006. A long tenon is left in place on the upper chest in order to consolidate the instrument. V. p. XXI. fig.c. 199. Limestone H. 6⅝ in.  5. There is a small restoration on the head. II. no. The figure. from the waist up. 224 Upper part of a statuette of a male aulos player Second quarter of the 6th century b. Purchased by subscription. The nose is broken. fig. pl. the wide-open eyes are surmounted by low-set eyebrows.5. references  Doell 1873. The hair is smooth. commentary  This work and the lyre player Cat. The hands lift the instrument.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1025 The Cesnola Collection. The arms are thin and the flat body is barely roughed out on the back. (40 cm) 182 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures cat. pl.51.2517) description  Only the upper part of the body. the phorbeia is indicated in relief. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing. V.  205.

458. The face is thin but deep. Only the top of the aulos remains.2871) Cat. but the locks of hair are not indicated. 10½ in. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. no.3. (26. 60. There is the beginning of a central part. 197. pl. Limestone H. the left ear is broken. Purchased by subscription. The figure wears a long. The two vertical straps of the phorbeia were painted red. Two rings adorn each lobe of the long ears.  II. Karageorghis 2000a. 225 Under-lifesize head of a male aulos player Second quarter of the 6th century b. (?) Limestone H. pl. pl.contents cat. There are traces of red paint. There are traces of red color.51.51. Purchased by subscription.c. no. Cesnola 1885. XXI. 1874–76 (74. p. LXXI. The phorbeia was only painted. 226 Statuette of a male aulos player Second quarter of the 6th century b. 140. 5.3. 226 Cat. The arms are long and thin. references  Doell 1873. 6⅝ in. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing. male and female (cat. musicians.42. fig. V.  54. pl. (16.8 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. reference  Cesnola 1885. 225 cat.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1024 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. the nose description  The asymmetrical body of the figure stands restored. pleatless tunic and holds in each hand a reed of his very long aulos. no. Mylonas 2003. The bulbous orbs of the asymmetrical eyes are surmounted by thick eyebrows.  20. Karageorghis 2006. The horizontal band that holds the reeds on the mouthpiece (phorbeia) is indicated in relief.c. p. “West of the temple” Myres 1278 The Cesnola Collection. barefoot. V. 222–234) 183 .2508) description  The back of the head is missing. on a slanting plinth. The ears are elongated and smooth. 125.

The hair is divided by the beginning of a central part. the eyes bulbous. The head wears a wreath of overlapping leaves. XXI. Cat.2531) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1028 The Cesnola Collection. XXI. 2⅜ in. The back is not worked and there are toolmarks. (20.2614) description  The surface is worn.c.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1026 The Cesnola Collection.51. pl.47.43. Only the top of the reeds and the phorbeia in relief remain. Purchased by subscription. 227 Cat. painted black. 227 Upper part of a statuette of a male aulos player Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. The hair. The instrument is missing. The thin. (6 cm) cat.51. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. Each hand holds a reed of the instrument. elongated face is damaged. Three locks of hair fall on the front of each shoulder. as well as the points where the hands were attached to the chest. 1874–76 (74. The facial features are barely elaborated.contents cat. Limestone H. is pulled back and the locks fall forward. 228 184 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures . 228 Upper part of a small male aulos player Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. 81⁄16 in. reference  Cesnola 1885. A kind of baldric hangs from the left shoulder.c. reference  Cesnola 1885. the nose is large. 1874–76 (74. pl. description  The head and the upper part of the torso remain. The surface of the torso is smooth.

The forms of the body are roughed out on the back.48. 229 cat.44.c. The worn hands hold the reeds of the aulos. and holds in each hand the reed of a large aulos. XXI.2537) description  The lower part of the legs is missing. Above the curls on the forehead is a wreath of leaves. 13⅝ in.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1023 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. The feet are shod mouth. 1874–76 (74. The hair falls in tresses on the shoulders and is smooth on the back.51. Limestone H. draped over the left shoulder. 229 Statuette of a male aulos player Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. the crimped locks are combed transversely in Samian style. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885.2534) Cat. and painted red. Straight locks cover the head and form a rounded mass on the nape of the neck. and the aulos have been restored. pl. XXI. The nose is missing. male and female (cat. 1874–76 (74. wears a chiton and a himation. reference  Cesnola 1885. The figure. where the forms of the body are barely worked. The description  The left leg is advanced. turned slightly to his left. the lower end of which is attached to the abdomen. 230 Cat. the phorbeia of which is indicated in low relief. 222–234) 185 . There is a row of small curls on the forehead. Purchased by subscription. At the front and on the top of the head. (34. 9⅜ in. 230 Statuette of a male aulos player Late 6th or early 5th century b. the elongated eyes are lidless. musicians. the nose.51. that has stacked pleats at the center. The figure wears a chiton and a himation. Limestone H.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1070 The Cesnola Collection.c. Purchased by subscription. the large ears smooth. (23. draped over the left shoulder.

is covered by a pleatless garment. The figure wears a short-sleeved tunic and holds a large lyre against his left side. such as those from a flat chisel. (45.  XII. 231 Statuette of a female tambourine player Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. no. 123. The tambourine is held perpendicularly against the torso.  20.  57. Limestone H. Cesnola 1885. The right hand holds a small plectrum against the strings. no. as if she were playing. The body is flat and the back shows toolmarks. on a small. Karageorghis 2006. the thin eyebrows low-set. the bulbous eyes are wide open. 1874–76 (74. The facial expression is faintly smiling.contents Tambourine Player Cat. Limestone H. 231 The back of the lyre. Purchased by subscription. Karageorghis 2000a. Cesnola 1885. (45. “West of the temple” Myres 1265 The Cesnola Collection. no.2509) description  Only the upper body. 198.51.2. remains. with long hair on the back. 1874–76 (74. references  Doell 1873. p.208. Bittel 1963. Purchased by subscription. Two hoops are attached to the lobe of each ear. 186 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures .  20. 138. very elongated body. 1713⁄16 in. references  Doell 1873.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1006 The Cesnola Collection. fig. XXXII. Large. 224. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing.51.c. straight locks cover the head. pl.  II. She stands.c. 6. barefoot. fig. the shoulders of which are asymmetrical. V. p. Schematic shellshaped ear caps cover the ears. Lyre Players Cat. p. the left wrist. The arm of the lyre consists of a corolla and the stem of a plant surmounted by the head of a lion. pl. above the hips. no. She wears a bead necklace with a central pendant. commentary  See Cat.  58. the traces of which are more or less elongated. and a part of the nose are missing.2502) description  The flat. 1713⁄16 in. slanted plinth. V. The elongated face has a smiling expression. 232 Upper part of a male lyre player Second quarter of the 6th century b. cat.2 cm) Golgoi–Ayios Photios. pl. 13.14.

The right hand. The head has a faintly smiling expression. on each earlobe.2641) description  It is doubtful that the head belongs. 232 Cat. draped over the left shoulder. shell-shaped ear caps. Most of the legs and the upper part of the instrument are missing. 222–234) 187 . 1874–76 (74.441. the right earring is broken. 14⅛ in. the arms and strings of which are summarily indicated. a bracelet on the wrist. that covers the lower part of the body and falls over the left arm with incised folds. flat eyes. 233 musicians. reference  Cesnola 1885. male and female (cat. The locks on the forehead are lozenge-shaped and there is a sakkos. 233 Statuette of a female lyre player Late 5th or early 4th century Limestone H. cat.contents cat. (35. The woman wears a lightly pleated chiton and a himation. Purchased by subscription.51. and. pl. holds the plectrum close to the strings. an earring with a disk and a pendant. There are traces of red paint on the garment and the instrument and toolmarks on the back. The left arm holds a large lyre. LXVII.9 cm) From Idalion Myres 1085 The Cesnola Collection.

is clearly to the side. Another panel of fabric falls from the right shoulder and covers the hips and thighs. a bracelet on each wrist. The back of the sculpture is broken following a cleft in the stone. Hermary 2000a. 490. and the left foot are missing. 129–31. 239—and in the palace at Amathus.contents description  The head. fig. The right hand is lowered.1 1. CII. which are not indicated. Karageorghis 1995. 1874–76 (74. with the Commentary).  169. commentary  This work is distinguished by its size and the quality of execution.c. rest on the strings. no. Limestone H.2480) 188 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures notes 1. the upper part is missing and the arms show vegetal decoration. as on the Amathus and Golgoi sarcophagi (Cat. V.3 cat. Cesnola 1885. pl. The right arm of the lyre seems to be held by a strap that joins the belt.c. 61–128. Horses. From the end of the Archaic period. (86. Pryce 1931. The most important groups were discovered in the sanctuaries of male gods from the center of the island.51. Cat. it expresses the social rank and power exercised by a dignitary. The image of the figure in the chariot is connected initially with war or with military functions. Horsemen.676. with a ring on the ring finger. 2. Cesnola 1877. but also in that of Apollo Hylates at Kourion2—which confirms the findspot given for the group Cat. Both of the large hands. the left one raised. Chariots (Cat.3. 235–241) Representations of horsemen and figures in chariots made of limestone are fewer in number than those in terracotta sculpture. The woman holds a rectangular lyre transversely. 6 in. slightly bent. 3. 235 Upper part of a warrior from a chariot group First half of the 6th century b. 154. Purchased by subscription. 234 Under-lifesize statue of a female lyre player Hellenistic period Limestone H. pl.  35. no. 3315⁄16 in. The woman wears a chiton with short sleeves that are buttoned and with thick pleats over the chest and the lower legs. p. with an incorrect findspot. pp. (15. pp.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios . and hardly lasts beyond the fifth century  b. The left leg.c. Hermary 1996. 491. the left arm.1 Their production begins toward the middle of the sixth century  b. p. A strap passes over the right shoulder. Compare a bust found in the region of Larnaca. 234 Cat.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1238 The Cesnola Collection. C352. references  Doell 1873.  VI.

235 Myres 1019 The Cesnola Collection. His male genitalia are shown. the findspot of which is unknown. The left hand held the reins. On his back is a large round shield. left forearm of the horseman are missing. His face is summarily rendered. The horseman. references  Cesnola 1885. (30. pl.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1014 The Cesnola Collection.2. 236 horses. this rider Cat. On his head is a headdress consisting of a thick headband attached by a strap under the chin. The chest is protected by a pectoral with four tassels. who wears a short tunic. the right one was raised. commentary  The position of the horseman’s legs is comparable to that of a horseman in the Cyprus Museum. and the elongated eyes surmounted by thick. 7½ in. (?) Limestone H. 236 Small horse with a rider Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b.4. pl.  LXXX. On the nape of the neck is a mass of hair with zigzag incisions.contents Cat. 236 is one of the earliest representations of a horseman in Cypriot sculpture.2681) description  The legs of the horse. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.51. chariots (cat.51. In any case. XXIV.393.1 but the “helmet” seems unique. The very elongated body of the horse was not held up by a support under its belly. 235–241) 189 .512. pl. (19. high-set eyebrows. the nose broken.c. LVII. horsemen. the mouth stiff. cat. XXV. pl.1 cm). Crouwel and TattonBrown 1988. 12 in. The horse was painted red. 1. The harness of the horse is indicated in relief. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. The facial expression is severe. and the cat. the right arm.2569) description  The figure has a long beard divided into straight strands and wears a helmet with the cheekpieces lowered and the straps falling on the chest. has bent legs. L. Crouwel and Tatton-Brown 1988.

 4⅛ in.  LXXX. It is awkwardly derived from GrecoPersian art. Points of attachment on the croup and on the left shoulder. pl. references  Cesnola 1885. pl. 238 Small horse with a rider hunting a lion Second half of the 5th or 4th century b.c. The findspot of the work is doubtful. A collar of tassels circles the neck. 1874–76 (74.5 cat. or even from representations of Macedonian hunts such as those of Philip’s tomb at Vergina. Limestone H. commentary  This depiction of a lion hunt on horseback is unique in Cypriot art. He wears a short tunic with lines painted red. Cat. 6¼ in.9 cm) “From a tomb at Tamassos” Myres 1013 The Cesnola Collection. Crouwel and TattonBrown 1988. Only the lower part of the horseman remains. The harness is indicated in relief.6 cm) “From a temple at Kythrea” Myres 1015 The Cesnola Collection. There is red paint on the edge of the plinth.5 cm). 84.c. Crouwel and TattonBrown 1988. L. XXV. the mane of which is blue-green. if one admits a late date for this clumsy Cypriot sculpture. Purchased by subscription.4. The horse’s forelegs rest on the lion. The wavy strands of the mane are widely spread. 1874–76 (74. Limestone H. cat.51. 237 Cat. XXV. riderless 5th century b. pl.2609) description  The horse is held up by a large support under his belly. The detailed harness is shown in relief. 237 Small bridled horse. L. p. 8½ in. pl. Seated on a red saddlecloth with a zigzag border. he attacks with his spear a very small lion. (10.  LXXX. references  Cesnola 1885. 238 190 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures .contents There is red paint on the horse’s head. Purchased by subscription.511.2581) description  The presence of a saddlecloth with a zigzag border indicates that the horse was intended to be ridden.51. (15. and the mane suggest that two figures stood near the animal. His tail falls to the plinth.1 cm). (21. (17.519. 6¾ in.

  LXXX. horses. 239 Cat. 235–241) 191 . (15. pp. Limestone H. The chariot. (18. divided into two compartments. 45. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1017 The Cesnola Collection. makes the gesture of holding the reins. 6⅛ in. The other hand rests on the car of the chariot. 220.9 cm). is drawn by two small horses. commentary  This type of representation is well attested in the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates and the head of the figures is in the same style as that of several examples from the same findspot. 2 n. fig. 10.2687) description  Except for the wheels.1.520. Hermary 1996. 107. p. 107. fig. no. There are small restorations on different parts of the horses and chariot. V. The heads of the figures have been reattached. Karageorghis 2000a. p.c. The passenger also wears a headband. 6¼ in. p. There are traces of yellow paint on the fragmentary head of the horse on the left and of red paint on the harness.4 cm). pl. p. 236. the top of the mane forms a tuft. 7¼ in. L. XXXVI. a short beard. with eight spokes painted red. The driver. Crouwel 1987. Littauer and Crouwel 1977. W. chariots (cat. 146–47.6 cm) From Kourion.”1 The horses wear blinkers and a tassel on the chest. 239 Model of a chariot with two horses First half of the 5th century b. They were worked separately and are now attached with a piece of wood. He wears a long tunic. pl.1–2.  44. who stands to the right in the chariot. Crouwel 1987. pl. (15. pl. no. Karageorghis 2006. formed of two timbers. 1. one from each corner of the vehicle which come together to run contiguously out to the two-horse yoke.51.  147. Purchased by subscription. but they very probably belong. The wheels are solid. V. 2.2 1. the figural group is of a piece with the plinth. horsemen.contents cat.  353. references  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. Hermary 1996. and a band around his head. They are attached by “the so-called Y-pole. He is a bearded dignitary whose right arm is bent under the garment.

the edge of which is incised in front. pl. XXIX. The one on the viewer’s left is smaller and wears a long crinkled tunic that designates him as a child. whereas the rest is painted red. The car of the chariot is partially covered by a piece of fabric.6 cm). 1874–76 (74.51. are attached two by two. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. p. (21. One would expect him to be bearded. pl. L. 192 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures reference  Cesnola 1885. Mylonas 2003. with six spokes in low relief.6 cm) Unknown provenance Myres 1016 The Cesnola Collection. solid. 1874–76 (74. pressed one against the other. is probably a dignitary. 241 Chariot wheel Probably 5th century b. (8.  67.c.c.5. The two figures rest their hands on the edge of the car.2845) Cat. references  Crouwel 1987. 240 cat. The small horses. It is The group forms a compact unit. The other. (20. Neither appears to hold the reins. . 241 Cat. There are traces of red paint. Purchased by subscription. 8½ in. 8⅛ in. 37⁄16 in. description  The wheel of the chariot is quite large. Their harness is indicated clumsily in relief.3. Limestone D.contents cat. taller figure.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1018 The Cesnola Collection.51. 7. who wears a long chiton and a himation with U-shaped folds on the back.2691) description  It is uncertain that the two heads belong. 240 Model of a chariot with four horses and two figures Second half of the 5th or 4th century b. pl.198.  XXXVI.

  242 is the most detailed of the series in the round. V.  156. 242–246) 193 . fig. 242 the cushion is a hollow. fig. Purchased by subscription. as here.  S13. A woman. V. references  Cesnola 1885. The awkwardly rendered body is disproportionate in relation to the head. b) description  The male figure (a) reclines to the right on a couch and brings both hands to his mouth.1 but the theme of the banquet with reclining figures is known much earlier on Cyprus from bowls in precious metals. 32–33. notes 1. covered by a garment. 491).51. Cat. p. 478. There are many traces of red paint. Limestone H. has been removed. (18 cm). Geneleos group: Boardman 1978. of plinth 97⁄16 in. 483). 91–93. 242 banqueters (cat. Rolley 1994a. Her facial expression is smiling. no. The standing female statuette (b). fig. pl. and feet only remain.  201. Karageorghis 2006. pp. L. The face is very worn. whose lower legs. figs. Karageorghis 2000a. (24 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1142 The Cesnola Collection. 71⁄16 in.  127. 307. The legs are placed one behind the other and the body is covered by a long garment on which there are traces of red paint. 480. V.c. There are small-size groups in the round known to come from tombs and. cat. 29.492. 242–246) Images of figures participating at a banquet are frequent on funerary reliefs (Cat. 242 Small group of a male banqueter and a woman Second half of the 6th century b. which had been attached there. sat on the man’s legs. 152. no. 167. In front of cat. 2. He holds a vase (or plays the aulos?). She wears a pleatless tunic and a necklace and holds a flower in her right hand against her chest. no. no. The group Cat. Dentzer 1982. from places of worship. Karageorghis 2000a.contents Banqueters (Cat. 1874–76 (74.2504a.  LXXVII. probably for the placement of an object. 481.2 Its most developed expression is found on the Golgoi sarcophagus (Cat. Ionian sculpture probably served as a model for these statuettes.  477.

Karageorghis 2006.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1143 The Cesnola Collection. covered by a long garment. 17½ in. The join of the hair on the back is not satisfactory. V. The figure at the center reclines by himself. p. (44. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. The man places his hand behind her back.contents cat. and long hair on the back. no. They each wear a helmet. p. The body. no. (27 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1020 The Cesnola Collection. appears to wear a pleatless garment. . red lips. indicating that there was another figure on the right. 1874–76 (74.5 cm). Three banqueting couches surround a space in which a rectangular mortise 6 × 4 cm has been hollowed out for the insertion of an object. S18. fig. 156.432. 585. A foot rests on the plinth behind him. On the back. They are bearded. (15. The delicate face has a smiling expression. 6⅞ in. the right arm is missing. Purchased by subscription. L. knotted strap frames an oval object (?). 398. 244 Small male banqueter Late 6th or early 5th century b.51. reclining and leaning on their left arms. 125. Only the banqueter on the left is not smiling. Dentzer 1982. The left hand rests on the cushion. references  Cesnola 1885. 156. figs. (head) Limestone H. Dentzer 1982. 124.51. p. figs. fig. pl. S3. Karageorghis 2000a. The hand held an object. 154. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. references  Cesnola 1885. 129–132. no. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. W. The other woman. 10⅝ in. no. fig. The legs are crossed. The male banqueters. helmeted head probably does not belong to the body. that of the central figure is crinkled. the lowered cheekpieces of which cover the ears of the banqueters on the right and at the center. The heads of the women. its point of attachment remains on the upper chest. have been removed. 203. the beard of the figure on the left is short. which didn’t belong. that of the man on the left appears earlier in date. V. L.5 cm). p.493. (13 cm). is awkwardly rendered. of which only the lower 194 catalogue chapter 3 special series of votive figures part of the body remains. 5⅛ in. 243 Small banquet scene (fragmentary) Probably late 6th century Limestone H. pl. (17. 6¼ in. There is red paint on the garment and the cushion.2542) description  The beardless. 243 Cat. locks on the forehead that show beneath the conical cap without flaps. 585. Cat. A small woman is seated at the feet of the two others. 169. 397.  LXXVII. The woman on the viewer’s right is dressed in the manner of late Archaic korai.2577) description  About two-thirds of the group is missing.c. LXVI. a long. wear a chiton and a himation.

51. L. The right arm rests on the legs.491.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1144 The Cesnola Collection. (8.c.  56. Purchased by subscription. which is covered by a long tunic. the ears schematic. references  Cesnola 1885. (14. right. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. cat. curls on the forehead. Limestone H. Dentzer 1982. 245 Statuette of a male banqueter Late 6th or early 5th century b. (13. The face. 3½ in. p. LXXVII. 55⁄16 in. 123. 43⁄16 in.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1145 The Cesnola Collection. his head description  The beardless banqueter reclines toward the turned toward the viewer.2506) description  The figure reclines on the couch. S2. His body is covered by a smooth garment. Purchased by subscription.51.6 cm).2539) Cat. red and black paint on the mattress. has a smiling expression.c. one foot is on top of the other. The right arm is attached to the body. The face is very damaged.490. Red paint occurs on the headband and on the edge of the garment. The tips of the feet are missing. L. 1874–76 (74. no. 246 Small male banqueter Late 6th or early 5th century b. pl. The short hair is smooth. The left forearm rests on the cushion. (10.contents cat. 245 cat. the left arm on the cushion. pl. 242–246) 195 . and full hair on the nape of the neck.9 cm). There is a headband around the hair. with a short beard. Limestone H. fig. 246 banqueters (cat. 244 Cat. 513⁄16 in.  LXXVII.

Cesnola 1885. 414.2515) description  The figure stands. which is flat and shows toolmarks. A head found at Ayios Photios by the Vogüé expedition2 completes this documentation: the figure. principal symbol of the great male god since prehistory (Cat.8.3 where these religious practices are still attested during the second half of the fourth century  b. fig.57.  44. 248 Statuette of a male votary wearing a stag mask 6th century b. barefoot.1 as well as some stone sculptures representing a figure with a mask of a bull. 194.51. A statuette found in the palace of Amathus4 shows the connection between this type of image and royal power. 247–251) The wearing of animal masks in religious ceremonies is attested on Cyprus from the Bronze Age. The votary’s hair. a stag. A piece of the belt is visible. 55–57. Limestone H. appears on the back. terracotta figurines showing masked figures and independent masks are known.  221. most likely. XXIV. 606. or a lion. Karageorghis 1993. pp. III. (Cat.c. a bird of prey. A large bull mask in Newark comes. 248).  251). and especially the bull.4. 247 Statuette of a male votary wearing a bull mask 6th century b. Karageorghis 1995. it covers the face and the head. 877. (21. pp. no. p.  VII. Hermary 1989a.51. Karageorghis 2000a.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1029 The Cesnola Collection. The mask is represented in a rudimentary manner. Cat. (25. The hands grasp the lower part of 196 catalogue chapter 4 masked votaries cat. The two bent arms are covered by the garment. Limestone H. pl. Purchased by subscription. the dewlaps of which are indicated by folds. no. V. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. who wears a short beard. references  Doell 1873. Cat. from the same sanctuary. Purchased by subscription. no. 1874–76 (74. V. the stag. Hermary 2000a.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1030 The Cesnola Collection. 18. 3. 10⅛ in. The place of these masked ceremonies in the sanctuary of Ayios Photios is reinforced by the diversity of the animals evoked: the lion. pl. 2. V.contents catalogue chapter 4 Masked Votaries Introduction (Cat. associated with Apollo (Cat. which recalls the master of animals or Herakles (Cat. 247). Hermary 1986b. 87⁄16 in.c. Sophocleous 1985. 1874–76 (74.  250). 2. For the Archaic and Classical periods. striated horizontally.c. raises the mask on top of his head. The Cesnola Collection possesses the most complete series.2538) . 588. pl. notes 1. p. no. 118–22. 4. He wears a pleatless tunic with an overfold at the level of the thighs. no. p. on a slanted plinth. 247 the bull mask.

The torso is covered with a thin.2516) are bent. The votary’s hair is shown on the back. 67. The head is raised and the face is that of a bird of prey. 4.  VII. on a slanted plinth. 45. Cat. 178.contents cat. p. references  Cesnola 1877. no. 1.51. certainly a writing tablet in the left hand. 247–251) 197 . p. and probably a stylus in the right.  XXIV. Sophocleous 1985.5. the left arm. IV. Cesnola 1885. of which only the lower attachment remains. Cesnola 1885. The face is framed by a roll of curls that fall in two long tresses on the chest. 249 cat. no.  220.59. p.3. The hands held objects against the body. Decaudin 1987. the abdomen and the thighs by an Egyptianizing kilt held by a belt. 2. He wears a pleatless tunic that flares out at the bottom and forms a rounded overfold above the belt. 1874–76 (74.2. no. barefoot. pl. not “in the ruins of a temple at Amathus” (Cesnola 1885) Myres 1268 The Cesnola Collection.  413. XXVIII. both arms masked votaries (cat. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. short-sleeved tunic. 19. the mask is that of a cervid.  p. no. (40 cm) From Karpassia. Limestone H.c. another statuette from Idalion shows the figure seated with the tablet on his knees. no. pl. the right hand are missing. references  Doell 1873.  3. but scribes who wear a mask that symbolizes the god whose will he transcribes. Purchased by subscription. 589. pl. 248 description  The figure stands. He holds a mask in front of his face with both hands.  344. with the beak partially restored. pl.XXI. Calvet 1976.2 These figures are not divinities with the heads of birds. On the front. no. pl. but from Karpassia. 148. fig. pl. Karageorghis description  The lower part of the legs. V. Hermary 1989a. commentary  A letter written by Cesnola to Birch (29/ VIII/1874) established that this sculpture did not come from Amathus. p. A statuette in the Louvre1 confirms that the figure held a writing tablet in the left hand. Hermary 1981. The left leg is advanced. Given the size and the shape of the horns. On the sides are wing-shaped folds with traces of red paint. 15¾ in. 249 Statuette of a scribe wearing a falcon mask 6th century b. two long uraei are shown above two rectangles.58. fig. and 2000a. XXIV.  44. The damaged back is not worked.

8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1031 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885. and several others.contents Cat. He raises his right hand and in his left hand holds a small lion mask against his head. The right arm was held to the side of the body. The left arm leans on a small column. the hand holds a bull protome. On the garment. Limestone H. The back is very summarily articulated. Karageorghis 2000a. clearly to the side. Purchased by subscription. (170. 250 Statuette of a male votary wearing a lion mask Late 6th century b. (?) Limestone H. a panel of which falls the length of the small column. pl. The figure’s weight rests on his right leg.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection. cat.c. The position of the knee generates a series of folds that fan out toward the right leg.2505) description  The feet and the right hand are missing. Δ. the feet restored.51. are graffiti: the name PNYTAGORAS. the seam of which is visible. The features of the faintly smiling face are coarse. 251 Over-lifesize statue of a male votary holding a bull mask (the king Pnytagoras?) Second half of the 4th century b. His own round head is covered with short hair.51. 1874–76 (74. V. It forms a thick roll around the waist. (23.  LVII. the left. his hand held a branch against his thigh. the edge of which is painted red on the left forearm. The figure is probably wearing a tunic. 196. Cat. There is a hole hollowed out below the right buttock. the letters Α.2463) description  The head and the right forearm are missing.c. and a himation that is draped over the right shoulder and decorated with an incised zigzag motif on the chest and the back. in no particular order. It is covered in large part by a himation that is draped over the left shoulder. B. Γ. The figure wears a short-sleeved chiton. 250 198 catalogue chapter 4 masked votaries . is bent. 1874–76 (74. no. and the entire right leg and the left leg to the level of the calf. covers the slightly rounded lower abdomen with U-shaped folds. at the level of the thighs. The space between the lower part of the legs is solid. 9⅜ in.381. 67 in. Purchased by subscription.

O’Bryhim). 87 was rapidly associated with the body. in the area already excavated in 1862 by the French expedition directed by Melchior de Vogüé and where Cesnola would make his major discoveries in 1870. 251 commentary  Findspot of the statue. dated December 24. The whole figure was reproduced by Hiram Hitchcock in an article in Harper’s Magazine. Thanks to a letter from Cesnola to Wilhelm Froehner. while in fact the statue is reproduced in the chapter on Golgoi by Cesnola in 1877 and masked votaries (cat. 1868.2 He explicitly cited the figure with the head of a bull. 247–251) 199 . July 1872.contents cat. The question was all the more confused because Doell wrote in 1873 that very few statues from the collection did not come from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. but with an incorrect findspot of “Salamis” that I unfortunately repeated in my article in 1986 (and following me.1 The head Cat. Olivier Masson was able to establish that the statue was unearthed toward the end of 1868 at Golgoi–Ayios Photios.

 13. McFadden 1971. but the name Pnytagoras was probably not inscribed by chance. p.3–6. 5. 37. if the statue of Aphrodite and Eros Cat. V. 4. Cesnola 1877. two-and-a-half times larger. like to pursue further the argument that I developed several years ago. pl.” Interpretation. Hermary 1986a. especially. no. It is within this tradition. This type of dedication is well known during this period in the Greek world8 and. 2. it served the opponents of Cesnola as an argument in the lawsuit they brought against him. 403. 223. The front of the base is original: a piece cut from a Cyprus tombstone was added by Balliard at the back to reinforce it and give support to the statue. It could designate the figure represented by the statue. CCV–CCXVII. pp. finally. The letters inscribed on the garment of the figure. 9.  VI. running down the middle of the figure to the knee. Doell 1873.c. an identification with one of the two kings of Salamis named Pnytagoras—preferably the one who ruled from 351 to 332  b. 1. to the royal family of Salamis. Connelly 1988. 8. was caused by the dropping of acid used by the sculptors who came to test the authenticity of the sculpture.  30. 3. XXIV.914. The report of Balliard about the restoration carried out in 1879–80 and later interventions contains the following information: “The white streak on the front of the statue. stylistically quite similar. 357). temple” appears in the Atlas of 1885. 251 detail the findspot “Golgoi. Masson 1990b. as I assumed for the statues from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion.—is not. see Hermary 2001a. and. For the drawing reproduced in the pamphlet by Clarence Cook. 357. Ex-voto of Daochos at Delphi: Rolley 1999. 80. Hermary 2001a. the beard. 6. entirely 200 catalogue chapter 4 masked votaries improbable. Cesnola 1885. and the objects held in the hands. at a time when sculptures of this size and quality were rare on Cyprus. pp.3 Charles Balliard was even accused of having sculpted the head of the bull. p.9 The question is. The inscriptions of the first letters of the alphabet are probably related to a simple writing exercise at a time when the Cypriots pass from the traditional syllabic to alphabetic writing. pls.5 Cesnola did indeed mention the existence of another “sacrificer” statue. p.3. 7. p. 90 is clear. We have seen that the statue Cat.20. II.4 add a new and important element.  90 was related to old iconographic traditions by the hairstyle. who is. in fact.”6 This indication seems to reinforce the hypothesis of a group of statues dedicated in the sanctuary in the form of a family. pl. I would. including the small branch that the figure holds here. associating the Great Goddess with the royal family (see the commentary at Cat.  124. in this case. It is a question of two works offered in the sanctuary during the middle or second part of the fourth century b. The bull mask confirms this reminder of traditional practices linked to Cypriot royalty. Karageorghis 2000a. It was. pl. 325–29. Karageorghis 1973–74. XIII. 198–99. 13. 6–7. that the group of clay statues standing around the “pyre of Nicocreon” fits. identified as an important dignitary by its size. fig. Hermary 2001a. at the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. pl. CXXIII. O’Bryhim 1999. no. 115. the quality of execution. therefore. V. reconsidered in 1997. in any case. at Salamis. And it had gone to the bottom of the sea in the Napried fire. the presence of the bull mask. . on a much larger scale. It was uncanny how like this first Sacrificer the second one was.. 165. Was the statue part of a group offered by the royal family of Salamis? The stylistic connection between this work and the large male statue Cat. fig. references  Doell 1873. Hermary 2001a.9–10. but it was not identical. L–P. similar to this one: “For the first time Cesnola stated that another statue existed. Even though the incorrect attribution of the head was rapidly abandoned.contents cat. 7. fig. Hermary 2005. could be part of this group. statues from the Philippeion of Olympia: Pausanias 5. Restoration. p. pp. pl.1.7 The graffito with the name Pnytagoras points.c. p. however.5.

The back of the body is well articulated. He wears a chiton with elbow-length sleeves buttoned on the upper arms. Purchased by subscription. Temple Boys (Cat. 252 Statuette of a temple boy Second half of the 5th century b. whose genitalia are exposed with pride—are placed under the protection of the divinity at the difficult age of weaning. CXXXI. A boat-shaped earring is attached to each ear.2 The rarity of this kind of offering in the sanctuaries of Kition does not support this interpretation. A few bodies and several dozen heads of temple boys come from this site. double axes. The short hair is wavy and the back of the head is flat. The small animals held by the figures show that they are entering an active stage of childhood.1 Cecilia Beer questioned if these offerings did not come principally from the Phoenician population of Cyprus on the occasion of the rites of circumcision. It is likely that these children—essentially boys.4 notes 1. and long pendants. The features are heavy. 252 H. even if one notes that the statuettes of small boys are mainly attested in the region of Idalion and Golgoi from around the middle of the fifth century b.c. With respect to the site at Golgoi. 164. 3. leaning on his left hand. and another tunic that conceals the genitalia. Beer 1994. Their poses. temple boys (cat.2756) description  The boy sits on an oval plinth. (38.. 4. 364.970. between the infants held on the knees of a kourotrophos and the older children depicted standing. 1874–76 (74. Incisions indicate the folds of the skin on the left forearm. The wide. 2. There is a bracelet around each ankle. 73–111. of which hundreds are known in Cypriot limestone sculpture of the Classical and Early Hellenistic period. flat face shows a faint smile. Hard limestone. pp.9 cm) From Kourion. the large majority of the temple boys in the Cesnola Collection come from Kourion (see the Introduction). For Tamassos. There is a bracelet on each wrist. no. V. the period when the kingdom of Idalion comes under the control of Kition.contents catalogue chapter 5 “Temple Boys” and “Temple Girls” Introduction These terms are traditionally applied to the statuettes representing seated children. this type of offering is far less frequent in the sanctuary of Ayios Photios than in the one excavated in the old city by Edmond Duthoit in 1865.3 Moreover. no. Only the first part of her study has been published. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1211 The Cesnola Collection. and dress define them as very young children (probably one or two years old). 252–272) Cat. In his right hand he holds a rooster against his left leg. On the kind of amulets. it consists of rings.  58. pl. His left leg is bent up against the body.c.  196. Karageorghis 2000a. Beer 1994. 252–272) 201 .51. A chain of amulets hangs from the left shoulder to under the right arm. see Hermary 1989a. 155⁄16 in. physiognomy. the right is bent and to the side. references  Cesnola 1885. p. which does not belong to the Phoenician political or cultural sphere. The chain of amulets that they wear stresses this need for protection. pink surface cat. see Laffineur 1994. shown in profile. see also Buchholz and Wamser-Krasznai 2007.

his left leg bent against his body. There are traces of red paint on the garment. pl. pl. In the left hand he holds a rooster. p. Beer 1994. 1874–76 (74.c. 253 Cat. pl. 111⁄16 in. the head of which is worn. 199. The face shows a smiling expression and large lidless eyes. 1874–76 (74. the nose and mouth are worn.2311) description  The child sits with both legs bent up in front of him. The large head shows a smiling expression.1 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1220 The Cesnola Collection. description  The boy sits on a rounded plinth.975. the eyelids thick. 84b. no. references  Cesnola 1885.2759) Cat.contents cat. no. A chain of amulets with rings and pendants summarily rendered hangs on his chest.c. with a syllabic inscription Second half of the 5th century b. A necklace with a central pendant in the form of the head of Bes or Silenos circles the neck. pleated chiton that leaves the genitalia exposed. 415⁄16 in. Masson 1961/1983. A syllabic dedication to Apollo is inscribed around the plinth. 202 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” . 19. Limestone H. He wears a long. 56. the right leg bent up with the foot flat on the plinth.  CXXVII. 158. CXXXI. the pleats of which are visible on the back. pl. p. The hair is short. no. The hands are placed on the knees. The back is summarily worked. Purchased by subscription. (28. references  Cesnola 1903. 184. The head is flat on the top and rounded at the back.51. (12. Mitford 1971. Beer 1994.2–4. The body is covered by a long tunic with an undulating decoration that conceals the genitalia. near the temple of Apollo Hylates (Ayia Anna) Myres 1848 The Cesnola Collection. 398.51. 190. The hair is very short. 59. The rounded head bulges. 254 Statuette of a temple boy.5 cm) From Kourion. nos. particularly at the back. 253 Statuette of a temple boy Second half of the 5th century b. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription.

8 cm) From Kourion. The head leans toward the left shoulder. The body and the arms to just below the elbows are covered by a tunic. 255 cat. the shod foot is flat on the plinth. with a syllabic inscription Late 5th or early 4th century b. There are traces of fire. p. pl. 255 Statuette of a temple boy. The large eyes are deep-set in their sockets. 189.a. There are traces of fire rests on it. the right leg is bent with the foot flat on the plinth. The left leg description  The head is missing. pl. 84. 84.51.c. A syllabic sign is inscribed on the plinth.  CXXVII. 256 Statuette of a temple boy. temple boys (cat. 252–272) 203 . 1874–76 (74. 18. no. p.7 cm) From Kourion. on the front of the body. Purchased by subscription. no.contents cat.c. 20.2310) Cat. no. with a syllabic inscription Late 5th or 4th century b. Beer 1994. Limestone H. Mitford 1971. the left leg is bent against the body. Masson 1961/1983. (10. The child sits on a slanted plinth. (13. The left hand holds a piece of fruit against the plinth. Beer 1994.8. seven syllabic signs constitute the end of a dedication to Apollo. The hair is short. 43⁄16 in. 254 cat. CXXVII. Mitford 1971. the right rests on the knee. Purchased by subscription.2309) description  The boy sits on a slanted plinth. The face shows a faint smile. near the temple of Apollo Hylates (Ayia Anna) Myres 1849 The Cesnola Collection. 185. pl. Limestone H. near the temple of Apollo Hylates (Ayia Anna) Myres 1847 The Cesnola Collection. the right hand rests on the knee. 256 Cat.c. The right leg is bent up. references  Cesnola 1903. 56. 1874–76 (74. The left hand holds a round object on the plinth (probably a piece of fruit). A bracelet circles each wrist. 56. The body is entirely covered by a slightly pleated garment. 57⁄16 in. pl. references  Cesnola 1903.51. On the plinth. the surface of which is crinkled.7. no. 188. no.

 95⁄16 in. The flat face has a smiling expression. the right leg is bent up and frontal. references  Cesnola 1885. 206. 151⁄16 in. The left leg is bent against the body. The left leg is bent against the body. rounded at the back.2767) Cat.contents cat. Beer 1994.51. and thick eyelids. 257 cat.  CXXXII. pointed nose.7 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1217 The Cesnola Collection. is covered with locks combed back. 258 Cat. 257 Statuette of a temple boy Late 5th or early 4th century b. Beer 1994. The body wears a short chiton that leaves the genitalia exposed. 362. stiff mouth. (23. a long. pl. The right forearm is missing.c. Purchased by subscription. the surface of which is decorated with the same zigzag incisions as the fabric of the garment that entirely covers the body. (38. 204 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” . no.2764) description  The child sits on a plinth.982. p. A bracelet circles the wrist. places. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. The forms of the body are summarily rendered on the back.3 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1221 The Cesnola Collection. no. The head. The left hand holds a round object—a piece of fruit or a ball—against the plinth. the right leg is bent up at an angle and the restored foot is flat on the plinth. references  Cesnola 1885. The head may not belong. The boy sits on a wide plinth. V. no. the head of which is missing.c. p. CXXXII. the right hand holds a a bird. pl. pl. 165. Suspended from both shoulders are two chains of amulets consisting of three central elongated pendants (clubs?) flanked by rings. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74.51. the edge of which description  There are plaster restorations in several he holds with his left hand.  62. pl. 61. Limestone H. The facial features are crisp: a large. Karageorghis 2000a. A chain of amulets hangs from the left shoulder. 258 Statuette of a temple boy Late 5th or early 4th century b. 61. 204. The hair is short. There is an earring in each ear.984.

(30.  CXXXI.2762) description  The child sits on a narrow plinth on which description  The head appears to be older and may not belong.2763) cat. a long. (head). references  Cesnola 1885. 260 Cat. a prominent nose. Beer 1994.c. 4th century b. The child sits on a narrow plinth with his left leg bent against the body and his right leg bent up and frontal. very rounded at the back. The right hand holds a small hare that conceals the genitalia. (body?) Limestone H. 259 Statuette of a temple boy Third quarter of the 5th century b. hangs from the left shoulder.971.51. hooked nose. The long. consisting of rings and double axes. 72.51.4 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1219 The Cesnola Collection. There is a break on the knee. The plinth is hollowed out in the lower part and decorated on the edge with triangles painted red. 1874–76 (74.c. no. pl. and covered with locks combed back.973. 260 Statuette of a temple boy Late 5th or early 4th century b. CXXXI. The head is flat on the top. flat face has a smiling expression. 259 Cat. pl. p.8 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1218 The Cesnola Collection.c. pleated chiton leaves the genitalia exposed. 12⅛ in. The hair is short. 203. There is a ring in each earlobe. There is a bracelet around each wrist. thick eyelids. The wide. A chain of amulets. Purchased by subscription. His right hand holds a bird. pl. 161. The right leg rests on the plinth. pl. There is a bracelet around each wrist. Limestone H. he rests his left hand. no. the left a small object. 252–272) 205 . temple boys (cat. 1874–76 (74. and a large ring in each ear. The face shows a smiling expression. p. Suspended from both shoulders is a chain of amulets: rings and poorly rendered pendants. supporting his right elbow. (31. 61. references  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. Beer 1994.contents cat. The body is covered with a short crinkled chiton. 12⅜ in. 202. The left leg is bent in profile and the toenails are carefully rendered.  60. and round bulbous eyes.

 198. 1874–76 (74.51. and on his lips. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1210 The Cesnola Collection. He holds a bird in the right hand and perhaps another animal in the left. 1874–76 (74.1 cm) From Kourion. no. The flat face shows a smiling expression. the hair short. pl.2758) description  The child sits on a long. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1209 The Cesnola Collection.952. The left hand holds a small object on the plinth. 59⁄16 in. 101⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription. 59.6 cm) From Kourion. Purchased by subscription. cat. Beer 1994. Limestone H.2761) references  Cesnola 1885.51. The 206 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” . 261 Statuette of a temple boy Late 5th or early 4th century b. There is a bracelet around each wrist. The legs are disproportionate. the right is bent up and very far back. 261 Cat. A chain of amulets. There is a bracelet around each ankle.contents cat. a prominent nose. probably a turtle. pl. (14. p. The back is more summarily worked. consisting of rings and rectangular pendants. of the chiton. 154. The child’s chiton is raised above the genitalia. 262 Cat. (25. The head is flat. There is red paint on the edges of the plinth. the right leans on an animal. hangs from his left shoulder. 262 Small statuette of a temple boy Late 5th or 4th century b. CXXX.c. the left one rests on the plinth. and wide. description  The small statuette is well preserved. asymmetrical eyes. Limestone H. narrow plinth on which his left leg is flattened while the right leg is bent up and frontal.c.

The left hand rests on a turtle. The head is flat on the top and rounded at the back. (13 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1164 The Cesnola Collection. There is short hair on the head. pl. Karageorghis 2000a.c. 201. The pleats of the garment are visible on the back.51. 5⅛ in. commentary  The action of the little boy introduces an original motif that stems directly from either Greek models or marble statues of children like those from the sanctuary of Eschmoun at Sidon. no. 2. The left leg is extended back. The hair is short. 197. The smiling face has delicate features. 101–104. 1874–76 (74.2784) description  The child seems to advance on all fours toward the left. 60. p. p. 18⅛ in. references  Cesnola 1885. 426. 83. the eyes. V. (34. 85. CXXX.978. the mouth half open. references  Cesnola 1885. is turned three-quarters toward the viewer. Limestone H. There is a pendant in each ear. 24. no. The work is careful. The edge of the plinth. The fragment definitely belongs to a temple boy. pl. The round head. and the feet of the dove are painted red. Stucky 1993. pl. pl. a small left hand is placed on the back of a dove that raises its head. 25. pl. 263 long. no. 264 Cat. (46 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1212 The Cesnola Collection. Bracelets circle the wrists and the ankles.140. Beer 1994. temple boys (cat. 263 Fragment of a temple boy Classical period Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. 84–85. Beer 1994. nos. 264 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century b. 252–272) 207 . The nose is partially broken. pleated chiton covers the genitalia. pls. Cat. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. pp.6 cm). The body is chubby. L. with asymmetrical features. the right holds another object (a ball or a piece of fruit?).contents cat.1 1. CXXXI. He is nude except for drapery that covers his right leg and part of the buttocks. 13⅝ in.2720) description  On the plinth.51. XXVIII.943. cat. reference  Cesnola 1885.

The body of the seated boy is flat and very awkwardly rendered. the feet are shod and painted red. The child wears a pleated tunic with details in red that are well preserved. references  Cesnola 1885. which is very flat and poorly shaped. Karageorghis 2000a. CXXX.c. pl. On the forehead are large corkscrew curls. 116. p.a–b. no. Limestone H. 266 .51. cat.951. 200. Beer 1994.977. The right hand holds a large bird against his lower body. The right leg is bent up and in profile. The hair is painted red. 130.2760) description  The head is disproportionate to the body. pls. The genitalia are not visible. The face is smiling. references  Cesnola 1885. 128. or Hellenistic period (late 6th century for the head) Limestone H. (23. 1874–76 (74. which has red strokes around the edge. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. 95⁄16 in. 265 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century b. A pleated tunic covers the body. the right partially broken. which is covered with wavy locks. 9⅜ in.51. 115. pl.  CXXXI. 266 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century b. Red paint is preserved on the mouth and the eyes. strong chin.2651) description  The head is that of a young man of the end of the Archaic period: smiling face. in particular two bands starting at the shoulders. Purchased by subscription. His left leg is bent.contents Cat. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1204 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. p. pls.c. 191. elongated eyes. (23. no. The left leg is pressed against the plinth. no. 57. hooked nose. Purchased by subscription. A wreath of leaves circles the head.7 cm) From Kourion. There is a bracelet on each wrist and a painted necklace with a triangular pendant. Cat.  60.8 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1205 The Cesnola Collection. large curls on the head. V. 363. Beer 1994. the head of which is missing. His right hand rests on the left ankle. 265 208 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” cat. In his left hand he holds a bird.a–b.

a–b.966. 1874–76 (74. 268 Cat. The head is covered with wavy locks.2750) Cat. 267 Statuette of a temple boy Late 4th century b.9 cm) From a temple at Kourion Myres 1214 The Cesnola Collection. Beer 1994. The head is turned three-quarters to its right. pl. 112. (30. 1511⁄16 in. chubby. description  The boy sits on a slanted plinth. and toolmarks on the back. The body.c. references  Cesnola 1885. p.2757) description  The boy. pl. 197. CXXXI. no.51. CXXXI. the genitalia large. bent against the body. 113. no.c. The nose is broken. Limestone H.51. 57. there are remains of a tail. the right bent up in three-quarter profile and the foot flat on the plinth. the penis is missing. is totally nude. A bracelet circles the left wrist and a chain of amulets hangs from the right shoulder.contents cat. in a relaxed position. his left leg holds a duck with both hands. pls. references  Cesnola 1885. entirely draped in a pleated chiton. p. Limestone H. The back is not worked.963. The pendants are summarily rendered. 50. 192. 268 Statuette of a temple boy Second half of the 4th century b. The left hand rests on a turtle. The face is smiling and the eyes are slightly open.6 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1206 The Cesnola Collection. The Macedonian kausia is set on the head. The facial features are barely rendered. There are traces of red paint on the plinth and the garment. temple boys (cat. (39. pl. Beer 1994. 267 cat. 121⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 252–272) 209 . 1874–76 (74. 184. The broken right hand probably held a bird. which is too large in relation to the body.

 CXXXI. 129. There is red paint on the garment and the “ball. hangs from the left shoulder. The back of the body is not worked. 269 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century b. 156. 195. no. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1216 The Cesnola Collection.2752) leg. 12¾ in. The right leg.2755) missing. A chain of amulets. that is held in the right hand. pls. no. The pleated chiton is raised above the genitalia. clasps a bird with his right hand against his abdomen. references  Cesnola 1885. is of a piece with what seems to be an animal. Purchased by subscription. (32. draped entirely in a pleated chiton.7 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1207 The Cesnola Collection. description  The head may not belong. pls.contents Cat. or early Hellenistic period Limestone H. The left hand rests on the knee. 271 . 193. now broken. pl. p. Hellenistic period (head) (?) Limestone H. CXXX. The long pleated chiton hides the genitalia.955.4 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1208 The Cesnola Collection. 12⅞ in. 130.957. pls. The child. p. no. cat. (26. (32. consisting of rings. Hellenistic period (head) Limestone H. Beer 1994. bent far toward the back. The left hand rests on a kind of ball. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. 10⅜ in. 155. 1874–76 (74. pl. is unarticulated. 1874–76 (74. Beer 1994. 1874–76 (74. The head is covered with an oriental cap.960.” references  Cesnola 1885. 58.c.4 cm) From Kourion. The left description  The end of the right leg and the plinth are Cat. Beer 1994.51. 270 cat. 270 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century b. 205. 173. Purchased by subscription. 57. The feet are shod.b. “double axes. CXXX. placed behind. the flaps of which cover the ears. The face is very coarsely rendered.51. 269 210 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” cat.2765) description  The head probably does not belong.c–d. Purchased by subscription. p.51. pl. 172. The child holds a dove in his right hand at the level of the abdomen. The features of the worn face are coarse. (body).” and rectangular pendants. 271 Statuette of a temple boy 4th century (body). Cat. The large head has a smiling expression and short hair. 61.c. references  Cesnola 1885.

5 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1215 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. Atlanta) Photo © Bruce M. the wide-open eyes are deep-set in cat. Purchased by subscription. bracelets circle the right ankle and the left wrist. the left resting on the ground. pl. His left hand rests on a small hare. description  The child sits on a rounded plinth with red painted lines. and the pupils are painted red. The right arm is raised and a tenon attaches it to the knee at the level of the wrist. The head is broad. pl. The legs are crossed. Beer 1994. The hand is missing. 272 Statuette of a temple boy Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. CXXXI. 1874–76 (74.2754) (on loan to the Michael C. A chain of amulets hangs from the left shoulder. with U-shaped pleats and raised at the abdomen. the lips are thick. 58. temple boys (cat. Red lines painted on the feet indicate the thongs of the sandals. Carlos Mueum. 252–272) 211 . references  Cesnola 1885. Emory University. The skin forms a fold on the forearm. exposing the genitalia. 272 Cat. He is turned three-quarters to his right. The short hair is also painted red. 194. painted red. (39. the left end is broken.51. 176. 272 their sockets. no. 159⁄16 in. White. p.968. The torso is covered by a tunic. the right raised.

 425. 273–274) Cat. The back is not worked.2753) description  The head. CXXXI. Purchased by subscription. The flattened face has a smiling expression. 273 212 catalogue chapter 5 “temple boys” and “temple girls” cat. Beer 1994. The abdomen is very rounded. the right. 274 Statuette of a temple girl Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. CXXXI. 196. 1.51. Karageorghis 2000a. reference  Cesnola 1885. A bracelet circles each wrist. no. sits on an irregular “rocky” plinth. 274 . 83.contents Temple Girls (Cat.a. The work is very awkward. (27. The locks are indicated by sharp strokes of the point. 13½ in.3 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1213 The Cesnola Collection. 273 Statuette of a temple girl Late 4th or early 3rd century b. She wears a long chiton belted under the chest and attached by straps that pass under the armpits. The ears are shown frontally against mid-length hair. Her right leg is bent against the body. 1874–76 (74. which is that of a boy. cat. the right rests on the knee and holds a little dove. The left hand holds a piece of fruit against the thigh. the right leg is bent up and shown from the side with the foot flat on the plinth. The bent left leg is flat on the ground. Purchased by subscription. V. p. The back is worked on the sides but barely roughed out at the center. held a bird. no. pl. The plinth and the statue are covered with reddish paint.2766) description  The child. The body is covered with a smooth tunic that falls to the knees. The child hunches her shoulders.c. pl. probably a little girl.51.3 cm) “Found in the ruins of a temple at Curium” Myres 1222 The Cesnola Collection. (34. references  Cesnola 1885. her left leg is bent up and shown from the side. pl. The lowered left hand holds a piece of fruit or a ball.976.980. The feet (the right one poorly rendered) are shod with soft shoes laced at the ankles. is carved in a different limestone and does not belong to the body. 10¾ in. The very chubby little girl sits on a circular plinth. 1874–76 (74. broken. Cat. Limestone H.

Masson and Sznycer 1972.  XVI.contents catalogue chapter 6 Varia Other Types of Votive Human Figures (cat. no. 1874–76 (74. 275 3. 275–279) 213 . pl.2 a number of Bes figures.4 and a unique figure on a funerary relief from Kourion. is a terracotta statue from Patriki that may have been horned. no. p.1 Other “demons” or minor divinities overcome snakes. no. According to V. unique in Cypriot limestone sculpture.  4. V. cat. (41. p. 275 Statuette of a votary or a priest holding snakes 6th century b. Limestone H. Karageorghis 2003c. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 1979. no. 1. 2. Karageorghis 1971. 16¼ in. like the “priests” wearing an animal mask. The smooth hair is Egyptianizing. Karageorghis 2006.3 an oriental type of god on a Bichrome IV oinochoe. three other snakes rise from the shoulders to the top of the head. Adams 1978. Hermary 1981. pp. 162. fig. The figure wears a long. It is entirely possible that a human being is engaged in a ritual observance. pl.  XXXII.  2.c.  75. 5.  58. 29. no. The faintly smiling face is summarily rendered: the contour of the eyes is not articulated.2529) description  The feet are missing and there are breaks on the left forearm and the snake on the same side. 192. Purchased by subscription. no. XV. other types of votive human figures (cat. 89–90. Hermary 1986a. or are closely associated with them. 7. 275–279) Cat. V.  115. fig. 17. in Cypriot iconography: a figure with raised arms from Ayia Irini. V. the edge of which is “heightened” by a wide red band. Karageorghis 2000a. no.5. with a mass that spreads out onto the back.209. nos. and the nose is large. the ears are smooth. restores lion’s ears instead of horns. 195. since the figure already has human ears.3 cm) Found “in the ruins of Amathus” Myres 1022 The Cesnola Collection. commentary  The best comparison for this figure.5 Nothing here. indicates the divine or “demonic” character of the figure.51. Sophocleous 1985. however. p. 4. 35. 9–12. On the back. Karageorghis 1993. 147. which is impossible. V. references  Cesnola 1885. p. the bodies of which extend vertically from his knees to his cheeks. p. pleatless tunic. pl. He holds in both hands two snakes. 92.

and the sides. Egyptianizing heads under the plinth must have belonged to figures standing back to back.  15. J. which the red color of the skin seems to confirm.  58.  VII.2. the zigzag border has traces of red paint. but the fact that it is carried by two other figures seems to differentiate it from an ordinary woman. no. LVII. The woman wears a chiton with transversal folds. 186. The hands of his opponent clasp his waist. However. commentary  Myres considers the wrestler a dwarf.c. there are incisions on the left shoulder. pl. 913⁄16 in. 72. p. p. Cesnola 1877. V. XIII. fig. In the front is the point of attachment of a circular element that is impossible to identify. Lawrence 1926. Karageorghis 2006. Karageorghis 2000a. It does not have attributes characteristic of a divine figure.  I. 16 n. 2. leans forward. I (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. Purchased by subscription. pl. from a larger group Second half of the 6th century b.364. fig. but the head is not really disproportionate. 276 Cat. (8. 276 Fragment of a small group of wrestlers 6th century b. pl. 3¼ in. (25 cm) (statuette 8 in. fig. the model would come from Egypt. the theme is known at the same period not only on Attic ceramics but also on a relief from Xanthus in Lycia1 and on Cyprus itself in a small terracotta group. The support at the back has certainly been sawed off. 166. The features of the smiling face are summarily rendered.contents Cat. She also holds out part of her chiton. 1. The female statuette is standing. fig. another necklace falls on the chest. p. Cesnola 1885. 166. 214 catalogue chapter 6 varia .3 cm) From Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1032 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. 51–54. 243 n. Limestone H. 1. 192.3 cm]) From Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1262 The Cesnola Collection.51. fig. p. references  Doell 1873.  28. pp. pl. with his weight on his advanced left leg. no. The drapery that falls under the right arm is clearly separated from the body and is detailed on the back. 1874–76 (74.51.2565) description  The figure. 343.2. Bossert 1951. p. commentary  This most unusual figure was part of a complex. The features of the smiling face are delicate. 1. [20.c. the eyes bulge. Purchased by subscription. The locks on the top of the head are transversal in Samian style and long straight tresses fall on the chest. The himation covers the right shoulder. The surface is flat on the back. the chest. The hand probably held two objects that may have been a mirror at the back and krotala (clappers) at the front. A bracelet ending in the head of an animal circles each wrist. pl. The very short. 208.365. If this were the case. The raised right hand also held something.2558) description  The general form of the object is difficult to cat. the left leg advanced and the feet shod with sandals.  565. p. XIII). Karageorghis 2005. p. Around the neck is a choker with a pendant. LVII. 1874–76 (74. whose short torso is painted red. pl.  385. 157. the lidless eyes are quite far apart. V. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. the two small. p. Demargne 1958. Harden 1980.  166. 277 Statuette of a female figure. pl. no. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1878.2 reconstruct. smooth hair is a grayish color. pl. The left arm is held to the side of the body. Limestone H. A round pendant hangs on each ear and a diadem is set above the hair on the forehead.

278 Cat. 4⅛ in. cat. Limestone H. 275–279) 215 . the left arm was raised. 1874–76 (74.2573) description  The head. pl. A tongue of drapery rises between the legs and is held in place by the belt that circles the body. 278 Torso of a small fighting woman Late 6th or early 5th century b. The right arm is bent and the hand held an object.5 cm) From Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1053 The Cesnola Collection. the lower legs. commentary  The subject of the small group to which this woman belonged remains uncertain. LVII. Two baldrics cross over the chest and two “shoulder pads” probably indicate the presence of a garment under the tunic. whose chest and bracelet on the right wrist indicate a woman.376. 277 other types of votive human figures (cat. The figure.51. Purchased by subscription. and the left arm are missing.c. reference  Cesnola 1885. (10.contents cat. Myres proposes to interpret her as an Amazon. and the torso bends to her left. is engaged in violent action: the legs are spread. The woman wears a belted tunic that reaches to her thighs.

contents Cat.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1226 The Cesnola Collection. 279 Childbirth group Hellenistic period Limestone L. 204–5.2. 235. V. no.4 This type of offering can be compared to the dedications of body parts to give thanks to a divinity. fig. no. Karageorghis 2000a. LXVI. smaller woman. no. 1874–76 (74. (25. her head thrust backward. Purchased by subscription.1 cm). 913–916. following the representations on Attic funerary stelai. description  The heads of both assistants and the upper 3.435. p. 1. V.2 by several small groups from the urban sanctuary of Golgoi.. whose body is relatively large. the abdomen. pl. The features are worn. 424. 25. and some others. 9⅞ in. p. 1. fig. a seated woman holds in her arms the baby. H. 279 216 catalogue chapter 6 varia . 219. See Vandervondelen 2002. Karageorghis 2006. nos. The heavy nude breasts. Ibid. She is supported by another.51. pp. references  Doell 1873. Cesnola 1885.2698) commentary  The theme of childbirth is known in the Archaic period through terracotta groups from Lapithos.  36. Vandervondelen 2002. cat. Hermary 1989a. 2. and the legs are covered by drapery.1. At the front. pl. p. (16. 6½ in.3 by this example from Ayios Photios. 145. Vedder 1988. The mother reclines on a seat.1 It is revived at the beginning of the Hellenistic period.  174.  VI. portion of the body of the seated woman are missing. Vedder 1988. 4. pl. 178.

 15 in. 357. spearlike leaves.51. 22). no.contents cat. 1874–76 (74. XXVIII.1 cm) Myres 1166 The Cesnola Collection. 10⅞ in. fragmentary offerings or other objects from votive statues or statuettes (cat.2732) cat. (27. There is hatching on the neck and the wings are folded. 280 Fragmentary Offerings or Other Objects from Votive Statues or Statuettes (cat. 281 Lifesize hand holding a branch of leaves Late 6th or early 5th century b. pl. 1874–76 (74. 281 description  The lifesize right hand holds against the wrist and forearm a long stem with smooth. 280–299) 217 . (38.c. was probably held by a figure of the “priest with dove” type (Cat. 280 Dove from an over-lifesize votary Late 6th century b.2831) description  A large dove. reference  Cesnola 1885. reference  V. Purchased by subscription.c. Limestone L. 280–299) Cat. Karageorghis 2000a. Limestone L.51. Cat.118.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1159 The Cesnola Collection. the feet of which are missing. Purchased by subscription.

Purchased by subscription.2606) 218 catalogue chapter 6 varia description  The bunch of flowers is broken on the bottom and on the left side.51. pl. by the forelegs. (15 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1158 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. A break on the back indicates that it was held by a figure. 515⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.” reference  Cesnola 1885. (6. XXVII. other branches of “laurel. probably a kore. (?) Limestone H. Limestone H. 7 in.51. 283 Bunch of flowers First half of the 5th century b. a goat with small horns and a small.101. The surface is worn. On the front. two superposed lotus flowers are flanked by branches of “laurel” and on the back. 282 Lifesize hand holding a kid Late 6th or early 5th century b.2717) description  The small left hand holds a bunch of narcis- sus. Purchased by subscription. XXIX. XXIX. Purchased by subscription.180.2727) description  The lifesize left hand holds. 282 Cat. 284 Under-lifesize hand holding a bunch of narcissus 5th century b.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1167 The Cesnola Collection. clearly articulated beard. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. . pl.c.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1162 The Cesnola Collection. (17. Cat. 1874–76 (74. 211⁄16 in. Limestone H. 283 cat. pl.51. reference  Cesnola 1885.c.c.162. Cat.

2699) description  The bunch of narcissus belongs to a quite description  A large right hand. 286 Over-lifesize hand holding a phiale Classical period Limestone L.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1156 The Cesnola Collection. pl. The smooth interior is slightly concave. D.107.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1168 The Cesnola Collection. holds a fluted phiale decorated with lotus flowers. The upper part of the stem is missing and the hand is not preserved.contents cat. XXVIII. The lower part is slightly worked. reference  Cesnola 1885. 284 cat.5 cm). 911⁄16 in.2781) Cat. of phiale 6½ in.51. 280–299) 219 . Purchased by subscription. pl. XXIX. 285 Bunch of narcissus 5th century b. (8. cat. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. 3½ in. the nails of which are well large statue. (24. Limestone L.166. (16.c. articulated. 286 fragmentary offerings or other objects from votive statues or statuettes (cat. 285 Cat.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74.

287 Cat. 7⅞ in.c.51. Purchased by subscription.2700) 220 catalogue chapter 6 varia description  A very delicate right hand. D. the center of which takes the place of an omphalos. pl. (12. the nails of which are well articulated. reference  Cesnola 1885. holds a phiale.105. 1874–76 (74. The phiale is decorated with petals in relief on the outside and. 287 Lifesize hand holding a phiale 4th century b. (20 cm). on the interior. with a rosette.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1157 The Cesnola Collection. XXVIII. with a small break in the rim.contents cat. . of phiale 5 in. or Hellenistic period Limestone L.

 411⁄16 in. 5 in. (12 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. There is a ring on the ring finger.139.2721) cat. 280–299) 221 . pl.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection. (8. 289 Over-lifesize hand Hellenistic period (?) Limestone L. closed right hand has carefully rendered nails. pl. The pinkie is too long. holds a small duck. cat.51. 290 fragmentary offerings or other objects from votive statues or statuettes (cat. Purchased by subscription. XXVIII. holds a small pyxis. 289 Cat. the fingers of which are rendered. 290 Lifesize hand holding an incense box Hellenistic period (?) Limestone L. references  Unpublished. 288 Lifesize hand holding a small bird Hellenistic period Limestone H.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1165 The Cesnola Collection.22) description  The left hand. 3⅜ in. very thin. 288 Cat.contents cat.21) description  The large. Cat. probably a box for incense.57. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885.121. the nails of which are well description  The lifesize left hand. 1874–76 (74.57. XXVIII. (12. Purchased by subscription.

pl. XXVIII.51. 292 Over-lifesize arm holding a sword Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone L.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1160 The Cesnola Collection. The nails and the skin folds of the joints are carefully rendered. The hand holds the lower part of a wide. Cat. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.contents description  The lifesize left hand holds a pyxis and a stem consisting of branches with small pointed leaves that are concave at the center. pl.2706) Cat. Purchased by subscription. flat object. 293 Hand holding a sword(?) Uncertain date Limestone L.51. 292 222 catalogue chapter 6 varia . XXVIII. cat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1154 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1155 The Cesnola Collection. 13⅝ in. the thumb of which is missing. 291 Cat. Purchased by subscription. 8 in. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. 6⅝ in. (16.112. (34.125.2705) cat.51. belongs to a large statue. reference  Cesnola 1885. (20. probably a sword. 291 Lifesize hand holding a pyxis and a branch of leaves Hellenistic period (?) Limestone L.2704) description  The left forearm and hand.

reference  Cesnola 1885.contents cat. 294 Over-lifesize hand holding a pyxis Uncertain date Limestone H. XXVIII. the end of which is rounded. 1874–76 (74. 294 description  The under-lifesize hand holds an object. The tip of the fingers is indicated by a line in relief. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. with two circular elements under a part that is square in section. pl.2731) description  The over-lifesize left hand holds a pyxis. fragmentary offerings or other objects from votive statues or statuettes (cat.51. Cat. possibly a sword. Purchased by subscription.124. 293 cat. 8 in. XXVIII. (20. 280–299) 223 .3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1161 The Cesnola Collection.150.

138.2716) description  The small right hand holds a small disk and two apples. 5⅞ in. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. XXIX.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios cat. description  A small right hand holds a dove by the wings.173.51. pl. 296 224 catalogue chapter 6 varia . 296 Small hand holding a disk and pieces of fruit Uncertain date Limestone L. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.contents cat. (10. 295 Under-lifesize hand holding a dove Uncertain date Limestone L.2719) Myres 1169 The Cesnola Collection.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. XXVIII. There is a break on the inner surface. 1874–76 (74. pl. Cat. (14. 4 in.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1163 The Cesnola Collection. 295 Cat.

 XXIX. 298 Cat. (7. XXIX. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. pl. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. 297 cat.51. 297 Small hand holding a pomegranate Classical period (?) Limestone L. 299 fragmentary offerings or other objects from votive statues or statuettes (cat. 3¼ in.184. pl. 1874–76 (74.51.51. 280–299) 225 . Purchased by subscription. 215⁄16 in. reference  Cesnola 1885. 3⅜ in. Purchased by subscription.2715) description  The small hand holds a piece of fruit. cat. pl. the hand holding pieces of fruit(?) Uncertain date Limestone L. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1170 The Cesnola Collection. (8. probably an apple.2718) description  The small right hand holds a pomegranate description  The small left arm holds a small dish filled painted red. 298 Small hand holding a piece of fruit Uncertain date Limestone H.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1171 The Cesnola Collection.191. Cat. 299 Small arm. with fruit(?).171. XXIX.2714) Cat. (8.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1172 The Cesnola Collection.

  310. the front part of which is missing.2661) description  The lower left leg.c. a large part of the right arm. The front paws of the lion skin fall on his chest.2. 81. guarantor of royal power and of the protection of the territory. 302 is the largest currently known in Cypriot sculpture. 2. Scenes of which only fragments remain on the plinths of Cat. 1874–76 (74.contents catalogue chapter 7 Gods and Mythological Figures Herakles (Cat. under which appear both back paws of the lion skin. 440 that shows the hero rustling Geryon’s cattle. H. Until the end of the Archaic period.” and several others (Cat. Hermary 1990a.. the head of the lion covers the head of the hero. 1. There is no evidence for the point of attachment of the right hand. Senff 1993. which comes from the “first site. Counts 2008. 313. commentary  There are no traces of arrows and it is not known if the right hand held an object. and before the sanctuary of Kition-Bamboula became filled with statues of the “master of the lions.c. LXXXVII. 20 in. 311).” the dedications at Golgoi–Ayios Photios—as at Idalion—attest to the utilization of the image of Herakles as a symbol of the local god. Cat. at Kition-Bamboula and in the sanctuary of Amrit. 597. Lembke 2004. found at Ayios Photios during the French excavations of 1862. Before the Phoenician kings of Kition used the image of the archer Herakles on their coinage to show a major local god (Melqart?). a findspot of Amrit seems to me probable. but uncertainty remains for Cat. and the left hand are missing. Karageorghis 1998. With his bent left hand and against his side. Gjerstad et al. However. V. 82. Herakles is shown striding.c. Hermary 2007. figs. (50.” the type that prevails from the end of the Archaic period.4 they constitute the earliest evidence of this type of divine or heroic representation. 5. he holds a bow. 301. pl.3 This statue. belonged to a narrative scene. 180. pp. but a head in the Louvre. wearing the lion skin Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. 30. 33 cm. as well as the fertility of both the soil and the flocks. it is mainly attested in the region of Idalion and Golgoi. 300 Statuette of Herakles as an archer.2 The sculptures from the Cesnola Collection that relate to this figure come essentially from the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. With its wide muzzle and detailed teeth. A tress of smooth hair falls to either side along the outstretched paws of the lion.c. and not as a “master of lions. Purchased by subscription. the latest of the series. no.51.580. . although the connection with the group Cat. 3. to which it is difficult to give an exact name. It decorated the base of a large statue that is probably not the large Herakles Cat. p. p. that several works found at Ayios Photios are directly related to the iconography of the Greek Herakles.  308 and 309 certainly showed the combat of the hero against the Lernaean Hydra (probably also the fragments of snakes. pl. Cat. he chooses the head of Herakles as a coin type. 340 may be very hypothetical. The beardless face has a serious expression. 63. 300–320) This type of divine or heroic representation is widespread in Cypriot sculpture from the sixth to the fourth century  b. pl.1 then in the fifth century b. 300. The forms of the body are only roughed out. and for Cat. It is essential to note. He wears a mid-length tunic. 306. The eyes are barely articulated and the nose is partly missing. references  Doell 1873. 46a–d. 1–75. p. The statue Cat. To these works in the round may be added the relief Cat. with a wide belt. Cesnola 1885. however. on the Syrian coast. perhaps the combat against the triple Geryon. V. no.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1092 The Cesnola Collection.5 notes 1. With an example found in the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. the left leg advanced. 1. The style of the face seems to indicate a relatively early date. belonged to a statue of almost equal size. as is certainly the case for Evagoras I of Salamis when. at the end of the fifth century b. Sophocleous 1985. The fragment of the right leg under the kilt was reattached some time after the discovery: it is not mentioned by Doell. 4. no. 303) show “Herakles” as an archer. no. Herakles shooting a bow and arrow.. called Ma’abed. 38. Cat. 302 as Cesnola thought. it is difficult to know if this iconography reflects the 226 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures Hellenism of the local kings. Hermary 1989a. The back is carefully sculpted at the level of the head. 1937. Limestone H. 320.

300 Cat. Herakles is shown striding forward. Myres noticed many traces of painted decoration no longer visible today. the mane is smooth. The front paws are knotted over the chest. the ears laid back. but the torso is covered cat. 301 by a thin tunic. The space between the arms and the body is hollowed out. modifying the position of the left arm. The hands hold arrows against the hips. herakles (cat. Limestone H. blue with red border. 815⁄16 in. the chin juts out. 302. the bow is not represented. The line of the rib cage is visible above the slightly rounded abdomen. the physiognomy is similar to that of the large statue Cat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1093 The Cesnola Collection.c. the tunic. The face has a smiling expression: the bridge of the nose is very narrow and the tip is slightly broken. as shown by the traces of a band of red paint at the center of the chest.” commentary  On this statue of fine quality. and the upper arms. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. (22. 1874–76 (74. the rich polychromy of which is unfortunately no longer visible. 301 Statuette of Herakles as an archer.51. Behind the left arm hangs the case containing the bow.2654) description  The lower legs and the right arm are missing. 300–320) 227 . The hair does not fall forward. wearing the lion skin Middle or third quarter of the 6th century b. The eyes of the lion are not indicated. the loincloth yellow. A kilt with a wide belt covers the thighs. and its center fold blue and red in horizontal bands. “The lips were red. the left leg advanced. Both arms are held to the sides of the body. the lion skin is yellow with red ears.contents cat. Purchased by subscription. which shows traces of red paint. the quiver red. with blue arrows. and central stripe from neck to belt. Despite the absence of a beard. the shoulders. The lion skin covers the head. The eyes are elongated and the high-set eyebrows are long and thin. The side panels are indicated in relief and the front panel by lines painted red.

Cesnola writes: “The legs from the knee downward were at first wanting. which was disinterred soon afterwards.  38. pl. The left arm is raised. Cesnola 1885. XI. Cesnola’s workers first discovered the body and the head. without the lower legs. This drawing was probably done after the photograph included by Cesnola in an album of “objects found in the temple of Venus at Golgoi. in 1872 at the latest. but two cuts visible in the break could attest to an attempt at reconstruction after the discovery. but were soon distinguished from their large proportions among a heap of fragments a little way off. Cat. as is attested by a photograph. no. is reproduced in an article published by Hiram Hitchcock in July 1872 in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. The now separated club (74. it became clear that the lower part of the hand grasped an object with a small diameter that did not resemble a club. 2.51.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. just to the belt. was offered by Cesnola to Count Sclopio di Salerano. LXXXVII.  VII. p. Limestone H. Myres hesitated about it: “It is no longer easy to decide whether the club is of ancient work or not. concerns the club placed in the left hand of the figure. But the German scholar writes that the legs are lost. and in its hand had held a knotted club. Myres considers as certain that the feet and the plinth were sculpted in New York out of a block of Cypriot limestone.  183. Is the rest of both legs ancient. the lower part of the kilt being very damaged. . The height of the sculpture at that time was 150 cm. An ancient restoration is less likely. One notes that only the bust. 32 cm) belonged to another large- . . It is in any case disproportionately small for this statue. notes that the forearm was added (angesetzt) and does not doubt that it belongs to the statue nor that the hand had held a club. Commenting on the discovery of the statue in 1870. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. On the other hand. 42.576. Sophocleous 1985. or rather in the summer of 1870. pl. pl. since Doell in June 1870.” Created in the spring. this album. in any case.2 Only one of the legs. “first site” Myres 1360 The Cesnola Collection.contents The face is of Ionian type.3 The other leg was therefore added with the plinth and the feet between 1873 and 1877. no.2455b) (L. or the right arm.” The dismantling of the forearm and the club in August 1997 allowed the observation that the upper part of the closed hand had been recut in order to insert the object and that this work was probably not ancient. and shortly after my men uncovered its base with the feet attached to it . if the attachment of the first leg. the left forearm.c. 302 Over-lifesize statue of Herakles as an archer.2455) background  Discovery and reconstruction of the statue.51. had been joined when the Herakles was exhibited in London in 1872. however. now in the Academy of Sciences in Turin. without the foot.4. references  Doell 1873. the drawing that he publishes actually ends at the level of the right hand.4 The most important point. 85½ in. 302 detail illustrated by Doell. did not lead to a reworking of the kilt’s surface.”1 The addition of the left forearm and the club rapidly followed. p. or only one of the two? The question is. (217. the latter was never restored. The opening between the legs is neither described nor 228 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures cat.2. Hermary 1990a. wearing the lion skin Third quarter of the 6th century b. but the rounded abdomen and the kilt indicate Egyptian models.

description  Herakles stands in a walking position. almondshaped eyes are carefully rendered. between the legs. as on a statue from Idalion. he holds a bow of which the cord and a point of attachment at each end remain. The slightly bulbous. seems intended to receive the tail of the animal. but a rectangular mortise hollowed out under the kilt. Lefkoniko. The paws of the lion are knotted over the chest. the left leg advanced. Against his left side. 301) with a belted kilt. Two sections of hair divided in three locks fall forward onto the shoulders. partially revealing the left thigh. The garment consists of a short-sleeved tunic that may be combined (see Cat. is shown as a “master of lions” indicates that significant antecedents existed cat.5 A characteristic of this first group is the presence of locks that fall in front of the shoulders. it has diagonal strands at the bottom and is curly between the lion’s jaws. The rest of the lion skin is not visible. and clearly separated one from the other. indicates that the arm belonged to a statue of the “priest with dove” type (Cat. However. They are separated by a hollow between the hatched eyebrows. the tip of which is broken. commentary  The large Herakles of Golgoi is not cited by Clarence Cook or Gaston L. The hero wears a beard that is partially broken. High-set. 303 shows that an earlier small group of works from Golgoi depicts Herakles only as an archer. while in fact it is a special example. He also wears a thin mustache with two rows of incised strands. despite several earlier representations such as a bronze relief from Samos showing the combat against Geryon. the right hand holds four arrows under which one distinguishes the fingers. wearing an animal skin. Kazphani. 22). according to a type also attested at Idalion. while the edge of the tunic is shown below the shoulder. without a club. The pleated edge under the arrows ends with a worked border on the other side. The furrowed muzzle of the lion rests on the head. thick. Feuardent in their claims of falsifications made by Cesnola (see the Introduction). 301. It must have been held above the head because one side is almost without knobs.contents scale statue of Herakles. are large. 300. with his bent arm. the two panels of which separate. Against the body. the systematic presence of the lion skin is a more original feature in comparison with Greek models. Comparison with the statuettes Cat. The back of the statue is barely roughed out and the form of the buttocks is schematic. the eyebrows are surmounted by a row of corkscrew curls shown right below the teeth of the lion. is indented. The fact that the arm wears a long-sleeved garment.7 The silver “Cypro-Phoenician” bowl from the Louvre on which Bes.6 This choice is easily explained since it reflects a prevailing tendency in the hero’s iconography in Greece during the Archaic period. The top of the lion skin covers the shoulders. The stiff mouth is smiling and the upper part of the nose. The round ears. 302 herakles (cat. 300–320) 229 . with two excrescences. and Amrit.

 8*. XXVII.  37. pl. 141. 22). and a large rounded object that could be a bow case. II. 1870: see Marangou Sophocleous 1985. while he is beardless on the statuettes just mentioned. Nikolaus-Havé 1986. no. the front of the base had been sawn off long before! 3. 129.” probably. 2000. 137. Plate 36. pl. V. pp. Following Archaic Greek models. 13. no. and may even have had a copy on Cyprus. Cesnola 1877. One may wonder why Cesnola restored a small club. 7. the interior of which is not hollowed out. Karageorghis 1978. pp. on the statuette Cat. p. 205. C219. 398–406. with the commentary of Alexander Conze in the Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica 31 (1859). a quiver. 1511⁄16 in. pl. attests to his virtuosity.51. which belonged to the Campana Collection before entering the Louvre in 1861.  3. references  Doell 1873. The right arm is held to the side of the body. Since the string of the bow is entirely visible. p. Thus. no. holds his club in front of him almost vertically with his right hand. 3. mid-length tunic. fig. This work.2653) description  The left hand and a large part of the bow are missing. wearing the lion skin Second half of the 6th century b. Brize 1988. 1874–76 (74. 5.585. fig. 7. it seems that they are inspired more by the front panels of Egyptian wigs than by the locks near the ears on archaic Greek art. A large-scale drawing of this scene had been published in 1859 in the Monumenti Inediti. See Marangou 2000. With his bent left arm he holds against his side a bow. fig. one must assume that the space separating it from the wood of the bow was hollowed out.  578.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1092a The Cesnola Collection. Cesnola must have known this publication.  178.  VII. p.  XII. fig. Picón et al.13 but the large Herakles had no legs at the time and. pl. without using other examples of this type on Cyprus. no. to the left hand of the statue. 2. 1. V. it is the beardless type that prevails. p. pl. Hermary 1990a. reproduced in Marangou 2000. 9. Karageorghis 2000a.  190. The lower legs and the plinth had been reconstructed after the arrival in New York: the photograph published in the 1873 album shows the present state. 303. no. The lion skin covers the head of the hero. After the discovery of the two sculptures. at Kition. wearing the Nemean lion skin. A small mass of hair falls on each shoulder. a bow. does not pose a problem.8 As for the relatively short locks that fall forward. 31.60. 497. Cesnola 1885. 1. Herakles is shown walking. 7. as Cesnola wanted to claim. 193. V.  27. pl. no. the left leg advanced. but perhaps only partially. A row of curls on the forehead is shown under the lion’s mouth. 21. according to a very rare technique on Cyprus (see the “priest with dove” Cat. Purchased by subscription. as on a statuette from Kazaphani. Cesnola 1873.10 the lion’s tail appears in relief.  69. 31. but the alternation between bearded and beardless heroes remains attested until the end of the series.  9. Cesnola 1885. When it is represented. 11. no. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. De Ridder 1908.  LXXXVIII. type A. p. Cat. He may have been influenced by the scene painted on a Caeretan hydria that was roughly contemporary. Herakles wears a belted. 96–97.c. The fact that the hero is bearded here. with his left arm. . (39. pl. the result obtained here is comparable to that of the Herakles from the relief of the cattle of Geryon (Cat. 225.  3*. The dedication is dated September 12. 32–33. If one can judge from the style of the face. the large Cypriot representations of Herakles normally wear a beard until the Classical period. no.contents on Cyprus. Cesnola 1873.1 The surface is damaged in several places. he is said to have noted that the statue “fitted exactly” on the base. Sophocleous 1985. Cesnola 1877. and a Herakles from the former de Clercq Collection carries. even if. this major work from the sculpture workshop of Golgoi seems to belong to a phase earlier than that of the “priest with dove. 12. p. Yon 1986. 2.3. p. 303 Statuette of Herakles as an archer. to the third quarter of the sixth century  b. 38. Hermary 1990a. 46a–d. p. The beardless face shows a smiling expression and the eyes are slightly open. Limestone H. 230 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures 4. It seems too early to be related to the decorated base of Eurytion and the cattle of Geryon. 10. pl. no.574. p.9 The fact that the sculptor apparently worked the lion’s tail separately.  Karageorghis 1998. Cy2. no.11 The hero. 6. the front paws fall on his chest. shows Herakles bringing back the dog Cerberus from the Underworld. LXXXVII. 8. the hand holding four arrows.c. 137. 181.9. p. when they were reattached. p. 289. Cesnola 1877. held as if it were a candle. Pryce 1931.12 the most important archaeological journal of the period. pl. fig. 135. therefore. Markoe 1985. pp. pl. reproduced in Marangou 2000. fig.4. and the back right paw is visible under the hand. p. fig. 2. Hermary 2001b. the quiver provides reinforcement. references  Doell 1873. p. 440). V. 2007. the ends of the sleeves are visible on the upper arms. pl. V.  135. p. The lion’s mane is smooth. Senff 1993. Boardman 1998.

51. 71⁄16 in. His smooth mane forms a ruff. Cat. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. 304 Small lion. Purchased by subscription.c. 304 description  The position of the body is diagonal and most of the paws are missing.78. The mouth is open and the tongue extended. XXVII. (29.2 cm) cat. references  Unpublished. from a statue of Herakles(?) Second half of the 6th century b. The mane is smooth.contents Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1101 The Cesnola Collection. The position of the animal could suggest that it was leaning against a statue of Herakles. 303 Cat. 300–320) 231 . cat.c. the mouth.2637) description  The weight of the small lion’s body rested on his forelegs. the left paw is missing. 305 herakles (cat. (?) Limestone L. (18 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1102 The Cesnola Collection. The furrowed muzzle is indicated by two vertical bands connected by a horizontal band and incised lines joining the mouth. 11½ in. 1874–76 (74.51. The end of the mane is indicated by a hooklike form. There are traces of red paint on the tongue. pl. The treatment of the surface is careful. Purchased by subscription. his tongue is extended and the teeth bared.2626) cat. 305 Small lion. Limestone L. and the inside of the ears. probably from a statue of Herakles Second half of the 6th century b.

according to a type derived from ancient Greek art but unique . The garment consists of a short. The scabbard of a sword with a round end passes under the quiver. belted tunic. Even if the leg appears a bit short.1 The point of attachment at the upper left extremity must have been for the left arm. 28 in. The chest is rounded.contents cat. The quiver’s almost horizontal position indicates that Herakles is drawing his bow. the overfold is below the quiver and passes over the belt. Limestone H. (71. 306 Cat. 1874–76 (74.c. knelt on the ground and the left leg is bent up. 306 Fragmentary statue of kneeling Herakles.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1409 The Cesnola Collection. was partially covered by the lion skin. The tunic 232 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures forms accordion-like folds at the top of the thigh. The quiver. A separate panel falls from the right shoulder and passes under the belt. it was probably used to hold the quiver. Purchased by subscription. of which one can distinguish the left front paw. a projection on the upper back could indicate the lower end of the hair. decorated with a guilloche on the upper edge. The right knee. now missing. he is an archer.2500) description  The left half of the kneeling figure. except for the arm. not in very high relief. There are no known architectural or votive examples on Cyprus. and the outline of the muzzle. the anatomy is carefully rendered. The very regular break follows the natural structure of the stone. The large quiver contains eight arrows between two cylindrical elements that may be part of its frame. from the base of the neck to the ankle. remains.51. but shown here in full action. the strands of the mane. commentary  The sculpture was in the round. as an archer Late 6th or early 5th century b. The lion skin placed on the quiver would confirm the identification of the figure as Herakles: as in the preceding works.

c. reproduced in Marangou 2000. Iolaos. The forms of the body are summarily rendered on the back and there are toolmarks. as is the relief. 307 in Cypriot sculpture. or the beginning of the fifth. no. the depiction of the anatomy.8 cm) Myres 1108 The Cesnola Collection. 307 Statuette of bearded Herakles. but the mediocre quality of the statue Cat. pl. 1.51. Limestone H.c. pl. one of which has zigzag scales. no. Hermary 1990a. It is a major work from the Golgoi workshop of this period.  190. but impossible to prove. The pose implies an enemy represented on the same base. p.  CXXVIII. pl. references  Unpublished (error in Myres. Cesnola 1885.  40.2745) description  The plinth is broken on one side. (17.10. 308 Fragment of a small group: Herakles. cat. Cesnola 1877. Purchased by subscription. LXXXVII.c. A sandaled foot stands on one of the tails and the right hand of the figure cuts the other tail with a harpe (sickle). V.581. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74. wearing the lion skin Late 6th or early 5th century b. Purchased by subscription. Herakles is in a walking position. references  Doell 1873. p. It preserves two fragmentary bodies of snakes.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1094 The Cesnola Collection. 340 makes unlikely a connection between the two works. he wears a short-sleeved tunic under the lion skin that is knotted in front. 206. The mane of the lion is smooth. These details are clearly visible in Cesnola 1873.  154–55 with fig. 31. 300–320) 233 . the right arm is raised.contents description  The lower legs and most of the arms are missing. with incised horizontal rows intersected by short vertical lines. if he brandished a club. 8⅛ in. 308 herakles (cat.  VII. it was not resting on his head. reference  Cesnola 1885. pp. one thinks of the triple Geryon. 7 in.923. Limestone L. On the torso. The boldness of the pose.51. Karageorghis 2000a. that covers the abdomen and the legs. commentary  There is no point of attachment indicating that the hero was overcoming a lion and.2656) cat. In the context of the Golgoi sanctuary. Cat. (20. 191. the left detached from the body.. He wears a belted kilt. The foot of a second figure stands on the end of the plinth. and the pleats place the statue of Herakles toward the end of the sixth century  b. The poorly preserved face is bearded and has a smiling expression. A hypothetical association with the base showing the hero attacking Eurytion and the cattle of Geryon is tempting. not in Cesnola 1885). no. Cat. and the Hydra Late 6th or early 5th century b.

5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. commentary  The presence of the crab leaves no doubt about the identification of the scene: Herakles and Iolaos are fighting the Lernaean Hydra. no. 39. spread wide.contents cat. fig. no. description  The edges of the plinth are broken in places. 30*. 309 Cat. This labor of Herakles is not frequently represented on Cyprus. 28*.1 cm). 1.1 A group with Herakles in front of a krater and the feet of another figure comes from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion:2 probably Herakles and Apollo vying for the Delphic tripod. according to an iconographic type well known in early Greek art. The feet of Iolaos. A mortise of 4 × 4 cm is drilled through the plinth in front of the right foot of Iolaos. 311) must have posed technical problems for the artist and may explain the cat. at the other end of the plinth. 2. the hero’s right foot is very damaged. Purchased by subscription. but it could be as early as the Geometric period. extended by a long snake tail. Karageorghis 1998. It preserves the elongated point of attachment of the Hydra’s body.92. Hermary 1990a. Karageorghis 1998. are less separated and the left foot is advanced. Another mortise appears at the far edge of the plinth in front of the right foot of Herakles. Hermary 1990a. 79.  310. 12. Limestone L. fig. V. See a dish from Palaepaphos-Skales: Hermary 1990a. 311 . p. 9¼ in. no. His left heel is pinched by a large crab. (23. Cat. V. references  Cesnola 1885. 25¼ in.51. 29. The representation of the raised heads of the monster (cf. pl. W. 309 Plinth with the remains of a group: Herakles and the Hydra Late 6th or early 5th century b. On the right are the feet of Herakles. XXVII. (64. 310 234 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures cat.2744) presence of two mortises for the insertion of supports.c. 35. p.

Cat. Limestone H. with a very furrowed muzzle. (8.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1113 The Cesnola Collection. pl. 1874–76 (74. pl. references  Unpublished. 310 Head of a snake Late 6th or early 5th century b. 3½ in. 312 Head of Herakles wearing the lion skin Early 5th century b. Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. There are traces of red paint on the lips and the cheekbones are prominent.9 cm) Myres 1099 The Cesnola Collection. The curls on the forehead jut out below the mouth of the lion. The mane. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.2579) description  The head of a bearded snake has an open mouth and teeth that are very well rendered. is on a diagonal relative to the axis of Herakles’ head. 312 herakles (cat. It is the same type as Cat. with picked tufts. The thick eyelids are surmounted by high-set. 311 Head of a snake Late 6th or early 5th century b.76. XXVII. The nose is broken. forms an almost vertical line. 300–320) 235 . reference  Cesnola 1885. Limestone H. cat. XXVII.51. reference  Cesnola 1885.77. curved eyebrows. 1874–76 (74.c.c. Purchased by subscription. Cat.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1112 The Cesnola Collection. The round. without the point of attachment of the club.2657) description  The head of the lion.c. (10. smiling face is youthful. (14. 5⅞ in.contents Cat.2578) description  The head of a bearded snake held something in its open and furrowed mouth.51.51. 4⅛ in. 310.

313 Cat.c. 236 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . 1. commentary  The nature of the stone and the style of the face1 could indicate that this head was actually found at Amrit on the Syrian coast. p. 36. 156.contents cat. 1874–76 (74. pl. The small eyes are asymmetrical and the eyebrows long. 6⅜ in. The face is delicate. no. Cf.2655) description  The limestone is pinkish on the surface. Purchased by subscription. 5d. There is a zigzag motif on the sides of the mane. references  Unpublished. 313 Head of Herakles wearing the lion skin Early 5th century b. smiling mouth. the features of which are worn. (16. There is no attachment of the club on the head of the lion.51. with a very curved. with traces of organic material. Limestone H. Lembke 2004.2 cm) Myres 1100 The Cesnola Collection.

577.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1096 The Cesnola Collection. 12 in. 1874–76 (74. also represent Herakles combating a lion that he would appear to dominate with his left hand. more uncertain.51. visible between the legs. Curls cover the entire head. 314 herakles (cat. 186. 1. since the works are practically contemporary. Limestone H. the left arm. pl. the lower part is only roughed out and there are toolmarks. (30. The figure is turned toward his left. references  Doell 1873. as shown by the stance of the leg. p. He wears a belted tunic with an overfold.2607) description  The lower legs. which is clearly advanced. This statuette must. commentary  The absence of the lion skin. no.3 (photograph illustrated left and right reversed). The left arm was lowered and separated from the body. brandished a club that was not attached to the head. 300–320) 237 . The upper back is worked. 39. Hermary 1989a. of points of attachment of the lion on Herakles’ thigh. or of the club on the head makes the interpretation. Purchased by subscription.c. with lines painted red. This garment covers both arms and shows a triangle motif painted red. 314 Statuette of Herakles brandishing a club Early 5th century b. His right arm. pl. the painted decoration. Cesnola 1885. p. 599. Despite the differences that it presents (nudity of the hero. a small group from the Louvre1 constitutes a point of comparison all the more interesting. consists of a triangle motif. raised and bound.  42. no. The face has a smiling expression and well-rendered eyes within thick eyelids.contents Cat. and the right forearm are missing. Sophocleous 1985. cat.  XI. initially. front paws of the lion attached to the torso). and his glance in the same direction. therefore. He probably wears another garment with painted bands on the shoulders. LXXXVII.

51. Hermary 1990a. The muzzle is flat. 1874–76 (74. from a statue of Herakles(?) 5th century b.c. Cat. 16*.5 cm) Myres 1103 The Cesnola Collection. VIII.51. cat. probably from a statue of Herakles Early 5th century b.2629) description  The animal stands on its hindlegs with the forelegs elevated.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1104 The Cesnola Collection. The left leg is very clearly advanced. 317 Small lion. 37. Limestone H. 316 rounded and the shape of the genitalia is suggested. no. 815⁄16 in. 316 Statuette of Herakles brandishing a club First half of the 5th century b. the points of attachment are visible on the hip and the thigh. references  Doell 1873. He wears a thin. (22. The thickness of the neck and the head is excessive. 315 Cat. the mane smooth. Purchased by subscription. Cat. . The locks on the forehead form a roll under a band fastened on the front with a “Herakles knot. 2. LXXXVII.2625) description  The left hand. and eyes without articulated eyelids. no.c. youthful face has a smiling expression. It probably belongs to a group with Herakles. pl. The back is worked. Cesnola 1885. p. reference  Cesnola 1885. 39. and the lower left leg are missing.572. short-sleeved and belted tunic. 315 Small lion.51.545. There are traces of red paint on the mouth and the ears. (26. references  Unpublished.c. Purchased by subscription. (17. The very thick right arm brandishes a club that is attached to the back of the head.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1095 The Cesnola Collection. The points of attachment around the front paws make it probable that the statue belonged to a group with Herakles. a partially broken nose.2652) Sophocleous 1985. 10½ in. its head turned toward the viewer. 184. pl. the right foot. p. 6⅞ in. The beardless. pl. LXXXIV. no. 1874–76 (74. Limestone L.” Locks are shown on the top of the head and on the thick mass behind the nape of the neck. (?) Limestone L. his mouth is open. 1874–76 (74. The chest is very 238 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures description  The lion gives the impression of pouncing.1. With the left hand the hero held a lion. Purchased by subscription.contents cat.

 319 Forepart of a small lion. 318 description  The lower legs and the right arm are missing. 300–320) 239 . (41. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. (29. The forms of the body on the back are barely roughed out. With his right hand Herakles brandished a club. pl.575.c. elongated eyes are schematic. probably from a statue of Herakles 4th century b. lowered and turned toward the viewer. The face has a faintly smiling expression and the lidless. jutting above the forehead. Limestone H. The tunic.640 (Myres does not make reference to Cesnola). 317 Cat. The head is The elongated body is schematic. pl.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1105 The Cesnola Collection. and in his left hand he holds a small lion against his thigh. with elbow-length sleeves. The mouth is open. reference  Cesnola 1885. 318 Statuette of Herakles holding a small lion Late 5th or early 4th century b. and the lower part held by a belt. 1874–76 (74. The mane.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1097 The Cesnola Collection. 16½ in. the tongue extended.51.2659) cat. consists of irregular. description  The preserved part has no paws. 319 herakles (cat. flamelike tufts. Cat.c. and the eyes small and round.51. Limestone L. 11½ in. 1874–76 (74. is covered by the lion skin.contents cat. He wears a pleated tunic that exposes the form of the genitalia. the front paws of which are knotted around the chest. partly preserved at the back of his head. the muzzle furrowed. Purchased by subscription. LXXXVII.  XCV.2628) cat.

This point has been debated for several years. Karageorghis 2000a. 240 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures The Greek name for the Egyptian god Am(m)on was most frequently applied to Cypriot images of an enthroned god with a ram’s head in the earliest representations.c. The nose is broken. 320 Statuette of Herakles holding a small lion Second half of the 4th century b. The garment.578. but the absence of a hollowed-out space between the legs reflects a desire to express movement.” the iconography of this figure is widespread on Cyprus. p. Of particular note is the facial expression. the features are gaunt. according to a type created by the Greeks of Cyrene.  250 with fig. the eyes raised to the sky. Bol 1999. Tamassos. or even of Philip II of Macedonia. Both arms and the left foot are missing. 1.3 As with “Herakles.” The front paws are knotted on the chest. Hermary 1990a. Herakles takes a long stride with the left. 320 Cat.  14*. from which comes a headless statue . Perrot and Chipiez 1885. p.. references  Cesnola 1877.1 Here. p. 1874–76 (74. evokes a portrait that may be of a Cypriot king. the face. To the side.. R. 6. emphasizing that a Cypriot divinity was depicted. Ibid. 607. Counts 2008. no. fig. seen in profile and very far apart.51. no. V. commentary  This is an interesting example of the evolution of the type in the fourth century b. Limestone H. 389. 321–325) cat. marked by age. is bearded with a mustache. Counts 2004. The absence of the statuette in Doell’s catalogue. where the type could have been borrowed by Cypriot sculptors and spread on Cyprus and in eastern Greece. The feet are bare. 576. LXXXVII. A bust of Herakles found in Malloura provides another example. p. and Lefkoniko. The image highlights the agricultural and especially the pastoral role of the god of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. regularly pleated tunic on the chest.  344. The face. 180. 5. The right arm brandishes a club attached to the back of the head. turned slightly to its left. consisting of a short.c.1 The discovery of two statuettes in the sanctuary of Apollo Karneios at Knidos suggests that they could represent the divinity.  290. Purchased by subscription. A row of thick locks on the forehead juts out from under the lion skin. the muscles accentuated. 8. (54 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?) Myres 1098 The Cesnola Collection.contents and the sides and passes under a belt with a “Herakles knot.2 and Kathrin Kleibl synthesized the various interpretations. The space between the legs is solid. the muzzle furrowed. bunches over the lower abdomen and forms several relief folds at the level of the thighs. 21¼ in. The lion skin covers the head. The expression shows a faint smile. no. and a wrinkle crosses the forehead.2660) description  The limestone surface is pinkish. fig. Sabine Fourrier pointed out that Amon was the main divinity of the Egyptian city of Naucratis. the mouth is open. Its head is raised and turned toward the viewer. the left hand holds a small lion against his thigh. Cesnola 1885. p. This is also the case at the neighboring sanctuary of Malloura. then with a human head and ram’s horns. derived from the style of Skopas.4. added to the fact that it is reproduced in Cesnola’s chapter “Amathus” (1877). fig. The forms of the body are summarily roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. “Zeus Ammon” (cat.4 and reflects another aspect of the principal male god of this region. the shoulders. pl. Leaning on his right leg. pl.  68. at Idalion.: the basic pose remains the same. makes its findspot uncertain. especially in the region of Golgoi.

Kleibl 2008. Berges 2006. 315⁄16 in. pl. occupies a narrow seat with a high back. seated Late 6th or early 5th century b.. 322 cat.2675) description  The god wears a chiton and a himation draped description  The god. 616: probably the second half of the fourth century b. “zeus ammon” (cat. (9. 321–325) 241 . the stiles of which project. with a ram’s head Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. no. with a ram’s head now worn. pl. Buchholz 1991. The right hand and ram’s head are missing. The statuettes from the sanctuary of Ayios Photios in the Metropolitan Museum trace the evolution of the type.c. 35⁄16 in. A mass of hair falls on each shoulder. The eyes are painted black and there are black and red lines on the garment and the seat.2561) cat. 323 Cat. 110. 6. references  Cesnola 1885. 5⅛ in. The body. nos. Buchholz 1991. 614. Buchholz 1991.4. Ibid.51.248. He rests his hands on their heads.c. 4. 111. 13. Cat. 85–87.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1139 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. Kleibl 2008. Cat. 323 Statuette of beardless Zeus Ammon. LXXXVII. The beardless face has a smiling expression.584. There are traces of red paint on the seat and on the garment. 321 Small statuette of Zeus Ammon seated.250.51. Fourrier 2001. pl.c. 1874–76 (74. He occupies a throne with a wide rectangular back and supports in the form of rams’ foreparts. 615. 10. and with armrests where he places his forearms. covered by a long garment. XXXVIII. 1874–76 (74. with a ram’s head. no. Limestone H.9 cm) Found in a tomb at Golgoi Myres 1138 The Cesnola Collection.51. 321 showing the god wearing a lamb skin and holding a cornucopia. pl. 3. p. Buchholz 1991. 23. 322 Small statuette of Zeus Ammon seated.2560) description  The god. 21. references  Cesnola 1885. p. 22.contents cat.5 The statue makes the transition to the images of Pan popular in the Hellenistic period.3. Limestone H. is very awkwardly represented. p. 10. 185. 5. Hermary 1992b.c. 608. to them must be added three largescale heads found on the site in 1862 and now in the Louvre. with a ram’s head First half of the 6th b. (8. 2. Counts 2004. 45. There are curls on the forehead between the large ram’s horns. pp. 111. his hands on the armrests. high-backed throne. pl. references  Cesnola 1885. Limestone H. no. 1874–76 (74. over the left shoulder. pl. notes 1.6 They confirm that this type of dedication was made in the sanctuary until almost the beginning of the Hellenistic period. p. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. p. 7.3. Hermary 1989a. fig. sits on a wide. (13 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1137 The Cesnola Collection. XXXVIII. no.

nos. especially the one on the right.5 notes 1. fig. 184. p. (16. Buchholz 1991.8. Karageorghis 1998. Cat. The hands rest on the heads of the rams that flank the throne. no. 2. 2006. 116. 1874–76 (74. Hermary 2009a. (18. 49g–m. 454) and the works in the round below. references  Cesnola 1885. 14. pl. Purchased by subscription.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1140 The Cesnola Collection. The armrests of the throne project at the back. .2 The hairstyle of the large heads Cat. no. The execution is very summary. 3. 325 description  The statuette is very flat and the surface worn. 47–48.contents cat. 1874–76 (74. 397. an Apollo Kitharoidos from the middle of the fifth century b.c. like the reliefs with the image of the god (Cat.c. pp.1 as is the case for the Chatsworth Apollo from Tamassos. Myres 1940–45a. 448. 67⁄16 in. 66–67. 5. He rests his hands on the heads of the rams that. 116. attests to an earlier adoption of the Greek iconography of the god. pp. 64. Buchholz 1991. 331 shows that they belonged to statues of the god or of a priest assuming his appearance. 66–68.2673) cat. p.51. LXXXVII.4 A statue from Voni shows the figure holding a scroll in his left hand on which a bird rests. 325 Statuette of Zeus Ammon 4th century b. 219. references  Cesnola 1885.2662) 242 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures Most of the dedications found in the sanctuary of Golgoi– Ayios Photios are to Apollo. or Hellenistic period Limestone H. fig. 117. 451. 45. LXXXVII. pl.51. 324 Statuette of Zeus Ammon. 328. seated 4th century b. The animals are summarily rendered. but they probably do not predate the Hellenistic period.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1136 The Cesnola Collection. Karageorghis 1998. 13. 14. the high back of which is broken at the top left. Bouquillon et al.582. The bearded face is very worn. 324 Cat. Apollo (cat. like others from Idalion3 and Lefkoniko. Connelly 1988. 450. 44. 7⅛ in. 74. pl. 627.1. Ibid. 16. In the sanctuary near Malloura. pl. 169. 4. p. the high back of which has finials in the form of horns. originally flanked the seat. V. see Cat.. 401. p. Senff 1993. pl. pl.583.c. p.5. The garment is raised above the excessively skinny legs. 326–331) description  The god occupies a seat. figs. no. (?) Limestone H. fig. now missing. V. 329. Purchased by subscription.

The peplos falls to the lower legs on the back and the red paint is well preserved.  172. which starts at the right shoulder. There is a wreath of laurel around the head. apollo (cat. pl. 153. may have been used to hold the kithara.844. 326–331) 243 . The head is turned slightly to its left. Cesnola 1885.7.2672) peplos buttoned on the shoulders and held by a belt decorated with rosettes and palmettes. the half-open mouth is smiling. The eyeballs and the pupils were inlaid in bone or horn. They form a knot above the forehead. 326 Cat.  36. 1874–76 (74.51. Mid-length curls surround the face and cover the ears. description  Both forearms are missing. 326 Statuette of Apollo Hellenistic period Limestone H. pl. the side and bent. The right leg is to references  Doell 1873. of which only the top of one upright survives. Cesnola 1877. 205⁄16 in. p.  VI. CXVI. The baldric. imitating the hairstyle of Apollo Lykeios. p. (51. There are deep folds between the legs as well as a fig. Purchased by subscription.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1239 The Cesnola Collection. no. The god wears a belted chiton with an overfold.contents cat.

The head is turned toward the left. The central rib of the leaves is in relief. references  Cesnola 1885. The ridge of the nose is flat. pl.51. The eyes are slightly sunk in their orbs. twisted curls that entirely cover the ears and spread onto the nape of the neck. 10¾ in.51.2815) description  The bottom of the face has been damaged description  The back of the head is missing. which is open at the center.662. The head is circled by a wide laurel wreath that is better preserved on the right. there are traces of red paint. 1874–76 (74. the half-open mouth is deeply hollowed out and shows traces of red paint.  XCVII. 70. 1874–76 (74. fig. The top of the head is flat. pp. is entirely surrounded by thick curls. The nose is delicate and the wide-open eyes connect with the eyebrow arches. (27. 112.659. cat. 328 Lifesize head of Apollo Hellenistic period Limestone H. fig. Connelly 1988. pp. references  Cesnola 1885. (31.  48. 79. and the curls on the left. 327 244 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . apparently knotted above the forehead around the stem of the laurel wreath. fig. 12½ in. the surface is worn and a central part visible.  48. The upper ones are thicker and extend over the lower lids. Purchased by subscription.  XCVII.6 (findspot is incorrect). On the top of the head are wavy locks on either side of a central part. Purchased by subscription. 113. The face is surrounded by thick. The face. Connelly 1988. the eyelids carefully rendered. breaks on the chin. pl.contents Cat. the nose.2838) Cat. with a hollow at the top of the forehead. The head is turned toward the left and barely inclined.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1320 The Cesnola Collection. 14. Hermary 2009a.8 cm) “From the ruins of Karpass” Myres 1318 The Cesnola Collection. There are since the discovery. 327 Over-lifesize head of Apollo Hellenistic period Limestone H.

1874–76 (74.5. is in high relief and open at the center. Purchased by subscription.contents cat. (29. apollo (cat.  XCVII. 111. Connelly 1988. 11½ in. Hermary 2009a. and the right lower locks. The face is surrounded by thick curls. the nose.2821) description  There are breaks on the back of the head. 14. the wreath. The laurel wreath.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1321 The Cesnola Collection. fig.  48. 326–331) 245 .663. the eyes set deep in their sockets under the eyebrow arches. The canal of each ear is pierced by a small drill hole. references  Cesnola 1885. 328 cat. 79. consisting of groups of three or four leaves. pp. The mouth is half open and smiling. fig. 329 Lifesize head of Apollo Hellenistic period Limestone H. The two folds on the neck seem to indicate that the head was turned to the right. pl. 329 Cat.51.

 47. pl. which seems to be the case.7 cm) Myres 1200 The Cesnola Collection. pl. p. fig. The very wide-open eyes—the left one more deeply set—are surrounded by thick eyelids. 246 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . The left leg is to the side and bent.contents cat. pl.661. The wavy locks are represented only on the back.997. 330 Cat. pl. The full hair covers the ears. X.7. 14. Purchased by subscription. The right hand grasps the garment and may hold an object. The head is turned reference  Cesnola 1885.2768) Cat. 48. pp. Purchased by subscription. pl.  XXI. 110. 111⁄16 in. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1872.1 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. commentary  If the head belongs to the body. twisted locks. fig. 1915⁄16 in. The figure wears a peplos fastened by a round fibula on each shoulder. 62–63. even though no other attribute is preserved.2694) description  The right arm and the left forearm are missing. the right cheekbone more pronounced.6. The ears and the nape of the neck are covered by large. Connelly 1988.51. description  The surface is worn. no. pp. A wide belt is partially hidden by another garment on the bent left arm. The overfold falls to just above the knees. (50. toward his left and the expression of the face is sullen.” A thick wreath of overlapping laurel leaves. “ringlets. 1874–76 (74. Hermary 2009a. A wreath consisting of two rows of laurel is set on the slanting top of the head.1). The peplos that the figure wears then points to Apollo. 330 Statuette of Apollo(?) Hellenistic period Limestone H. Doell 1873.51. the statuette is male. is set on the top of the rounded head.  223–24. V. CXXXIV. (28 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1319 The Cesnola Collection. The mouth is delicate. 545. Cesnola 1885. 331 Lifesize head of Apollo Late Hellenistic period Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. open at the center. XCVII. The locks of the forehead are pulled back on the sides. pp. The slightly raised head has a severe expression. it covers the hips and part of the back. 70.

Cesnola 1885. 2. the Cesnola Collection at the Metropolitan Museum contained fourteen representations of the god Pan. The eight other Pan statuettes or heads from the Cesnola Collection. nos.contents cat. pl. XXVI.c. Hermary 1989a. also come from Ayios Photios. pls. the sovereigns of Alexandria were eager to be assimilated to this god of fertility. and from Lefkoniko. the figure is ithyphallic in several cases.5 This iconography. p. p. which only occurs on Cyprus after the disappearance of the kingdoms. 332–337) 247 . Flourentzos 1989.4 Other sculptures of this type come from Malloura. from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. is probably connected to the new Ptolemaic power. 4. 623. 626. 187. The six statuettes that remain in the Museum belong to the iconographic type most frequently produced on Cyprus. notes 1. pp. 331 Pan (cat. However. I have not seen the work of Clay Cofer that he mentions. CXIX.3 sold in 1928. 332–337) Before the sale of 1928.1 They differ from the version widespread in the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic period and under the Roman empire in that the god here is always shown young and his bestiality is limited to the ears and the small goat horns. 8. References in Counts 2004. 3. 311–14. Two heads in the Louvre attest to the presence of this type of image in the sanctuary of the city of Golgoi excavated in 1865. Hermary 1989a. Counts 2008. pan (cat. XXVII. 20. as on a few examples from the Cyprus Museum:2 these features are more characteristic of Attic representations of the fourth century  b. Flourentzos 1989.

and lower description  The left leg is to the side and slightly legs are missing. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. 20¼ in. 248 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . the left holds a syrinx against his side.51. p. 333 Statuette of Pan Hellenistic period Limestone H. The ears are pointed. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. the mouth is poorly indicated. the toes are not shown. 7. fig. (51. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. 332 Cat. CXVI. the left arm leans against a tree or a pillar. The nebris. a protuberance on the top of the head indicates two small horns. 1211⁄16 in. The nude body has a rounded abdomen. p.867.839. The right hand leans on a knotted pedum.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1224 The Cesnola Collection.51. knotted on the chest. (32. Counts 2004. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. Karageorghis 2000a. 11. The facial features are summarily rendered. pl. The right hand rests on the hip. no. The god stands. right arm.  CXIX.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1115 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885. The contrapposto is pronounced. left hand. Counts 2008. The back is carefully worked. fig. 19. advanced. pl. 332 Fragmentary statuette of Pan Hellenistic period Limestone H. There are many traces of red paint. 423. 180. his legs crossed with the left one advanced.2703) Cat. A nebris with one paw rests on the left shoulder and arm. covers the shoulders and both arms and falls to the back. and a pedum is wedged under the left arm. V.2735) description  The head.

865. 332–337) 249 . the left is to the side and bent. The description  The legs of the god are too short. reference  Cesnola 1885. 334 Statuette of Pan Hellenistic period Limestone H. (31. The nebris. The right hand leans on a schematic pedum. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. 334 cat. covers the shoulders and falls to the back.51. Purchased by subscription. knotted on the chest. A wide mass of hair spreads out above the shoulders. 335 Cat. badly rendered horns on the top of the head. 125⁄16 in.51. he is legs project in high relief from the block. 335 Statuette of Pan Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. The facial features are summarily rendered.2737) Cat. ithyphallic. The nebris. 1874–76 (74. pl. Purchased by subscription. CXIX. 1874–76 (74. The back is flat.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1116 The Cesnola Collection. CXIX. The pedum is not shown under the right hand. the left hand holds the syrinx. (23. pl. pan (cat. knotted on the chest. reference  Cesnola 1885.2734) description  It is not certain that the head belongs. The facial features are summarily shown.contents cat.859. the left holds the syrinx. 9⅛ in. There are goat ears and small. 333 cat. covers the shoulders. There are goat ears and small horns on the top of the head.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1118 The Cesnola Collection.

d. Purchased by subscription. 219⁄16 in.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1117 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. 337 Statuette of Pan Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. covers the shoulders.2736) description  The flat body is awkwardly rendered. The pedum on which the right hand leans is barely shown. reference  Cesnola 1885. A schematic nebris. the space between them solid. (54. A mass of hair spreads out onto the back. 250 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . Cat.866. A nebris knotted around the neck covers the shoulders and falls to the back. Several locks on the forehead are shown. The ears are pointed and there are small goat horns. Purchased by subscription. reference  Cesnola 1885. 336 description  The body is elongated and stiff. pl. Cesnola found two inscribed plinths with the feet of a figure in a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Labranios on the hill of Phasoula. The right hand holds a very summarily rendered pedum. a syrinx against his side. The mouth and the chin are partially missing. 338–339) summary. The right arm is held to the side of the body.862. knotted on the chest. The facial features are poorly rendered. The legs are slightly spread. the execution Zeus (cat. Many sculptures of Zeus of the second to third century a. near Limassol. the left holds the syrinx. There are goat ears and small horns.51. the eyebrows asymmetrical. the locks are very schematic. 1874–76 (74. CXIX. The back is flat and there are toolmarks. 336 Statuette of Pan Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. pl. note 1. See Hermary 1992c. (36.contents Cat.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1114 The Cesnola Collection. the left. 149⁄16 in.2733) cat. were found later at the same place.51. CXIX. He is ithyphallic.1 which indicates that these two statues also represented the god himself.

2403) description  On the roughly finished plinth are two feet. 1874–76 (74.d. (56 cm). pl. W. D. zeus (cat. 337 cat. (22 cm). (61 cm). probably the scepter of Zeus. The strap across the base of the toes is clearly visible. reference  Cesnola 1903. (18 cm). W. the strap across the base of the toes clearly visible.1. They are shod in sandals. description  On the very damaged upper surface of the They are separated. 338 cat.51. H. the sole thick. Purchased by subscription. 155⁄16 in.2402) Cat. H. A hollow indicates the original placement of the right foot. 1874–76 (74. The foot wears a sandal. 221⁄16 in. 24 in. Purchased by subscription. pl. (39 cm) Limestone Sanctuary of Zeus Labranios at Phasoula Myres 1915 The Cesnola Collection. 71⁄16 in. The statue was dedicated by Oliasas to Zeus Labranios. 811⁄16 in.contents cat. 339 Plinth with the left foot of a statue of Zeus Second or third century a. 1711⁄16 in. A support or the lower border of a garment is perceptible between the feet. (45 cm) Limestone Sanctuary of Zeus Labranios at Phasoula Myres 1914 The Cesnola Collection. CXLIII. The sole follows the contour of the feet. At the corner near the left foot is the point of attachment of an attribute. with the right foot turned slightly outward. 338 Plinth with the feet of a statue of Zeus Second or third century a.d. CXLIII.51. reference  Cesnola 1903. plinth are the left foot of the god and probably the lower part of his garment. D.2. 338–339) 251 . 339 Cat.

they confront two lions standing on their hind feet with mouths open. reconstruction of a group showing the combat between the hero and the monster is hypothetical. The toenails are visible as well as the ridge of the shin. (52. summarily roughed out. held at the waist by a wide belt. Veronica Tatton-Brown contested the interpretation of these figures as the triple Geryon. Three legs are advanced. he bears the very large body of a helmeted warrior whose arms hang alongside his head. commentary  This statue belongs to a series that is well represented at Golgoi. The hero. belted kilts stand back to back. On the left. Perseus is shown preparing to decapitate the Gorgon. preferring “a multicorporate warrior known to the Easterner although anonymous to us. Purchased by subscription. Armed with swords. 20¾ in. On his right shoulder. The forms of Geryon’s bodies are roughed out on the back. lion killers in the Cypriot and Eastern tradition. turns his head away.contents Various Male Mythological Figures (cat. the three left ones each hold a shield decorated with a scene in low relief. for the viewer.2591) cat. Two figures with smooth hair and short. are in the background.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1292 The Cesnola Collection. Another scene is shown in relief on the short kilt. 1874–76 (74. turned to the right.c. the decoration on this statue of “Geryon” is entirely “positive”: on the tunic. helmeted. On the shield to the viewer’s left. 340 Fragmentary statue of the “Triple Geryon” Second half of the 6th century b. but also attested by terracotta works at Pyrga and at Maa. the front legs of which are human. 340 detail 252 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . a helmeted warrior.” Even if the iconographic schema is unquestionably that of the Archaic Greek Geryon1 and representations of Herakles are many in the sanctuary of Ayios Photios. The three right arms were raised. The shield to the right is also poorly preserved. The three other legs. she is shown frontally with raised arms and with three snakes above her head. To the left is another helmeted warrior. holds a spear and a shield. wears a short tunic and holds a shield. on the cat. turned to the left. and whose legs. Limestone H. fall in front of the warrior who carries him. who holds a sword and an object (Phrygian cap?) in his raised left hand. Moreover. the ends of which are broken. One can distinguish only the lower part of a centaur. On the shield at the center. the one on the right is taller. heroes. poorly preserved. the right one. Athena.51. on the extension of the plinth. the other two right legs. especially as Herakles is attested neither at Pyrga nor at Maa. 340 detail description  The upper part of the statue is missing. is a left leg. 340–356) Cat. The arms of the figures are awkwardly depicted.

Steinhart 2003. 1990. 156. no. Karageorghis 1998. pl.  69. 388. pl. pp. fig. Hermary 2002. fig. figs. Cesnola 1885. Greek heroic narratives. fig.  III.2 a theme now attested on a sarcophagus from Palaepaphos. p. Brize 1980. 2.  172–73. 1. LXXXIII. 193. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 1. Hermary 2002. with Perseus decapitating the Gorgon under the protection of Athena (compare the Golgoi sarcophagus. V. 6. 3. 2.3 These two images appear to want to evoke the Argive (Perseus) and Aeginetan (Ajax.  491) and. 60–61.5.4 The question of the identification of this “triple Geryon” must therefore remain open.2. p. Karageorghis 1981. Tatton-Brown 1984.  3*.8. various male mythological figures (cat. p.  81. but Ajax carrying the body of Achilles. Picón et al.1. brother of Teucros. pl.  187. Hermary 2002. 2. 290. fig. at the center. pl. 317–18. no. 4. founder of Salamis) origins of a part of the Cypriot population. no. figs. no.  7. pl. Karageorghis 2000a.contents cat. p. Steinhart 2003. Flourentzos 2007. V. Brize 1988.544. pp. 340 shields. 340–356) 253 . Cesnola 1877.  39. not Herakles and the Kerkopes as Myres thought. Raptou 2007. pp. Cat. 277–79.  141. references  Doell 1873.  VII. Brize 1980. 1. pp. 2007.  XXXIII. fig. 1988. 24. V.

 2½ in. no. 26. The helmet. The shields hide the bodies.  p. The heads wear helmets with crests. 142. p. beneath which the mass of hair flares out. 341 Statuette of the “Triple Geryon” Late 6th or early 5th century b. W. The bodies.2.2586) description  The three upper bodies and the head in the center remain. The right arms are raised. the head on the viewer’s right is missing. 60.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1293 The Cesnola Collection. (6.c. p. the right arm of the body on the right has a hole for the insertion of a weapon.2587) description  In this miniature group. Karageorghis 1998. Brize 1988. Limestone H. p. 342 254 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . Steinhart 2003. The back is detailed: a single belt. W. 3 in. The nose is pointed and the eyes elongated. 2a*. references  Cesnola 1877. fig. Purchased by subscription.51. no. 60. is surmounted by a crest and covers the entire head. with vertical strands. the lower legs are missing and the surface is worn. pl. form a single block. Cat. no. no. Brize 1988. fig. of Greek type. Myres 1294 The Cesnola Collection. 3. Purchased by subscription. partially hidden by the shields. Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. pl. 1874–76 (74. 70. 141. 8. The head is bearded. Brize 1980. 342 Small statuette of the “Triple Geryon” Late 6th or 5th century b. (17.1. pl. LVII.contents cat.c.  LVII. Steinhart 2003.389. (12.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios cat.4 cm). Limestone H. V.51. 341 Cat. links the three bodies. The work is very rudimentary. the base of the helmet is marked by two bands in relief. 4. p. 8.5 cm). 415⁄16 in.390.  156. Brize 1980. those to the right and to the left. Karageorghis 1998. V. 4*. The shields are decorated with a motif in relief: on the left a sphinx. with small breaks. 613⁄16 in. references  Cesnola 1885. fig. at the center probably a lion. (7. Two raised right arms remain. and helmeted. painted red. have incised motifs. pl. 71. fig. 25. fig.

The face is fragmentary. 6⅜ in. extended tongue. A mass of hair falls beneath the neck guard.  343). 340). Limestone H. 1874–76 (74.51. 344 Fragmentary head of the “Triple Geryon”(?) 6th or 5th century b. pl.2588) right.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1121 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription.370.391. 5⅝ in. the left arm. Cat. 344 cat. it is likely that both heads belong to a representation of the same subject. A mass of hair falls beneath the neck guard. The right ear is painted red. Purchased by subscription. The head is that of Bes. 343 cat.c. protruding buttocks. pl. description  The legs. 345 Statuette of Bes Late 6th or early 5th century b. various male mythological figures (cat.2585) description  The helmeted head is slanted toward its description  The face of the helmeted head is fragmen- Cat. The crest of the helmet is turned toward the front. The crest of the helmet is turned toward the front. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. The nude figure has a round abdomen and small. (15. (14. Limestone H. near the statue of the “triple Geryon” (Cat. Limestone H. LVII.c. with her grimacing features. (16. 343 Fragmentary head of the “Triple Geryon”(?) 6th or 5th century b. 345 Cat. and lion ears.contents cat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios The Cesnola Collection.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1292A The Cesnola Collection. pl. The position of the head seems to indicate that it belonged to a group. reference  Cesnola 1885. As it may have been found with the preceding piece (Cat.2613) tary. 6⅛ in. The right ear is broken.c. reference  Cesnola 1885. LVII. 340–356) 255 . and the right hand are missing.51. LVII. Purchased by subscription. The very schematic right ear is painted red.392.51. 1874–76 (74.

 346 Small head of a Silen(?) Late 6th or early 5th century b. with shoulders hunched. 256 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures commentary  The identification of the head is difficult: the face vaguely resembles that of a Silen. is faintly smiling. Limestone H. with a wide mass of braided hair at the back. 347 Under-lifesize head of the god Hermes(?) Early 5th century b. 347 Cat. Cat. Limestone H. painted red.” reference  Cesnola 1885. On the . LXI.2688) description  The smiling. pl. 1941 (41. 346 cat. (14.51. the very large eyes are lidless. youthful face has a pointed nose and flat eyeballs with no eyelids indicated. the snub nose is broken at the top.418. There are large curls on the forehead and a headband in the form of a roll. 5⅞ in. twisted locks converge toward the crown. 3 in. (7.contents cat. the mustache falls to the sides. The pointed beard is separated into incised strands. 1874–76 (74.6 cm) “From Idalium” Anonymous Gift. On the head. The large mouth. Purchased by subscription.163) description  The top of the back shows that the figure was leaning forward. the ears summarily represented. but one could also define it as “personalized.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1078 The Cesnola Collection.c.c.

If the projections at the front are wings. as with Bes. Purchased by subscription. 59⁄16 in. is long at the back. The right arm was raised. Limestone H. summary locks. LXXXI. with a pinkish slip. The legs were very far apart. An object was attached at the right breast.c. pl. 348 Statuette of Bes or a Silen Early 5th century b. The face has a smiling expression. the body is turned toward its left. 144.2610) reference  Cesnola 1885. (14. 348 forehead are two tiers of small. LVII. 354. depicted with a winged cap on contemporary Attic pottery. bound by a fillet.1 1. cat. The hair. pl. no. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. The face has a rounded beard and the features of a Silen.  LVII. cat. 1874–76 (74. the right one broken at the top. (11 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1123 The Cesnola Collection. and the left forearm are missing. The head is covered with a kind of helmet. references  Cesnola 1885. now broken. wavy beard. this head must be that of the god Hermes. 349 Fragmentary statuette of a Silen(?) First half of the 5th century b.371. The body is nude. The figure is in violent movement. V. the large eyes are bulbous. The hair forms a long rectangular mass at the back and the line between the buttocks is indicated. commentary  The headdress of the figure is a kind of pilos rather than a helmet with cheekpieces. 1874–76 (74. 45⁄16 in.2611) description  The legs. which is rounded at the nape of the neck and has two striated “wings” that jut upward.contents Myres 1122 The Cesnola Collection. and there are small animal ears on the head.530. covered. Boardman 1975. the right arm. Purchased by subscription. Limestone H. 349 various male mythological figures (cat. Cat. 340–356) 257 . like the face.51.c. to the right. fig. He turns toward his left and extends both arms. and the small animal ears suggest a Silen.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios long. with a Cat.369. description  Preserved is the bust of a nude figure. the left was bent with the hand on the upper abdomen. The tongue is extended. Karageorghis 2000a.51.

the head does not belong Hellenistic period Limestone H.875. reference  Cesnola 1885.1 cm) Myres 1243 The Cesnola Collection. It is likely a thyrsos. Cat. pl. 351 Statuette of Eros Hellenistic period Hard limestone H. The small hollow in which it was attached is modern. which was restored. cat. Purchased by subscription.2670) description  The head. The figure of Dionysos stands on an oval plinth. but it is shown wreathed in the Atlas. knotted at the top is a piece of cloth that falls far to the sides. He wears a short. the face a serious expression. belted chiton under the pelt of a deer with its head down. with triangular flaps painted red. It was probably associated with a round mortise hollowed out under the belt. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. 350 Statuette of Dionysos holding a thyrsos. he wears a segmented baldric. pl CXX. The nude god. has been removed. a furrow lines the forehead. (51. held an object against his abdomen.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1091 The Cesnola Collection. The head has not been identified. Purchased by subscription. (25. There are traces of red paint on the garment. The left arm holds a large shaft. 1874–76 (74.51. 350 Cat. probably a wreath. He wears soft boots that reach to mid-calf. The legs and the arms are missing. with large vertical wings. 351 258 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures . and the eyes. 20⅛ in. the ears. A baldric passes over the right shoulder.2746) description  The head belongs to a statuette of the god Pan.contents of which a triangular element remains. cat.367. which is restored at the top. 1874–76 (74. The head has pointed animal ears. LVII. broken at the top. the thyrsos. On his right side there was probably an object or an animal. 10 in. the left leg to the side and slightly bent.

329. all the more interesting as the pediment comes from the Golgoi necropolis. The drapery passes under the belt at the level of the hips. the arms thick. and even the tunic worn in the style of a kilt remind one of the images of Bes. 1874–76 (74. horns on the head. 352 references  Cesnola 1885. thick twisted curls cover the ears. commentary  This unusual figure is identified as a supernatural being by the presence of two small. 328. The thick. cat. twisted locks recall those of several heads of Apollo found at the same site (Cat. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back. He wears a thin headband.51. crescent-shaped horns. no.  LXXXVII. It is impossible to attribute a name to this figure. The small side figures on a funerary pediment Cat. but it provides an important testament to the worship performed in the sanctuary during the Hellenistic period. 482 provide a comparison. various male mythological figures (cat. Karageorghis 2000a. 241⁄16 in. The massive and stocky aspect. His left foot is slightly advanced and to the side. now broken.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1203 The Cesnola Collection. probably bovine. pl. In his right hand he holds upside down a small lion of which only scant traces remain. with a flat chisel and a tool with fine teeth (gradine). The lower body. like the Archaic and Classical Bes from whom it derives. 340–356) 259 . The left hand. Purchased by subscription. but they are earlier and fit into a better defined iconographic tradition.contents Cat. the lion that he holds. 352 God or demon holding a small lion Hellenistic period Limestone H. The nose and eyes are very damaged. The toes are partially broken. 331) and confirm a date during the Hellenistic period. His face wears a smirk. 412. frequent at Amathus. and corkscrew locks fall onto the shoulders. was raised and attached to the shoulder.579. which has many toolmarks. from the waist down. The position of the raised left hand may be interpreted as a gesture of greeting directed toward the principal god (Apollo) or the worshippers of the sanctuary. V. The back of the left shoulder is restored. The chest is fat. (61. There are curls on the top of the head. is covered with a pleated tunic painted pink.2747) description  The figure has small.

260 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures Cat. The torso is unfinished. He holds against his left side a large object. the animal ears. pl. 1874–76 (74.346.2339) . and a furrowed forehead. 353 Cat. The chisel marks. thick lips. (29.contents cat. small round eyes. partly unfinished Hellenistic period Limestone H. but the facial features are finished: a snub nose. have not been removed.2773) description  The lower part of the body from the hips down is missing. Red paint has been applied to the lips and the eyes. 354 Statuette of an oriental god or hero (?).51. LIV.51. with syllabic inscription Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. The beard. 353 Fragmentary statuette of a Silen. 13⅜ in. perhaps a wineskin. Purchased by subscription. 11½ in. 1874–76 (74. The back is only partly articulated.2 cm) From Kition Myres 1225 The Cesnola Collection. in narrow bands. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. that appears to start at the nape of the neck. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1846 The Cesnola Collection. The figure puts his broken right hand on his very rounded abdomen. (34 cm) From Kourion. and the locks on the forehead are summarily roughed out.

A cape. The locks on the forehead are pulled to the sides. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1231 The Cesnola Collection. falls in two panels on the back. The figure wears a chiton held by a belt. the lappets of which fall to the shoulders. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. (23. Cesnola 1903. The back of the block serves as a support for the legs. 187.2728) description  The lower legs and part of the right arm are missing. CXX. There are breaks on the sides.6. references  Cesnola 1885. the lappets of which fall forward onto the chest. the neck is long. Mitford 1971. pl. Purchased by subscription. 355 Statuette of an oriental god or hero (?) Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. A cape. the right leg is slightly advanced. pl. with two elements in relief.  LXXXV. The pendants hanging from the ears indicate that the figure is of eastern origin (or a woman?). On the head is an oriental cap. no. Both lowered hands held an object (a piece of fruit in the left?). CXXVII. The facial features are roughed out. various male mythological figures (cat. The seven syllabic signs of the inscription on the front of the plinth are difficult to interpret. The thin face recalls figurines of Tanagra style. 9⅛ in. pl.2 cm) From Kourion. The figure wears a mid-length tunic held by a belt. 340–356) 261 . the ends of which fall to the knees. rests on the shoulders and extends over the back. painted red on the sides. 22. reference  Cesnola 1885. 354 description  The right foot and the right hand are missing. the ends of which fall to the knees. The pendant in the right ear indicates that the figure is of eastern origin (or a woman?). draped over the shoulders. Above the locks on the forehead. no.51.876.562. The left hand rests on the hip. Masson 1961/1983. 355 Cat. cat. the head is covered with an oriental cap.

 356 Statuette of an oriental god or hero (?) Hellenistic or early Roman period Hard limestone H. belted with an overfold. was clearly bent back and fixed to the hip at the level of the wrist by a large tenon. pinkish on the surface. The figure stands on the left leg. modern. falls to the knees. . largely broken. 1874–76 (74. probably originates from the region of Kourion.51. There is a bracelet on the right wrist. The horizontally pleated sleeves cover the arms entirely. The elongated face has a sullen expression. A chiton. The left arm. The joins and the square mortises under the knees are. The features are quite coarse. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1350 The Cesnola Collection. given the placement of the cap extensions on the shoulders relative to the cap itself. perhaps. Above the short locks on the forehead is an oriental cap. 31 in. The back is barely roughed out and there are marks of the point. 356 Cat. the right leg bent.7 cm) From Kourion. It is 262 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures not at all certain that the head belongs. (78. Purchased by subscription. they are covered by pleated trousers.contents cat.2477) description  The hard limestone. the lappets of which fall to the front on the shoulders.

 181. 126 (findspot is incorrect). 2. pp.” without further detail). 1874–76 (74. but the absence of marked breasts suggests the opposite. 355. 357–358) 263 . excavated in 1865). pp. but one hesitates about the gender.4 1. are also known. “from Golgoi. pl. Purchased by subscription. pose a problem of interpretation. 823–825. Her principal place of worship in the region is Arsos: J. The Great Goddess (Aphrodite) (cat. pl. 422. from the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion. pp. CCVI. 169–78. Vermaseren 1982. Karageorghis 1998. and jewelry on an oriental man is not at all surprising. no. no. p. Hermary 1989a. The goddess stands on her left leg. J. 3. 17. 833 (sanctuary in the city. offered locally to a god or a hero considered to be oriental. Limestone H. 357 Aphrodite holding Eros Second half of the 4th century b. Karageorghis 2000a. even less so given that the Graeco-Thracian goddess represented at Pyla2 does not seem to wear trousers as in the usual representations. the right leg the great goddess (aphrodite) (cat. 356. 817. cat. 3. Mitford 1971. Masson 1961/1983. and the left hand of Aphrodite are missing as are the head and lower legs of Eros. p.4 The complex evolution of the image of the major female divinity of Cyprus has been recounted most recently by Jacqueline Karageorghis and Anja Ulbrich.3 but in the sanctuary of Kourion several dedications to a hero. 816 (very beautiful head from the beginning of the fifth century. The earrings on the first two seem to designate a woman. Karageorghis 2005. 422. 357 commentary  The statuettes Cat. Ulbrich 2008. The type of goddess wearing a vegetal kalathos. V.  CII. 2. Masson 1966. the right forearm. is not unknown at Golgoi or in its region.4 notes 1. This name could indicate an oriental origin. V. Cf. 65–102. Karageorghis 2000a. They are probably connected with worship. 693.contents to the absence of offerings similar to those in other Cypriot sanctuaries. references  Cesnola 1885. 357–358) The deity is conventionally called the Great Goddess. 178. owing to their relatively late date and Cat. The garment unquestionably indicates a figure of oriental origin. The identification of these figures as Artemis-Bendis1 is therefore not totally convincing. fig.2464) description  The lower legs. fig.51. V.c. 354.  222. (126. nos. 4.675. 49¾ in. Karageorghis 2005. Attis has been considered. Ulbrich 2008. 4. 305–6. a title attested at Amathus in the Imperial period. nos. 10.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1405 The Cesnola Collection. 821 (Malloura). It is difficult to see in these statues the image of ordinary worshippers whose garments would simply mark their ethnic origins. 25. Vermaseren 1982. no. however. p. no. Aupert 2006. 65–66. Perseutas.2 The fact that the Great Goddess did not play an important role in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios3 explains the scarcity of her representations in the Cesnola Collection.

fig. pl. The garment.695. or Hellenistic period Limestone H.  Karageorghis 2005. Vermeule 1976. 1. 358 264 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures .c. with its central element. no. fig.. The stiffness of the pleats on the legs is archaistic. Aphrodite would have been represented as part of a group with members of the Salaminian royal family. pl. above all. pl. Treasured Masterpieces 1972.) had chosen to have an archaistic head of the Great Goddess represented on his gold coinage and that Pnytagoras (351–322 b. Karageorghis 2000a. between modernity and conservatism. with other heads from the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios.  14.a. V. p. p. p.c.  166. 1874–76 (74.2640) cat. Sørensen 1981. The face is oval. The head represented separately is seen. 90 and 251 is possible: in this case.  341. On her left arm. its point of attachment visible on the right breast. Karageorghis 2005. Karageorghis 1998. Hermary 1982. A pendant in the form of a cone surmounted by a disk is attached to each ear. and if the figure holding a bull protome is really King Pnytagoras of Salamis. fig. on an early photograph. 20. commentary  This lifesize statue is the only one in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios that obviously represents a female divinity. p. At each end is a nude frontal woman.c. p. Delivorrias et al. pl. It covers the left arm and the legs and. references  Cesnola 1877. 264. CVII. the one on the left held an object in each hand. a necklace with elongated pendants hangs around the neck. a connection with the two male statues Cat.  XXXII.2 The structure of the face and the hairstyle over the forehead.contents was advanced and bent. consisting of a chiton buttoned on the right arm with traces of red paint on the forearm.51. no. Ulbrich 2008. with fig. the Great Goddess of Cyprus. 2. another section turns upward on the hip. inspired by local works from the first half or the middle of the fifth century b. 358 Fragment of a crown belonging to an over-lifesize statue of the Great Goddess Second half of the 4th century b. 310. p. Let us recall that King Nikokles (371–361  b. On each side. His right arm rests above the breast of Aphrodite.5 These hypotheses must. forms a thick fold of drapery that falls on the left thigh. 115. with bent legs. fig. 4.  299. the locks at the ears. no. the decoration of the kalathos. p. Marangou 2000. Hermary 1982. XX. be considered cautiously. or a little later. p. fig. 88.4 The work is therefore typical of the spirit that characterizes the Cypriot kingdoms in the middle and the second half of the fourth century b. Cat. 169. The locks on the forehead form a projecting element at the top and on each side falls a long lock. On the left shoulder.) had the same Aphrodite represented wearing a crenelated crown. (20.. and the nose and the mouth are damaged. 37.c.c. p. Purchased by subscription. The right arm is bent. Vessberg 1956. refer to Greek sculptures from around the middle of the second half of the fourth century b.  206. 1984. a draped himation extends upward behind the head like a veil. Sørensen 1981. however. 3. V.2. J. Her absence in Doell’s catalogue is most likely explained by the fact that the connection between the head and the body had not yet been made. The figure of Eros may indicate a significant Praxitelean influence.  167. IX. In the intervals are a large flower and palmettes. 5. 141. very visible on the lower folds of the himation.c.  43. clearly identified with Aphrodite by the presence of Eros. p. 6. Cesnola 1885. 115. painted red.3 cm) “From Leucolla” Myres 1375 The Cesnola Collection. Picón et al. Ulbrich 2008. forms a rounded fold that partially hides the knotted belt. the chin is heavy. part of the headdress has been restored by Charles Balliard. J. the hand held an object. nevertheless.1 There is therefore no reason to think that it would have been found in another sanctuary of the region. Given its date and the unique character of this work in the sanctuary. p. the goddess carries a small Eros. Other Cypriot limestone female heads attest to the diffusion of these new types on Cyprus. 106. 2007. Another nude woman occupied the center. at the level of the pelvis. the eyes are deep in their sockets. 98. and. 8 in. A twisted bracelet fits tightly around the left wrist.5.1. 215.3 The archaistic intention is. pl. no. on which there are also traces of his left hand. Connelly 1991.  154. The top of the head supports a tall crown with decoration in relief on a background covered with incised horizontal lines probably indicating the vegetal structure of the headdress. with long hair on the back and locks at the ears. no.

see Beer 2002 (but the head in Graz is in limestone.  Karageorghis 1998.2 leaving the heads aside. Cesnola 1885. the locks of hair schematically rendered. Ibid. A large overfold falls to the top of the thighs. 840. CXVII. Lower down.contents description  A part of the crown remains. 161–74. 1911⁄16 in.. Ibid. only three statuettes remained in the Metropolitan Museum. the eyes are barely outlined. vegetal stems end in palmettes and rosettes. Brehme et al. 5. The sanctuary may have been identified.102. 839. 4. eleven pieces were said to have arrived with the Cesnola Collection. 173. A tab of stone reinforces the back of the head and neck. Artemis (cat. pp. For limestone sculpture. Two statues from the Louvre show that this type of image was already offered in the sanctuary of Pyla at the beginning of the Classical period. XXVII.1 in the region of Cape Greco. pp. a baldric holds a thick quiver that is broken at the top. with two crenel- ations indicated realistically at the top. V. no. The right arm was at the side of the body. 838. The head is sculpted summarily. reference  Cesnola 1885.5 notes 1. 2. the breasts. the feet of which are bent and the floppy ears painted red. 1874–76 (74. 131. 836. the hand may have held a bow. nos. and the sides. flat back does not appear broken. partially hiding the shod feet. 182. artemis (cat. 2. Counts and Toumazou 2003. with a bracelet around the wrist. belted chiton. 359 description  It is unlikely that the head belongs. nos. Hadjisavvas 1997. 3. but the 1885 Atlas presents only seven. fig. Masson 1966. pl.4 It is noteworthy that images of Artemis are not attested at Golgoi–Ayios Photios. The right arm is missing.9 cm) Myres 1245 The Cesnola Collection. The goddess wears a long. no. 176–85. Behind the left shoulder. 359 Statuette of Artemis holding a young animal Hellenistic period Limestone H. 837. Purchased by subscription.3 Other statues from the Louvre show the evolution of the type up to the beginning of the Imperial period. pl  CXVII.. Subsequently.2738) cat.1 According to the Handbook of 1904. 1.848. pl. pp. Karageorghis 1998. Hermary 1989a. similar to a very large head with crenelated crown in Berlin. At the level of the abdomen. Was the head only partially shown? commentary  Cesnola claims to have found this fragment. 359–363) The presence of a quiver and/or a doe allows one to interpret certain female representations as Artemis. for a general presentation. The forearm is very thick. the top of the quiver would not fit easily. The right leg is to the side and slightly bent. but his discoveries were dispersed. not marble). the left hand holds a fawn or a lamb. 2001. 15–17. (49. on a site that he identifies with the ancient city of Leucolla. while they are at Malloura. 359–363) 265 .2 For the type of goddess with crenelated crown that evolves toward that of Tyche. 835. V. There is red paint on the shoulders. see also. p. references  Cesnola 1885.51. The smooth. the most important series by far comes from the sanctuary of Pyla excavated by Robert Hamilton Lang. Cat.

The back is flat and there are toolmarks.contents cat. Cat. 360 Cat. 1874–76 (74. clearly to the side. straps on each shoulder. and an overfold over the abdomen. 23⅞ in. Purchased by subscription. the feet are shod. 152. 361 Statuette of Artemis with a fawn Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H. fig. there is a restoration near the 266 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures left arm.2743) description  The head is too large for the body.2741) description  The goddess stands with the left leg to the side and slightly bent. (53 cm) “From the ruins of Golgoi” Myres 1244 The Cesnola Collection.51. The extended . CXVI. 360 Statuette of Artemis(?) holding two torches Hellenistic period Limestone H.841. There is a bracelet on each wrist. is slightly bent. The woman wears a chiton belted under her breasts. In each hand she holds a torch consisting of a bundle of branches. The himation covers the arm and falls along the legs. (60. There are many traces of red paint. 1874–76 (74. The right leg.6 cm) From the sanctuary at Pyla Myres 1240 The Cesnola Collection. p.51. 20⅞ in. pl. Purchased by subscription. Cesnola 1885. references  Cesnola 1877. There are traces of red paint. She wears a belted chiton with a long overfold and a himation draped over the left shoulder. It has a coarse face and a melon coiffure. The space between the torches and the body is solid.

references  Cesnola 1885. There are toolmarks on the back. A bow was probably attached. She wears a belted chiton. A baldric attached to the belt holds a quiver behind the right shoulder. has a smiling expression. The flat back is not worked.  CXVII. A generalized chignon is part of the support left against the nape of the neck. 132.849. Masson 1966. 12. 361 left hand holds a piece of fruit. on a support. the right hand touches the raised head of the fawn leaning against her. 182. Karageorghis 2000a.  17.  CXVII. 24⅞ in. 359–363) 267 . The small head. fig. 11. with a long overfold. p. 1874–76 (74.2742) description  The head appears too small for the body.contents cat.2 cm) From the sanctuary at Pyla Myres 1241 cat. The locks of the forehead. from which emerge the forequarters of a fawn. There are wavy locks on either side of a central part. V. A baldric attached to the belt supports a large quiver behind the right shoulder. hide the ears. 421. The face has coarse features. fig. p. pulled to the sides. artemis (cat. (63.853. 362 The Cesnola Collection. the muzzle of which she caresses with her right hand.  17. no. V. Purchased by subscription. fig. Masson 1966. The goddess leans with her left arm. from which hang two pendants. There is a pendant in each ear. and a himation draped over the left shoulder and arm. with coarse features. with contrapposto emphasized. but the join is perhaps viable. pl. On top of the head are wavy locks on either side of a central part. Cat. p. the left over the right. The hair is pulled to the sides and passes over a headband. references  Cesnola 1885. 362 Statuette of Artemis with a fawn Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H. Her legs are crossed. Karageorghis 1998.51. pl. now partially broken.

The forms of the body are summarily roughed out on the back.854. The right leg is slightly to the side and bent.2739) pendant consisting of a small disk and an oblong element decorates each ear.2729) 268 catalogue chapter 7 gods and mythological figures reference  Cesnola 1885. holds a quiver behind the right shoulder. 1874–76 (74. painted red.51. placed on the buttocks. painted red and attached to the belt. A baldric. 363 Cat. A support remains in place behind the nape of the neck.2 cm) From the sanctuary of Pyla Myres 1242 The Cesnola Collection. 363 Statuette of Artemis with a fawn Late Hellenistic or early Roman period Limestone H. 364) broken. . (64. the head is voluminous. 364 Under-lifesize statue of Hera or Demeter (?) Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. and a himation that covers the left shoulder and arm. 255⁄16 in. pl. the right forearm is Other Goddess (cat. are asymmetrical. The fine locks are pulled to the sides and held together in a wide chignon at the back. The neck shows Venus rings. belted below her breasts. 2613⁄16 in. A fawn leans against her right leg and raises its head toward the hand of the goddess who caressed it. Purchased by subscription. is hidden. 1874–76 (74. (68 cm) Myres 1250 The Cesnola Collection.51. Purchased by subscription. CXVII. description  The statuette is very flat.contents cat. The facial expression is serious. A Cat. The goddess wears a chiton with a long overfold. the eyes. The hand. On the top of the head are wavy locks on either side of a central part. The locks cover most of a flat headband.

references  Unpublished. no. ending in a tassel. insofar as it is closely connected to Greek models by both its style and the use of parts that were worked separately. 2. The bent left forearm was also added. a statue from the Heraion of Samos: Kossatz-Deissmann 1988. 71*. The head was set in a prepared hollow with a picked surface. 108*. The type of garment and.1 There is also a copy of a type known through several replicas and generally identified as a representation of Demeter. The right arm. for example. probably belongs to a himation. other goddess (cat. Beschi 1988. 364) 269 . It is therefore probable. Draped over the right shoulder and grasped by the left hand. no. Alphabetic dedication to the goddess: Masson 1971. The left leg is to the side and bent. in cat. 107. p. an interpretation as Demeter would appear preferable. 3. 1.3 but in the absence of an indication by Cesnola it is difficult to resolve. the himation passes over the left arm and falls rather far at the back. commentary  This small statue is exceptional in Cypriot limestone sculpture. 5. but also catalogued by Kossatz-Deissman 1988.contents cat. no. 327. was attached by a vertical mortise and secured with a tenon. as Elizabeth Milleker pointed out to me.2 In these works. The woman wears a thick peplos with an overfold and there are heavy pleats on the legs. the manner in which the fabric falls on the left arm find comparisons in Greek works of the end of the Classical or the beginning of the Hellenistic period. 364 particular. the proper left leg bears the weight. that the figure represents a divinity rather than an ordinary worshipper. no. 363 description  The figure stands on a circular plinth with her weight on the slightly askew right leg. separated from the body. The feet. If the work comes from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. See. nearly hidden by the garment. The fabric that protrudes on the right side of the waist and falls to the left thigh. The forms of the body are roughed out on the back and there are toolmarks. wear thick soles.

I would insist rather on the connection with the pastoral functions of the god of Ayios Photios. 1874–76 (74. are joined by two bands. 365 270 catalogue chapter 8 votive animals. and various offerings . Anatomical Reliefs. thick eyelids surround the large eyes. The head of the sphinx shows a smiling expression. Cat.51. 2. 365–378) This category is not homogeneous. Purchased by subscription.c. in large part broken and bearing traces of red and blue paint. There are other instances where Cesnola confused the findspot of the sanctuary of Ayios Photios and the necropolis (Cat. Hermary 1989a. 493). He wears a double Egyptianizing crown. which could be connected to the bovine form of the Egyptian goddess Hathor. 365 Finial of a votive stele (?) with a lion and a male sphinx Second quarter or middle of the 6th century b. (40. 161⁄16 in. eight other examples are found today in the Louvre. cat. 371) are attested only in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios.1 In the commentary of 1989. anatomical reliefs. Hermary 1989a. Cat. the head of each is turned toward the viewer. Seated back to back. but the groups depicting a cow suckling a calf (and probably a foal. The hair spreads out onto the sides. Partially broken. Limestone H.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?) Myres 1021 The Cesnola Collection. Its mane forms an unarticulated ruff. 492. revealing welldelineated teeth. nos. The wings. but today. commentary  The findspot given by Cesnola may seem surprising because one thinks first of connecting this unusual work with lions or sphinxes of funerary stelai. the mouth of the lion is wide open. 372) and the images of the god Pan. given the very limited character of female forms of worship in this sanctuary.2551) description  The front portion of a lion and a male sphinx with a long beard curled at its extremity remains. 953–960. However. also illustrated by the miniature sheepfold (Cat.2 I had given more importance to the symbolic aspect of suckling.contents catalogue chapter 8 Votive Animals. notes 1. and Various Offerings introduction (Cat.

 982. above all. Purchased by subscription. the double Egyptian crown of the sphinx. The sphinx being an image of the Egyptian pharaoh’s supernatural power and the lion the royal animal par excellence. 365 The mane is smooth. cat. fig. and various offerings (cat. references  Cesnola 1885. fig. The latter are well known in Greece at this time. V. Other lions and double-crowned sphinxes. Boardman 1978. (20.51. in the round and separated one from the other.548.c. a well-known royal symbol on Cyprus (see Cat. Particularly noteworthy is the relative position of the lion and the sphinx and. 1874–76 (74. It is therefore possible that these works belong to votive monuments in the form of stelai or columns crowned by a wild animal or a sphinx.  LXXXIV. anatomical reliefs. 100.3 are probably funerary statues. Karageorghis 2000a. 3. 366 Head of a lion from a votive stele (?) Late 6th or early 5th century b. for example. 1. no. 366. Cat. Their findspots did not necessarily correspond to their original locations. the Naxian sphinx at Delphi2 and various comparable monuments. 408.3 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?) Myres 1391 The Cesnola Collection. p..contents the same findspot is given for a recumbent lion in the Louvre1 and two lion heads Cat. 51 and 60). 206. the tongue extended.2635) description  The head of a large lion is turned to the left. 597. 40. Rolley 1994. references  Cesnola 1885.273. Solomidou-Ieronymidou 2001. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 366 votive animals. 8 in. 2. Ibid. the iconography seems to be associated with the glorification of the ruler. 365–378) 271 . the mouth open. and the teeth clearly shown. Limestone H. pl. 367. no. fig. 35. p. discovered near the “royal tombs” of Tamassos.  XLII. pl. cat.

93. with a furrowed muzzle. the mouth open with a partially broken tongue. pl. 1874–76 (74. description  The small lion is recumbent. Cat. Purchased by subscription. XXVII. Purchased by subscription. The strands of the mane are painted black. Photos: Philippe Collet. 367 Cat.c.51.contents cat. LXXXIV.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1106 The Cesnola Collection. anatomical reliefs.2580) (on loan to the Cyprus Museum. Nicosia) Photo © École Française d’Athènes.51. 368 272 catalogue chapter 8 votive animals. 367 Head of a lion from a votive stele (?) Late 6th or early 5th century b. The mane forms a unarticulated ruff around the head. reference  Cesnola 1885. (15. pl. (14 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?) Myres 1392 The Cesnola Collection. cat. (?) Limestone L.2636) description  The head of a lion is turned to the left. the ears laid back. 5½ in. 63⁄16 in.c. the mouth is open. and various offerings . His head is aligned with the outstretched paws. 1874–76 (74. 368 Statuette of a recumbent lion Second half of the 5th century b. and teeth clearly indicated. Limestone H.550. reference  Cesnola 1885.

369 votive animals.8 cm) The Cesnola Collection.79.contents cat. 369 Head of a deer Late 6th or early 5th century b. 368 Cat.c. pl. 57⁄16 in. (13. and various offerings (cat.57. Purchased by subscription. XXVII. anatomical reliefs. The glottis forms a projection.25) description  The small head of a deer has laid back ears painted red and horns visible on the head. reference  Cesnola 1885. cat. There are traces of red paint on the eyes and muzzle. 365–378) 273 . Limestone H. 1874–76 (74.

reference  Cesnola 1885.c. and a foal Classical period Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. pl.2663) Cat. (19.51. Purchased by subscription. 358.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1148 The Cesnola Collection. and various offerings . 370 Cow and a calf 5th century b. lie six very schematic sheep.  XCVIII. one of the smallest lies near a drinking trough. description  The heads are partially broken.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1146 The Cesnola Collection. V.2677) description  The cow is of a piece with the base.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1147 The Cesnola Collection. A cow suckles her calf. The surface is very worn. from description  In a trapezoidal pen. open on the smallest which the suckling calf emerges in relief.668. (16. side. cat. Limestone H. pl. 370 cat. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. Purchased by subscription.666.2595) no.contents cat. 1874–76 (74.51. 79⁄16 in. pl. (23. a calf.669. anatomical reliefs. XCVIII. 371 Cow. 371 Cat. 372 274 catalogue chapter 8 votive animals. reference  Cesnola 1885. 9¼ in. the mane of which seems to designate it is a foal. flanked by a small animal. Purchased by subscription. XCVIII. Karageorghis 2000a. Cat. 372 Miniature sheepfold Classical period (?) Limestone L. 6½ in.

anatomical reliefs. Purchased by subscription. Young 1955. H. 175. 2.2 Compare also the small group from the palace at Vouni. (6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1150 The Cesnola Collection. are of unknown origin. (16. 953.525. 6½ in.1 Three fragments were found on the acropolis of Amathus. Hermary 2000a. Ibid. 52. 373. 2⅜ in. Karageorghis 2000a. commentary  The two groups Cat. nos. no. (5. 374 Coursing hound seizing a hare Classical period Limestone L. nos. H. Hull 1964.8 cm). wearing a collar. Gjerstad et al. Cat. V. 374 belong to a series known principally at Amathus.5 It is difficult to define the meaning of these small groups: it is perhaps an evocation of hunting. 210.6. 359. no. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. 1. 211. V. (16.contents cat. The surface under the hound’s head is hollowed out. pl. 5. 365–378) 275 . no. a favorite activity of rulers and their entourage. p.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1149 The Cesnola Collection. seizes a hare in the middle of its body. and various offerings (cat. 1874–76 (74. Two others. 4. 374 Cat. pl. no.51. in Bonn. 250.2664) description  A hound with a very elongated body.  13. seizes a hare by the hindquarters.523.  LXXX. 323.  373..5 cm). pl. 6⅝ in. St 223. 2¼ in. p. in the zone of the palace. Purchased by subscription. 51: the second. Karageorghis 2003a. 954. 373 Coursing hound seizing a hare Classical period Limestone L. 3. LXXX. The ears of both animals are laid back. LXXVI. nos. pl. 50.3 An example discovered in the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion4 confirms the occasionally votive use of these works. is similar to Cat. once painted black.2666) description  A lean hound. or symbolic of divine or royal power. where two examples were probably found in tombs. Hermary 1981. 373 cat. 1937. votive animals. 1874–76 (74. in Athens. references  Cesnola 1885.

276 catalogue chapter 8 votive animals. 311⁄16 in. according to Cesnola.908. 10⅛ in. Karageorghis 2000a. p. “smiling” muzzle.2722) description  The small dove is of a piece with the plinth. Cesnola 1885.7 cm) The hound was found. as is the right ear.51.51. 1874–76 (74.2623) Cat. Purchased by subscription. CXXII. description  The hound is seated on a plinth. The execution of the paws is summary.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1151 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1877. 375 Seated hound Classical period (?) Limestone H. He has a long. a collar painted red around its neck. pl. (9. anatomical reliefs. and various offerings .526. reference  Cesnola 1885. on which the claws of the feet are rendered. 376 Statuette of a dove Classical period (?) Limestone H.contents cat. 114. Only the beak is articulated on the head. V. in the same tomb at Golgoi as the decorated sarcophagus (Cat. 491) Myres 1223 The Cesnola Collection. 376 cat. LXXX. 1874–76 (74. The left ear is broken. Strokes of red paint indicate the feathers. Purchased by subscription. no. 356. pl. 375 Cat. painted red. fig. eyes deep in their sockets. (25.

beaks touching. The mane is articulated with a lozenge-shaped pattern.2665) (on loan to the Cyprus Museum. There is black and red paint on their wings. (10. votive animals. pl. 377 cat.2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1152 The Cesnola Collection. 598. LXXX. 1874–76 (74.5 cm) Myres 1549 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. 4 in. (8. 1874–76 (74. 365–378) 277 . anatomical reliefs. The body is quite realistic. references  Cesnola 1885.51.51. references  Unpublished. 377 Small group of two doves Classical period (?) Limestone H.5014) description  The the legs and the end of the nose are description  Two small doves stand face-to-face. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 378 Small horse Archaic period (6th century?) Gneiss L. Nicosia) Photo © École Française d’Athènes. Photos: Philippe Collet. 409. p. their missing. and various offerings (cat. Purchased by subscription. Cat. 35⁄16 in.527.contents cat. fig. 378 Cat.

black. its hindquar- references  Cesnola 1885. no. cat. painted black on the back. The head is separated from the bowl of the incense burner by a kind of crown. The sphinx wears a dog collar with a pendant around the neck.1 1. The hair. ters slightly raised.2814) the tail curled up.contents catalogue chapter 9 Various Offerings Incense Burners (Cat. (23 cm) From a tomb at Kythrea Myres 1089 The Cesnola Collection. 355. There is a leaf ornament painted red and black under the bowl. The body is thin. pp. Purchased by subscription. Karageorghis 2000a.51. 91⁄16 in. 379–386) Cat. description  The sphinx sits on the plinth. commentary  This type of incense burner is particularly widespread at Amathus. pl. 379 Statuette of a sphinx supporting an incense burner Second quarter of the 5th century b. Limestone H. and yellow paint. painted black. the interior of which shows no signs of fire. V. 1874–76 (74.692.  CVI. with traces of red. Large. covers the ears and falls onto the nape of the neck. Hermary 2000a. sickle-shaped wings. together with the head of the sphinx carry the incense burner. 379 278 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings .c. The very worn face has a smiling expression. 134–40.

On the head is a wide crown with three rows of beads. The sphinx shows a serious expression. 1874–76 (74.c. Limestone H. 380 Fragment of a sphinx supporting an incense burner Middle of the 5th century b.2554) description  The incense burner. CVI. Cat. The locks on the forehead fall in front of the ears. cat. (13 cm) From the necropolis of Idalion Myres 1088 The Cesnola Collection. 381 incense burners (cat.691. 2½ in. pl. The breasts are voluminous. 380 Cat. each of which has a shell and rings. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.693. the tips of the wings. 5⅛ in.2582) description  Part of the very damaged head and body of the sphinx remains as well as the front of the bowl. 381 Fragment of a sphinx supporting an incense burner Classical period Limestone H. Purchased by subscription. (6.4 cm) From a tomb at Kythrea Myres 1087 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. pl. and the head of the sphinx.51. with traces of red paint on the edges. The hair is long on the back.contents cat. CVL.51. remain. reference  Cesnola 1885. 379–386) 279 .

There is a projection under the bowl with vertical sides. no. 13a. 383 description  The three feet.5160) and Counts 2004.51. 41⁄16 in. 384 Incense burner on three legs Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. (10. 382 Ram and a head of “Zeus Ammon” supporting an incense burner 4th century b.  1.7 cm) Myres 1141 The Cesnola Collection.608. 385 Incense burner on four legs Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. (?) Limestone H.1 cm). pp. 45⁄16 in. references  Sophocleous 1985. Max. on his back is set a head of Zeus Ammon.1 1. On the inside are traces of black.  68. 178–81. XCII. 315⁄16 in. (7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios .606.5159) 280 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings reference  Cesnola 1885.  XVI. the surface is very worn. 1874–76 (74. figs. see Buchholz 1991.contents cat. 382 Cat. 3. reference  Cesnola 1885. 315⁄16 in. 2. 119–24. the edges of which are partially broken. 383 Incense burner on three legs Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone H. (10 cm). (10. 4 in. fig. (10 cm) Necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1668 The Cesnola Collection.1. Cat. Purchased by subscription. part of his head. 16–18. Cat. 65. pl. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. W. (8. cat. There is a flat disk under the vertical sides of the bowl. D. 1874–76 (74. Cat. D. and the greater part of the bowl are missing. pls. the sides have traces of red paint. p. Buchholz description  The tall stem rests on three schematic lion’s 1991. Max. with ram’s horns. pp.51. 37⁄16 in. p. 2¾ in. in the shape of lion’s paws. pl. For this type of incense burner. Purchased by subscription. On the inside are traces of black. support a circular base decorated with concave tongues.51. paws.c. XCII. no. 124. 17. (11 cm).2. pl. The ram is turned to its right.2555) description  The hooves of the ram. pl.3 cm) Necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1667 The Cesnola Collection.

Max. LXVI. no.51. 1874–76 (74. 386 description  The incense burner is in the form of a spool or bobbin. pl. no. 385 Myres 1670 The Cesnola Collection. references  Doell 1873. Cat. 386 Circular incense burner Uncertain date Limestone H. pl. Purchased by subscription.51. pl.8 cm). support a squarelike shaft between two projecting horizontal tiers.5181) description  The four wide legs.  XIII. 1874–76 (74.  816. Purchased by subscription. incense burners (cat.14. pl. Cesnola 1885.18. There are traces of fire on the inside. marked with a lambda- shaped sign on two sides. There are horizontal striations on the entire surface similar to turning marks. LXVI. 39⁄16 in. the foot of which is slightly wider than the saucer. 384 cat.  XIII. (9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1671 The Cesnola Collection.433. 379–386) 281 . D. (7.434. Cesnola 1885. p. The walls of the bowl at the top are cut into zigzags. references  Doell 1873.contents cat.  55.  815.  55. p. The upper bowl is shallow and there are black marks on the edge as well as a small break. 31⁄16 in.5148) cat.

The hide is indicated by incisions. There is a small. Cat.1 cm). (4. (9.5142) Cat.1 note 1. Karageorghis 1987. 387 282 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings cat.contents Lamps (cat. pl. V. The small round opening on the front shows traces of fire. 1874–76 (74. 2¾ in. 387–392) Limestone lamps are rare. 17⁄16 in. (7 cm). pl. W. the large opening is trapezoidal.2 cm).193. 3⅝ in. (3. Purchased by subscription. 132. (9.51. 388 .2 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1696 The Cesnola Collection. cat. XXIX. reference  Cesnola 1885. the left one of which is damaged. rounded opening without traces of fire and a large circular central opening. fig. 1⅝ in. 387 Lamp in the shape of a bull’s head Classical period Limestone H. XXIX. reference  Cesnola 1885. 1874–76 (74. 387 and 388 are particularly original. 3⅝ in. 388 Lamp in the shape of a bull’s head Classical period Limestone L. p.51. Compare an example from the necropolis of Amathus.5143) description  The lamp is in the shape of a bull’s head with small horns. H. Purchased by subscription. Cat.6 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1695 The Cesnola Collection.194. 709. L. The top and the back are flat. description  The lamp is in the shape of a bull’s head with small horns flattened against the ears.

 808.13. (9. nozzle and shows traces of fire. 1874–76 (74. references  Unpublished. 392 lamps (cat.5146) Cat. reference  Doell 1873. 389 Saucer lamp Classical period (?) Limestone L. 1874–76 (74.51. references  Unpublished. no. 390 cat. 55. description  The saucer lamp has an elongated concave nozzle.contents Cat. Purchased by subscription. 313⁄16 in.51. 391 Saucer lamp Classical period (?) Limestone L. Cat. 39⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.5144) description  The saucer lamp has a small break on the description  The saucer lamp has an elongated concave pinched nozzle. pl.5147) Cat.51.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?) Myres 1692 The Cesnola Collection.7 cm) Myres 1691 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. (9. 391 cat. (12 cm) Myres 1694 The Cesnola Collection. (9. XIII. references  Unpublished. 387–392) 283 .6 cm) Myres 1693 The Cesnola Collection. 392 Saucer lamp Classical period (?) Limestone L. 313⁄16 in.5145) description  The saucer lamp has a pinched nozzle. cat. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 411⁄16 in. 389 cat.51. p. 390 Saucer lamp Classical period (?) Limestone L. 1874–76 (74.

Karageorghis 2009. 6. Ibid. Hermary 1989a. found at Nea Paphos. 935.5 consists of images of eyes. 8.1 These ex-votos appeal to very diverse divinities. Forsén 1996. breasts. pl.c. pl. 393–408) The dedication of representations of parts of the body is frequently attested in the Greek world from the fourth century b. There is also a group from a sanctuary dedicated to Theos Hypsistos.7 It shows. I. Masson 1997. published in V. 2. arms. Hermary 1989a.  XXVIII. 3. p.8 Finally. 393 Votive hand holding a flower Classical period (?) Limestone H. nos. the fact that the god has listened to the prayer of the worshipper. no. 1874–76 (74. and genitalia like the many known in the Greek world. 449–53. now in the Louvre. with the series found by Cesnola at Ayios Photios. and feet. pp. Masson 1997. to the Imperial period. Comparable ex-votos were also found in the sanctuary of Apollo at Voni. IX. The “bunch of grapes” shown under the breasts of Cat. (17. 127. On Cyprus. 940–942. the phenomenon is especially known in the region of Golgoi. then Björn Forsén.3 and a group from Arsos that includes several dedications to Isis. and also depicting body parts. Purchased by subscription. in front of a face in profile.2 without the name of the god to whom the offering is made. ears. including objects at the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford.  27.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1679 The Cesnola Collection. van Straten. cat.6–7. but therapeutic hot-water bottles. Cat. Straten 1981. Nicolaou 1989. 9. 393 284 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings . pl. 396 are interesting because of the syllabic inscription that indicates an early date for this type of offering. 4. The representations of body parts offered in this sanctuary were probably directed to the local Apollo rather than to another deity like Demeter. XL. references  Cesnola 1885. 7.5180) description  The right hand holds a flower with five petals. These would not be votive objects. also comes from Cesnola’s excavations at Ayios Photios. 395. 934. 397 has given rise to discussion:6 are internal organs depicted here? It is probable that a plaque acquired by Robert Hamilton Lang. 6¾ in. Sarapis. p. no. Hermary 1990b. (o). but it differs in the presence of isolated fingers. briefly studied by Folkert T. 100–102. 5. pp. If the inscription of Cat. male and female. Forsén 1996.. 396 does signify “I belong to a deaf person.4 The Cypriot material. two eyes and a left foot that has only three toes.51.9 notes 1. a group of terracotta figural vases must be mentioned. See Forsén 1996.” it shows that the offering indicates a pathology of the ear and not. as has been often claimed. a bracelet circles the wrist.115. The nails are carefully articulated. The ears Cat. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893. and Anubis.contents Anatomical Ex-votos (Cat.

51. Purchased by subscription. 394 Small plaque with an ear in relief Classical period (?) Limestone H.5172) description  The lower part of the small plaque comes to a point. cat. pl. CXXIX. no.3. 39⁄16 in.931. with the canal indicated by a circular hole. no. 396 Votive ear with a syllabic inscription Late Classical or early Hellenistic period Limestone H. Masson 1961/1983. Purchased by subscription. no.2357) description  The right ear is schematically rendered.933. VII. On the lobe are four syllabic signs signifying “I belong to a deaf person” (?). 2½ in. 394 Cat. no. 1874–76 (74. (h). There are traces of red paint. 396 anatomical ex-votos (cat. the meaning of which is not evident. 393–408) 285 .  CXXIX. Masson 1961/1983. 1874–76 (74. no. p. pp. Cat. Cesnola 1885. On the red surface appears a right ear wearing a rosette-shaped earring with a pendant. (5. There are traces of red paint. p.932.  54. cat. (6. VII. references  Cesnola 1885. Masson 1997.contents Cat. 27–29.  796. 395 cat. (j).  XIII.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1881 The Cesnola Collection. 158. pl. V. p. 395 Votive ear with a syllabic inscription Late Classical or early Hellenistic period Limestone H. VII. (i).  CXXIX. pl. references  Cesnola 1885. references  Doell 1873. Karageorghis 2000a. 289. pp. no. Masson 1997. Cesnola 1877. 288. no. pl. fig.51. pl. Purchased by subscription. pl.51.2358) description  The right ear is schematically rendered. 2¼ in. with the canal indicated by a circular hole. 27–28. On the lobe are five syllabic signs. 1874–76 (74. pl. 418. Masson 1997.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1882 The Cesnola Collection. (9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1682 The Cesnola Collection. 26.

398 286 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings .contents cat. 397 cat.

contents

Cat. 399
Votive(?) foot and a lower leg
Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 7⅝ in. (19.4 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1678
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5179)
description  The left foot is long and thin; the lower leg is

included. The surface is pinkish and the three smallest toes
show traces of burning.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  XXVIII.158; Masson 1997, p.  27,
no. (p), pl. IX; V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 420.

cat. 399

Cat. 397
Plaque with breasts and a bunch of grapes in relief
Late Classical or early Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 15 in. (38.1 cm), W. 17¾ in. (45.1 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1227
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2854)

Cat. 400
Votive thumb
Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 2¾ in. (7 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1680
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5173)
description  The thumb is vertical and there are remains

of another finger. The nail is well articulated. Two groups of
two incisions indicate the folds of the skin. Traces of pinkish
paint remain.

description  The plaque is almost square, with the upper

references  Doell 1873, p.  54, no.  798, pl.  XIII.9; Cesnola 1885,

left part missing. Under the breasts is a bunch of grapes, the
meaning of which is unclear. There are toolmarks on the right.

pl. CXXIX.927; Masson 1997, p. 26, no. (d), pl. VI; V. Karageorghis 2000a,
no. 419.

references  Cesnola 1877, fig. p. 158; Cesnola 1885, pl. CXXII.910;
Masson 1997, p. 27, no. (n), pl. VIII.

Cat. 398
Votive breast
Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 33⁄16 in. (8 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1676
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5176)
description  On a small plinth painted red is a large,

rounded breast, the nipple of which is discreetly indicated.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  CXXIX.925; Masson 1997, p.  26,
no. (b), pl. VI.
cat. 400

anatomical ex-votos (cat. 393–408) 287

contents

cat. 401

cat. 402

Cat. 401
Votive thumb
Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 2⅜ in. (6 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1681
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5174)

Cat. 402
Small plaque with two eyes and a mouth in relief
Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 45⁄16 in. (11 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1684
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5171)

description  The thumb is vertical and painted red. The

description  The plaque is rounded at the top, imitating

nail is well articulated; two incisions indicate the folds of skin.

the shape of a face. The two eyes have very arched upper
eyelids and the half-open mouth is emphasized by a frame in
relief. The entire plaque was painted red. A small round
depression occurs at the center of the “upper lip,” which is
barely indicated. There is also a small depression at the center
of the lower lip.

references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  CXXIX.928; Masson 1997, p.  26,
no. (e), pl. VI.

references  Doell 1873, p.  54, no.  797, pl.  XIII.8; Cesnola 1877,
fig. p. 158; Cesnola 1885, pl. CXXIX.935; Masson 1997, p. 27, no. (l), pl. VII;
V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 417.

288 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings

contents

cat. 403

cat. 404

Cat. 403
Small plaque with two eyes in relief
Late Hellenistic or Roman period
Limestone
H. 4¾ in. (12.1 cm), W. 49⁄16 in. (11.6 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1685
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5168)

Cat. 404
Small plaque with two eyes in relief
Late Hellenistic or Roman period
Limestone
H. 4 in. (10.2 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1686
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5169)

description  The plaque has rounded corners (the upper

description  The small pyramidal plaque has a suspen-

right is missing). The two eyes show very thick eyelids and
eyebrows sculpted in relief. There are toolmarks on the back.

sion hole. Toward the bottom are two wide-open eyes with
thick eyelids in low relief.

references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  CXXIX.924; Masson 1997, p.  26,

references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  CXXIX.936; Masson 1997, p.  27,

no. (a), pl. VI.

no. (m), pl. VII.

anatomical ex-votos (cat. 393–408) 289

contents

cat. 405

Cat. 405
Small plaque with two eyes
Late Hellenistic or Roman period
Limestone
H. 215⁄16 in. (7.5 cm), W. 413⁄16 in. (12.2 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1687
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5167)
description  The upper right and lower left corners of the

small rectangular plaque are missing. Two eyes are hollowed
into the thickness of the plaque; the eyebrows and the bridge
of the nose are schematically rendered. There are traces of red
paint.

cat. 406

description  The surface of the small, almost rectangular

plaque is burned. An eye with a thick eyelid is sculpted into the
surface.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  CXXIX.934; Masson 1997, p.  27,
no. (k), pl. VII.

Cat. 407
Votive(?) foot with a sandal
Late Hellenistic or early Roman period
Limestone
L. 913⁄16 in. (25 cm), H. 10⅝ in. (27 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1677
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5178)

references  Doell 1873, p.  54, no.  789, pl.  XIII.7; Cesnola 1885,
pl. CXXIX.926; Masson 1997, p. 26, no. (c), pl. VI.

Cat. 406
Small plaque with one eye
Late Hellenistic or Roman period
Limestone
H. 31⁄16 in. (7.8 cm), W. 39⁄16 in. (9 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1683
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5170)

description  The lower left leg and the large left foot,

with toenails clearly rendered, are shod with a sandal that
covers the heel and rises to the ankle on the back. A thong
closes the part that surrounds the back of the foot. Other
thongs and two superposed tongues cover the instep. The
closure is reinforced by a thong, the ends of which fall on the
sides. The surface is burned on the lower leg and on the back
of the foot. A large mortise is hollowed out vertically on the
leg, the inner surface of which is burned. Four groups of two
holes are pierced at the top of the leg and on the upper surface.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  XXVIII.157; Masson 1997, p.  27,
no. (q), pl. IX.

290 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings

contents

cat. 407

Cat. 408
Votive male genitals
Hellenistic or Roman period
Limestone
H. 65⁄16 in. (16 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (?)
Myres 1675
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5175)
description  On a rectangular plaque, there is the end of a

penis, revealing the glans, in front of the testicles(?).
references  Unpublished.

cat. 408

anatomical ex-votos (cat. 393–408)

291

contents

Other Offerings
(cat. 409–431)
The most original group consists of “chests” that were probably used as small altars; the decoration of the first two connects
them to the worship of the Great Goddess. They attest to the
practice of stone sculpture in the region of Golgoi-Idalion from
the Geometric period onward.

Cat. 409
Small chest with incised decoration
Geometric period
Limestone
L. 8⅞ in. (22.5 cm), H. 6⅜ in. (16.2 cm)
From the necropolis of Golgoi
Myres 1662
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5166)
description  Traces of black on the inside of the chest

suggest that it was used as an altar. On the long sides and the
legs is an incised decoration of triangles, each of which is filled
with a lozenge pattern. Incised on the ends, within a frame and
between two swastikas, is a very schematic human figure holding
a plant in each raised hand. Flanking the square frame is an
equally schematic ibex surmounted by triangles and broken
lines. On each foot is a branchlike motif.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl. LXXIX.505; V. Karageorghis 2000a,
no. 205.

Cat. 410
Small chest with decoration in relief
Late Geometric period
Limestone
L. 4⅝ in. (11.7 cm), H. 43⁄16 in. (10.6 cm)
From the necropolis of Idalion
Myres 1666
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5163)
description  There are four holes for securing a cover near

the four upper corners of the chest. The decoration is in low
relief. On one long side, above five triangular openings, there is
a dog behind an ibex and geometric motifs, including swastikas.
On the other, above four triangular openings, a variety of
incised triangle and lozenge motifs fill vertical bands. On each
short end, there is a frontal nude woman with her arms raised.
The incised pubic area is painted black, as is her hair. Her
necklaces are incised.
references  Cesnola 1885, pl. LXXIX.504; Bisi 1980, pl. I; J. Karageorghis 2005, p. 193, fig. 247 (findspot is incorrect).

292 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings

cat. 409

contents

cat. 410

cat. 411

Cat. 411
Small chest with incised decoration
Geometric or Archaic period
Chalk limestone
L. 811⁄16 in. (22 cm), H. 615⁄16 in. (17.6 cm), W. 4⅛ in. (10.5 cm)
Necropolis of Golgoi
Myres 1663
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5165)

description  The long sides and the upper section of the

short sides of the box are subdivided into metopes, each with a
St. Andrew’s cross and dots in the interstices. There is a
fishbone motif on the legs of the short ends. One long wall of
the shallow (6 cm) interior has a rounded projection pierced
vertically, probably for securing a cover.
reference  Cesnola 1885, pl. LXXIX.503, .506.

other offerings (cat. 409–431) 293

contents

Cat. 413
Small chest, undecorated
Uncertain date
Limestone
H. 5⅛ in. (13 cm), L. 611⁄16 in. (17 cm), D. 41⁄16 in. (10.4 cm)
Necropolis of Golgoi
Myres 1664
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5162)
description  On the short ends of the chest are crosspieces

reinforced by three vertical uprights.
reference  Cesnola 1885, pl. LXXIX.507, 508.

Cat. 412
Small chest with incised decoration
Geometric or Archaic period
Limestone
H. 411⁄16 in. (12 cm), L. 611⁄16 in. (17 cm), W. 49⁄16 in. (11.5 cm)
Myres 1665
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.5164)

Cat. 414
Handle of a patera or a fire shovel ending in a ram’s
head, with a syllabic inscription
Classical period (?)
Limestone
L. 91⁄16 in. (23 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1861
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2367)

description  Patterns of triangles, lozenges, and zigzags

description  The handle of the patera or fire shovel ends

between dots cover the sides and legs of the chest. The inside
is shallow (D. 5 cm).

in a quite realistic ram’s head, which has small ears with traces
of red paint and long, smooth horns. The syllabic inscription is
a dedication from Eros(?) to Apollo.

cat. 412

reference  Bisi 1980, p. 213 n. 4.

references  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXXVII.1; Masson 1961/1983, no. 284.

cat. 413

294 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings

 91⁄16 in.5155) description  The part of the fire shovel connected to the handle by an element with three points is preserved. 415 Handle of a patera or a fire shovel ending in a ram’s head Classical period (?) Limestone L. There are traces of burning in the inside of the shovel and red pigment on its upper edge.contents cat. There is also a band of red behind the curls of the ram’s head. (23 cm) Myres 1689 The Cesnola Collection. 409–431) 295 . 415 Cat. Purchased by subscription. 414 cat.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. other offerings (cat. pl XXVIII. 1874–76 (74.100.

417 296 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings . 416 cat.contents cat.

 55⁄16 in. references  Cesnola 1885. 6¼ in. pl. other offerings (cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. p. Purchased by subscription. 416 Handle of a patera or a fire shovel ending in a ram’s head Classical period (?) Limestone L. five apparently nude women are shown holding their breasts.51.1 1. Compare the fragment illustrated in Marangou 2000.5 cm) Myres 1690 The Cesnola Collection.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1135 The Cesnola Collection.200.contents cat. XXVII. 417 Small naiskos with female figures holding their breasts 5th century b. the top. 209. On two sides. Karageorghis 1977. Cat.97. (15. 1874–76 (74. which was articulated with moldings. 1874–76 (74. At one end is an oval element in high relief. pl. Cat. Purchased by subscription.51. is missing. 2⅝ in. (?) Limestone H. J.51. XXVII.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1176 The Cesnola Collection. (13. pl. 409–431) 297 . (6.c. Purchased by subscription.  XXIX.5151) reference  Cesnola 1885.2692) description  The small naiskos has a hipped roof. At the other are two flat elements that may belong to an upright—perhaps one arm of the instrument.2596) description  Seven strings of a lyre are attached to a crosspiece painted pinkish red. 43 (top). 418 Fragment of a lyre Classical period (?) Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. 418 Cat.73. p.

 157. (25.5 cm).2324) Cat. pl. the fluting and the abacus are painted red. The entrance to the naiskos is flanked by Ionic columns in low relief. Cesnola 1877. 1874–76 (74. (24.51. On the inside is a large saucer lamp with a nozzle. The top of the altar. are incorrect). no. 13 cm) with traces of fire. p.5 cm). cat. references  Doell 1873. D. (29.  805. no. indicating its use as an altar. of the short ends is very damaged. pl. (27.5 cm).  XIII.19. XV. W. There are traces of motifs painted red on the lintel and of triangles on the upper band. 1874–76 (74. 11⅝ in.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1661 The Cesnola Collection. the surface of which is not carefully finished. pl. The inner surface is roughly worked.2 (the references to Cesnola 1885.1. D.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1866 The Cesnola Collection. pl. references  Cesnola 1903. The upper surface is burned. Purchased by subscription. On the uppermost band of one of the sides is a syllabic inscription probably mentioning the goddess of Paphos. Purchased by subscription.5149) description  The rectangular limestone block has been description  The back is partially missing and the surface hollowed out so as to form two recessed openings on each side. (20.19. 286. 101⁄16 in. 419 Footstool(?) with a syllabic inscription Classical period (?) Limestone H 911⁄16 in. pl.51. (29 cm).  54. 419 298 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings . Cesnola 1885. of which only the front part is shown.contents Cat. p. The whole lower part is missing. 117⁄16 in. XXVII. 1013⁄16 in. fig. 81⁄16 in. Masson 1961/1983. W.  CXXIX. L. has a circular hollow (Diam.85. 420 Altar in the form of a naiskos with a lamp Classical period Limestone H.

409–431) 299 . 420 other offerings (cat.contents cat.

 14⅜ in. pl.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1862 The Cesnola Collection. 422 300 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings . 421 Fragment of a naiskos(?) with a syllabic inscription Classical period Limestone H.7 cm).contents Cat. and a fragment of the door of a naiskos(?). 29⁄16 in.  CXXXIX. W. 77⁄16 in. from the belly of a large vase. (6. Purchased by subscription. There are several vertical lines near the break on the right. Masson 1961/1983. references  Cesnola 1903. pl. LIII. Masson 1961/1983.5. Purchased by subscription.1. (14 cm). 5½ in. bears a syllabic inscription: a dedication of Timokretes to (Apollo) Magirios.2356) description  The piece consists of the left wall. no. (36. 1874–76 (74. The syllabic inscription is in three lines with deeply inscribed signs: an offering of wine to Zeus.1. pl.  CXXXIX. pl.5 cm) From Pyla Myres 1854 The Cesnola Collection. 147⁄16 in. D. 305. W. L.2340) cat.51. 1874–76 (74. 421 description  The fragment. (?) Limestone H. (19 cm). cat. (36. Cat.c.51. 285. references  Cesnola 1903. no. from the viewer’s point of view. 422 Fragment of a large votive vase with a syllabic inscription 4th century b.1.

2369) description  Only a small part of a large. references  Cesnola 1903. 775.2 cm). hollow object remains.3. 227⁄16 in. (43. a dolphin appears against a rocky background. The presence of the dolphin is more surprising.51. 1874–76 (74. the Benevolent Spirit. 425 Votive vase (krater) with vegetal decoration Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. 17 in. cat. On the upper right is a syllabic inscription in five lines. 12 in.  LXXV. Thickness of the vase wall 15⁄16–215⁄16 in. curved. The Egyptianizing crown placed on the head of the snake encourages one to identify it as Agathos Daimon. 144.7.51. near one of the entrances of the temple” Myres 1863 The Cesnola Collection. the meaning of which has not been elucidated. The presence of the Agathos Daimon indicates a date in the Hellenistic period. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. p. (11 cm).51.  CXXXVIII. Limestone H. LI. (18.c. Masson 1961/1983. W. Below. (30. no. pl. The text of the inscription is “completely obscure” according to Olivier Masson. although it is beardless. pl. and a syllabic inscription Early Hellenistic period Limestone H. p. commentary  The fragment may come from a large monolithic vase like others known in Cypriot sanctuaries. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 423 Cat. 291. references  Doell 1873.2352) Cat. A large snake coiled up on itself and wearing the double Egyptian crown is shown in relief. Cesnola 1877.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios.  CXXXII. “outside. cat. It may be a recut vase. Max. (57 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. “found at entrance of Temple” Myres 1380 The Cesnola Collection.1. pl. 77⁄16 in. 51. 292. no. 423 Fragment of a large votive vase with a syllabic inscription 4th or 3rd century b. pl.4 cm).2813) other offerings (cat.3–7. Cesnola 1903. D. 45⁄16 in. it shows toolmarks on the base and on the thickest side. but the decoration and the long inscription are exceptional. Masson 1961/1983. W.561. pl. 1874–76 (74. XI. Cesnola 1885. (3. no. a dolphin. 409–431) 301 .contents description  The fragment of a vase has a syllabic inscrip- tion that is impossible to interpret.2.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1864 The Cesnola Collection. (35. 1315⁄16 in. 424 Fragment of a large vase(?) with a snake (Agathos Daimon?). 424 Cat.5 cm).

Cat. pl. 426 Head of an eagle.98. Purchased by subscription. a fragment of a throne or a lyre (?) Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. Around the shoulder are ivy leaves on either side of a twisted cord or stem. 156–57. no. 1874–76 (74. Regarding very large examples from Amathus. p. Their surface and that of the lip are damaged. fig. reference  Cesnola 1885. There are traces of red paint on the 302 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings cat. 7¾ in. XXVII. a large pendant palmette is schematically rendered under each handle.Ayios Photios Myres 1174 The Cesnola Collection. The fragment may be part of a throne or the upright of a large lyre.2583) description  The head of an eagle appears under the section of a garment.7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi. (19. see Fourrier and Hermary 2006. commentary  Stone vases used for ritual functions are characteristic of Cypriot sanctuaries. It rests on an upright ending in a projecting rectangular element. 425 description  The krater has two ledge-shaped handles. references  Doell 1873. 427 Plaque with a human head in relief Hellenistic or Roman period Limestone . Cat.II.1 1.51. the outer edge of which shows two triangular projections flanking a rounded one. green on the console. The base is broken. 145. pp. p.contents cat. 425 bird.  XIII. 25–29. pl.  807. Cesnola 1877.  54.

428 other offerings (cat. pl. On the edge is a vegetal wreath knotted in three places. The plaque appears to be an independent object as its pertinence to the anatomical series of ex-votos is very uncertain.  26. fig. (12. p.4 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1175 The Cesnola Collection.  CXXIX.  (g). 4⅞ in. the eyes very asymmetrical. 426 H. Purchased by subscription.2598) description  The face is flat with a flattened nose. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. (8. 409–431) 303 . 1874–76 (74. flangelike handles. VII. no. their surfaces are worn. Cesnola 1877. 427 Cat.2. pl. Her right arm is raised. The melon coiffure is painted red.  158. no. p. the teeth showing. 37⁄16 in.  p. the ugliness of which reminds one of a Gorgon’s head.51. 428 Small dish with the goddess Isis Roman period Steatite D.8 cm) From Kourion Myres 1545 The Cesnola Collection.5027) description  The small dish has two small. references  Doell 1873. She is cat. Cesnola 1885.contents cat. cat. Masson 1997.  788. The tondo is decorated in relief. pl. The mouth is open.930. with the goddess Isis wearing a disk surrounded by horns.51.  54. one of which is pierced with a hole.  XIII.

(20. Cat. smooth horns curled in at the ends. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. pl. Here. cat. See Tinh 1990. the tongue is extended and the teeth awkwardly bared. At the top of the head are two long. The uprights of the back project above the central part. the small round eyes deep-set. 1. CXIV. 323a. Cat.3 cm) Found “in the ruins of Amathus” Myres 1173 The Cesnola Collection. 430 Votive throne Uncertain date Limestone H. 1874–76 (74.51. as on other examples. the surface of which is worn over the legs. no. The nose is broken. references  Cesnola 1903. Purchased by subscription. no. 8 in. A schematic tree is incised on each upright. pl. 429 Fragment of a large throne(?) with the head of a horned lion Roman period Limestone H. LXXXV. Similarly. Hermary 1981.547. 153.51. She wears a long tunic. 70. 323. pl. appears the head of a horned lion.1. no. reference  Cesnola 1885.1. There are tongues around the perimeter of the exterior. It is the only example known on Cyprus. The themes are typical of Graeco-Roman iconography in Egypt. Tinh 1990.5 cm) “From a temple at Amathus” Myres 1379 The Cesnola Collection. 30½ in. Parlasca 1983.2638) description  Under a wide.contents seated sidesaddle on a long-haired animal (dog) that runs to the right and turns its head toward her. LXXXIV.1 the goddess Isis-Sothis is represented astride a dog. symbol of the dog star Sirius. the votive character of which was noted by Klaus Parlasca. (77. pl. 20. p. which is divided into solid panels. Long locks fall onto her neck. 429 304 catalogue chapter 9 various offerings . references  Cesnola 1885. the strands of the mane summarily shown. two sunken rectangles decorate the lower part between the legs. but the majority of the objects must date from the Roman period. with a point of attachment on the upper surface. commentary  This object belongs to a group made in Egypt.2498) description  The throne of small dimensions is of a piece with a step. horizontal element ending in a schematic rosette.555.

Purchased by subscription.192. cat. (7.2782) description  A snake. other offerings (cat. There are traces of red paint on the snake. and the base of the box. the head of which is missing. 409–431) 305 . 215⁄16 in. pl.51. which is partially missing. the cover. is coiled on the cover of a circular box (pyxis?). 1874–76 (74. 431 Snake coiled on a circular box Uncertain date Limestone H. XXIX. 430 Cat.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1153 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. 431 reference  Cesnola 1885.

436 come are not known. 432 306 catalogue chapter 10 architectural sculpture .  4 (= Colonna-­ Ceccaldi 1882. Cesnola 1885.4 cm).c. which raises the question of whether the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios included large-size buildings. 43. (32 × 32 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1377 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H. upper part 129⁄16 × 129⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription. fig. This was not the case in the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion. 432 Votive square capital 5th or 4th century b. Cat. 1874–76 (74.2798) description  The small four-sided capital is decorated on each side with three bands of triangles. They are solid at the top and outlined on the two other registers. (25.  366. p.2. The top of the flared column is decorated with branches in relief. 432–436) There are very few architectural elements in the Cesnola Collection. 435. p. In its style and size. but the buildings from which the blocks Cat.51.contents catalogue chapter 10 Architectural Sculpture introduction (cat. cat. I. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1870–71. pl. the first one recalls the cornice of a chapel from the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Amathus. 10 in. fig. On the top is a very summary decoration of rosettes and ivy leaves. At the center is a mortise of about 10 cm in diameter and 8 cm deep. 4).

Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. (33.5 cm.51. 10 cm) that indicates the votive use of the monument.2796) description  At the center of the underside of this triangu- lar Ionic capital is a small.51. D. pl. nonarchitectural use of the capital. 20 cm.9 cm) “From the city of Golgoi” Myres 1376 The Cesnola Collection. 433 Votive Ionic capital Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. I.contents cat.3.2797) description  The upper part of the shaft is decorated with a band of rosettes under a molding that recalls a Doric capital. I. On the top is a hollow (Diam. The Ionic capital is very summarily executed. pl. 434 architectural sculpture (cat.1. 1874–76 (74. reference  Cesnola 1885. (22. 432–436) 307 . A separate whorl is placed at each side flanking an incised rosette. 433 Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. 13¼ in. (47 × 47 cm) “From the city of Golgoi” Myres 1378 The Cesnola Collection. D. upper part 18½ × 18½ in. Cat. At the top is a hollow (Diam. 6 cm) that probably indicates the votive. 15. circular mortise. 434 Votive Ionic capital Early Roman period (?) Limestone H. cat.7 cm). 9 in.

(15. the tongue extended. 435 Cornice with a lion’s head Early Roman period Limestone L. XXVII.2617) 308 catalogue chapter 10 architectural sculpture description  The fragment belongs to a cornice (sima). The channel does not run the whole width of the block. 15⅞ in. The head is pierced and communicates with the channel hollowed out on the upper surface. H. The mutule on the underside of the block is barely roughed out. pl. (40.83.3 cm) From Kourion. In addition to the moldings. there is a competently rendered lion’s head in relief. Purchased by subscription.51. . sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1387 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885.contents cat. and the mane touseled. 1874–76 (74. possibly where it meets the slope of a pediment.3 cm). revealing the ears. The mouth is open. 435 Cat. 61⁄16 in.

5 cm). the original edge of which is preserved only on a part of the front side. sanctuary of Apollo Hylates Myres 1388 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. 913⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription.2867) description  The piece is a long block of cornice (sima). 436 Cornice with a lion’s head Roman period Limestone L. The wide muzzle has asymmetrical nostrils. 436 Cat. W. H. architectural sculpture (cat. 2615⁄16 in. (25 cm) From Kourion. 432–436) 309 . XCV.638. (68. the features hollowed. The decorative head of a lion in high relief has the mouth open. pl. The eyes are bulbous. the teeth indicated. the tongue extended. (23 cm).contents cat. There are small ears and a full mane.51. 91⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.

Limestone H. 66. 16⅞ in.1 This relief. Compare a scarab with a winged “Bes” overcoming two lions: Reyes 2001. 439 Naiskos with Egyptianizing decoration Second half of the 6th century b. 1874–76 (74. The head and the leg of the right animal are not articulated: there is an irregu- 310 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments . (42.  773.  XI.  772. red. 1874–76 (74.2878) lar trapezoidal form. and dark brown paint that are no longer visible. p. Above a flat band serving as a groundline. Purchased by subscription. XCIV. 1874–76 (74. An example from Lefkoniko is appreciably different.1 cm). He grips the throat of a bovid.contents catalogue chapter 11 Sculptured Reliefs on Votive Monuments (cat. commentary  The theme of animals fighting is not particularly original. In the zone below appears a winged disk in a very poor state of preservation. a long-haired nude figure in right profile is sculpted in low relief. found in the tomb of Amathus. The main surface depicts the god Thot with the head of an ibis walking toward the right: he wears a knee-length kilt. pl. is very similar for the decoration at the top. his left hand rests on his chest.c. 1. The group is flanked by two human figures. 372.51. the fact that the figure chokes two lions at the same time seems to suit Herakles less well than “Bes” or a related demon. with its frieze of uraei and its winged disk. leaving aside those that are represented on the Hathor stelai.627. 19¼ in. The function of the object is also uncertain. commentary  Stone naiskoi are very rare on Cyprus.2875) description  The top of the relief is damaged.c. no. only one of which touches the ground. 437.626. description  The top of the relief is damaged. Purchased by subscription. the “Proto-Aeolic” vegetal capitals support something unidentifiable.c.51. each standing on one of its hind legs while the other leg pushes against the hero. 438 Votive relief with a “master of lions” Second half of the 6th century b.  XI. references  Doell 1873. flat band serving as a groundline is a wild animal standing on its hind legs. (?) Chalk limestone H. may also date from the second half of the sixth century b. A small man on the left wears an Egyptianizing kilt and holds an unidentifiable object. Myres noted traces of black. (W. The upper right corner is broken. p. but the group is accompanied by two figures whose significance is not clear. since it is a kind of niche on the inside of which “Zeus Ammon” is sculpted surrounded by rams.8 cm) From Golgoi. (11. Cesnola 1877.” However.c. (45.9. (48. Holding them against his body. “site near the temple” Myres 1034 The Cesnola Collection. pl. Cesnola 1877. XLVIII (top).7 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1396 The Cesnola Collection. naiskos surmounted by a frieze of damaged schematic uraei.2 The one from the Cesnola Collection must also date from the end of the Archaic period.8. he chokes two wild animals.c. 437 Votive relief with a lion killing a bull and two human figures Second half of the 6th century b. The figure on the right wears a long garment and leans on a stick(?). XLVIII (bottom). commentary  The damaged head does not allow a definitive identification with the hero or god “master of animals. the body of which is slightly raised. similar to Cat.51. pl.1 A terracotta naiskos. when the Egyptianizing style reaches its peak Cat.  50. Cesnola 1885. 17¾ in. 26¼ in. Above the pl.  50. description  The object has the form of a decorated pl. p.9 cm). 411⁄16 in. pl. He is flanked by two columns. a disk is set on his head. Cesnola 1885.9 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1395 The Cesnola Collection. Cat.2562) references  Doell 1873. no. 151. W. Purchased by subscription. The style of the figures seems to indicate a date in the second half of the sixth century b. XCIV. 437–456) Cat. fig. Limestone H. The right foreleg of the left lion seems to be grasping the figure’s upper arm.

contents cat. 438 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. 437–456) 311 . 437 cat.

almost sunken. according to Doell. 215⁄16–4⅛ in. (7. the tail is visible between his legs. pl. behind him. XIV. The Egyptian god.3. He walks toward the right. toward whom he turns brandishing a small round object in his right hand. pl. In the upper right. though from its being roughly hewn on the three visible sides. The scene is organized on three levels. extends to the top of the relief. Cat. pl. V. The entire top of the body is damaged. where it is said to have been found. probably covered by the lion skin. 207⁄16 in. his right foot is slightly raised. 66.51. is worked in very low relief. He is nude except for his lion skin. 2. To the left is the oxherd Eurytion. references  Cesnola 1885. The tail of the monster is raised and an incision articulates his body. Myres had noted the particular nature of the limestone that “may well be from Egypt. 69. he believed he could make out the contours of the head of the figure. p. and the question is whether the object has a connection with the worship rendered in the sanctuary. the right partially damaged.”1 The hollow on the upper surface indicates that the statue erected on this base was of stone. no. The representation of the god Thot is unique on the island. Georges ColonnaCeccaldi. Sophocleous 1985. if one takes into account the platform on which stands a large Herakles. The major part of the decoration fills the lower level.6. no. with the foot flat on the ground. The leg muscles. The “middle level. H. traces of red paint remain on the background. above a band that becomes a single low relief line to the left of the tree. Imagine therefore my delight in finding a spirited bas relief slightly tinted with red. The hero’s left leg is well advanced. today.c.” However. who wears only a cape that is draped over his shoulders and spreads out behind him. 7.377. W. With his left arm he carries a large tree. 1.2853) statue base. who first published the work. Cesnola wrote: “My workmen now came in contact with a quadrangular block of great weight. XLII. it did not bear much promise. He faces to the left. 45. 180–81. 62. and. 439 on Cyprus. particularly of the right leg.5–10. and being unable to remove it. 312 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments . sawed off after its discovery in order to facilitate transportation. (87. The left end of the slab is broken. 1874–76 (74. which had been partly unearthed and damaged in the previous diggings. 440 Slab (part of a statue base) with Herakles and the cattle of Geryon Early 5th century b. the six branches of which project into the register above. XXXIV. representing one of the labours of Hercules. the photograph published in the 1873 album2 allows one to see the base of the club in the right hand and the bent line of the bow held out by the left hand. pl. says that the right hand held a weapon (a club?) at the level of the ear and. Sophocleous 1985. 34⅜ in. less distinctly.3 cm). 422. An arrow pierces the neck of the uppermost head. (52 cm). “in the field west of the temple” Myres 1368 The Cesnola Collection. p.contents description  The slab constituted the front of a large cat. are emphasized. is also a lunar divinity. his legs in almost the same position as those of Herakles. the dog Orthros is sculpted.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. Limestone L. The decorated area. Actually.” on the left of the slab. Purchased by subscription. pl.5. which probably explains the presence of the disk on his head. other small Cypriot sculptures are made in a very chalky stone. the toolmarks have been poorly obliterated on the underside. Myres thought that the extended left hand held a bow and the right hand drew the string (which is impossible) or brandished a club. Its absence in Doell’s catalogue prompts caution as to its findspot. into the stone. only the line of the raised right arm is discernible. the left hand held a bow and the raised right hand may have been taking an arrow from the quiver. which does not seem possible. two paws are visible and three heads are superimposed. pp. I insisted on having it turned over for inspection. requested permission to break it up. p. fig. 17. and the rest of the pelt appears. Instead of agreeing to this.  LVII. Moreover. Karageorghis 1996. master of writing and computation. Myres 1940–45a. bordered by a narrow band at the top.

reference to Egyptian models goes beyond this technical aspect. vertically and/or in depth.. 302). It is very unlikely to have supported the colossal Herakles (see Cat. unquestionably recalls that of monumental reliefs. The earliest commentators were aware of the Egyptian aspect of the relief. Around the dog Orthros. with satyrlike features. dominated by a large heroic figure. presents the base as “coming very probably from the old sanctuary. from the site to the west. On Egyptian temples of the New Kingdom. a statue base with sculpted decoration is entirely exceptional—which makes all the more regrettable this work’s poorly preserved condition. always face front when they are sufficiently large and separate themselves more or less from the mass.4 These principles of technique and composition do not really have an equivalent in Greece and will not continue in Cypriot art. The other animals. The presentation of the scene here is original: Geryon himself is not represented. very damaged. Orthros has three heads like Cerberus. like Herakles. these reliefs show a colossal pharaoh slaughtering his enemies distributed over several registers. in the absence of a tradition of relief sculpture on the island. whose cattle are guarded by the dog Orthros and the herdsman Eurytion. having at his disposal a soft limestone closer to that used in Egypt than the hard stone used in Greece and in the Near East. and the majority of the space is devoted to the representation of the cattle. At the very front. Eurytion tries to flee holding an uprooted tree.contents cat. However. Only the three calves in the forefront— two of which are running—are totally visible. the bodies of which overlap on the horizontal plane and are superimposed on the vertical plane. commentary  On Cyprus. he even created a depression resembling sunken relief. 437–456) 313 . However. another. wears a full beard and long hair with crosshatched locks. It is possible that the scene on the base formed sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. It is striking to note how the Cypriot artist. or Ramses III shoots the Sea Peoples with a bow on his funerary temple of Medinet Habu. two oxen turn back. Colonna-Ceccaldi. It can seem logical that. closely associated Greek and Egyptian principles. a very dense group that particularly evokes Egyptian reliefs.” which corresponded to the date that the French scholar gave to the object. the first to write about it. they serve the cause of a myth well known in Greek literature and art since the seventh century  b. Thoutmosis III dominates a monolithic group of Asians in the temple of Amon-Re at Karnak. 440 Five of the branches are cut by the incised extension of the thicker groundline to the right. instead of two.c. of different sizes and with more or less developed horns. lowers his head. since the composition on two registers.3 For example. the sculptor adopted the graphic technique of very low relief. and the question arises if the base really comes. The figure. In front of him he herds eighteen head of cattle. that of Herakles’ voyage to the West and of his victory over the triple Geryon.

p. legitimately. 145. Cesnola 1873. and a bovid—with the relief from the Cesnola Collection. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 306) or other sculptures from the Cesnola Collection is impossible. which they probably knew better at the period of the first Persian domination than previously.” was very familiar with Egyptian representations—which is not surprising at that time—and with Attic vases. Boardman 1975. 499. Reinsberg. This most unusual base with figural decoration must at any rate have supported a major work from the sanctuary. the image of Herakles conquering and bringing back the divine cattle to the East was considered an appropriate offering. can therefore be proposed for the cattle of Geryon. contrary to the figure on the relief. who enjoys isolating a figure on the side of a vase in order to give it a sculptural appearance. pl. Bol and Kreikenbom 2004. characteristic of Cyprus. 491). Cesnola 1877. 85. as has been noted. 12. 10. however. pp. 11. 4. (and another of small size. 47. Among narrative images. 104. fig. the cut tree is above the bovid that collapses. Doell 1873. the ties between Cyprus and the coast of Asia Minor were obviously not only political. on the obverse. pl.c. on which the hero takes on the appearance of a hunter king protected by the Great Goddess. it is Apollo. fig.c. Boardman 1998.8 The date of the relief has been gleaned by comparison with that of the Golgoi sarcophagus (Cat. and Hercules and Cacus in Rome. as the inscriptions indicate.  573–74. a hero with an axe holding a tree trunk and. whose brute force is shown by the tree that he carries after having uprooted it. pp. p. However. 7. In the sixth and fifth centuries b.11 that Egyptian “pastiches” like the scene of Herakles and Busiris on a famous Caeretan hydria12 do not constitute isolated phenomena. are disseminated. On the coins. The hero with the axe on the coins is not clearly identified as Herakles. The divinity of Golgoi.  CXXII.5 The existence of an autonomous mint at Golgoi and. 135–37 with fig. But. but any material connection with the kneeling Herakles (Cat. 9. sometimes collapsed on its forelegs. 223–25. 151. 57. 124. 305. 103. 135. Burkert 1979. no. p. Walter Burkert emphasized the connection between the myths of Herakles and Geryon in Greece.9 A date around 500–480  b. partly for the connection of the iconographic theme— fighting hero.. at the same time as representations of Pan. Coins showing. It appears instead that. Rather. The discovery in the Troad of the “sarcophagus of Polyxena” is probably slightly earlier than the Golgoi relief. The traditional iconography of the myth of Herakles and Geryon is not represented on the coins. those related to Geryon and his cattle are the most numerous. 78–98. on the bowl from Palestrina and its Cypriot counterpart. It is a Herakles of this type that the die engravers very faithfully reproduced on the coins of Kition and Lapithos in order to represent their local Melqart. The eclecticism in his work may appear. XII). in an essentially pastoral sanctuary like that of Golgoi. C.  387. 74–75 with fig. of an autonomous kingdom is very uncertain. a bovid. pl. sometimes standing. reproduced in Marangou 2002. 101. in 499 b.c. Amandry 1991. the differences between the relief and the monetary images must be emphasized. 3. figs. on the tetrobol in Berlin. no. XI. Apollo. therefore. pp.912. 92. They depend on early red-figured paintings. Aldred et al. 1979.6 The Eurytion of the relief. and even of a ram god (“Zeus Ammon”). One even has the impression that the large figure of Herakles on a pedestal copies a composition of the Berlin Painter. pp. Gardner 1892–93. earlier. have been attributed to Golgoi. while on the relief. 1. pl. figs. on the reverse. pl. especially those of Herakles’ right leg. M. who receives the principal tribute of the worshippers. XXI (= Colonna-­ Ceccaldi 1882. the great Greek pastoral god.contents a coherent iconographic whole with the work mounted on it: this could have been a group of Herakles fighting Geryon. pp. either in Greek form or that of the Phoenician Melqart. V. figs. Cesnola 1877. Moreover. Pan. the hero seizes a tree still in the ground. V. with its surprising mourning figure that is closely dependent on Egyptian iconography. conqueror of monsters and guarantor of the forces of Nature. Eurytion holds an uprooted tree. had found a fruitful source of inspiration in Pharaonic art.10 The sculptor who realized this exceptional composition. a pioneer in the art of relief on Cyprus and one of the masters of “the school of Golgoi. It has shown. 6. Brunn and 314 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments . 150. 112. Karageorghis 2000a. the rustic god par excellence in the Hellenistic Greek world. evoked in the form of Herakles. Herakles is the most frequently depicted mythological figure in the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios. pp. It is this type of figure that is shown on the coins attributed to Golgoi and. 55–57.7 Percy Gardner had even thought that the relief from Golgoi represented Herakles attacking Cacus and not Eurytion.c. those of the “Pioneers” of the end of the sixth century b. V.. When the Ionian revolt broke out. 763. himself the ancestor of the Roman Cacus. certainly fits into an early Cypriot tradition of a god or warrior hero. see also Hermary 1992a. eastern Greek artists of the late sixth century b. is the direct successor of the monster represented on the two “Cypro-Phoenician” bowls.3). no inscription allows one to suppose the existence of a religious cult of the god/hero. Cesnola 1885. Karageorghis 1998. and of the following generation. in R. p. 8. See also Borda 1946–47. 58. The most significant feature seems to me to be the meticulous and exaggeratred rendering of the leg muscles. 2. a tree. 5. pl.c. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1872.6.

contents

cat. 441
Bruckmann 1888–1900, pl. 207.1; Masson 1971, p. 317, fig. 10; V. Karageorghis
1981, pp. 80–81, pl. 2; Tatton-Brown 1984, pp. 170–71, pl. XXXIII.1; Brize
1980, p. 142, no. 72, pl. 8.3; Zervoudaki 1988, no. 49*; Brize 1990, no. 2512;
M. Amandry 1991, pl.  II; Hermary 1992a, pp.  132–38, fig.  7; Woodford
1994, no.  21*; V. Karageorghis 1998, pp.  58–60, fig.  23; V. Karageorghis
2000a, no. 192.

Cat. 441
Fragmentary relief with a tree and birds of prey
Early 5th century b.c.
Limestone
H. 10¼ in. (26 cm), W. 14 in. (35.6 cm), D. 45⁄16 in. (11 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1369
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2667)
description  The block, preserved in its full width, but

broken both above and below, shows, in low relief, a tree with a
narrow trunk. Branches with different kinds of leaves, some
oval, some pointed, are grafted diagonally to the trunk—unless
the oval ones represent fruit. Two birds, with summarily
rendered wings and plumage and facing in opposite directions,
stand in profile on two of these branches, now lost below the
break. Their hooked beaks designate them as birds of prey.
The one on the right, almost worked in sunk relief, is larger
and more carefully worked.
commentary  The function of the object is enigmatic:
given the findspot, a votive relief comes to mind, but this is a

most unusual work of art for the time and it is difficult to
understand the significance of the tree in the absence of the
lower part. Even though another comparable group on Cyprus
cannot be cited, the question is if the relief belonged to a larger
composition that decorated a building or a large base.
The technique used by the sculptor recalls that of the
Geryon relief (Cat. 440). The surface hollowed out around the
bird on the viewer’s right resembles that around the dog
Orthros and is connected to Egyptian models. The tree, different from the one held by Eurytion, is, however, like those represented on the Golgoi sarcophagus; the disposition of the
branches and the different form of the leaves are unusual. Do
certain branches have leaves, others fruit? The sculptor would
have awkwardly transcribed Egyptian representations, like the
one of the sycamore, nourisher of the deceased, that associate
pointed leaves with oblong fruit.1 The birds should help to
understand the meaning of the image. The way in which the
wings are folded seems inspired by Egyptian images of the falcon, incarnation of the god Horus. On Cyprus, one is familiar
with statuettes of “falcons,” alone or killing a smaller bird, that
probably express royal power.2 In view of the comparable techniques, this relief must be almost contemporary with that of
the cattle of Geryon, toward the beginning of the fifth century b.c.
1. Aldred et al. 1979, fig. 125.
2. Hermary 2000a, p. 142.

references  Doell 1873, p.  56, no.  830, pl.  XIII.15; Cesnola 1885,
pl. XXVII.86; Tatton-Brown 1984, p. 171, pl. XXXIII.3.

sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. 437–456)

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figure, wearing a conical cap beneath which appear locks of
hair, reclines on a couch, his left elbow resting on a cushion.
His hand held the extended arm of another figure, probably
female. A dog is attached to the upright of the couch and in
front of him, facing left, stands a small, beardless figure. A
syllabic inscription is inscribed above the banqueter.
commentary  A certain Antiphamos was responsible for
the dedication. The banquet theme is attested in the round
(Cat.  242, 243, 244, 245, 246) and on the funerary stelai
(Cat. 477, 478, 480, 481, 483). The dog attached to the foot of
the couch recalls paintings on Archaic vases, including the
famous Eurytios krater in the Louvre.1 The head of the figure
is related to a type frequent in Archaic Cyprus, attested up to
the beginning of the fifth century b.c.2 This is also the likely
date for the altar; the low relief links it to a fashion represented
by more prestigious works.
1. Boardman 1998, fig. 396.
2. Hermary 1989a, no. 20.

references  Doell 1873, p.  52, no.  780; Cesnola 1877, pl.  XLVIII;
Cesnola 1885, pl.  XXVII.89; Cesnola 1903, pl.  CXXXVIII.2; Yavis 1949,
p.  138, no.  17, p.  173 n. 22; Masson 1961/1983, no.  282; Dentzer 1982,
pp. 279, 568, no. R7, fig. 189; Tatton-Brown 1984, p. 173, pl. XXXIII.2.

Cat. 443
Footstool(?) with the chimæra and a syllabic inscription
Early 5th century b.c.
Limestone
H. 7⅞ in. (20 cm), L. 287⁄16 in. (72.2 cm), Th. 115⁄16 in.
(28.7 cm)
From “the ruins of Golgoi” (Cesnola 1885), not the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (Cesnola 1877)
Myres 1858
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2320)
cat. 442

description  The interior is hollow. Between the top band

Cat. 442
Fragment of an altar with a relief and a syllabic
inscription
Early 5th century b.c.
Limestone
H. 95⁄16 in. (23.7 cm), W. of the decorated area 33⁄16 in. (8 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1859
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2318)
description  Only the right part of the object is preserved.

The top receptacle, slightly hollowed, is separated from the
figural zone by a very damaged cavetto molding. A bearded

and the groundline, the front of the block is subdivided in a
curious manner so as to make the decoration in low relief stand
out. The chimæra and the flanking circumscribed rosettes
project from a background that has been cut back irregularly,
particularly at the top, to make room for the upper parts of the
chimæra. The two twelve-petaled rosettes are surrounded by a
stem ending in two pendant lotus buds. The background is red.
The chimæra is ready to pounce. The mouth is open, the
tongue extended; the strands of the mane are marked by
rickrack incisions. On the middle of its back are grafted the
forequarters of a goat, the horn of which fills a concave space
on the frieze above. The goat’s only visible hoof rests on the
lion’s mane. The chimæra’s tail, raised in a vertical coil, ends
in a snake head turned to the right. On the topside, an inscrip-

316 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments

contents

tion is rather negligently inscribed within a kind of checkerboard consisting of eleven times six fields, each containing a
syllabic sign. Two other syllabic signs are inscribed on the left
back corner as seen by the viewer.
commentary  This footstool, like Cat.  444, must not
come from the sanctuary of Ayios Photios, since it is not
listed by Doell, nor mentioned by Colonna-Ceccaldi. Comparison with the footstool from one of the royal tombs from
Tamassos1 prompts one to attribute the same function to the
two works from Golgoi. However, the inscription inscribed on
the top makes the hypothesis of a funerary purpose for the
object difficult. Might it come from another sanctuary or a
palace where it would have been associated with a throne
or a kline? The fact that the toolmarks were not removed at the
back indicates, in any case, that the object was visible only on
three sides.
As Olivier Masson pointed out, reverting to an observation
by Léon Lacroix, the motif of the chimæra seems to allude to
the Sicyonian origins of Golgoi, mentioned by Stephanus
Byzantius. On the Classical coins of Sicyon, the representation
of the monster is comparable to that on the relief. However,
Bellerophon is, with Perseus, a hero particularly favored in the
“Greco-Persian” milieu of that period (see the sarcophagus
Cat.  491); one can even suppose, conversely, that the early
presence in Golgoi of the image of Bellerophon and the
chimæra gave rise to the tradition of a Sicyonian foundation
of the city.
Myres expressed himself indecisively about the date of this
object, saying that it probably belonged to the same monument
as the other footstool, placed by him at the beginning of the
sixth century b.c., but also that the style of the chimæra indicated instead the end of the century. Masson upheld the earlier
chronology, which must certainly be discarded. Comparing
coins from Sicyon and certain Attic vases, Veronica TattonBrown proposed a date during the fifth century b.c. The con-

nections between the head of the chimæra and that of the wild
animals from the Golgoi sarcophagus, and between the rosettes
and those from the large Hathor capital from Amathus,2 seem
to me to indicate a date around 480 b.c., the high point of the
production of reliefs at Golgoi. The inscription on the upper
face of the block is almost certainly a later graffito (the same is
true for the two alphabetical letters). Its content is enigmatic,
like that of a text painted on an ostracon from Salamis that
presents strong similarities.3 The connection between Salamis
and Golgoi is interesting. Both inscriptions could be related to
a regional version of the language called Eteocypriot.4 The
checkerboard layout suggests a game, like others known
on Cyprus.5
1. Buchholz 1974, p. 583, fig. 40, p. 589, fig. 49.
2. Hermary 1985; Hermary 2000a, pl. 83.
3. Masson 1961/1983, no. 318 (A) (I); Egetmeyer 1992, pp. 241–42.
4. Egetmeyer 2012.
5. See, in particular, Michaelidou-Nicolaou 1965.

references  Cesnola 1877, p.  159 with fig.; Cesnola 1885,
pl. LXXXV.560; Cesnola 1903, pl. CXXIV.2; Masson 1961/1983, no. 298,
pl.  XLVIII.2; Masson 1968, pp.  380–86, fig.  7, pl.  XXII; Masson 1971,
pp. 311, 316; Tatton-Brown 1984, pp. 171–72, pl. XXXIII.4; Jacquemin 1986,
no. 94*; V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 332.

Cat. 444
Footstool with a lion killing a bull
Second quarter or middle of the 5th century b.c.
Limestone
H. 7¾ in. (19.7 cm), L. 2215⁄16 in. (58.3 cm), D. 91⁄16 in. (23 cm)
From “the ruins of Golgoi” (Cesnola 1885), not the sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios (Cesnola 1877)
Myres 1373
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2678)

cat. 443

sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. 437–456)

317

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cat. 444

description  The inside of the block is hollow, the back is

description  The altar is roughly square, the top flares

missing. Under a flat band, the decorated field is cut into the
form of an arch. Two large, sixteen-petaled rosettes project in
low relief from a background painted red. They are each
surrounded by a lotus stem ending in two pendant buds. At the
center, on a ground line painted red, a lion bites into the spine
of a bull that has fallen on its forelegs. The muzzle of the wild
animal and the head of its victim, shown frontally, are summarily worked. There are some traces of fire.
commentary  The form of the object, the technique of the
decoration, and the composition with rosettes surrounded by a
lotus stem that frames a figural motif suggest a connection
with Cat. 443. It is not enough, however, to claim, with Myres,
that both footstools belong together. The dimensions are
different; moreover, the fighting animals are a more common
motif than the chimæra, and the rosettes are less skillfully
executed. Be that as it may, it is difficult to assume a significant
chronological interval between the two works and this second
footstool should not be later than around the mid-fifth
century b.c. The fact that the interior is hollowed out indicates
that it could not have supported a heavy weight.
references  Cesnola 1877, p.  159 with fig.; Cesnola 1885,

out. There are toolmarks and a stylized version of a cavetto
above the reliefs. The front bearing the syllabic inscription,
and one of the sides are decorated in low relief. The main
scene shows, at the right, a bearded figure who wears a tunic
and holds a ram by the horns. He appears to look back toward
another bearded figure who holds an elongated object (a
branch?) and who wears a chiton, a himation, and, on his head,
a conical cap (?). A syllabic inscription is inscribed below. On
the short left end, for the viewer, a banquet scene is represented:
a bearded man reclines with a woman on his knees; she holds
his chin. Under the bed is a dog; on the lower register, a goat.
commentary  Olivier Masson considers the inscription
“obscure,” Günter Neumann reads it as “this is really the
offering (or the property) of Kyprophantilos.” On the small
votive altar, the banquet theme appears here associated with
that of the sacrifice: the iconography is therefore adapted to
the function of the object, since the sacrifice of an animal,
evoked here on both scenes, was normally followed by a meal
in honor of the divinity. The style of the figures seems to
indicate the end of the Archaic period, but a later date
is possible.

pl. CXXII.906; Masson 1968, p. 382, fig. 6; Tatton-Brown 1984, pp. 171–72,

references  Cesnola 1885, pl. XXVII.85; Cesnola 1903, pl. CXXXI.3;

pl. XXXIII.6; V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 333.

Masson 1961/1983, no. 283; Neumann 1990, pp. 163–65.

Cat. 445
Small altar, decorated with two figured scenes
and a syllabic inscription
First half of the 5th century b.c. (?)
Limestone
H. 9¼ in. (23.5 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1860
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2319)

Cat. 446
Small altar with reliefs on three sides
Second half of the 5th or 4th century b.c.
Limestone
H. 10⅛ in. (25.7 cm), W. 7 in. (17.8 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1109
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2633)

318 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments

contents

cat. 445

description  The base of the altar projects on the three

decorated sides. The upper trapezoidal hollow, which is
partially broken, shows no traces of fire. Immediately below is
a molding that consists, on three sides, of a slightly rounded
band and of a very damaged frieze of tongues. The central
scene shows a figure totally nude, the face worn away. Turned
toward the right, the figure stands on an incised groundline.
His left leg is advanced, the right arm is raised to strike with his
club a lion, the mane of which he grasps in his left hand.
Standing on its hind legs at a lower level, the lion rests his paws
on the thigh of the hero. On the side of the altar to the right, a
woman, wearing a chiton and a himation, stands turned to the
right, on a kind of base. Both hands are raised. Above her and
separated by a band is a frieze showing a stalking lion, turned
to the left. On the third side of the altar, a draped figure—
probably male—is very summarily represented, his right hand
placed on his chest. The back side is barely roughed out.
commentary  Although he does not wear the lion skin, the
figure is similar to the Herakles of the Geryon relief (Cat. 440),
whose raised position on a kind of pedestal he copies. The
figure on the left appears as an ordinary worshipper. The
woman on the right stands on a small base and seems to wear a
wreath: she makes the gesture of the “goddess with raised
arms,” but must be a worshipper or a priestess rather than a
divinity.1 The worn faces and the summary style complicate
dating; a date before the mid-fifth century  b.c. seems very
unlikely, but it may be as late as the fourth century b.c.

cat. 446

1. See Hermary 1986b, pp. 167–68, pl. XXXIV.6–7, for a scene painted on
an amphora in the Louvre.

references  Cesnola 1885, pl.  XXVII.87; Sophocleous 1985,
pp.  40–41, pl.  XLII.4; Hermary 1990a, no.  25; Senff 1993, p.  75 n. 643;
V. Karageorghis 1998, pp. 80–81, fig. 36; V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 345.

sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. 437–456)

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Cat. 447
Fragment of a votive relief with a quadriga(?)
and a syllabic inscription
4th century b.c. or Hellenistic period
Limestone
H. 6½ in. (16.5 cm), W. 7⅞ in. (20 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1877
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2306)

Cat. 448
Votive relief with scenes related to the cult
of Apollo and a syllabic inscription
Early Hellenistic period
Limestone
H. 12½ in. (31.8 cm), L. 19⅞ in. (50.5 cm), W. ⁄
3 16–1 in.
(0.5–2.5 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1870
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2338)

description  The lower part of the relief remains, with

five horse legs that appear to float. Only the end of the inscription, in two lines, survives.
references  Cesnola 1903, pl.  CXXVIII.3; Masson 1961/1983,
no. 272.

cat. 447

description  The relief, which has undergone minor

restorations, is pierced at the top with two holes for suspension. The figures are carved in low relief, the contours slightly
concave. Above, on the right, the god Apollo is identified by
the kithara that he touches with his left hand. The uprights are
slightly curved and at each end of the the crosspiece is a small
ball. Apollo sits on a rock(?), with his left leg advanced. He
extends a phiale with the right hand. He wears a long-sleeved
chiton, with a belt at the waist, and a himation that is fastened
on the shoulders and falls on the back. His face, in left profile,
appears to be smiling. The back of his head is restored. In front
of him is a large altar, the top of which assumes the shape of
two breasts. Two(?) syllabic signs are engraved on its surface:
te-o, “to the god” (?). Six figures, with red hair, climb a slope to
approach the god. In the lead is a man wearing a chiton and a
himation; his face and extended right hand have disappeared.
He is followed by a woman in a long chiton; her himation is
raised over her head like a veil, thus hiding her right arm; only
her raised right hand shows. In her left arm she holds a baby
whose head and pointed cap are visible. Two young boys
dressed like their father follow; one boy holds a jug with his
right hand, the other boy, smaller, shown frontally, places his
right hand on his hip. Lower down, on the left, two young girls
are represented like their mother, but their heads are not
veiled. A celebration is represented in the lower register. The
group to the right is made up of five banqueters who recline
directly on the ground opposite an aulos player, whose head is
damaged. He reclines near a krater bearing the syllabic signs
o-pa (= o(m)pha, “oracle”?), above which appears the top of an
amphora (or a psykter), painted entirely in red. All these
figures wear a chiton and himation. The banqueters are
crowned and apparently beardless. They each hold a cup
except for the banqueter at the center, who turns toward the
other group while raising his right hand; his face is missing.
The artist did not have the space necessary to show the lower
body of the musician, nor that of the banqueter on the left, nor
the base of the krater. The other group consists of five figures
holding hands and dancing. On the left are three young boys

320 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments

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cat. 448

wearing knee-length tunics; the one on the left raises his right
hand. On the right are two women, each of whom wears a
chiton and a himation; the taller one is veiled. Myres noted
traces of red paint on several places.
commentary  The interest of this small relief was
emphasized upon its discovery. Its iconography gives us the
most detailed image of early Cypriot worship, of which Apollo
is the beneficiary, as in several dedications from the sanctuary
of Ayios Photios. Two locations are differentiated. First, that
of the procession toward the altar, situated on a height of a
group that certainly constitutes a family. There is no sacrificial
animal, nor visible offering, only the jug alludes to a libation, as
does the phiale extended by the god. Second, lower down, that
of a festival that gathers more figures, but only two women
(unless the musician is also female). As is usual, music and
dance at a banquet are prominent. It is difficult to say if
the registers evoke two successive moments of the worship
rendered by the same figures, or if the two scenes are simultaneous. The meticulousness of the representation allows one to
note the following points:
The sacred space includes two separate zones, that of the
altar, where the divinity resides, and that of the banquets.
No constructed element is represented: the altar is either
carved in the rock or made of a monolithic block, as at Ayia
Irini.1 The banquet takes place outdoors, without any special
furniture. Still, there is a certain refinement shown by the pres-

ence of an amphora in the krater, which probably functions as
a psykter (a wine cooler).
The mood is clearly familial; all ages are represented, from
the infant child to marriageable young girls.
The image of Apollo is of Greek type; his long-sleeved
garment does not appear to be attested before the beginning of
the Hellenistic period. The god is sometimes standing,2 sometimes seated.3 Similarly, the women in the procession are
related to the “Herculaneum” type,4 the “large,” veiled, for
the mother, the “small” for the girls, the original of which
dates toward the end of the fourth century b.c. It is therefore
probable that this interesting object dates, at the earliest, from
the beginning of the Hellenistic period. The meaning of the
very short inscriptions is uncertain: a dedication “to the god”
and mention of an oracle were referred to elsewhere (Cat. 184).
1. Gjerstad et al. 1935, p. 651, figs. 261, 262.
2. Lambrinudakis 1984, no. 145*; compare a Cypriot relief of unknown
origin, ibid., no. 91*.
3. Ibid., no. 187*, coin of Antiochos II, dated from 256–255 b.c.
4. Smith 1991, figs. 88, 89.

references  Colonna-Ceccaldi and Dumont 1873 (= Colonna-­
Ceccaldi 1882, pp. 75–82); Doell 1873, p. 49, no. 766, pl. XI.5; Cesnola 1877,
p. 149 with fig.; Cesnola 1885, pl. LXXXV.553; Cesnola 1903, pl. CXXXII.2;
Masson 1961/1983, no. 268; Dentzer 1982, pp. 281–82, 570, no. R27, fig. 208;
Ghedini 1988; V. Karageorghis 2000a, no.  352; V. Karageorghis 2000b;
V. Karageorghis 2006, p. 212, no. 210, fig. 226; Egetmeyer 2012.

sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. 437–456)

321

contents

commentary  Contrary to Doell and Myres, I do not think

that the large figure is a woman, but rather the god Apollo,
owing to his garment and to the movement of his arm, which
appears to indicate that he was playing the lyre or the kithara,
as on the relief Cat. 455. The identification of the small nude
figure with the god Eros is obvious if the identification of wings
is correct. The very brief inscription offers no indication.
references  Doell 1873, p.  50, no.  768, pl.  XI.4; Cesnola 1903,
pl. CXXV.3; Masson 1961/1983, no. 274.

Cat. 450
Votive relief with a scene related to the cult
of Apollo and a syllabic inscription
Early Hellenistic period (?)
Limestone
H. 7½ in. (19.1 cm), L. 11⅜ in. (28.9 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1871
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2368)
description  The top of the relief is missing. The band at

cat. 449

Cat. 449
Fragment of a votive relief with a syllabic inscription
Early Hellenistic period
Limestone
H. 81⁄16 in. (20.5 cm), W. 7⅞ in. (20 cm)
Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios
Myres 1879
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
(74.51.2362)
description  The lower left part of the relief remains. A

figure, wearing a long-sleeved garment under a chiton with
an overfold and a himation that falls on the back, is turned
three-quarters to the viewer’s right. The right leg and the
right arm are bent. Three syllabic signs are inscribed behind
the right shoulder. In the lower left, a small nude figure,
standing on a base, is presented frontally; the left arm is raised,
the right hand probably held an object. It looks as if there were
small pointed wings near the head; the hair is shoulder-length.
There are traces of red paint on the upper chest and shoulders
(a garment?).

the bottom bears a syllabic inscription in two lines; the signs
are painted a brownish color. The scene is sculpted in low
relief. To the left sits a god on a very schematic throne.
Beardless, he has shoulder-length hair and wears a crown, a
chiton, and a himation. His left hand grasps a scepter with a
vegetal finial and he extends a phiale(?) with the right. His legs
are even more coarsely rendered than the rest of his body. In
front of him stands a quadrangular altar, possibly with akroteria. On it is set a round object (a piece of fruit?). Behind the
altar stands a large tree, of which the lower tier of branches
remains. The archlike element above the figures appears to be
an independent arched space rather than a very long branch.
Seven worshippers present themselves before the god: a man
holding an object in his left hand, a veiled woman clasping a
child close to her, two other male figures, and, on a lower level,
two adolescents(?). All the adults raise their right hand in a
gesture of adoration. There are toolmarks on the back.
commentary  The inscription, which was not entirely
transcribed by Olivier Masson, is considered by Günter
Neumann to be later than the relief and understood in the
following way: “Onasidikos offered this plaque of Onasiyas to
the very great god, Apollo, in his temenos, following his
promise as a wish for happiness III.” The mention of a temenos
is interesting, since different elements of a sanctuary are shown
on the image: the altar on which there seems to be an offering,
a tree, and probably an arch, which recalls a grotto. Are these
details realistic? The presence of the altar, comparable to the

322 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments

V. 227. Yon 1986.  765.5 cm). 7⅞ in. the relief shows the homage rendered by a group of worshippers. L. The grotto. Neumann 1999. if indeed it is one.1¼ in. fig. pl. p. pl. probably Onasidikos and his family. no. A date at the beginning of the Hellenistic period can therefore be proposed. no. 451 one in the relief Cat. Masson 1961/1983. Cat. seems more original (despite the grotto of the Nymph at Kaphizin.  XLVII. pl. references  Doell 1873. p.2.  XI.  187.  137. no. The careless style makes the dating difficult.2 cm) Myres 1873 The Cesnola Collection. 415. Cesnola 1877. W. Karageorghis 2006.  143. but does not correspond to anything known in the area of Ayios Photios. 437–456) 323 . V. but the icono­ graphic principles are the same as those on the relief Cat. V. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. 211.51. 448. and others). is compulsory and the tree indicates the rural nature of the place of worship. CXXX. 213. Karageorghis 2000a. 12 in.558.  Karageorghis 1998. fig. pl. Purchased by subscription. Be that as it may. 451 Fragmentary votive relief with cult scenes and a syllabic dedication to Apollo Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H.  16.1. Cesnola 1885. (3. (30. 450 cat. fig. pl.  48. Cesnola 1903. p.2372) sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. p. (20 cm). to the Apollo of Golgoi. no. XLVIII. LXXXV. 448.1–2.  265.

(10. but the awkwardness of the style and the brownish paint of the syllabic signs recall the relief of Onasidikos: a date at the beginning of the Hellenistic period is probable.  XI. To the left. Karageorghis 2006. his function defined by the tool (a pick?). XLIX. but the inscription is unintelligible. 452 Cat. references  Cesnola 1885. LXXXV.1. This work departs from the strictly cult focus of the previous reliefs. there is a break on the right.6.1. W. The gesture of the figure on the left (Diaithemis?) suggests that he comes to help the other. two bearded figures are shown facing each other and shaking hands. p. V. Myres suggested a rescue scene in a quarry or a mine: the block under the inscription suggests stoneworking and the small individual would then be a quarry man. Cesnola 1903. Cesnola 1877. despite the absence of visible attributes. a figure seated in three-quarter view wears a long-sleeved garment. Karageorghis 2000a. Purchased by subscription.4. 324 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments . 416. emphasized by a brownish pigment. at the edge of the break. commentary  As in Cat.51. Cesnola 1885. pl. 4¼ in. Masson 1961/1983. 452 Fragment of a votive relief with a syllabic inscription Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. cat.2. V.5 cm). The inscription. The relief is divided into two registers. pl. CXXVIII. and the two projections at the top could suggest a double baetyl (sacred stone) on a base. XLVIII. references  Doell 1873. but his head is missing.  LXXXV. 212. 228. There is a syllabic inscription in two lines with the signs painted red. 75⁄16 in. 187. fig. pl.7.556. The god who presided is lost. fig. wearing a short tunic. Masson 1961/1983. Comparison with other reliefs identifies the object between the divinity and the worshipper(s) as an altar. In the lower register. He extends his right hand toward a kind of altar with a band wrapped around the middle and two rounded projections at the top.  173. Cesnola 1903. no. 136. On the ground between them a tool is represented shaft-end up—an ax or a pick? Under the inscription is a large cubic block. 451. with their right hands raised. V. appear in front of a rounded altar preceded by a sloping element on the ground. The one on the left. their heads are missing. is taller than the other figure. whose garment is not visible.2.8 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1872 The Cesnola Collection. pl. 1874–76 (74. pl. commentary  The dedication allows one to identify the seated god as Apollo rather than Zeus.  49. the small band with a vertical incision in the center.  XLVIII. no.1. The dedication of Diaithemis is addressed to the god Apollo. is the foot of a votary.  266. 214. XXXIII. description  Two votaries. (18. CXXXIII. . In the top register. p. pl. no.557. is not separated from the scene in the lower zone. p. pl. 269. pl.2355) no.  767. The scene represented at the bottom is surprising. pl. the god is probably Apollo.contents description  The top and the left part of the relief are missing. Tatton-Brown 1984. Karageorghis 1998. no. They are both poorly proportioned. He was probably Apollo himself. p.

2. W.5 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1876 The Cesnola Collection. The signs are emphasized in red. no. Masson 1961/1983. The dedication is to Apollo from a certain Onasioros. 769.1. no. Cesnola 1903. Masson 1961/1983. 454 Cat. (8 cm). no. pl. A seated figure is visible at the edge of the break. (5. 453 Cat. 325 . On the right is the god Apollo. W. CXXX. Higher up is the right part of an eye and still higher. 50. 453 Fragmentary votive relief with a boat and a syllabic inscription Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. XLV.2366) cat. (11 cm). CXXXIV.2313) description  The top right remains. (17 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1874 The Cesnola Collection. The top of the hull is reinforced. seated toward the left near a vegetal motif. all sides of which are broken except at the top.contents cat. references  Doell 1873. p.2. 45⁄16 in.51. inscription in three lines. is very thin. 271. holding the rudder. 33⁄16 in. 454 Fragment of a votive relief dedicated to Apollo Early Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. pl. 611⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. references  Cesnola 1903. with a syllabic description  The relief. 1874–76 (74.51. with the pilot standing at the helm. The curved stern of a boat remains. two syllabic signs. Purchased by subscription. pl. He has shoulder-length hair and wears a himation painted red on his left shoulder. 23⁄16 in. 267.

Above the gods. a small figure.2370) description  The top right of the object is missing. both painted red. at the left. His face is partially broken. 455 Cat. He wears a chiton and a himation. In front of him. The hypothesis 326 catalogue chapter 11 sculptured reliefs on votive monuments . is identified as Hermes by the caduceus that he carries in his left hand. recognizable by the thunderbolt that he holds in his right hand and by the scepter that he grasps with his left. as is the himation that falls to the sides. He wears a short tunic and a chlamys painted red. the belt and edges of which are painted red. the signs of which are painted red. He wears a chiton. presented frontally. (41. appear four winged horses hitched to an empty chariot. The surface of the relief is slightly curved. commentary  The interpretation of the three figures as divinities is assured by their attributes and by the presence of the winged quadriga harnessed to an empty chariot. to the right. His legs are minuscule compared to the rest of his body. 12 in. (30. presented frontally with his left leg advanced. At the center is Zeus. Behind Zeus. 163⁄16 in. waiting until one of the gods wishes to leave Olympus. Above the syllabic inscription in four lines. 455 Votive relief with Zeus and other gods. W. plays the lyre. He is seated on a high-backed throne and turned three-quarters toward the viewer. He stands on his left leg with the right slightly bent. Purchased by subscription. particularly on the viewer’s left.5 cm). and a syllabic inscription Hellenistic period Limestone H. He is bearded and long twisted locks appear from below a sort of cap.contents cat. his right hand rests on his hip. Apollo. three gods are represented in prominent relief. 1874–76 (74. part of the instrument and his left arm are missing.1 cm) Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios Myres 1869 The Cesnola Collection.51.

with Hermes. 14. He wears a tunic that falls to the knees. 37d.1 that probably dates from the end of the Hellenistic period.3. 87⁄16 in. no. but what happens is what must happen. Masson 1961/1983. Zeus.559. Purchased by subscription. p. Greetings!” The head of Zeus is of the same type as the colossal head in the Louvre. 764.51.  1. Karageorghis 1998. Hermary 2009a. Timon. no. 48. 632. Never say a grand word. A god has no consideration for man. The gods direct all that men think.1. His legs are thin. of imposing size. p. Cesnola 1877.3. who saw here the musician as a votary and his son flanking Zeus. To immortal gods. If the comparison with the large head from Malloura is significant. CXXX. fig. V.  188. fig. 456 Fragment of a figure(?) in “semi-relief” with an alphabetic inscription Hellenistic period (?) Limestone H. cat. Hermary 2004a.  17. must be abandoned: the divine hierarchy is actually suggested by the size and the position of the gods. and drink. 1874–76 (74. CXLVI. Cesnola 1885. Markus Egetmeyer has given the following translation: “Greetings! Eat. p. no.11.  LXXXV. visible on the sides.  138. fig. 437–456) 327 . dominates at the center.1. pl. XLVI. found at Malloura. The long inscription is a sententious text that says nothing about the worshipper nor about the divinities of Golgoi.). The corkscrew curls that fall on the sides could recall an Alexandrian Sarapis. Neumann 1974 (inscr. Cesnola 1903. V.5 cm) Myres 1913 The Cesnola Collection. all they desire is available to satiety. Egetmeyer 1997 (inscription). His bent arms held an object. pl.  414. pl. Karageorghis 2000a. behind. 82. pl. Lord. pl. pl. Yon 1986. a date at the end of the Hellenistic period would also be likely: the relief would thus attest to a late use of traditional syllabary. (21. p. p. The inscription is a dedication of Nikandros to his son.  143. the left one is missing. smaller. 1. 264. references  Doell 1873. sculptured reliefs on votive monuments (cat. reference  Cesnola 1903. 456 Cat. Hermary 1989a. XI. 47. no. but the thunderbolt here clearly identifies the master of Olympus.2437) description  A figure in “semi-relief” emerges from a block rounded on the back.3. facing him Apollo.contents of Myres.  XLVIII. pl. no.

 5–8. Buchholz 2010. to a near-disappearance of this type of sculpture. which regains a certain favor—especially at Golgoi—toward the beginning of the Roman period.d.  495. . Buchholz 2010.2 and.3 the question is whether these few monuments with inscriptions were made to be seen: for example. 970. pp. Hermary 1989a.contents catalogue chapter 12 Funerary Monuments introduction Cypriot funerary sculptures were long neglected by scholars. of which Cat. pp. Probable confirmation comes from the lions and sphinxes found near the “royal tombs” at Tamassos. 3. pp. as indicated by the small band knotted around the shaft (Cat. it is difficult to date accurately the early stages of this series. on the stele of Karyx. found at Golgoi. see the sarcophagus of Amathus. Hermary 1989a. characteristic of the Phoenician communities on the island. pp. Funerary Stelai without Human Figures (Except Hathor Heads) (cat. and Amathus. 9–10. the Metropolitan Museum still owns works of fine quality. Cypriot funerary sculptures were not placed outside. 981. Like the votive statues.2 These first Cypriot monuments may be near contemporaries of Attic funerary stelai that show a sphinx seated on a cavetto capital. 6. such as at Pyla. 980. since this series seems to begin around 600  b.4 Two sphinxes from the same tomb at Marion5 show that this type of monument was sometimes realized as a work in the round independent of a pillar or a stele. V. Cf.  490. the funerary sculptures develop from the end of the seventh or beginning of the sixth century b. The group realized by Zoilos (Cat. Kornos. 496). from Golgoi and Idalion to Tamassos. Karageorghis 1998.6 In the fifth century b. p. 457–476) Funerary sculptures of the sixth century b. Cat.1 Without a precise archaeological context. This production enjoys considerable expansion in different forms during the fifth century: prestigious works like the sarcophagi with figural decoration at Amathus and Golgoi (Cat. 971. An initial study by Veronica Tatton-Brown. as was the case in the Greek cities. but the works from this period are rare and represent almost exclusively lions and sphinxes. which provided many other interesting objects. local limestone stelai with figural decoration. marble anthropoid sarcophagi from Kition and Amathus (Cat. 5.4 the alphabetic inscription probably designates the figure as a Greek of non-Cypriot origin who could hope that his stele would remain visible above the tomb. Solomidou-Ieronymidou 2001. fig.. Hermary 1989a. that surmount a stele with a cavetto finial. fig.c. no.3 This type of image spreads quite widely in the later Archaic period. 470) borrowed directly from Attic stelai. slabs with relief decoration included in built tombs. also Hermary 1989a. 328 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments notes 1. this tradition continues in the form of pilaster-shaped stelai that associate the sphinxes with the “tree of life” (about this theme. but in the corridor leading to the burial chamber (dromos). pp. notes 1. 6. no. 103. 3. 993. particularly. consist principally of lions. 59.c. was followed by the work of Elena Pogiatzi (2003a). most of them originated from the necropolis of Golgoi.. Pogiatzi 2003a. Pogiatzi 2003a. Richter 1961.  490).1 Despite the dispersal of part of this ensemble. Although little is known about the context of their discovery. more rarely sphinxes. However. 2.c. But shortly thereafter it evolves in a clearly Hellenized form. above the tomb. the original placement of the lions and the sphinxes from Tamassos is far from certain. 2. Cesnola had gathered a remarkable collection. Solomidou-Ieronymidou 2001. 544–62. contrary to what happened in the Greek world. nos. 459 is a good example.c. as it assembled every type of monument from the Archaic through the Roman period. The end of the kingdoms leads. 981. published in 1986. Masson 1966. 544–80. it seems. 562–71. Buchholz 2010. 4. and I have also presented a brief synthesis on the subject (2004). 491). 4.  489) shows that this local tradition is still alive at the end of the first or the beginning of the second century a. several accounts suggest that. nos. characteristic of the evolution of the entire production.

the broad collar is executed in low relief.6 cm). but not the two mortises on either side (5. probably a naiskos. The mortise on the viewer’s right is missing. W.2475) description  The relief probably belonged originally to a much larger-sized shaft sawed off below the broad collar. (87.c. 457–476) 329 .5 × 5 cm. 20¼ in.4 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1414 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. Purchased by subscription. depth 8 cm) that were used to attach an added element. It is divided into three bands around a central part funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. On the lower.51. (51. Limestone H. 34½ in. 457 Cat. The stone is worn. wider part of the slab. 1874–76 (74. 457 Slab with the head of Hathor First half of the 6th century b. with holes toward the bottom of the front and the sides. The small round mortise at the top is probably modern.

still relatively true to its Egyptian models. Hermary 1985.  XVIII. as on the bronze cauldron from the tomb 79 at Salamis. 311⁄16 in. Limestone H. The bulbous eyes are surmounted by thick eyebrows. V. fig. Cat. W. 76. 61.contents cat. fig. 23. 458 decorated with horizontal lines.5.1 The style of the face.c. 330 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . Above. 676. Hermary 1985. with a checkerboard pattern on the short left end. 26. 1 or to Cat. a Hathor head with a smiling expression and large bulbous eyes is set on a broad collar with no decoration..2 Hermary 2004a. 18¼ in. (78.27. 122–34. Karageorghis 2000a. fig. p. The hair forms a smooth roll bound by three groups of three ribbons on which appear the small bovine ears. The lotus flowers at the bottom are mostly missing. 1. 20. 35a. 21. p. pls. the thin mouth smiles faintly.2495) description  The finial. 26–33 (81 examples). p. Purchased by subscription. Three groups of three clasps bind the hair. three U-shaped volutes end in a piece of fruit (the outer volute).4 cm). 458 Finial of a funerary stele with volutes and the head of Hathor Second or third quarter of the 6th century b. pl. (6 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1419 The Cesnola Collection. which is broken off at the bottom. suggests comparison to the colossal head Cat. 2.4. 1. The head of the goddess is sculpted into the top of the slab. no. pls. (46. pl. references  Cesnola 1885.51. presents an abacus consisting of three bands. above a crescent and a disk. the two others under the small bovine ears that overlap the hair. Ibid. 24. one at the center of the forehead. although the hypothesis of a winged disk cannot be excluded. Walcher 2009.8 cm). no. p. p. 2⅜ in.1 The square mortises were probably used to attach the traditional naiskos.. in particular the treatment of the eyes and eyebrows. only the inner band displays lozenge-shaped decoration. figs. 1874–76 (74. 675. hence the date proposed here in the first half of the sixth century  b. 678. commentary  Katja Walcher identified and commented upon all the “Proto-Aeolic capitals” known on Cyprus. this relief and the next are the only ones that associate two Egyptianizing features—the broad collar and the bovine ears—both rare and shown separately on two limestone stelai. The surface is smooth.1 The decoration on this capital is most unusual. a lotus flower on a long stem (the central volute). Mercklin 1962. At the center. in the triangle at the base of the capital. Above a protruding chin. 60. L. 27. commentary  Among the group of Hathor representations found in Cyprus. and two lotus flowers (the inner volute). Ibid. 1. It is probably the oldest representation of the head of Hathor in Cypriot sculpture. even if a very small head of the goddess Hathor is sometimes represented. 86.c. The triangular face is surrounded by a mass of hair forming a roll that turns up at either end. 183. pp.  21.

the ribs protrude.  535.  67. III.8 cm). fig. the front paws are crossed. p.  193. 1. 459 references  Cesnola 1885. The work is summary. p.  49. The body is thin.2865) description  Two lions sit back-to-back on a cavetto finial decorated with a disk and a crescent.  361. p.c. 80. p. 1874–76 (74.4. Walcher 2009. 2.2 cm). but the hindquarters are raised. p. 4. no. pl. pl.641.  2. no. commentary  Although the position of the lions is different. p. a mortise of 4½ × 4 cm was used for attachment to a stele. 143⁄16 in. but is not shown on the back.909. Purchased by subscription. Pogiatzi 2003a. no. 459 Finial of a funerary stele with a seated lion Late 7th century or early 6th century b. cat. references  Cesnola 1885. the teeth carefully shown. traces of the tail are visible on the side. 17 in. 460 Finial of a funerary stele with two seated lions Ca. H. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893.c. Cat. (36 cm) From “the ruins of Idalium” Myres 1390 The Cesnola Collection. L. no.  55. pl. 110.51. Brunn and Bruckmann 1888–1900. pl. 8.2852) description  The upper body of a lion seated to the right remains. Cesnola 1885. 2315⁄16 in. but a kind of ruff separates the head from the chest. CXXII. (43. Limestone L. the mouth wide open. 20. Purchased by subscription. Parayre 1990. pl. part of the back of the head is restored.2 1.1. third quarter of the 6th century b. 457–476) 331 . with thick eyelids. references  Cesnola 1885. Dominique Parayre has shown that the motif. pl. p. (58.  XCV. The muzzle is furrowed around the nose and there are three folds of skin on each side of the mouth. The heads are turned toward the viewer. back to back. 981. 461 Finial of a funerary stele with two recumbent lions Late 6th or early 5th century b. 74C.51. Purchased by subscription. The mouths are open.  826. 1874–76 (74.  XIII.  XCV. 27. It forms a hook above the second rib. (36.contents Cat.52. no. Hermary 1989a. 233⁄16 in.1 owing to the presence and the form of the winged disk on the cavetto. p. Limestone H.9 cm). 225. the points of which turn downward. fig. The lions’ heads are turned toward the viewer. 105. leaving an unfilled space below. pl. no. the head on the viewer’s right is very damaged. the tongue extended. fig.51. pl. this capital must be compared to the stele of Karyx from the necropolis of Golgoi. the tails pass behind the rear paws.  161.8 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1393 The Cesnola Collection.642. with two appendages. no. I. The back is summarily rendered and there are toolmarks. the mane is not shown. The large eyes are bulbous. 130. no. V. references  Doell 1873. (86 cm) From the necropolis of Amathus Myres 1389 The Cesnola Collection. Canciani 1970. as on the Hathor capital from Amathus. (60. Hermary 1981. fig. 14½ in. The smooth mane spreads over the top of the back and on to the chest. was inspired by considerably earlier Phoenician ivories. Pogiatzi 2003a. pl. L. p. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. on the underside. fig.16. Limestone H.2866) description  The cavetto finial is decorated with a winged disk.c. The two lions are recumbent. Mercklin 1962. and the ears are rounded.51. particularly on the front paws. their mouths open and tongues extended. 1874–76 (74. 33⅞ in. 30. pl. Payne 1931. The head is turned toward the viewer. 207. Cat. The upper right front leg is clearly articulated.  XXII. funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. 56.

461 332 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . 460 cat.contents cat.

no.  XCV. The treatment of the body is summary. 19 in.51. The features are schematic. (32. p. forms a triangle over the chest. pl. 26.  XCV.  125. the front paws crossed. 462 Finial of a funerary stele with a recumbent lion Second half of the 5th century b.51. Purchased by subscription. the tip of the back left paw is visible. cat. no. Limestone L. pl. 463 Cat. 463 Fragment of a funerary stele with a recumbent lion Late 5th or 4th century b. with the front paws crossed.2868) description  The lion is recumbent to the right. the mouth wide open.  126. 1874–76 (74. H. 462 Cat. funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat.c. The head is small.635. references  Cesnola 1885. XVIII. Purchased by subscription. 12¾ in. pl. with mouth open and tongue extended. 28. (82. references  Cesnola 1885. p. 1874–76 (74. Limestone H.contents cat. The muzzle is carefully rendered.637. The flamelike tufts of the mane come to a point between the front paws.4 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1394 The Cesnola Collection. the extended tongue is painted red. Pogiatzi 2003a.3 cm) From the necropolis of Salamis Myres 1386 The Cesnola Collection.2649) description  The lion is recumbent to the right.c. XVII. pl. 327⁄16 in. with lozenge-shaped tufts. The mane.5 cm). Pogiatzi 2003a. the tail passing behind the back right paw. 457–476) 333 . (48.

Perrot and Chipiez 1885. H.contents cat. There are toolmarks on the back. The work is awkward. the face round. Purchased by subscription. 597. The slightly tilted head is flat. p. 17⅝ in. his head turned toward the viewer.c. 466 334 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . the mouth is open.2648) description  The lion is seated to the right. pl. 1874–76 (74. the tongue extended. 464 Finial of a funerary stele with a seated lion Late 5th or early 4th century b. fig. cat.549.  LXXXIV. 407. references  Cesnola 1885. Both front paws are very short and also frontal.51. The mane forms a long point between the paws.8 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1384 The Cesnola Collection. 464 cat. 465 Cat. (44.

A red fillet tied around the shaft. (55. 14 in. no. Cesnola 1877. Pogiatzi 2003a. A disk and a crescent. sickle-shaped wings consisting of two rows of feathers. p. placed one above the other. 465 Part of a funerary stele with a disk and a crescent Second half of the 6th century b. (55. with the ends hanging down the front. W. IX. the hairstyle is different. are carefully rendered in high relief. Cesnola 1885.  442.6 cm). no.24. Under the projecting slab. 21¾ in. 467 Finial of a funerary stele with two recumbent sphinxes Middle of the 5th century b. no. Tatton-Brown 1986.  p. are shown in low relief.  55.2855) Cat. 1874–76 (74. W. 1874–76 (74. The red pigment continues around the two sides.51. with downturned points. (35. the slab narrows slightly toward the top. Limestone H.2876) description  Broken at the bottom. back-to-back.20.  XVII. high relief against the background. pl. Tatton-Brown 1986.c. as are the heads of the sphinxes. 14. Purchased by subscription. (55. no. the shoulder-length hair covers the ears. Limestone H. p. p. XLVII.  110. The expression is faintly smiling. Pogiatzi 2003a. 1874–76 (74.51. 22 in. They are recumbent.contents cat. funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. IX.51.3 cm). 114. pl.25. with downturned points. no. 16½ in. 113.  CIV. 466 Funerary stele with two recumbent sphinxes Second half of the 6th century b. (41. XLVII.  113. Cesnola 1885. references  Doell 1873. The sphinxes are recumbent. pl. pl. pl. W. 15. X.3 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1410 The Cesnola Collection. Cat. pl. The unarticulated leaf-shaped wings are awkward extensions of the two front paws. XVII. is missing. The head of the sphinx on the left does not belong to the body and is not shown on the drawing by Doell.2 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1411 The Cesnola Collection.3. p. pl. A diadem appears to be set on the head and locks cover the ears.c. Each sphinx has large. the top of which is missing.680. One front paw rests on the other.  XIII.4. is still visible. p.  55.  824. Purchased by subscription. Pogiatzi 2003a. which were turned toward the viewer. references  Cesnola 1885.22. (48. a disk and a crescent. pl. p.  825. (?) Limestone H. The head of the sphinx on the right is very worn. 19 in. p. pl. 442. 13. pl.2877) description  The two asymmetrical sphinxes appear in description  The lower part of the stele (set back 9½ cm) references  Doell 1873.c. back-to-back.  XIII. Purchased by subscription. fig. 457–476) 335 .9 cm). 467 Cat.9 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1416 The Cesnola Collection. 2113⁄16 in.

Purchased by subscription.contents description  Large parts of the front legs. with one front paw cat. 18¼ in. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. the contours of which coincide with those of the motifs.5 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1412 The Cesnola Collection. CVI. the body of which projects in high relief from the background. (68. near the ears.6 cm) From a necropolis at Salamis Myres 1086 The Cesnola Collection. Traces of red paint are found on the wings. the mouth. On the top of the head is a diadem and the locks are squared. Limestone H. sickle-shaped wing with two rows of feathers. cat. The sphinx wears rosette-shaped earrings and a choker around the neck. There is the beginning of a large. Each sphinx is seated on a U-shaped volute. 2615⁄16 in. Purchased by subscription. Sculpted in the round. (46.4 cm). 469 336 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . It must have been placed back-to-back with another sphinx.c. the head is turned toward the viewer.2856) description  The finial of the stele forms a relief.2597) Cat. there is a break on the nose. 468 Cat. pl.c. and the wings are missing. the tail curled up on the hindquarters. on the right. W. 1874–76 (74.694. The hair is long on the back. (34. The locks on the forehead and in front of the ears are very thick. 468 Fragment of a funerary stele with a seated sphinx Middle of the 5th century b. was probably one of a pair.51. Limestone H. 1874–76 (74. the left back paw. 13⅝ in. The body of the sphinx is thin. are three long tresses. The smiling face is slightly tilted. and the choker. The sphinx. 469 Finial of a funerary stele with two seated sphinxes Late 5th century b.

description  The report of 1907 about the restorations pl. p. They frame a large palmette in relief. CIV. I cannot say if the stele was broken or was sawn off at the level of the ends of a knotted sash that is shown in low relief on the front and painted red. 470 resting on the upper volute. The head of the sphinx on the left is damaged. 158. no. Myres 1413 The Cesnola Collection.2 cm). Tatton-Brown 1986. notes: “The stele was broken from side to side.” Having not been able to examine the underside. Pogiatzi 2003a. XLIX. 66. and he attached it to the body. Balliard said that a head in the collection (which he could not identify) was found near the paws of the sphinx on the left. it was decided later to remove it as not belonging. 470 Funerary stele with two seated sphinxes and a knotted sash Late 5th or early 4th century b.5 cm).6. curved wings consist of two rows of feathers.679. 1874–76 (74. repairs and restorations by Balliard. 3411⁄16 in. Cat.c. 448. 2615⁄16 in. pl. the head of the other has short. The finial.2499) references  Cesnola 1885. through the bodies of the sphinxes. Limestone H. The large. p. W. Th. (14 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. wavy locks. (88.51. (68. but. 457–476) 337 . Purchased by subscription. 5½ in. XXXIX. the forelegs of each were broken and repaired with a great deal broken off. pl.contents cat.

The crown on the head is decorated with incised circles and merlons. Purchased by subscription. V. p. fig. Max. they have very long curved wings with two rows of feathers and considerable added color. 346. 471 Funerary stele with a sacred tree and sphinxes First half of the 5th century b. (7.2 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1420 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone H.contents cat. (75.5 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1418 The Cesnola Collection. Cat. fig. and a crescent. pl. no. A “lotus flower” grows out of the ends of the volutes of the Aeolic capital.  CXXVI. Tatton-Brown 1986.3 cm). XI. 67. Perrot and Chipiez capital. Mercklin 1962. 22. modern. Each sphinx wears a necklace with long pendants. with twisted locks pulled back on the sides and covering the ears. p. on which each sphinx places a front paw. The head of the sphinx on the left is missing.” a disk.6. 114. 32 in (81.51. sickleshaped wings. Her hair is long. which projects into the first two U-shaped volutes.2496) (on loan to Princeton University Art Museum) Photo © Bruce M. 215⁄16 in. 443. 5315⁄16 in. The paint is reddish brown. (137. 472 Funerary stele with a sacred tree and sphinxes Middle of the 5th century b. 151. pl. no. White. the right one of which is damaged. XLVII. 2911⁄16 in. and long hair. A flower bud grows from each of the U-shaped volutes. 215. On the top. the central part of which is a triangle composed of two bands. perhaps. 90.  117. (76.” made up of small straight branches and pieces of fruit (pomegranates?). one at the center.  p. is decorated on the lower part by a frieze of egg and dart. 30 in.c. fig. W. grows out of the top of this triangle. A “tree of life. Cesnola 1885.1 cm). a small round mortise is. pl. two others appear between the capital and the U-shaped volutes. pls. Each has a small tail curled up.51.c.673. p.5 cm).  C. description  The stele is broken at the base of the Aeolic references  Cesnola 1885. the other is turned outward in three-quarter view. The back is roughed out. Three palmettes that appear against a red background are placed in front of the sphinxes. Pogiatzi 2003a. Seated back-to-back. the other two at the corners. 1874–76 (74. the edges of which are painted red. Two sphinxes. Th. 1874–76 (74. Karageorghis references  Cesnola 1877. 16. and two more develop from the abacus that consists of four bands (fasciae). climb up the tree trunk. 471 which juts out well beyond the shaft of the stele.2493) 338 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . Cat. X. 1885. Limestone H. 2000a. no. p. W. The triangle encloses a “lotus flower. Purchased by subscription.920.

Two sphinxes climb the tree. 46.).671. fig. Cesnola 1877. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1875. p. 46. p. fig. under the abacus with three fasciae.contents cat. p. Mercklin 1962. and the flat eyes lidless. the top ones of which are sinuous. pl. no. 89.  p. 21. Cesnola 1885. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. p. 457–476) 339 . p. p. fig. with two of their paws joined. The back is roughed out and there are many toolmarks. Out of a small ball at the top of the triangle grows a “tree of life” made up of schematic branches. Karageorghis 2000a. p. At the sides. no. funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. 6. their wings sickle-shaped. 185. Harden 1980. XCIX. are two palmettes and two thick stems. Betancourt 1977. but rather four curved elements.  67 with fig. 63. 65. 347. 187. Their expression is smiling. 20. their tails are curled up. that were directed toward the back. the ends of which give rise to fruitlike elements. pl. Masson 1989. Pemán 1959. V. At the center.  (= Colonna-­ Ceccaldi 1882. The lateral volutes enclosing them do not form a continuous U-shape. the triangle formed by three bands is decorated with a schematic lotus flower. now broken. 2. 215. pl. 152. fig. the hair long. 89.  117. 472 description  The stele narrows as it rises toward an Aeolic capital with a convex central rib and asymmetrical volutes. pp. upside down. fig.  24 with fig.

 66. long hair. 473 Finial of a funerary stele with a sacred tree and sphinxes First half of the 4th century b. From the first two vertical volutes emerge long lotus stems on which two sphinxes climb. Their volutes produce pendant lotus flowers.contents cat.8 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1417 The Cesnola Collection. references  Cesnola 1885. At the center is a small Ionic column that emerges from a vegetal calyx and supports a schematic “tree of life. (?) Limestone H. fig. U-shaped volutes are shown against a red background. cat. Both sphinxes place a front paw on the second vertical volute. C.c. They are broken at the bottom and partially on the left. W.4 cm).” formed at the base of two horizontal volutes and of four pairs of vertical volutes enclosing palmettes. The back is not worked. Purchased by subscription. no. (88. 3415⁄16 in. 21. Their expression is smiling and they wear a pendant in each ear. Mercklin 1962.672. pl.2497) description  Under the abacus with three fasciae. 88. and a crown. Each one has sickle-shaped wings. 1874–76 (74. p. two thin. 474 340 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . (65.51. 473 Cat. 25¾ in.

Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. At the center is a chubby-cheeked head with thick eyelids and a neck collar. At the bottom is a worn disk. 2211⁄16 in.? Limestone H. painted red. 474 Funerary stele with volutes and a Hathor head Late 5th century b. 974. A summary Aeolic capital is shown below with papyrus-like leaves in the central triangle and palms on the side. 85. references  Doell 1873. cat. 475 no. pl. in the form of bird claws. XVIII. 62. XXXVIII. flanked by a vegetal motif. (38. fig. (59 cm).  XIII. and the schematic feathers are partially painted red.  LVII. is nude and the breasts are poorly indicated. 973. 65. Mercklin 1962. the statuette stands on a convex plinth.51. pl.  XXVII. Tatton-Brown 1986.contents Cat. (39. references  Cesnola 1885.7. 1874–76 (74. 449. or early Hellenistic period Limestone H. 457–476) 341 . Cesnola 1885. spreads out on the back. p. Karageorghis 2000a. funerary stelai without human figures (except hathor heads) (cat. Limestone H. the tip of the right one is missing. no. The curling locks point to a degenerate version of the head of Hathor.84. broken at each end. 427. but it is rare on Cyprus: two examples of mediocre quality are in the Louvre.368. commentary  The mourning siren is well known in Greek art of the fourth century  b. Pogiatzi 2003a. 1511⁄16 in. The space between them is painted red. nos.8 cm). pl. no. The facial features are coarse. 413⁄16 in. the nose broken. p. (57.  56.2639) description  The pediment. W.51. 233⁄16 in. references  Cesnola 1885. p. W. Th. 158. Cat. Volutes follow the slope of the pediment. Above are a double palmette and vegetal stems. no. 117⁄16 in.2494) description  The upper part of the flat stele is decorated in low relief in a careless style.c. Cat. 476 pl. The large wings are folded. The tail. p.  828.c. pl. cat. out of which grows a kind of palm.. Purchased by subscription.3 cm) “From Salamis” Myres 1090 The Cesnola Collection.2680) description  Modeled in the round. and the lips painted red.6 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1415 The Cesnola Collection. are not shown. The torso.21.51. (29 cm).1 1.26. 475 Finial of a funerary stele Late 5th or early 4th century b.c. their heads are turned toward the viewer and a paw is placed on the rosette. 151⁄16 in. XLIX. Hermary 1989a. Both hands are placed on the head. 1874–76 (74. coarsely rendered. V. pl. 476 Statuette of a mourning siren 4th century b. 21. The ends of the legs. has decoration in relief. At the center is a large rosette and on each side a seated lion.c. Under the abacus with three fasciae is a U-shaped volute. 1874–76 (74.3 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1374 The Cesnola Collection. (12.

Pogiatzi 2003a. 37a. These stelai are.c.c.c. Pogiatzi 2003a.3 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1385 . in the form of reliefs or funerary paintings like those at Karaburun in Lycia. under a recumbent lion. a bearded. Dentzer 1982. 279–81. the location of the banquet replaces the cavetto finial between the lions and the shaft. p. Pogiatzi 2003a. shows. pp. Hermary 2004a. 79. the motif of the recumbent banquet is attested on metal bowls from the early Archaic period3 and. 477–489) The series of stelai with frontal figures begins toward the end of the Archaic period and continues throughout the Classical period. 477 really a “purse” that contains coins?5 It could also be a bag with perfumed oil. 568–70. 19½ in. pl. 2. 307. 79. on earlier examples. Pogiatzi-Richter 2007. 243. p. crowned man reclining and a veiled woman seated on the legs of her companion:4 the man holds a phiale with the right hand and pieces of fruit are on the couch. 23¾ in. p.contents cat.2 On Cyprus. pp. 245.. Is the object held by the man Cat. pl. Dentzer 1982. Both male and female deceased are represented. 19. are preserved at least until the second half of the fifth century  b. part of local tradition. in a way. 244. sphinxes. which is almost contemporary. notes 1. Hermary 2004a. 246).5 cm). 480). 477 Finial of a funerary stele with a recumbent lion and a banquet scene Middle or third quarter of the 5th century b. The type then evolves toward a stele with a rectangular framework surmounted by a simple palmette or an Attic-style pediment. with women and children. but in funerary iconography it appears only in the second quarter of the fifth century b. W. pp. which occupies a larger place than on the stele Cat. 227–30. Limestone H. Cat. pp. 3. in the sixth century b. by statuettes in the round (Cat. the banquet is still represented on a small scale in the upper part (Cat. such as lions. 117. 480. 68–69. Moscow. no. 4. in the Pushkin Museum. The most common iconographic subject of this time. which is narrower and undecorated.1 Unfamiliar to the Greek world of poleis. no. XIII. An interesting example. however. 477 Funerary Stelai with Human Figures (cat. 5. 342 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments Several of the monuments show actual family groups. and the winged disk. is the banquet. V. 32–33. (49. 242.c. Karageorghis 2000a. the banquet spreads through the Achaemenid empire from the end of the Archaic period. (60. Elements characteristic of the earlier era.

1874–76 (74.c. no. a woman who is also semi-recumbent wears a long-sleeved garment that extends like a veil over her head. no. the eyes are surrounded by thick eyelids. The long mane has carefully combed strands. the facial features are worn. another woman is seated on the couch. pl. Both have a smiling expression. with a palmette that emerges from the inside of the volute.4. Purchased by subscription. 478 The Cesnola Collection. partially painted red. 191. The front paws are crossed and the tail passes behind the back paws.contents cat. p. references  Cesnola 1885. p. 478 Fragment of a funerary stele with a banquet scene with a man. p. XIV.  123. He wears a pleated himation and holds a small “pouch” or “purse” in his raised left hand. 8. and a wreath of leaves. 477–489) 343 . In front of them.  569.51.  R14. The lion is separated by an egg-and-dart frieze from the banquet scene. draped in a pleated garment. With her right hand. wearing a chiton. and she is also veiled. 20. of which only the upper right part remains. p. fig. the facial expression is faintly smiling. and two women Third quarter of the 5th century b. (50. Pogiatzi 2003a. 77. Limestone H. p. (57. funerary stelai with human figures (cat. pl. no. Purchased by subscription. A child in a long crinkled garment stands in front of the couch. 1874–76 (74.  CXXI.  196. p. in his left hand (a flower bud?). pl. Behind him. Cat.2.2 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1382 references  Cesnola 1885. It facing right. pl. The frontal head of a man has a long beard and a wreath of leaves. XLVIII. painted red.  XVI. pl. his extended right arm holds a phiale.  280.902. the woman holds the right arm of the child. fig. W. R9a. the left sleeve of which is painted red. A man with a long combed beard. no. pl.8 cm). Tatton-Brown 1986. 20 in. There are three pieces of fruit placed on her knees. His left arm leans on a cushion painted red. Pogiatzi 2003b. Pogiatzi 2003a. the muzzle furrowed. and there are thick locks on the forehead. sur­mounts a very fragmentary Ionic capital. The mouth is open.2828) The Cesnola Collection. a himation. Dentzer 1982. 444.898.  CXXI. a child. She raises her left hand to her face and holds a wreath in the right. the interior of which is painted red. the left is placed on the child’s chest.2843) description  At the top of the stele is a recumbent lion description  Most of the figural portion remains. 22½ in. the eyes surrounded by thick eyelids. 118. half reclines on a couch. He places his right hand on the cushion near the hand of the man. Dentzer 1982. The child holds a conical object.51. the head turned toward the viewer.  25.

c. the uprights of which are surmounted by a female mourner on one side and an aulos player on the other. commentary  The woman is shown alone. 77. W.3 1. V. a rectangle painted red probably indicates the back of the throne. Boardman 1985. 31½ in. appears in high relief within the rectangular architectural frame.1 The interpretation of this work is disputed. Karageorghis 2000a. secured by the tenon that remains. 152. On a stele of unknown provenance of the same period. Pogiatzi 2003a. Purchased by subscription.51. 24–26. 27¾ in. 1874–76 (74.1. Pogiatzi 2003a. 36a. figs. Hermary 2004a. pl. the articulated legs of which are carefully shown. Purchased by subscription.2485) description  The woman. cat.  CXXVIII.922. At the left of her head.contents Cat. she holds five pieces of fruit—two of which are broken—in a fold of the drapery. (144. no. Her head rests on her right hand. 57 in.8 cm). 3. (124. pl. a woman sits on a throne. The facial features are damaged. XXXV. 2484) 344 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . XXXVII. but the half-open mouth and eyes surrounded by thick eyelids are evident. above the figure’s head. 4815⁄16 in. pl. 480 Stele with two registers: a banquet scene and dexiosis (clasping of hands) Second half of the 5th century b. 479 p. 479 Funerary stele of a woman Third quarter of the 5th century b. references  Cesnola 1885. 349. shown frontally.2 but it should be noted that the stele from Golgoi is slightly later. Gauer 1990.51. A thin pleated chiton accentuates her full bust. 1874–76 (74. pl.” known in particular from a marble original discovered at Persepolis and dated around 460  b. (70. 63. (80 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1401 The Cesnola Collection. The mourning woman is seated on a throne. no. and a himation covers her legs and extends like a veil over her head. With the left. 156.c. A pendant consisting of a disk and a cone is attached to each ear. which is rare. p.c. no. p.5 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1400 The Cesnola Collection. 59. (?) H. She assumes a mourning attitude that recalls the statues called “Penelope. Limestone H. which has a bracelet around the wrist. Cat. W.4 cm). 2. the frame was originally completed by a crowning element.

two others decorated the ends. a himation. The man’s and the woman’s right hands are missing. pl. Dentzer 1982. The woman’s left hand is damaged. 9. There are many toolmarks on the background of the relief. fig. funerary stelai with human figures (cat. two figures of larger size are shown to the waist. lean on their left elbows and.1053. references  Cesnola 1885. p. 480 description  The stele is crowned by a palmette at the center. Two registers are hollowed out from the thickness of the block.  197.  32. no. Masson 1971. pl. fig. Above. She wears a chiton with horizontal pleats over the chest and a himation that extends like a veil over her head. with the right hand. Karageorghis 2000a. 477–489) 345 . V. two reclining banqueters. especially of the point. p.1. wearing a chiton. 79.  348. The figures may be clasping hands. no.  314. All the faces are worn and show a smiling expression. In her left hand is a piece of fruit. At the bottom. A bearded man. no.  569. Pogiatzi 2003b. each bearded and wearing a wreath of rosettes.  R16. hold a cup.  8. or they may be holding an object together. and a wreath of rosettes. p. p.contents cat.  130. turned three-quarters toward each other. leans with his left hand on a staff and extends his right hand toward the right hand of a woman. Pogiatzi 2003a. pl. The hair of each figure is carefully combed.  XX.  CXLI. as in the manner of the dexiosis.

482 346 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . (50. The facial features are coarse. W. 233⁄16 in. He wears a chiton and a himation. On the right is a bearded man with a wreath on his head. wrapped in a heavy himation. He holds a “pouch” in his left hand cat. In the upper register. Limestone H.c. are awkwardly shown in a horizontal position. 1874–76 (74.8 cm). and holds a drinking vessel in his left hand. also bearded. The expression is smiling. 20 in. 481 Cat. (59 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1383 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. 481 Finial of a funerary stele with a recumbent lion and a banquet scene 4th century b. the nose is broken and the eyebrow arch juts out. Purchased by subscription. a group of figures in a banquet scene appear in high relief. He reclines near a smaller man. whose legs. the front paws crossed. the head of which is missing. a lion.2844) description  At the top of the stele.51. is recumbent to the right.

Their arms are raised to indicate lamentation. In front of the couch. 5. approach the group.3 cm). 1874–76 (74. On the left. 483 Funerary stele with a banquet scene Early Roman period (Pogiatzi-Richter: middle of the first century a. p. The upper left-hand corner. references  Cesnola 1885. the nose remodeled. as is the right hand that clasped the hand of another young man seated at the end of the couch. pl.contents description  On the lower band of the pediment. and a thick vegetal wreath on his head reclines on a couch. its mouth open. pl. now heavily restored. R13. Purchased by subscription. including the head of the seated figure. The top of the shaft also had figural decoration. p. A young man wearing a chiton.51. Cesnola 1903. Karageorghis 2000a. 195. the dedication of the monument to Aristokretes by his brothers is inscribed in syllabic script. Masson 1971. 3011⁄16 in. the report of 1907 notes: “The front edge of the frame of the relief. and the end of its long tail curled up. 6. and the left eyebrow of this figure has been restored: repaired and restored by Balliard. are two women shown frontally in long garments. Pogiatzi 2003a. The one in front places his left hand on the banqueter. and the eyelids thick.2487) description  For the state of preservation. XVIII. 1874–76 (74. in particular that of the bearded man.d. (121 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1857 The Cesnola Collection. no. 139⁄16 in. but it does not go funerary stelai with human figures (cat. pl. indicate a date in the fourth century b. Cat.c.1. no. cat. fig. 482 Tombstone of Aristokretes: a pediment with a syllabic inscription and a relief decoration Second half of the 4th century b. A hole is bored on either side of the head of the figure on the left. W. Small depressions hollowed out at the top of the pediment (Diam. on a three-legged table is set a dish with a loaf of bread and three pieces of fruit.3  cm) were for the insertion of added elements. p. its head turned toward the viewer. 316. The expression is severe.5 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1402 The Cesnola Collection. CXXXVII. 47⅝ in.c. Purchased by subscription. He wears the same garments and has the same face. Between them are the remains of an object.3 cm) and at the two ends (Diam. on each side. (93. but only a small crowned head remains on the right. V. 477–489) 347 . sculpted in low relief on a red background.  CXXI. (34. 5. a himation. has been restored. Masson 1961/1983. probably children. 107⁄16 in. no.901. 36¾ in.  568. fig. particularly on the heads and necks of the youths. The mattress is articulated with vertical incisions. The left arm is missing.563. (26. 261. Their hair is tousled and they have small horns on their heads(?). Dentzer 1982. two figures wearing chitons.2317) Cat. The wreath.  LXXXV. references  Cesnola 1885. At the center of the pediment. XLVI.5 cm). the one on the right is very damaged. On each side is a crouching lion. the one behind places his left hand on the head of his companion. (?) Limestone H. At each end is a small figure shown frontally. Both wear short. 29. pleated tunics and hold a small wild animal in their hands. 350. pl. pl.” The report understates the amount of intervention.51. was broken away. (78 cm). The style of the faces. W. no.) Limestone H. but his wreath forms a roll around his head and he wears a ring on the left index finger. their hair let down. is made of leaves and berries. probably palmettes: the beginning of a volute is visible above the peak. 126. Th. 483 and clasps the hand of his companion.

484 cat.  77. 5⅛ in. references  Cesnola 1885. The facial expression is severe. Pogiatzi-Richter 2009.7 cm). a himation is draped over her shoulder. 183–84.  43. LII. the nose broken. Pogiatzi 2003a. There is red paint on the background of the stele and on the garment.918. The melon coiffure has wavy locks. pl. the center one of which is partially missing. covers her hips and legs. a woman is seated in three-quarter view to the viewer’s right. (105. (44. (13 cm) From the necropolis of Salamis Myres 1399 The Cesnola Collection. Cat.  9.  CXXVI. Within the niche.  140. fig. 485 348 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . p. 41⅝ in. pp. references  Cesnola 1885.  CXLI. pl. was raised. 484 Funerary stele with a seated woman Early Roman period Limestone H. 1. Pogiatzi 2003a. no.2489) description  The stele is crowned by a very schematic pediment with plain akroteria. She wears a belted chiton. now missing. and is drawn up over her head like a veil. 1874–76 (74. 17½ in.5 cm). D. no. The upright and cushion of the seat are partially visible.  XXVI.1054. Pogiatzi 2003b. pl. pl. She holds a round object in her right hand. Purchased by subscription. p. cat. 91. Her left arm.51.2. and the small eyes have curved upper eyelids. the right forearm is partially missing. pl. There is a rosette-shaped earring in each ear. p.  179. W. There is a bracelet on her right wrist and a necklace below the Venus rings of her neck.contents through the stone.

5 cm).51.2 cm) “From a burying ground near Dali” Myres 1397 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. 486 Cat.contents cat. as are those on top of the head. (76. Purchased by subscription. pl. 486 Funerary stele of a beardless man Early Roman period Limestone H. A wreath of overlapping rosettes is set on the head.894. the upper eyelids are swollen and the ears schematic. The facial expression is smiling. There is a vertical gash at the top of the forehead.2 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1311 The Cesnola Collection. There are traces of red paint on the eyeballs. (129. Cat. 485 Head of a bearded man from a funerary stele Early Roman period Limestone H. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. 1874–76 (74. CXXI. the head of a figure with a small pointed beard and a long mustache remain. 477–489) 349 . 1874–76 (74. (29. 30 in.2829) description  A part of the left edge of the stele and. in high relief. W. The full locks above the ears are summarily rendered. 51 in. 11½ in.2488) funerary stelai with human figures (cat.

487 description  The bottom of the stele and part of the frame on the viewer’s right are missing. The left hand holds the scabbard of a short sword. 430. 350 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments Cat. The forelock is shown between the ears. no. Above the short locks on the forehead is a wreath in the form of a roll. The damaged face has a severe expression. 59¼ in. Above his left shoulder. V. 1874–76 (74. (150.51. vaguely in the shape of a pediment. the chest of the animal is fragmentary.5 cm). attached by two cords on the right shoulder. pl. is very worn.d. He wears a short tunic. (99. no. Karageorghis 2000a.1031. A young man stands almost frontally.) Limestone H.7 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1403 The Cesnola Collection.  CXXXVIII. Pogiatzi 2003a. Purchased by subscription. a kind of chlamys. the forepart of a horse appears in three-quarter view. p. 487 Funerary stele with four figures Early Roman period (Pogiatzi-Richter: third quarter of the first century a. W.contents cat. LI. The top. falls along the left arm and ends in a point at the level of the knees. 39¼ in. 178. references  Cesnola 1885.2483) . pl. 90.

(43 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1398 The Cesnola Collection. A circular hole is pierced at the top of each vertical edge. XXV.  XII. pl. 1874–76 (74. p.51. fig. pl. LX. 3011⁄16 in. 192. p. references  Cesnola 1885.1030. The forehead nearly disappears under wavy locks. Within the niche a young boy is shown frontally. 107. and a wreath of rosettes on their heads. The small capital with volutes and the lintel decorated with dentils are ancient. Purchased by subscription. no.  781. His chiton falls below the knees. and earrings. the expression severe. The three seated figures. cat.  52. 488 Funerary stele of a boy Early Roman period? Limestone H. W. He holds the hand of the veiled woman next to him. 488 references  Doell 1873. no. his feet are spread but on the same level. 3. pl. p. Cat. 1615⁄16 in. are pressed one against the other. Pogiatzi 2003a. On the far right. (78 cm). To the left are two beardless men.  CXXXVIII. Their right hands are clasped and the left hands are placed on the shoulders of the adjacent figure. Cesnola 1885. Pogiatzi-Richter 2009. 41. On each side of the head is a circular hole that does not go through the stone. 477–489) 351 . a cup in his left hand. a beardless man.919. the beak of which he touches with his other hand. The facial features are coarse. pl. p. a bracelet. The top is missing. with a wreath of rosettes on his head. CXXVI. shown frontally. Her pleated chiton is visible below the himation. no. Pogiatzi 2003a.8.2476) description  The stele tapers upward and is concave on the back. Much of the upper right edge and the upper left corner are restored. each wearing a chiton. 184. funerary stelai with human figures (cat. The two men wear sandals. She wears a necklace. 139. In his lowered left hand is a bird. reclines. pl.contents description  The upper portion was broken off at the neckline of the figures and reattached at the sides and back of the stele with large metal clamps. a himation.

which is missing. The cascading pleats of her chiton belted.d. Purchased by subscription. The deceased is seated on the left.51. are visible above her shod feet. The woman places her left hand on the casket that the small standing servant offers her. On the forehead is a thin braid of hair surmounted by large round curls. behind the casket.contents cat. the servant probably held a mirror. belted tunic. 43 in. A bracelet circles each ankle. 489 Cat. Her damaged right hand probably held an object. draped over her shoulders and drawn up like a veil over her head.2 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1381 The Cesnola Collection. around her neck is a necklace with a pendant that suggests a miniature version of a wreath. In her left hand. The garments of the two women . The large tonguelike form seen between the feet may 352 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments belong to this garment. another piece of fringed drapery falls from the left shoulder. A himation. The face is very damaged. 1874–76 (74.2490) description  The group is sculpted in the round. covers her thighs and legs. She wears a long. 489 Funerary group with the signature of Zoilos of Golgoi Late 1st century or early 2nd century a. Limestone H. between which is gathered a thick mass of fabric. (109. under her breasts. The hair falls on each side in a twisted lock to her chest. Two braids are coiled up on her head.

The short ends show Ajax carrying the body of Achilles and a lion attacking a wild boar.  492).c. since Cesnola sent photographs of the object to Birch as early as June 14.c. it is in a marble sarcophagus. (118 cm). pl. fig. pp. Fleischer 1998. the sculpture workshops at Golgoi regularly produced sarcophagi with figural decoration in addition to stelai. 69–70. like the large sarcophagus Cat. but with original iconography. as a whole. no. The theme of the servant bringing a jewelry box to her mistress is taken from Classical funerary stelai. CL. 201⁄16 in. Other fragments discovered at Golgoi—certainly not in the sanctuary of Ayios Photios. in particular. Karageorghis 2000a. 1874–76 (74. the hairstyle of the deceased. 493) is decorated with a lion.51. 4. the Cesnola Collection is distinguished by two sarcophagi with figural decoration found at Amathus and Golgoi. The plinth beneath the feet of the servant bears the signature of Zoilos of Golgoi. no. W. two others are decorated with snakes (Cat.c.1 suggest a date toward the end of the first century or the beginning of the second century a. 44½ in. 57. 489 detail are rendered on the back. Odysseus and his companions are depicted coming out of the cave of Polyphemos. on the other.contents cat.c. therefore. and.4 In 1930.2453) background  Place and conditions of the discovery.. The sarcophagus was discovered at the beginning of 1875 in a built tomb in the north necropolis of Amathus: Cesnola mentions it in a letter to Hiram Hitchcock dated April 27. 491. 1. All these limestone sarcophagi appear to date from the fifth century  b. under the bellies of rams.1032. but toward the end of the fourth century  b. pl. (51 cm). 4. 490–494) 353 .3 It could be one of the two built tombs noted on the summary map published shortly after the British mission. at the time of discovery. 201⁄16 in.4 indeed. 993. p.. CXX. the attack of a city by Herakles is shown. references  Cesnola 1885. H. For the first half of the fifth century  b. the use of sarcophagi is widespread on Cyprus from the Archaic period (tombs V and XI from Tamassos have produced the most remarkable examples) to the Hellenistic period: my survey should be updated. 441.1 During the fifth century  b. but the inscription.2 On one of the long sides. 2.  CXXXVIII. Hitzl 1991. p. Suppl. the style of the figures.5 In his letter to Hitchcock.3. but the one they drew has only two chambers. Flourentzos 2007. fig.c. that a figure of royal or princely status is buried at Soloi. especially Raptou 2007. (113 cm). pl. the subject should be reopened. 330. 3. These two motifs were associated on a sarcophagus from Golgoi that is known only from a drawing by Max Ohnefalsch-Richter.d.. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893. decorated with an Amazonomachy. I.3 In a more general way. (237 cm). L.. Purchased by subscription. 1875. Masson 1971. Cesnola writes that. (51 cm) Figured scenes: H. 490–494) Besides the large group of sculptures from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. whose curls on the forehead recall those of a stele from Golgoi in the Louvre. V. Swedish archaeologists said they were still able to reach these two tombs (the same ones?). 44½ in. the largest of which measured less than two feet. the sarcophagus was broken into 792 fragments. 467⁄16 in. (90 cm) From the north necropolis of Amathus Myres 1365 The Cesnola Collection. The restoration work carried out on Cyprus occurred rapidly. pp. 3713⁄16 in.6 limestone sarcophagi (cat. Hard limestone Sarcophagus: L. 935⁄16 in. Hermary 1987a. 10. notes 1. 1875. Cat. Cesnola 1903. (113 cm) and 357⁄16 in. 66–71. (96 cm) Lid: 230 cm. we now know from Palaepaphos a polychrome sarcophagus in a more naive style. as seen in examples above.1 The tomb was seen by Myres in 18942 and apparently consisted of four chambers. Hermary 1989a. W. commentary  The fact that the funerary monument is sculpted in the round and that it bears the sculptor’s signature make this work exceptional. Limestone Sarcophagi (cat. 431. no. as indicated by Cesnola—belong to sarcophagi lids: one of them (Cat. H. 18. 490 The “Amathus sarcophagus” First quarter of the 5th century b.

490 354 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments .contents cat.

490 limestone sarcophagi (cat.contents cat. 490–494) 355 .

one of whom is almost entirely destroyed. The frieze is repeated below the figural panels between two flat bands. Each “tree” is made up of three superposed identical vegetal groups: an Aeolic capital painted green emerges from two papyrus stems and is. walk. but one wonders if this preserved part was placed above the four nude goddesses rather than above the Bes. 490 detail of the long side a State of preservation (“the long side A” is the one on which two horsemen precede the chariots. the lateral borders show a tree-of-life motif sculpted between two flat bands. One of the sphinxes is missing its head. his rider sits on a saddlecloth that falls on the sides and is secured by a strap around the chest of the horse. On the long sides. the procession is led by two horsemen overlapping so as to show the upper body of the far rider as well as the forepart. The short front end (Bes) is framed by green ivy leaves with ribs attached to a wavy stem. extend the uprights framing the figured scene. bounded below by a row of beads and reel in high relief. The decoration at the top is made up of the same up-and-down tongues as on the feet of the short ends. The upper part 356 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments of the coffin has the form of a cavetto. the sarcophagus stands on four short rectangular legs that. have been left as they were found.contents cat. every second of which was originally green. is smiling. Charles Balliard notes in his report of 1907: “Nothing has been done to the sarcophagus at the Museum. Two parts of the same procession are shown on the long sides. in turn. legs. Cesnola’s reconstruction of the lid apparently did not satisfy him. with. therefore. this frame is very narrow. but a precise account of the restorations carried out by Cesnola was produced by Elizabeth Hendrix before the opening of the new installation in 2000: her work highlighted the exceptional richness of the ancient polychrome decoration. for he asked Georges Perrot not to reproduce it.7 The sphinxes from the other end were added later to the restored gabled lid with its molding below. the hooves of which are painted blue. Around their necks they wear a strap with two tassels at the level of the chest. The horse in the foreground is a stallion that raises his head. The facial expression of both horsemen. but repairs were made in Cyprus by General Cesnola. the “small front side” is. The rider wears a mid-length tunic and a short cloak draped over the shoulders. Like his fellow rider. U-shaped volute bearing five vegetal stems. the other parts are placed in relation to this principal scene. front paws. on the short ends. but without the vegetal decoration of the pediment. he wears a conical cap under which locks of hair project to the forehead. drawn by two rather . painted alternately blue and red. alternately green and red. The concave molding bears a frieze of lotus flowers and buds on a wavy stem. seen in profile.” An initial cleaning undertaken in 1909 confirmed that the essential part of the painted decoration was ancient. and tail of his mount. Certain parts of the sarcophagus were neither restored nor completed after the discovery: thus. Only the end of the lid above the nude women is presented in the 1885 Atlas. The horses. On each side is a scene sculpted in high relief. The other end (nude women) is framed by superposed palmettes circumscribed by lyre-shaped stems. topped by a frieze of tongues that are alternately green and red. Carved out of a single block of local limestone. capped by a green. the three fragmentary Bes figures from the short front side. description  The inside of the sarcophagus was inaccessible. on the long sides. that of the Bes). the main part of the leg is made up of tongues aligned head-to-tail. the pont ending in a small ball. their trappings are carefully shown in relief. On side A. two of which are painted green. however. and the ends of its back paws. The plaster restoration of the lid was made by Cicogna about five years ago (when the sarcophagus was moved from the old position to the new building). They are followed by a chariot. The background of each figural panel is decorated with drop-shaped ornaments.

contents cat. A pad is placed between the curved end of the yoke and the neck of the animal. There are two figures: the driver. Rather than being held in his hands. The left legs of the last two pass behind the right leg of the soldier who precedes them. He places his right hand on the edge of the chariot. appear in relief and there are traces of blue-green paint. is bearded and has curly hair. Each soldier carries a round shield on his left arm and a spear. The first foot soldier is beardless and has straight hair. and a bearded passenger with curly hair who turns toward the foot soldiers. He wears a girth and collar. his legs are visible in the back. also bearded but with straight hair. but the wheels have nine spokes. His head is topped by a fan-shaped plume. also of the same kind. has an element at the front for attaching the reins. A strap with two tassels hangs around the neck. tongue-shaped element that represents the end of the reins. to the right in relation to the start of the procession. the top curved edge of which comes up to the waist of the occupants. In the present condition of the sarcophagus. straight hair with curls at the ends. The cloak of the soldier at the center is draped over both shoulders and falls in zigzag folds between the legs. The torso of the figure at the back of the box was originally properly aligned with the legs. Their right arms are bent— the arm of the soldier at the center more clearly so. Each soldier wears a short-sleeved tunic that is clearly visible on the last one. also drawn by three horses. He wears a kind of turban with a projection. The animal in the foreground. with a handhold at the back and another at the front. near a pendant. based on the legs that are visible. with alternate feathers painted blue-green. The driver has curly hair. The first chariot is occupied by two bearded men in profile. the passenger. 490–494) 357 . At the back and in profile. also bent. The procession continues along the long side B. Only the left figure is entirely preserved. The harness. figure holds with both hands a parasol that protects the occupants of the vehicle. in profile. originally raised. the torsos of which are presented frontally. 490 detail of the long side b than three horses. The number of heads is clearer than the number of legs. and his hand rests on his garment. but the wheels have ten spokes. with the same kind of chariot as the preceding ones. The axle is slightly off-center toward the back. At the center of the chariot box. walk toward the right—as indicated by the legs in profile. The first soldier and the last also wear a cloak draped over the left shoulder. the other two are bearded with curls. a kind of spool must have been used to hang up weapons and other objects. The shifting of the legs toward the back is the result of poor restoration rather than an indication of a third figure whose upper torso would have disappeared. On the short front end. His left arm. but larger. including the reins of the righthand horse. The chariot8 is made up of a narrow but large box. with straight hair and probably beardless. The driver. The driver of the vehicle has a beard and curly hair. the other bearded. and the bent right legs. The passenger holds his bent right arm under a pleated garment. The vehicle is of the same type. may have carried an object. a young beardless man with curly hair places his hand on the edge of the chariot. The end of the pole certainly corresponds to the mass visible between the hindquarters of the horses and the bottom of the box. a second chariot follows immediately. Another figure at the center. is lost. the parasol would have been more vertical and attached to the chariot box. the space between them. turns his smiling face toward the viewer. the left. less massive than the one in front and with indistinct genitalia. the wheel has eight spokes and the hub is prominent. four Bes figures. Preserved are the limestone sarcophagi (cat. The procession ends with three soldiers who stride forward. is harnessed and adorned as its counterpart. The last chariot. Over his shoulders he wears a garment with pleated panels that fall on his chest. What remains of the three others indicates that they were similar. which also wears blinkers. revealing more clearly the pleated garment draped over his right shoulder.

490 detail of short posterior end sons(?). his work concludes that the iconographic program belongs principally within a Phoenician tradition introduced on Cyprus at the beginning of the CyproArchaic period. above the nude women.contents whole body except the head of the second. surrounded by his 358 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments cat. and guards. Their ears are adorned with spiral-shaped ear caps and rings attached to the lobes. Their poorly preserved faces have the same smiling expression. The far paws are advanced and their tails rest on their hindquarters. Richly illustrated. written by Veronica Tatton-Brown (née Wilson). but the study is fundamental. dignitaries. with only painted decoration.10 For the polychromy. presented below. their hair. even more. seven in all: four on the inside of the volutes. more recently. and a bumpy forehead.13 At Amathus itself. The garments consist of a mid-length kilt with vertical pleats. rounded beard that consists of rows of curled strands and is associated with a long. one at the center of the pediment. and one at each lateral corner. drooping mustache. It consists of two U-shaped volutes within each of which is a kind of tripartite mound supporting five tongued shoots.c. The remaining space is filled with palmettes. the historical and religious implications of its iconography. The short posterior end shows four nude women frontally. the fold of the pubes and the navel is shown. As on the other monsters. The upper chest is covered by a thick. A choker is visible on the first two women at the left. was never published. curled locks falling over each shoulder. the rib arch and the pectoral muscles are indicated as well as the navel.9 Andreas Stylianou has devoted extremely detailed research to the monument.  491. the short ends allude to the principal deities of the kingdom. is long on the back. with a diadem. toward the middle of the eighth century b. His face has a snub nose. the god extends his small tongue. secured at the waist by a belt and decorated with a small “fringe” above the knees. The only preserved pediment of the lid. The long sides refer. Stylianou draws on the important article of Elizabeth Hendrix. all framed by hair falling in long straight locks onto the shoulders. constitutes the central akroterion. 490 detail of short front end cat. they crouch. Two sphinxes are placed on the slope of the pediment. This idea has to be refined. from Kition. The figures are shapely. the torso and arms are muscular. The hands are placed flat at the top of the thighs. but she gave a long summary in 1981. sculpted in the round. Cat. high cheekbones. Their sickle-shaped wings. their feet together. The ears are lionlike and two small twisted horns are placed vertically on the head. to the deceased local king. in all probability. Faintly grimacing. despite the discovery of the polychrome sarcophagi from Palaepaphos12 and. A bracelet circles each wrist. the lower legs of the third. the two wings are joined by a limestone element left in place. A fragmentary palmette. but visibly similar. The front wing of the sphinx at the right is whole but joined of three parts. consist of three rows of quills and of scaleshaped feathers on their chests. they pinch their breasts between the thumb and the other fingers. and. commentary  The Amathus sarcophagus is exceptional for the richness of its figural decoration. The sphinxes surmounting the other pediment are heavily damaged. as on the trees of life on the long sides. the tips of which are missing. many other undeco- . is decorated with a complex vegetal motif.11 The Golgoi sarcophagus. remains the principal point of comparison from Cyprus. Two bead necklaces with a central pendant fall on their chests. the preservation of part of its polychromy. but he did not know the research of Thierry Petit on the political and eschatological significance of the figural scenes. Their hair is arranged in rows of curls with two long. Cut out of the same block of stone as the lid. Their facial expression is smiling. There seem to be three rows of beads on the first and two on the second. the legs and proper left arm of the fourth. their bodies in profile and their heads turned toward the viewer. A detailed study of this monument.

with an eggand-dart frieze on the base of the lid surmounting a row of bead and reel. the general form of which recalls that of the sarcophagus in New York: a rectangular coffin with four massive feet and a gabled lid based on wood models. This procession has nothing to do with a funeral limestone sarcophagi (cat.26 The influence of Near Eastern models. but its handle was reconstructed. without rounded ends. at the top of the coffin—but on one side only—a cavetto comparable to the Cesnola sarcophagi.contents rated limestone sarcophagi were discovered.or leafshaped lozenge painted on the background of the sculpted panels is particularly interesting because of connections with mosaic glass elements colored blue.15 Tomb 256 from the Cypriot excavations at Amathus contained a marble anthropoid sarcophagus. It seems to me difficult to recognize here a frieze of stylized uraei. the beads and the eggs revert to much earlier Ionian models. Finally. The top of the parasol is ancient. on the outside. the upper element of the “tree” is associated with palmettes of Greek type. the parasol that protects the figures has been rightly explained since Cesnola as evidence of a figure of high rank leading the procession. given that the passenger with the parasol is clearly larger than the driver and wears a turban that distinguishes him markedly from the other passengers. By contrast.90). the parasol must have been fixed to the chariot box. and yellow. discovered in the early excavations of the Echmoun sanctuary near Sidon. Borrowings from the eastern Ionian world. over part of the feet appears to be one of a kind. who himself has been moved forward. who are all bareheaded.16 No sarcophagus with figural decoration came to light at Amathus in the excavations after those of Cesnola.c.c.25 It is therefore possible that a polychrome mural decoration attested in monumental Phoenician architecture was reproduced on the background of the sarcophagus panels even though the date of the fragments from Sidon remains uncertain. emphasized by his size and by the turban he wears.21 Palmettes framed by coiled tendrels or lyre-shaped palmettes are found in the same artistic milieu. on. like that of the akroteria.31 Therefore. Cypro-Phoenician. green. is frequent indeed in eastern Greece.c. are represented in the first place by the choice of the moldings. the frieze with round-ended tongues arranged head to tail at the top of the coffin and. and it is principally he who is covered by the parasol. A large Hathor capital or stele found beneath the palace constitutes a particularly essential reference for the study of the sarcophagus and the sculpture workshops that operated at Amathus toward the end of the Archaic period. but most spectacularly developed in the funerary sculpture of the sixth and fifth centuries  b. as on a relief of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal in the Louvre or on a famous “Cypro-Phoenician” bowl from Palestrina. the utilization of the two motifs. The tree-of-life motif on the vertical borders of the long sides connect to an eastern iconographic tradition well attested on Cyprus since the beginning of the Archaic period. the whole distantly recalling the U-shaped volutes enclosing palmettes on the architectural terracottas of eastern Greece. Originally. The restoration carried out by Cesnola’s technicians in this area is definitely inaccurate. then Persian and “Graeco-Persian” monuments. together or separate. also frequent on Attic ceramics. as on architectural terracottas18 as well as on the rare marble sarcophagi at Samos. This headgear is in all likelihood the mitra worn by the Cypriot kings at the time of the Persian Wars.30 The man who stands behind the driver held his bent arm at the side of his body or placed his hand on the edge of the chariot. In the first chariot.19 See also the “Polyxena sarcophagus” from the Troad. the eye. comparable to those on other Cypriot sculptures of the period. and instead of falling more or less vertically between the two figures. it slants in such a way that it is placed in the hands of the man with the turban. various coffin fragments including some feet in the form of lion paws.24 but I do not have an alternative explanation to propose.22 similar to those that frame the nude goddesses as well as the friezes of ivy leaves. and. the row of bead and reels sculpted at the base of the lid and the egg motif that frame the figural panels horizontally.27 But the fact that the parasol is held by the passenger in the chariot seemed surprising. as well as three lids.29 the thought was that the monarch might be the driver himself! This explanation is all the more impossible here. with which Cyprus maintained close relations from the the seventh century b. and on Cyprus. documented even earlier in Cypriot iconography.23 The frieze of lotus flowers and buds is widely documented both in the Near East (already on the Ahiram sarcophagus). according to Herodotus (7. in Greece.17 The abundance and the eclecticism of the nonfigural decoration are typical of Cypriot art from the end of the Archaic period. is obvious in the procession of the dignitaries and allows a determination of its royal character. Thus his royal status appears clearly. On the lid pediment. it seems to me certain (and to Petit and Stylianou) that the procession represented on the long sides of the sarcophagus is a royal procession. From Myres28 to Jürgen Borchhardt and Erika Bleibtreu. Stylianou rightly compares this exuberant ornamentation with that observed in Phoenician luxury arts of the eighth and seventh centuries b. flanked by an honor guard composed of two young horsemen in the lead and of three armed foot soldiers at the rear. better define the historical and artistic context in which the New York monument fits. a lid decorated with an Aeolic capital and a palmette.20 As Stylianou pointed out. 490–494) 359 .14 Only one of these sarcophagi has. particularly in the zone of the palace. as suggested by Tatton-Brown. but the discoveries of the French mission on the acropolis of the city. such as one sees on Assyrian.

one knee of which is placed on the ground. would be the younger son. symbolized the power of the Great God and the protection that he gave to his sanctuary. who number (exceptionally) two in addition to the driver and are differentiated by the presence or absence of a beard and by their poses. without a central opening. and the ivy bring the Bes figures closer to Dionysus. bent and in profile. but rather as demons or minor divinities of his entourage. carefully reproduced on the heads of the agora. Most evident are the diversity of the figures and the number and splendor of the chariots. They wear a mid-length kilt.44 The Dionysiac character of the figures is emphasized by the ivy-leaf frame. above all. that is found on other representations of Bes at Amathus. as Stylianou indicates). whose name is unknown. On the long side B.35 sometimes decidedly martial. The pose of the passenger in the last chariot. the principal dignitaries of the kingdom would be represented. the pose of the figures is unusual.39 and that of the “winged satyrs” dancing around the Hathor stelai and joining hands with “maenads. four figures were shown whose facial features. also recall a statue fragment discovered at Kouklia-Achni. in the same way as the Bes and the nude women on the sarcophagus show that the deceased passes beyond the grave under the protection of the great divinities of Amathus. . that draws its inspiration quite awkwardly from Greek representations.43 The depiction of the musculature of the torso can be ascribed to Greek models in the same way as the satyr-like facial expression. rather than a krater. the Bes figures on the sarcophagus hold neither a lion nor a snake. the fact that these small horns are twisted does not allow one to identify them with certainty as bovine.”41 Because of this dynamic schema. The passengers in the second chariot. and. leonine ears.42 The vertical pleats. The martial element. seems to indicate a military responsibility. On the principal short side.45 A limestone “wall bracket” discovered in the sanctuary of Malloura offers another point of comparison. but is also related to Herakles and other oriental heroes when he tames lions.37 On each side. as on another bowl from Idalion. as on one of the silver bowls from the Cesnola Collection.c. since they engage in a kind of dance expressed by the movement of the legs. since the young horsemen in the lead wear helmets but do not carry weapons. They represent an adaptation in limestone sculpture of an iconographic type known through a great many molded terracotta figurines. The Bes of Amathus is derived from Egyptian models. Bes. He is connected to the very old Cypriot “bullgod” by the presence of horns. however. The discovery of the colossal statue from Istanbul in the lower city of Amathus two years prior to that of the sarcophagus. who is the only beardless figure in a chariot. however. remains subdued. The pose of the figures and their number do not encourage an identification with the great god of Amathus himself. the scene on the New York sarcophagus fits into the Cypriot tradition of processions of dignitaries (introduced probably by the Phoenicians. wearing a conical helmet. Dated approximately to the middle of the eighth century  b. The use of a saddlecloth seems to have spread particularly during the Achaemenid period. However. unlike other sculptures from Amathus. the satyrlike face. with lower fringe. but do not wear helmets. from Chrysochou. Stylianou has developed this point at length. the group of more or less fragmentary statues found on the agora of the city38 indicate that this image of Bes was used at least since the end of the Archaic period to evoke the principal male god of Amathus. It is therefore likely that the long side A represents the family of the king.34 This detail notwithstanding. in a “joyful atmosphere.46 Three nude Bes are shown in action. one stands clearly in front. rivaling those shown on Assyrian and Achaemenid reliefs. The other short end is occupied by five nude women. precedes a chariot drawn by horses adorned with a plume and carrying two bearded figures each with a conical helmet. The martial character is clearly affirmed by the upright spears behind the chariots and the quiver carried by one of the horsemen. one arm raised.40 I do not think that this pose can be explained. The dancelike pose. but expresses. It stands part way between the figure of a Bes in relief on the acropolis of Amathus. probably suspended on the outside of the sanctuary wall. who turns toward the foot soldiers. would then be the sons of the king. visibly larger than the others. as “the conventional depiction of the god’s dwarf aspect.33 The order in which the chariots advance behind that of the king certainly reflects the hierarchy of the court of Amathus. at the front of the procession. All these aspects make up a complex personality.” also winged. whereas the foot soldiers hold spears and shields. The processions sometimes have a religious connotation. a beardless horseman.. pace Petit. richly arrayed. who hold their breasts with their hands. like Greek silens and satyrs comparable to those on the Worcester head. the existence of various isolated mon- 360 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments uments. and small horns are characteristic of the Cypriot adaptation of the Egyptian god. pointing out that the models were introduced to Cyprus by the Phoenicians at the beginning of the CyproArchaic period and integrated into the culture of the Cypriot kingdoms. drawn by horses the sumptuous harnesses of which remind one of the objects found in tomb 79 at Salamis. Does the elder turn his head toward the viewer because the scene concerns the deceased buried in the sarcophagus or because he is designated the successor to the throne? The other man. the vase shows the principal elements of the iconography adopted on the sarcophagus. The object.”32 the p power of the local ruler. that are sculpted on the crown of a large female head located in Worcester.36 and especially on an amphora.contents ­ rocession.

symbolizing fertility and renewal.c. based on a detailed stylistic analysis of the figures and comparison with Greek art at the end of the Archaic. The detailed study of Jacqueline Karageorghis makes it unnecessary to enlarge upon this subject. The faces of the figures on the sarcophagus—in general rather poorly preserved—resemble those of the earliest sculptures of the palace at Vouni. not that of a funeral procession.. At Amathus limestone sarcophagi (cat.54 the “trees of life” are shown on a series of funerary capitals characteristic of the region of Idalion and Golgoi (Cat. by their use as supports for incense burners in the sanctuary and palace of Amathus. marked by sensuality as much as by magnificence and martial valor. and sexual pleasure. probably more specifically. whom an inscription of King Androkles at the end of the fourth century  b. rather than in the final years of the sixth century  b. one might surmise a gift from the Great King. wall mosaics—and the decoration—Bes.c. “in the courts of satraps. the Greek ekphora. or even sacred prostitutes? The fact that there are four figures does not prevent their being divinities. there are no images of a nude woman receiving homage from worshippers and no element of finery such as the large crown with figural decoration worn by limestone female heads that can be considered a divine feature. separate from its archaeological context. The “Bes” and the “Astartes” on the sarcophagus. but this date is certainly too early. as shown by Tatton-Brown. The nonfigural decoration confirms this choice. and especially at Amathus. to the Phoenician Astarte. 473). their connection with the worship of the Great Goddess is supported by the frequent representation of the Hathor head. around 460–450 b.48 And yet. Even if the four women allude directly to the local Great Goddess. as is its diffusion through the Aegean world and to Cyprus in the first part of the first millennium.contents attested at different sites on Cyprus. which depends entirely on the study of the sarcophagus. for instance. This relation with the Achaemenid kings leads to the date of the monument. Finally.  471. the chief priest. calls Kypria Aphrodite. in the context of the Achaemenid empire.c.57 Thus.c.47 The oriental origin of the motif is well known. according to Athenaeus (13. particularly in the Greek world. the comparisons he cites are sometimes questionable. At the center of this religious decoration. for example. the sphinxes that surmount the pediments are both the traditional “guardians” of funerary monuments55 and mon- sters closely associated with the worship of the Great Goddess. which I treated in connection with examples found by the French mission at Amathus. the deceased had at his disposal a “final resting place” the form of which—cavetto and other architectural moldings. since the head of Hathor is double on the stelai and other examples are known. The Dionysiac ivy is indicative.61 However. Often associated with the Great Goddess. minor kings. The frieze of lotus flowers and buds is more commonplace. joy. in Archaic and Classical Cypriot iconography.51 Despite the obvious allusion to the Great Goddess and.. as is most likely.56 All these elements are found on the amphoriskoi in the style of Amathus.49 At the end of the Archaic period at Amathus.”59 If this is the case—and as it is difficult to see a representation of the Great King here—one must justify more precisely than heretofore the presence of the parasol.52 As for the Bes.c. Artaxerxes had given the Cretan Entimos. nude women. the Treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. which must be dated after 490 b. 490–494) 361 .58 but it is then an idealized depiction. who favors a later date. The procession may represent the voyage of the deceased to beyond the grave. as on the amphoriskoi in the style of Amathus or on a Hathor capital from Kition in the Louvre. It is more problematic to recognize that.53 as are the “trees of life” that frame the long sides and are repeated on the pediment.c. of multiple representations of a divinity on a single image. second-tier mythological beings like the maenads from the Greek world. sphinxes. the parasol was prohibited as an object of prestige because it was restricted solely to the Great King. The authors cited recall that. An example discovered within the actual sanctuary of Aphrodite provides a very explicit illustration. like the kings of the ancient Paphos.c. indicate in any case that the funerary aspects are systematically sidelined in the iconographic program for the sarcophagus. as Thierry Petit believes. they are probably not earlier than the beginning of the fifth century b. as indicated. among other expensive gifts.50 The choice made for the decoration of the sarcophagus poses a problem of interpretation. Aware of the Archaic aspect of the figures and the decoration. a golden parasol. one thinks rather of minor divinities with particularly strong erotic connotations. doubled.612a). is the representation of his earthly power. the Cypriots interpreted it only rarely in limestone sculpture.60 Stylianou proposed a date between about 510 and 490  b. the local Great Goddess is more clearly represented in the form of a Hathor head painted on vases or. Whether the deceased is the ruler shown on the lead chariot. together with permission to use this symbol of royal power with strict limitations. and princes. In the case of the ruler of Amathus. are the nude women divine images. it is quite unlikely that they represent the goddess herself. 472. Borchhardt and Bleibtreu have advanced the idea that. Myres placed it in the second half of the sixth century  b. whose slightly different personalities could be indicated by the variations in the number of rows of “chokers” worn around the neck. or the figure turned toward the viewer on the following chariot depends on the parasol as a designation of royalty. on the finial of limestone stelai. but must similarly convey the same blossoming of life. symbols of vitality. “trees of life”—evoked a temple dedicated to the Great Goddess of which he was probably.

Hendrix 2001. p. figs.c. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 1979. who does not refer to these objects. therefore. 362 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments 38. mentioned above. Raptou 2007. he wanted to commemorate his power and his piety toward the gods by adopting. 228: “the reputed place of discovery. pp. 2. Cesnola 1877. These upheavals must almost certainly be associated with the Ionian revolt of 499–494  b. Georgiou 2009. Stylianou 2007. 8. Hermary 1987a. 2001. Hermary 2000a. 1900. The sarcophagus from Palaepaphos. see also Koenigs 2007. 36. 2. 24.4. 26. Markoe 1985.62 The sarcophagus in the Cesnola Collection. 1935. the diverse relations that they maintained—with Egypt. a sarcophagus with figural decoration comparable to those made of clay in northern Ionia (“Clazomenian sarcophagi”) or to the magnificent example in marble discovered in the Troad depicting the sacrifice of Polyxena and scenes of female life. 47. 72. 21. 9. 1. Flourentzos 2007. V. no. p. XLIX. fig. the large Hathor capital with polychrome decoration. 35. p. The excavations have also shown that this period was marked by the destruction and reconstruction of the large building identified as the palace. 63. pls. Beil. p. or rather this large stele.5 and 6. Cesnola was directly inspired by a tomb plan published by Ali Bey. 80. 851.104–105. At Chios and at Larisa on Hermos: Åkerström 1966. It confirms what the French excavations. Myres 1914. pl. a unique work of Cypriot sculpture. Wilson 1972. 17. as much for the eclecticism of the style and iconography as for the decorative excess. cf. 94–110. 13. 17. 220. pls.64 Despite the use of mediocre material. Stylianou 2007. 14. for the “Graeco-Persian” sculptures. tomb of fine masonry. V. but according to Stylianou 2007. no. p. Stylianou 2007. 1–31. at the palace itself and the deposits that came from it. Whatever his name and his origin. no. Hitzl 1991. 30–32. no. 22. 5. no. Sevinç 1996. It is normal that after the victory of the Persians. Ibid. p. which remained faithful to the Great King (Herodotus 5. Cf. in level ground northeast of the acropolis. 14–20. 5–10. 878. pp. 298. no. close below the surface. p.. p. pp. 1. nos. must be dated. I think. 48: “Soll der König als Wagenlenker ausgezeichnet werden?” (Should the king be distinguished as the charioteer?). p. 162. 4..c. For example. Borchhardt and Bleibtreu 2007. 28. 16. 7 and pl. 15–16. pp. concurring with Stanley Casson. 3. p. 11.c. show the distance that separates the great sculptors of the period from those who worked for a less exceptional clientele. 171. seems to me an excellent point of comparison. p. Masson 1990a. Borchhardt and Bleibtreu 2007. For the description of the chariots. no. Hermary 2000a. Crouwel and Tatton-Brown 1988. Karageorghis 2000a. 18. at Larisa on Hermos: Åkerström 1966.. pp. pp. pls. pp. p. Myres 1914.contents itself. 10–14. 34. I am indebted to the indications given by Adriana Emiliozzi and Mary B. the artist of the Amathus sarcophagus knew how to create brilliantly a work faithful to the stylistic and iconographic characteristics of contemporary Cypriot society. 158–66. 255. Borchhardt and Bleibtreu 2007. propose a date for this sarcophagus in the first quarter of the fifth century b. 6. he is one of those who directed the city and its territories during its moments of glory in the first decades of the fifth century b. 260. pls. 7.5. L. add several limestone statuettes found in the palace of Amathus: Hermary 2000a. 228: “the driver of the first chariot is the principal personage—and probably the occupant of the sarcophagus—for over him an attendant holds an umbrella. a four-chamber 5. 23. 13. the kings of Amathus would be rewarded for their allegiance. Markoe 1985. As in Tatton-Brown 1981. 12. pp. 853. p. 39. 49–82. . Murray et al. no. 23. Whether the ruler represented on the sarcophagus lived through these moments of crisis. 16. 114). 502. Hermary 1985. 30. 15. fig. 532. 63–65. 17–20. 137. 108. pp. Masson 1990a. 63–71. Petit 2007. A. probably Marangou 2000. I. pl. pp. provides significant testimony concerning the kingdom of Amathus at the end of the Archaic period. toward 480  b. Hermary 2000b. fig. Stylianou 2007. figs. Hermary 1989a. pl. 25. fig. Ibid. pp. nos. Phoenicia—and the resulting manifestations of political and religious power in artistic production. Tatton-Brown 1981. was still shown in 1894. 72–73. 12. 32. Macridy 1902. I. Greece. serving a ruler who was one of the most powerful figures on the island toward the beginning of the fifth century b.1. 854. 8. see in particular the superb examples shown on a sarcophagus from the Troad.: Sevinç et al. VII–XIX. no.. pp. 388–95.” 29. pls. 28. p. in which all the Cypriot kingdoms took part alongside the Ionian Greeks except Amathus. or a little earlier. Culican 1982. 32. Hermary 1987a. Cesnola 1877. 33. Hermary 1981. Prête and Tassignon 2001. 33d. E2. Gjerstad et al. At Larisa on Hermos: Akerström 1966. 19. the originality of the creation. and even the one from Golgoi. 267. and the quality of execution. or was a successor. Metzger 1975.” 37. p. Aupert and Hellmann 1984.c. Stylianou 2007. 3.c. pp. of the early fourth century b. 29–32. for his tomb. 20. 311–52. 13–22. see Stylianou 2007. 31.63 have revealed about the prosperity of the rulers of the time. 969.c. 10. Cy1. 27. Moore and acknowledge my appreciation here. This capital. 88.

1. Hermary 2000a. In the relief on the end representing Perseus and Medusa. pls. 57. 2. figs. 59. Aupert 2003. the figural decoration is distributed over the four sides and four animals are set on the lid. who had significantly damaged the “east side” (banquet scene). Hermary 1989a. Crouwel 1987. see also I. 96. pp. XLI. p.c. 807. pp. Similarly. 806. pp. 99–102. supplementary illustrations in Sevinç et al. Cracks were filled. XXIV. 29⅛ in. Stylianou 2007. Cesnola 1885. Cf. description  The inside of the coffin was inaccessible. 202–4. (34. Hermary 1995. figs. no. pp. da er allein dem Grosskönig vorbehalten war”) (at the courts of the satraps. Hendrix 2001 (polychromy). 82–91. 490–494) 363 . Accord- 52. 126–27. pp. 28. nos. fig. Hermary 1986a. 1874–76 (74. pp. no. Myres 1909–11. 16. 55. IV.2 cm). Hermary 1986a. 62. and the repairer. 2004–5. 2813⁄16 in. but no restorations were made. pp. pp. XVIIA. pp. (12. 66–69. Hitzl 1991. (207 cm).3. Hermary 2000a. der Schirm als Repräsentationsobjekt nicht geduldet wurde. 203. Böhm 1990.5 cm). 15–19. 33. p.b. H. 38. is doubtful.  XVII–XX. 13½ in. pp. Petit 2007. pp. State of preservation. background  Place and conditions of the discovery. I. Petit 2004a. 471. H. figs. Casson 1937. Sophocleous 1985. 56. Fourrier et al. 19*. (202 cm). 44–46. 42. CXLIX–CL. pp.”3 Unlike the Amathus sarcophagus.3. Petit 2007. 81–83.5 (mounted horses). the break came at this point. Hitzl 1991. p. The restorations carried out in New York are described in the report drawn from the notes of Charles Balliard: “Found intact in Cyprus [?]. 23 (lamp from Amathus. no. pp. 38 in. 527–32. H. The sculptures on the 53. 78–79. Kleinkönige sowie Fürsten. pl. and a break ran downward from the edge of the sarcophagus at the end where a man is bending his bow. 39. Karageorghis 1999. 144–49. 41. with the banquet scene in its current state. the differences between the two monuments are important. 170–78. W. Hermary 1985. Hermary 2004a. as shown in a photograph taken at Larnaca2 and in a drawing by Dardel published by Colonna-Ceccaldi in 1875.5 (chariots): Crouwel and Tatton-Brown 1988. 208–9. pp. 415–418. p. Prête and Tassignon 2001. (2) Procession: Borchhardt 1970. pp. XLII. and some filling was done. and is capped with a cavetto molding and a gabled lid. Tatton-Brown 1981. (73. 58. Cat. 972. Blandin and Fourrier 2003. W. Sophocleous 1985. 44.” Myres specifies that this “dressing of powdered Cypriote limestone and gum Arabic was removed in 1909. pl. 47 (“an den Höfen der Satrapen. so that Balliard had difficulty in putting the pieces together correctly. 19–20. Stylianou 2007. 53–56. Hermary 2000a.2451) 50. Petit 2006a. pl. Metzger 1975. 134–40. Borchhardt and Bleibtreu 2007. 1–67. 19. already made by Cesnola to Colonna-Ceccaldi for his publication with no mention of the dog. no. the sarcophagus was found in November 1873 in the necropolis of Golgoi. 674. (96.  26. 18*. Tatton-Brown 1981. 375) and two stelai with vegetal decoration (Cat.51. Limestone L.  XXXVI. 799⁄16 in. Karageorghis 1977. Stylianou 2007. no. Gehlen. (4) Nude women: J. 51. principal references  (see also Stylianou 2007. Karageorghis 2000a. J.  330. See Buchholz 2010. Perrot and Chipiez 1885. 43. cm). Stylianou 2007. pls.contents 40. However. 154–57. pp. 46. 77. cf. (74 cm). The pieces joined by Gehlen were not put in their proper places. Sevinç 1996. pp. pl. Counts and Toumazou 2006. 225–28. Fourrier 2008. the dog between the two apparently had a collar. The slab representing a hunting scene was broken almost from end to end. 54. 25*. 505–17. Cf.2. p. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 1974. XV. pl. pp. 45. of feet 5 in. pl. Pogiatzi 2003a. 60. 472) came from the same funerary chamber. XXII. Petit 2004b. fig. Purchased by subscription. The discovery was made by tomb robbers.1 Cesnola writes that the seated dog (Cat. 49.  186–88): (1) Studies of the sarcophagus as a whole: Cesnola 1877.7 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1364 The Cesnola Collection. 23–26. Tatton-Brown 1981.1. Ferron 1993. 20*. 152. p. Hermary 1989a. Breaks were covered with Balliard’s liquid mixture. The general form is the same as that of the Amathus sarcophagus: The coffin rests on four massive feet. ing to Georges Colonna-Ceccaldi. fig. minor kings and princes. 81½ in. Hermary 1986c. 63. V.  376–77. pp. p. 805. Maier 1983. 1998. 408. pp. 64. pl. there is no trace of paint. 96–97.3. 48. pp. An initial restoration was made rapidly on Cyprus.1184–1187. Lid: L. limestone sarcophagi (cat. Hermary 1986a. Repairs were made by means of metal rods. pls. Petit 2004a. Masson 1990d. p. Cf. but this claim. rectangular in section. p. the umbrella was not tolerated as an official attribute because it was reserved exclusively for the Great King). 169–70. pl. no. 61. figs.” When it reached 14th Street it was broken. V. 608–15. nos. (3) Bes: Wilson 1975. put it together—about two years before Balliard’s repairs.  259–68. 47. 149. 491 The “Golgoi sarcophagus” Second quarter of the 5th century b. 246–47. XIV.

which is situated in a natural setting indicated by the presence of a tree on the far left. it is difficult to determine the order for reading the figural scenes. 491 Golgoi sarcophagus appear in very low relief. with his legs outstretched. Reclining on this couch. Between the legs of the couch is a table with feet in the form of lion’s paws. These holes probably served for a cord attesting that the lid had not been moved. is a bearded man who wears a long pleated garment draped over his left shoulder. architectural or vegetal. His left elbow leans on two cushions placed at the head of the couch. I consider the banquet scene before the hunting scene. two . With his right hand. he extends a cup toward a servant. Since the subjects on the long sides are not related. On each of the small ends. For reasons that are discussed in the commentary.contents cat. a hole is pierced at the center of the lower band of the lid and the lower roll of the cavetto. the first couch consists of two uprights with articulated profiles and a support for the mattress that fills the space between the top of the uprights. On the far right. There is no supplementary sculpted decoration. Nine figures are 364 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments represented in this symposium. and no remains of polychromy are visible.

The musician. She wears a sakkos. and a bracelet around her wrist. He does not touch the seated woman. and places her right hand on the chest of the man. The toes of her feet rest on a stool. At the far left stand a large volute-krater and a leafy tree. He holds a phiale in the left hand. 491 detail of banquet scene cat. The trees are located behind the boar. one frontally. His long pleated garment appears to leave the shoulders totally bare. She seems to be wearing a sakkos and earrings. plays a lyre with large curved uprights. and the horse. at the center of the composition. 491 detail of hunting scene are visible. consists of two warriors who have struck with their spears a boar turned to the right. similar couch is occupied by two figures. Both hunters hold their shields on the left arm. a chiton. The second. The hunter on the left wears greaves and the hand holding the spear rises higher than those of the others. The third couch is different in shape from the preceding ones since each end curves outward and terminates in a volute. The table is similar to the preceding ones. the left extended. and a himation. the upper torso almost frontally. his bent right leg is in profile. one in profile. holds an unidentifiable object against her thigh. His chest is bare and a fillet is tied around his head with the ends falling behind his back. a chiton. 490–494) 365 . and the foot is seen frontally. Her feet rest on a footstool. is a female aulos player in profile to the right. probably. covered with pointed leaves. one notes differences. in front of the horse. He holds a jug in his right hand and. On the table are cakes and pieces of fruit (?) and beneath it a stool with four legs. the feet of which appear to have the form of “Proto-Aeolic” half-capitals. a horse on the left. He holds a cup in his left hand and raises the right toward the female lyre player seated next to him. However. She wears a sakkos. A young man wearing a wreath of leaves reclines.contents cat. and a himation that passes under her breasts. in the right. It is occupied by a wreathed youth whose pose and garments are the same as for the young man on the second couch. On the other long side. She wears a chiton and a himation. the small tortoiseshell box is barely visible. two other hunters similar to the preceding ones strike with their spears a small bull that has fallen on his forelegs. the right rests on the shoulder of a woman with her hair in a sakkos (snood). his hair covers the ears and the nape of the neck. but he holds in his left hand a small object that is difficult to identify (a piece of fruit?). two panels appear under her forearms. It is occupied by a young man with extended legs. who extends her left hand toward the chin of her companion and. The composition is framed by two animals that are grazing peacefully: a doe on the right. The first group of hunters. under which appears the edge of a tunic. The fourth and last couch resembles the first two. an archer wearing a conical limestone sarcophagi (cat. The woman’s feet rest on a stool. a hunting scene is represented in a natural setting indicated by three trees with widely spread branches. a himation. at the right. A rooster stands behind the hunter on the right and looks as though it were resting one foot on the warrior’s left leg. its branches do not have room to spread out toward the left. Between this couch and the next one. On the left of the composition. The young man who approaches the banqueter is totally nude. Farther to the left. who leans forward. She wears a chiton. the bull. a lock juts out above his forehead. The table is similar to the others. his legs presented in profile. The table is similar to the one described above. The men wear Corinthian helmets and breastplates with shoulder pieces and pteryges (flaps). her left leg advanced. a strainer in the left.

and a mantle over his shoulders drives a bearded man.4 The part that deals with the Golgoi sarcophagus did not give rise to the same kind of synthesis. A dog seated behind him looks at him. To the left is the Gorgon Medusa. The bearded hero. The bottom of the box. For the mythological scene (Perseus and the Gorgon). the folds of which form a broad fold between her legs. is not shown. A beardless driver wearing a conical cap. 491 helmet and a short tunic with U-shaped folds shoots an arrow at the bull. On the other short end. 366 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments cat. wears a kind of headband. The passenger apparently wears a chiton and himation and rests his right hand on the edge of the chariot. their mouths are wide open and their tongues extended. the pad placed at the end of the pole. In his right hand is a harpe. Their long tails pass under the thighs and reach the hindquarters. commentary  The unpublished dissertation of Veronica Wilson (Tatton-Brown) has already been mentioned concerning the Amathus sarcophagus. Four recumbent lions. Her pendant breasts are visible under the fabric. are sculpted at the corners. The girth. but the hunting scene. at the end of a pole. One of the short ends depicts a clearly identifiable mythological scene. The reliefs on three of the four sides have been discussed in numerous studies. Perseus. moves away toward the right. She has four sickle-shaped wings and. which poses the greatest problems of interpretation. The gabled lid is marked at the top and bottom by a roll. The chariot is summarily represented. the headstall. with her raised arms. However. A skin or a piece of fabric hangs over the side of the box at the back. She wears a tunic with elbow-length sleeves. and the reins of the harness are visible. Pegasus. both legs bent. so that the six-spoked wheel appears to float. who lifts both arms. the Golgoi sarcophagus belongs to the same category as that of Amathus—a gabled lid and a cavetto molding at the top of a coffin that is supported by four . the sarcophagus found at Palaepaphos now constitutes an important point of comparison. one of the arrows is stuck in the animal’s hindquarters. The only published study of the whole is that of Schollmeyer in 2007. has attracted less attention. a chariot drawn by four horses advances toward the right. The wings of Pegasus are not visible. and the young Chrysaor from an open cavity between her shoulders: only their torsos are shown. Their manes have incised triangular tufts. wearing a conical cap and a short belted tunic with U-shaped folds at the hips. appears to lift the horse. a collar with two pompons circles the chest. on his shoulder. Chrysaor. he carries a sack that without any doubt contains the head of the Gorgon. she is turned to the left. its left foreleg is raised. The chariot is occupied by two figures whose bodies are visible above the hips. Through its general form. The belt is partially covered by the garment. The body of only one animal is represented. parallel to the long sides. a tunic with elbow-length sleeves.contents cat. 491 which is elongated to a point toward the front. Six vertical lines project above the end of the pole. the lowered head of a second horse is faintly visible in front of the first and the tops of two other raised heads appear above. the left knee resting on the ground.

a female aulos player at the center. without the erotic element being as manifest. The composition of the scene. mutatis mutandis.13 Other elements are. The iconographic programs of the two sarcophagi share only the theme of the chariot. 477. 490–494) 367 .  445). the motif appears several times on the “Cypro-Phoenician” bowls of the first part of the CyproArchaic period—end of the eighth and seventh centuries b. It is difficult to know if sarcophagi without figural decoration were frequently attested in the necropolis of Golgoi. 478. the banqueters have no furniture at their disposal. on the Golgoi sarcophagus. tables. the figure represents the deceased and to establish the connections between this image and the three others. on an amphoriskos from Amathus. more original.contents massive feet.c. 243. as attested by the tree shown on the left.c.c. like those of the young men on the second and fourth couches. recalls. particularly along the western fringe of the Persian empire. where the scenes are indisputably familial.6 A lion is found on a fragment (Cat. around the same period. was decorated on the lid with four lions associated with snakes. and known only from a drawing of Max Ohnefalsch-Richter. 480. and a large krater at one end. The iconographic and stylistic connections between the banquet on the Golgoi sarcophagus and those represented on Attic pottery at the end of the Archaic period are evident.12 The young man who holds the jug and the strainer. with their symmetrical curved ends and thick mattresses that fit exactly between the top of the uprights. in particular at Golgoi (Cat. This element is also attested on the undecorated sarcophagi of Amathus. the fillet that circles the figure on the couch on the left also refer to these models. reproduces the most common scenes in Attic pottery between the end of the sixth century b. cat. given its frequency in eastern Mediterranean cat. without marks of distinction comparable to the parasol and turban of the dignitary who leads the procession from Amathus. the upper chest of the seated woman on the third couch appears to be bare. and footstools clearly distinguish this image from the one that is represented. are of a type apparently unknown in Attic pottery. There. 493) also originating in Golgoi. These figures evoke the women on slightly later Cypriot funerary reliefs. one notes that the elaborately worked couches. 244. a celebration in the garden of a palace or an urban sanctuary. 246). however. the best comparison comes from Golgoi itself. as in the hetairai on Attic pottery. The presence of a banquet scene on one of the long sides is not surprising. the one on a cup by Makron. The passenger on the Golgoi sarcophagus is similar to those represented on the long sides of the Amathus example. Its funerary symbolism. The form of the couches. a female lyre player on the left and two others whose relation to the men suggests one of love.c.8—and it is taken up again in the small sculpture at the end of the Archaic period (see Cat. 491 detail of chariot scene limestone sarcophagi (cat. The presence of seated women on three of the four couches. similarly.5 For the form and the lions on the lid. one recalls the famous “banquet under the arbor” of King Ashurbanipal of Nineveh. On the other hand. on many funerary stelai. The reference to wood models is emphasized here by the rolls in the form of sculpted logs at the top and base of the lid. It remains to be seen if.  242. either in their attitude or dress. that is. for example.7 On Cyprus.11 The poses of the banqueters. 491 detail of mythological scene art at the end of the Archaic period and during the Classical period. attested by the placement of certain statuettes in tombs. 245. the shapes of the cups they hold and of the volute-krater— although it is awkwardly reproduced—and. This development parallels the one observed in “Greco-Persian” art. since a sarcophagus that rests on four feet.c. However. and the second half of the fifth century  b. but a characteristic of Cypriot art is the natural setting.10 or from the votive relief from Golgoi (Cat. dated around 480 b.9 is more clearly expressed from about the middle of the fifth century b. 481). with its succession of couches (klinai).

widely attested during the second millennium in Egypt. 443.22 It is certain that this exceptional hunt does not concern an animal living in the wild on the island. the bull. which culminates in the largescale painting in the tomb of Philip II at Vergina. the connection between the two motifs is perhaps not fortuitous. and on Cyprus itself. although her peaceful pose seems rather unexpected. insofar as this kind of representation is in line with Cypriot iconograpbic tradition. decorated with a frieze of roosters and hens. but. one can cite two vases that show a figure fighting or trying to control a bull. there may be additional funerary connotations. In the first place. boar. now in a private collection in Limassol. the Near East. superior in status to his companions.25 The same interpretation probably applies to a relief fragment with two confronted roosters discovered in the necropolis of Aghios Ermoyenis at Kourion.15 If the iconography is essentially that of symposia from Attic vases. But the position of a horse grazing without any harness that would connect it to the hunters can only be explained if the scene takes place on territory controlled by men. The rooster emphasizes their courage and probably adds a promise of immortality. must be associated with the boar hunt on the Golgoi sarcophagus. could be explained by the military dress worn by four of the five men. The animals represented at each end of the scene suggest other possibilities. The first points of comparison should be sought on Cyprus.26 The presence of roosters on several vases in the style of Amathus27 could emphasize the connection between this motif and the symbolism of royal power associated with the cult of the Great Goddess. It is clear that here the sculptor departed from Attic or traditional eastern Greek iconography. Finally. shields. The handling of the scene. . despite the reliefs from Tell Halaf. it is noteworthy that on one end of the Palaepaphos sarcophagus a lioness is attacking a boar. The hypothesis that this symposium takes place near the tomb of the deceased16 seems risky to me. the rooster points out the real hero of this hunt. Finally.21 On Cyprus. it probably comes from Amathus or Kourion. Still. which completes the heroic deeds on the other sides. spears. for one of them.29 This subject. corslets. The central figure of the composition seems. nor does it seem to be attested in “Graeco-Persian” art. War and hunting are closely associated on a krater from Tamassos. it is disconcerting to note that a bull collapsing on its forelegs is shown. But these iconographic choices are probably better explained from a symbolic perspective. This scene cannot be defined as mythological. perhaps. for the first part of the Archaic period.23 Through its position and the action of its claw.14 The different position of the lion’s feet indicates that these are three-legged tables comparable to the one shown with a small sculpted group from the sanctuary of Apollo at Idalion. This manner of expressing virility has a frequently erotic connotation in the Greek world. one is astonished that the group on the left is killing a bull. I have not found very convincing ones for the martial dress of the four principal hunters. presents many surprising aspects. the Mycenaean world. and doe could be animals raised in a natural reserve. The presence of the rooster behind the hunter who confronts the bull that has returned to its wild state acquires meaning in a nonrealistic context.contents The footstools as well as the shape of the tables bearing small food items resemble those in other works in the Cesnola Collection (Cat. four of the five hunters are fitted out like Greek hoplites. this coin is to be associated with a stater and a tetrobole showing the same hero on the obverse and a standing bovid under a laurel branch on the reverse. The bird is not really present. often stressed in the Greek cities of the mainland. greaves.28 Although it is very doubtful that Golgoi was ever a kingdom and that the hero with the ax (Herakles?) on the obverse is different from the warrior-hunter of the sarcophagus. however. the meaning of the scene is probably not the same. probably toward the middle of the fifth century b. Then. Therefore.19 The bull hunt. even if the boar hunt is not surprising.c. the hunters are comparable to lions destroying their prey. it constitutes one of the favorite themes of “Greco-Persian” funerary art. rather than a drinking party of young men invited by a mature man and livened up by hetairai. with helmets. The scene on the sarcophagus evokes a celebration featuring a high-ranking family. raising its claw toward the warrior who faces the bull. according to a convention in the Greek world of the period. Note an Attic whiteground squat lekythos that shows Eros in flight above two confronted roosters. on the reverse of a stater generally attributed to Golgoi.18 and a stag hunter on an oinochoe of the Cypro-Archaic I period wears a helmet and. As Michel Amandry has shown. and.. the one who destroyed the bull by striking it frontally. seems totally out of place. whereas on the obverse a nude hero brandishes an ax with his right hand and grasps the trunk of a tree with the left. a kind of corslet. but also the killing of the bull.20 is rarer afterward. Their poses are copied from duels depicted on Attic pottery. 444) and in the tombs from Tamassos. The presence of a doe could be understood in an untamed natural setting. represents virility and the fighting spirit. Above the animal is a felled tree.17 Moreover. these reserves served as hunting grounds for young men to prove their valor. comparable to the “­paradises” of the Great 368 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments King and satraps of western Asia. The fact that hunting is the best training for war.24 The erotic implications of roosters assumes a heroic aspect on one of the large funerary monuments from the Xanthos acropolis.30 or to the heroes Herakles and Theseus. the presence of a rooster in the center. The choice of a hunting scene to decorate the other long side of the sarcophagus is not surprising either. In both cases. therefore.

that Cypriot princes could be formally assimilated to heroes of Greek mythology. on three of the four scenes: heroized in the guise of Perseus. The Golgoi sarcophagus would therefore be more or less contemporary with the one from Amathus. If this were the case. above all. to a lesser degree. but a solution is harder to reach.. but that is of the same type as on the Lycian tomb at Kizilbel. to a lesser degree. The funerary symbolism of the lions was mentioned earlier (Cat. one expects that he would also be present on the other long side.and daughters-in-law). another emblematic hero of the GrecoPersian world. Perseus has no connection with the ancient site of Golgoi. According to an “iconographic program” that can seem to us confused. and the hero Perseus is possible. in majesty on the chariot. on Cyprus. Tatton-Brown proposes to recognize the same figure. 440). This explains the favor that he enjoyed in Lycia and. 464).33 Returning to the Golgoi sarcophagus. we have on the Golgoi sarcophagus a mythological scene (Perseus and the Gorgon). stylistic comparisons with Attic red-figured pottery suggest a date around 490–470 b. on only two intaglios of the end of the Archaic period. 490–494) 369 . The Greek hero came to Anatolia to kill the Gorgon and deliver from the sea monster the princess Andromeda. 460. appears to be featured. In this scene. whose inhabitants claimed to be of Argive origin (Herodotus 5.c. emphasized by the rooster.34 The stylistic connections between the decoration on the sarcophagus and other reliefs from Golgoi. who would be the deceased himself. This seems to me as probable as in the case of the Amathus sarcophagus. but one cannot rule out that the “hero” at the center of the hunt is himself limestone sarcophagi (cat. in particular that of Herakles and the cattle of Geryon (Cat.36 As with the Geryon relief. the scenes on the Palaepaphos sarcophagus—probably almost contemporary with the Golgoi sarcophagus—indicate that the application of Greek heroic legends to a funerary context is not unique.  475–460  b. In any case. seems to “personalize” the representation and could introduce a connection with the deceased. 459. according to legendary genealogies. and it would be risky to establish a connection with Kourion. older on the chariot—and. The style of those on the sarcophagus is close to that of other Cypriot lions from the end of the Archaic period. apart from the Golgoi sarcophagus. Tatton-Brown proposed the second quarter of the century. with whom he founded a dynasty to which the Achaemenid kings claimed kinship. if the figure of Perseus could serve as a claim by Cypriot princes and dignitaries to both their Greek character and their connection to the Achaemenid empire. which is also the case. there is no reason to doubt the existence at Golgoi/Athienou of a sculpture workshop that specialized in ambitious and original compositions rendered in very low relief.113) and worshipped a hero. They depict the birth of Pegasus and Chrysaor at the same time as the departure of Perseus. sons. The problem is to establish a more precise date.c. which does not depend on Greek models and apparently wore a collar.contents The short end decorated with the decapitation of the Gorgon is not directly comparable to the ends of the Amathus sarcophagus that each represent four figures (Bes and nude women) associated with the principal cults of the city. contrary to the conventions of the period.32 This choice could be explained by the desire to link the mythological episode to the destiny of Bellerophon. The relationship of the bearded dignitary. a Greek type of banquet scene adapted to the Cypriot context. have been emphasized by Tatton-Brown. One would have to suppose that the figure was represented at two periods of his life— young in the hunting scene.”35 Schollmeyer favors the first quarter of the century. a possible genealogical connection between the ruler of Golgoi and a hero could be considered for Herakles and Ajax through his brother Teucros. Is the dignitary. with Chrysaor. It is clear for Ajax carrying the body of Achilles (cf. The three scenes from the Palaepaphos sarcophagus concern figures and moments from narratives associated with the Homeric world. which may show Herakles at the first siege of Troy. and a totally original hunting scene. “probably c. The presence of a seated dog. the owner of the sarcophagus? This is the most probable solution. associated in the banquet scene with young men and women who could be members of his family (sons. Perseus is the privileged expression of the union between Greek and oriental/Achaemenid traditions. and in the form of the hunting archer on one of the long sides. In the first half of the fifth century b. Cat. The meaning of the six lines inscribed above the pole escapes me. Henri Metzger and Jean-Marc Moret have pointed out within the very abundant iconographic corpus in Greece the original iconography used by the Lycian painter and the sculptor from Golgoi. all the more so as Perseus is also bearded. 463. toward whom the young cupbearer advances. but all the hunters are beardless. but with difficulty for Odysseus. apparently represented twice. The question remains whether the deceased buried in the sarcophagus was shown on the decoration of the coffin. the vanquisher of the bull. however.  340) and the episode of Odysseus and his companions escaping from the cave of Polyphemus. Perseutas. who has been associated with Perseus himself. It is probable for the third scene. daughters. with a figure singled out by the presence of a rooster. I think that the passenger in the chariot occupies a major position in the iconographic program and I am tempted to recognize him in the bearded banqueter settled alone on the first kline. 461. and may be slightly later.31 Regarding the painting from the Kizilbel tomb. 462. which is commonplace on Cyprus. where the decapitation of the Gorgon is shown. the image of a dignitary in a chariot.c. The question remains unanswered for the scene with Perseus and the Gorgon.

pp. figs. 84–85. 615–20. 37. 221–23. pls.  XXXII. but rather of a high dignitary from the kingdom on which the region depended. pp. 108. fig. pl. 22. fig. 6. V. Tatton-Brown 1984. Coupel and Metzger 1976. 319–25. pls. pp. pp. p. V. see principally V. already the remarks by ColonnaCeccaldi and Perrot. Karageorghis 1976. Pantel. pp. V. 215–16. on which a lion is behind the hunter. 55. 223. pp. especially the articles of P. but nothing allows one to identify him with certainty. Karageorghis 1976. V. no. pp. 204–5. 151. II (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. Schollmeyer 2007. Hermary 1981. Karageorghis 2006. Markoe 1985. 4. 32.3 (rooster on one side of an amphoriskos). p. pp. which was probably Idalion at that period. 467. fig. V.1. pls. 11c (on chariot). Hermary 1987a. Karageorghis 1961. Hoffmann 1974. In this case. 208. Schmitt 36. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 1974. figs. Crouwel 1987. 2.5. Wilson 1972. pl. 240–43. Bruns-Özgan 1987. pl. 214. pp. 2007. principal references  (1) The sarcophagus as a whole: 12. p. pp. Cf. I. 9. regarding the Lycian reliefs. dass kaum noch von einem Volutenkrater Cesnola 1877. pp. M. pl. 868. 133. figs. 200–201. 17. 50. fig. 371. 178–80. Hermary 2004b. 35. pp. 21. p. Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893. 38. nos. (3) Perseus and the Gorgon: V. nos. 568. p. nos. 8. fig. 28–29. Matthäus 1985. Hermary 1996. no. pp. 1993. fig. pp. XLVII. Raptou 2007. p. Amandry 1991. C259. Karageorghis 2006. Cy13. 476–79. p.  331 (with detailed photos of the Gorgon. p. 24.  62–65. 318. 5. see also. Myres 1914. the young man should be present in the banquet scene. Karageorghis 1998. pl. fig. 169–70. The absence of a royal symbol comparable to those on the Amathus sarcophagus and the fact that Golgoi was probably never one of the kingdoms on Cyprus37 prompt one to think that the sarcophagus was not that of a king. Cf. fig. cf. Crouwel. his father would be given importance around him. 512 (amphoriskos with a rooster on each side). pp. see also Schollmeyer 2007. V. Vierneisel and Kaeser 1990. Metzger 18. pl. Orthmann 1971. V. Marangou 2000. p. no. 7. Schollmeyer 2007. Einzelheiten so sehr. pl. pl. V. 47–49. fig. no.  37. 22–24. 133. fig. Ibid. no. 50c–d. retouching on the reliefs. Littauer and J. pp. Cy6. 26. 210. details so much that it is hardly possible to speak of a volute-krater). pl. 48b. 57. Dentzer 1982.1–2 (jug with roosters flanking a papyrus bush). Hermary 1991a. 1974. VI). 111–12 for the other photos of the sarcophagus. in V. 370 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . Pryce 1931. CXX. the explanation proposed by Flourentzos 2007 is not convincing. Karageorghis 2006. XXXVI. Schmitt Pantel 1992. 46. figs. Tatton-Brown 1984.4. 185– 17. pp. 98–101. Bruneau 1965. V. p. figs. 13. figs. 14. Raptou 2007. p. Schollmeyer 2007. 247–48. 36. p. 108. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 1974. 28. 85–86. Karageorghis 2000a. p. 208–9. bull hunters. Karageorghis and Des Gagniers 188. Schollmeyer 2007. pp. 200). 2. Karageorghis 1981. in particular. 516–17. 65–74. 8. 8.3. p. Boardman. Metzger and Moret 1999. Krauskopf 1988. 148. XXVI. 310. 56. figs. Hitzl 1991. 299. 131. and F. V. 25. no. LXXIV. 103–7. 55. 31. 9.  XXI–XXIV.  198. V. 142. Lissarrague. pl. Cy5. 127–30. A. Hitzl 1991. pp. see the introduction as well. Schollmeyer 16. 3. Karageorghis 2006. Karageorghis 1998. no. 358. pls. 28–30. 6. 3. a vase already mentioned. pp. K. 15. 97. 20. pp. V. 68–69. Murray 1990. fig. Ferron detail p. 5. 63. Reyes 2001.  49–52. 33. 1. p. Hoffmann 1974. 130–35.  42–44. 227. 19. 30. 49. 236–54. 10. 4. pl. 19. pl. 69–70. (2) Banquet scene: Dentzer 1982.. Cesnola 1885. Myres 1909–11. H. Hitzl 1982. For the Archaic period. 148. 57.1. 23. pp. R6. p. 228–30. 32–33. 29. p. 11. p. 1. Karageorghis 2006. pp. p. 136–37. pp. I. p. pl.3. p. 419–421. 48c–d. O. p. 12a (archer on foot). and Moret 1999. Karageorghis 1989. Myres 1914. 110–17. 107. Karageorghis 2006. 5. Perrot gesprochen werden kann” (the vase that is depicted falsifies almost all and Chipiez 1885. 169. Dentzer 1982. 17. V. pp.contents the deceased. Borda 1946–47. 27. X. pp. 61–64. 34. p. no. 144: “das dargestellte Gefäss verfälscht nahezu alle Colonna-Ceccaldi 1875. Schollmeyer 2007. (4) Figures in the chariot: M. 236. 227. Beazley 1963. Vierneisel and Kaeser 1990. pl. no. J. VI. 7. whose high-ranking family and. 424–426. cf. nos. 3.126. pp. V.

91. XXVII. 492 Cat. 1874–76 (74. (29.8 cm) and 1113⁄16 in. reference  Cesnola 1885.9 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi. 492 Two fragments of a sarcophagus lid with snakes First half of the 5th century b.2616) description  The two nonjoining fragments belong to the lid of a large sarcophagus with a molded edge. pl. 490–494) 371 . 1015⁄16 in. (27. .contents cat.51. Purchased by subscription.2615. There is the coiled body of a snake on each fragment. not “Sanctuary of Golgoi– Ayios Photios” Myres 1110–1111 The Cesnola Collection. Limestone L.c. limestone sarcophagi (cat.

at the center of which a small hole is pierced. 1874–76 (74. as in Doell) L.2491) description  The coffin of the sarcophagus was whole at the time of its discovery (width 52 cm. lies to the right in a crouching position.c. as the cattle of Geyron (Cat. the following motifs are represented in low relief. The representation here of two horns is an cat. The rear paws that are close to the front ones indicate that the lion is ready to pounce. according to Doell.51. the dewlaps are shown. Cat. (27 cm) Necropolis of Golgoi. probably for a metal attachment.51. The front part was sawed off for transportation to New York. Both horns and the four hooves are visible. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74.  440). according to Doell). (45. with restored hindquarters and back right paw. The head. despite what Myres says. with its large frontal eye. in two bands.7 cm) Found “near Larnaca” (Doell) Myres 1372 The Cesnola Collection. reference  Cesnola 1885. pl.3 cm). Near each upper corner are a ring and its means of attachment. the left rear paw is not visible. 493 double lines. 494 372 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . Purchased by subscription. LXXXIV. 494 Front slab of a sarcophagus Hellenistic period Limestone (not marble. Do the bulls recall the sacrifices carried out by or for the deceased? The animals are not of the same type. The rings probably reproduce metallic models fixed on wood sarcophagi and the wreaths could evoke the competitive victories won by the deceased. Similar rings were sculpted at the upper corners of the short ends. the muzzle is furrowed. 69 in. 10⅝ in. (?) Limestone L. or the honors that had been attributed to him by his city. commentary  The decoration of the sarcophagus is unusual.contents Cat. the mane summarily rendered. 18 in. (175.551. The small lion. turned toward the center. At the center are two wreaths with thick leaves attached to a double stem that is visible at the base. and many fragments of its flat lid survived. 493 Fragment of a sarcophagus lid with a crouching lion Second half of the 5th century b. H. The wreaths are knotted at the top. Within a frame of cat. stands a bull on a base.2627) description  The hollow in the lower part and the summary molding of the edge. The mouth is wide open. not “Sanctuary of Golgoi–Ayios Photios” Myres 1107 The Cesnola Collection. indicates that the fragment comes from a corner of a sarcophagus lid. On each side. is treated summarily.

is indented. with various comparisons in the Greek world. presents the line of the body very schematically. 83¼ in. linked by a depression under the corners of the lips. three on each side. p. no. are flat and smooth. pp. XIX.  XII. Seyrig 1940. p. the polychromy is almost entirely preserved.  58.1 This relief remains. cat.contents Egyptian feature that would not be out of place during the Ptolemaic period. The projection corresponding to the feet forms a small. Georgiou 2009. The facial features are vigorously rendered: heavy-set mouth and chin. Cesnola 1877. with three small tenons at the top of the head and on each side of the chest (the one on the left is higher than the other). The wreaths offer a similar indication: in addition to many examples in the Greek world. (93 cm) From Kition or surrounding area Myres 1367 The Cesnola Collection. above all. pl. slightly hollow curve at the base.2454) description  The massive sarcophagus narrows at the level of the knees. Cat.51. while the wavy locks near the ears.c. the arms and feet of the figure are represented with astonishing care and. 334. W. The underside. Parian marble L. 118–23.10. The oval face is surrounded by a thick mass of hair divided in large picked spheres arranged in staggered rows. Marble Sarcophagi (cat. V. See Frede 2009. 495 Female (?) anthropoid sarcophagus Second quarter of the 5th century b. The lid.5 cm). 120–22. The coffin is picked and hollowed over the entire lower surface. 495 marble sarcophagi (cat. 495–496) 373 . (211.1 The most remarkable example. pp. no. 495–496) Sarcophagi of the type called anthropoid—owing to their partially human form—found on Cyprus have been the subject of many studies. 36⅝ in. they can be compared to the one that adorns a funerary relief from Tyre that probably dates from the Hellenistic period. 1874–76 (74. Besides the face. scarcely roughed out. 2. The head appears in high relief.2 notes 1. references  Doell 1873. Karageorghis 2000a. pl.  835. unique on Cyprus. however. Purchased by subscription. and references. except at the level of the chest and the abdomen. 54. however. 1. was discovered in 2008 at Kition.

no. II. Another major source is the region of Arados. which emerges in high relief. Furtwängler 1905.6 The execution of the sarcophagus in New York is. X. fig. 3a–b. the eyes slightly bulbous under eyebrows that are hardly indicated. 26.” Above this tenon. between the limestone sculptures from Kition and those from Amrit. Cesnola 1877. 8. pls. 55. p.2 Through its general form and the treatment of the head. as is stated in the Atlas. the more schematic form of the locks near the ears. pl. pl. Lembke 2001. 115. 72. 4. p. The date proposed by Simone Frede (around 490–480  b. II. even more than the style of the face. p.4. the majority of known anthropoid sarcophagi from Cyprus. 18. R. no. Lembke 2001. no. see also Yon 1990: note that the coffin no. 54–56. pls. The new sarcophagus from Kition is now the finest example of this group. p. 98. 1. 71. pp.4 The thick locks on the forehead. Lembke 2001. 12. R. 374 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments 2. 363⁄16 in. The top of the head presents a smooth surface. The pronounced polish of the face was probably produced by Cesnola’s restorers. pl.1. fig. are. pl. Lembke 2001.c. p. Cesnola noted traces of red paint on the eyes. Cat. pls.”8 but the presence of pearls from a necklace next to the body would better suit a woman. The face is thin and elongated. pp. 184.b. more awkward. 123. Frede 2000. or from another location on the territory of the kingdom. 37. no. 37. 11. pls. 123. Frede 2000. 2. Hermary 2007. Frede 2000. 279. Beilage 18. massive eyelids leaving the lachrymal caruncle open under low eyebrows.9 cm). which is not surprising if one considers the relationship that exists. fig. above all.c. Purchased by subscription. Frede 2009. There is a tenon above the head. p.a.1. no. .) too late.c. Gunnis 1936.c–d. Frede 2000. 2. The neck and the top of the shoulders are slightly indicated below the head. The discovery of a female skeleton in the sacophagus from Arados at Tartus gives further indication that encourages one to interpret the head of the Cesnola sarcophagus as being that of a woman. A headband is partially visible at the top of the forehead.  53. pp.contents a flat ridged nose. 3. 11.12. As has been seen. the Phoenician letter shin is inscribed. the expression is severe. 496 Female anthropoid sarcophagus Late 5th century b. the sarcophagus from Kition is very similar to the two examples from Arados mentioned above. pls. pls. the same sign is placed at the foot of the coffin. pp. 90.  58.4. Georghiou 2009. 87. Doell writes “gefunden bei Larnaka” (found near Larnaka) and a fragmentary lid of an anthropoid sarcophagus was reported in the church of Kellia. 3. 8–10. The hair is separated by a central part. pp. 138. 87¾ in. W. [40 cm]) From the necropolis of Amathus Myres 1366 The Cesnola Collection. 1875. no. The inferior quality of the sarcophagus in New York is illustrated by the absence of representation of arms and feet. p. Bol 2005.c. fig. 8. it belongs to an early group. 698. I. 2. two others—asymmetrically—at shoulder level. however. 5. Frede 2009.1 It is not known if the one from the Cesnola Collection comes from the city itself. On each side. no. 37.1 Below the rounded portion underlying the head.1. Cesnola 1885. the nose long and fine. 53–56. 47. no.19. p.589. 7.2. Buhl 1987. it was also enhanced by color. fig. fig. 6. 25. 18. p. commentary  The Phoenician site of Kition yielded. 6. Sarcophagus in Copenhagen: Kukahn 1955. 150–51. thick wavy locks cover the ears. 118–19. fig. 1. 140. p. and that suggested by Giorgos Georghiou (second half of the fifth century  b. no. 1874–76 (74. 59. pp. IV–VIII. and the forehead is high and flat. without sculpted locks. no. Georgiou 2009. as is to be expected. Cesnola indicated traces of red. p. certainly of early date. Kukahn 1955. a characteristic of this group that seems to be spread over a generation.7 The new sarcophagus from Kition contained the skeleton “of a relatively young adult (older than 25–30 years). However. Hermary 1985. from Kition itself. 82.a–b. pp.a. 1. In his catalogue.6.2452) description  A letter from Cesnola to Birch confirms that the sarcophagus was found on June 21. sarcophagus from Tartus in Syria: Elayi and Haykal 1996. p. but their execution is careful. no. Parian marble L. no. in the form of spheres with a picked surface. p. the Cypriot origin of which is almost certain.c. at the same period. 114–15. pl. Yon 1990. pls. pls.  XCI. this production belongs to the period between 480 and 450  b. illustrated fig.b. according to the connections that can be made with the Severe Style in Greece.) seems too early. 120. 41. the most remarkable examples of which come from Sidon3 and. fig. 147. Hamdi Bey and Reinach 1893. 140. the coffin and lid form a straight line narrowing toward the bottom.c. 217. p. fig. 261. (222. 2. between around 480 b. (92 cm) (at the feet 15¾ in. and the rather awkward oval outlined by the frontal locks. 18. fig. 71–72. Bol 2005. and the middle of the fifth century. 91. since the discovery made in 2008 in the necropolis west of the city. north of Larnaca. 35. 82. 83.51. pp. Ibid. no.  834. 48. 123.. 178. references  Doell 1873. 4.5 With the addition of the locks near the ears. Kukahn 1955. 84. but probably painted. pp.  XII. most likely a man. and a fourth under the projection formed by the “feet. has a width at shoulder level that corresponds almost exactly (79 cm versus 80 cm) to that of the fragmentary lid in Venice.  p. this object has remained unpublished.a. Lembke 2004. The ears are placed low and diagonally.

Lembke 2001. 20. Frede 2009. p. pp. p. 50. 6.b–34. references  Cesnola 1877. 5. 83. Kukahn 1955.c–f. 83. XCI. pls. p.1–2. pl.3. Or perhaps three: see Georghiou 2009. Lembke 2001. 83. Cesnola 1885.3.b–118. 33. given in Frede 2009 seems a little early. pl. pl.a–b. 495–496) 375 . p. pp. with fig. no. 99. pp. 1. Hermary 1981. 6. Frede 2000. Lembke 2001. 48. 62–65. Hermary 1987b. pl. nos. 82. X. p. 137. p. X. 20.a. nos. 25.. 216.b–c. 128. like the examples from the necropolis of Sidon–Ain Hilweh. 148. no. 119. fig. pp. pp. pp.4 The sarcophagus in New York continues this tradition in a more awkward manner. pls. fig. 40. Masson 1990a. 4.  288–90 with fig. p. 25. no. 100. 122 n. 136–37. 83–84. fig. 3. Frede 2000. Teixidor 1976. Buhl 1987.1. 14.c. p. 4. p. fig. 386–87. Masson 1990a.c. pl. or a woman who wished to be buried in a monument of strictly Phoenician type. 13. with a Phoenician letter. X. Hermary 1981. at the foot.3. The date in the third quarter of the fifth century b. 116–117. 49. no. pls. 59–60. pl. pl. 102. no. It is very probable that the anthropoid sarcophagus from Amathus was exported from Sidon or executed on Cyprus by a sculptor from the Sidonian workshop. 24. dated around 440–420 b. Lembke 2001. no. 21. 496 marble sarcophagi (cat. 16. 68. no. no. fig. 22. (inscription). I. 39–41. 496 cat. Kukahn 1955. pp. 59–63.2 and I. XLIV–XLVI. Frede 2000. nos. 4 (discovery). 26. no. no. fig. pls.3.590. p. pp. 2. pls. where the hair is less full on the sides:5 the sarcophagi are also marked.contents commentary  The site of Amathus has yielded two other anthropoid sarcophagi:2 a male example in local limestone3 and a fine female sarcophagus that may be considered an antecedent of the one in the Cesnola Collection. toward the end of the fifth century  b. 147–48. 16. 135–36. pp.a. 19. see also Frede 2000.6 It attests to the presence at Amathus at that period of a woman of high rank of Phoenician origin.b–c. 117. 28. 10.c. 147.2. cat. Hermary 1987a.

V. Vassos Karageorghis added new pieces. see also Buchholz 2010. cat. 497–501) These busts belong to a series of funerary “portraits” from the beginning of the Imperial period.d. pp. 136–41. 497 cat. the traces of fire are so extensive that the question arises whether these busts had been placed in a funerary pyre. who established the list of all the known examples. with an interesting commentary.1 The surface of the stone is almost always partially burned.contents Roman Funerary Busts (cat. They were studied by Maria BruunLundgren (1992). probably the first half of the first century  a. In certain cases. 498 376 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments . pp. note 1. Karageorghis 2003a. 37–40. about twenty.

Purchased by subscription. 499 Cat. 97⁄16 in. especially in front of the temples. reference  Cesnola 1885.2792) description  The head is slightly under-lifesize. 811⁄16 in. roman funerary busts (cat. Two attachment holes are hollowed out at the top of the shoulders. Traces of red paint remain on the right eye and the eyelids are thick. 497 Funerary bust of a beardless man Early Roman period Limestone H. 498 Funerary bust of a beardless man Early Roman period Limestone H.51. pl.51. A wrinkle runs obliquely from each side of the nose and another is inscribed at the top of the forehead. The small mouth is poorly rendered and the deep-set eyes have rather thick eyelids. especially on the left side. CXLV. The chin has a dimple. the nostrils are hollowed out. a small wrinkle is incised across the forehead. The forehead is bare. CXLV. 1874–76 (74. that covers several locks of hair summarily indicated.51. particularly on the left side of the face. 497–501) 377 . There are small comma-like locks. 1874–76 (74. references  Unpublished. narrow head was turned toward its left. Cat. Comma-shaped locks cover the entire head.contents cat. Cat. pl. (24. (24 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1333 The Cesnola Collection. The stone shows many fissures. The tension of the neck muscle shows that the rather long. 99⁄16 in. The youthful face has a smiling expression. 499 Funerary bust of a beardless man Early Roman period Limestone H. The left one is partly broken.1141. The surface is blackened on the neck and near the right eye.1148. The fine features are well executed except for the ears. The hair on the top of the head is simply rendered as well.3 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1331 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. each of which has four petals. The head is under-lifesize. The surface is partially burned. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. Around the head is a wreath of nine rosettes. The neck muscles and the Adam’s apple are shown. reference  Cesnola 1885. The expression is severe.2770) description  There are breaks around the underside.2795) description  The surface is burned. (22 cm) Myres 1332 The Cesnola Collection.

501 378 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments .contents cat. 500 cat.

the nose is pointed.2786) description  The stone is gray.2794) description  The neck is missing and there is damage on the left cheek. The wavy locks of the melon coiffure are shown only in front of the flat chignon. Only those that have sculpted decoration are presented here. Gauthier et al. Nicolaou 1986. 502–508) “Cippi. typical of the female world.1134. 1874–76 (74. and the right ear. 500 Funerary bust of a beardless man Early Roman period Limestone H. There is a dimple on the chin and a deep depression under the lower lip. The asymmetrical face shows a severe expression. CXXI. 1874–76 (74.886. is probable: it seems that in certain cases it replaced the pinecone at the top.1135. fig. 502–508) 379 . 502 Cat. 79 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882. pl. fig. p. 441–42. pp. Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. The head was probably turned slightly to the right. 815⁄16 in. reference  Cesnola 1885. the nose.51. cf. p. 5. no. The hollow of the eyes. commentary  The funerary character of this object.contents Cat. Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874. pl CXLIV.” small limestone columns decorated above and below with moldings and bearing the expression “farewell good ____. CXLIV. 194. decorated cippi and other funerary monuments (cat.6 cm) Myres 1334 The Cesnola Collection. The facial expression is severe and a small wrinkle begins at the nose. and almost entirely burned. 79.2 1. is very deep-set. no.1 Compare an inscribed funerary kalathos from the region of Kouklia. 502 Funerary kalathos Roman period Limestone H. (21. The top is flat. The basketwork is indicated with vertical lines separated by smooth bands and lines in relief. 8½ in. p. pl. Almost the entire surface is burned except at the back on the right. against the nose. Purchased by subscription. particularly in the region of Amathus.2776) description  The large woven basket (kalathos) has a circular tenon on the lower part (D. 8 cm) for attachment to a support.” are known by the hundreds on Cyprus. 10¼ in. cracked. (22. cat. There are irregular comma-like locks. 1874–76 (74. and the small eyes have thick eyelids. 501 Funerary bust of a woman Early Roman period Limestone H. (26 cm) From Kition or Idalion Myres 1230 The Cesnola Collection. Above and below. fig. the basketwork is indicated with diagonal lines. 184).51. Decorated Cippi and Other Funerary Monuments (cat. 721.6 cm) “From a ruin near Dali” Myres 1335 The Cesnola Collection. p. 1987. I. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874.51. and a small circular mortise indicates the superposition of another object. 2.

Cesnola 1885.d.  2 (= Colonna-­ Cat. no. 184.  80. pl. Purchased by subscription.  146. The inscription reads “Farewell. 52. Cesnola 1885.contents description  On top of the shaft is a wreath of leaves with a central rosette. 186. D. p.) Limestone H. 146. 1874–76 (74. CXLVI.5 cm). 503 cippus.7 cm) From Idalion Myres 1939 The Cesnola Collection. good Artemidoros.51.2267) 380 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments Ceccaldi 1882.1174. showing the bust of the deceased. 503 Funerary cippus of Artemidoros. The inscription reads “Farewell. p. 80.51.  80. no. no. p. pl. Michaelidou-Nicolaou 1997. (75 cm). The facial features are coarse. p. (29 cm) From Idalion Myres 1940 The Cesnola Collection.” references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874. pl. 44⅜ in. 505 Funerary cippus of Kratea. 185.  b). 117⁄16 in. a. p.8 cm) From Alambra or Kition Myres 1950 The Cesnola Collection. 433. decorated with his bust Roman period Limestone H. showing the bust of a young man with short hair. 3). Cesnola 1877. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874. 299⁄16 in. pl. 98. 1874–76 (74. p.  1 (= Colonna-­ Ceccaldi 1882. (71. good Kratea. decorated with her bust Roman period (Pogiatzi-Richter: late 2nd century a. 105. LVI. Cat. 436.2414) description  A medallion has been hollowed into the shaft of the cippus. no.1152. p.2413) description  A medallion is hollowed into the shaft of the cat. 504 Funerary cippus of Artemidoros. 2). . p. Cesnola 1885. p. fig. Cesnola 1903. no. p. 185. no. Pogiatzi 2003a. no. Purchased by subscription. 9¾ in. (112. Cat. 3 (= Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882.  CXLVIII. p. CXLVIII. (24. p. 7.1173. D. Suppl. Purchased by subscription. Michaelidou-Nicolaou 1997. no. She wears a necklace and has short hair separated by a central part. 185. 1874–76 (74. no. 283⁄16 in. no.” references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874. 1). Cesnola 1877. 45.51. Pogiatzi-Richter 2009. no. no. decorated with a crown Roman period Limestone H.

contents cat. 504 decorated cippi and other funerary monuments (cat. 502–508) 381 . 505 cat.

no. Cesnola 1885. with decoration in relief Roman period Limestone H. Cesnola 1903.  CXLVI. 506 Funerary cippus of Olympianos.  4 (= Colonna-­ Ceccaldi 1882. pl. Purchased by subscription. There is a round mortise on the top. 44. is a frieze in high relief with four pinecones framing a smooth disk. 429.1151.contents cat.2268) 382 catalogue chapter 12 funerary monuments description  On the shaft. . 1874–76 (74.51. no. V. Karageorghis 2000a. 506 Cat.  XI. pl. above the inscription. p. and two groups of four pieces of fruit (pomegranates and apples) on a background of a vegetal garland knotted on the back.I). (107. no. Suppl. references  Colonna-Ceccaldi 1874. 427⁄16 in.  81.9 cm) From Larnaca Myres 1952 The Cesnola Collection.

 508 Pinecone from a funerary cippus Roman period Limestone H. CXXI. There is an irregular scale pattern on the pinecone.2777) Cat. pl. Purchased by subscription.885 decorated cippi and other funerary monuments (cat.889. 1874–76 (74. (27 cm) From Kition or Idalion Myres 1228 The Cesnola Collection. pl. 1874–76 (74.contents cat.7 cm) From Kition or Idalion Myres 1229 The Cesnola Collection.2780) description  The large pinecone is circular at its base. 10⅝ in.51. reference  Cesnola 1885. insertion into a funerary cippus. 10⅛ in. The scales are represented by a lozenge motif. (25. for description  The pinecone ends in a square tenon. A triangular zone remains smooth on the back. 502–508) 383 . for insertion into a funerary cippus. 508 Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885. 507 Pinecone from a funerary cippus Roman period Limestone H. CXXI.51. Purchased by subscription. 507 cat.

CCCI. p. note 1. 59⁄16 in.3 The alabastra Cat. 510 Pointed alabastron Late Bronze Age Calcite (alabaster) H. 509–562) description  The vase has thick walls and a flat base.5113) .1 The 28 examples found in the “pyre of Nicocreon” at Salamis (tumulus 77). a wide neck. 511 Flask Late Bronze Age Calcite (alabaster) H. 515. Given to Lang by Cesnola. 2.” after the stone from which they were cut: local gypsum or calcite known as Egyptian alabaster.5083) 384 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts Cat. 547. a typology for this type of vase was proposed by MarieJosé Chavane. Ibid. pp. were discovered in the same context. Many are listed by number only in Lena Åström (1972). references  Unpublished. identified the types of stone. the objects catalogued below are only part of the Cesnola Collection assembled by the General during his time spent on Cyprus.  546. 606) were certainly not discovered there because it was unoccupied during the Bronze Age. notes 1. 1874–76 (74. 548 are similar to these relatively late models. p. 517. without detailed commentary. 3. a convex lip. it must be taken with caution.. 1874–76 (74. 197.5098) description  The vase has no neck and could not have stood unsupported. with in-curving sides. they entered the British Museum. numbering 118. 77–81. Frantz.51.3 cm) Myres 1621 The Cesnola Collection. 8 in. see. For the Archaic and Classical periods. has no handle. Purchased by subscription.5115) description  The flask. 574.51. CCCII–CCCV Cat. the diameter of which corresponds to that of the belly.1 cm) Myres 1634 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. the vases of the Late Bronze Age said to come from Amathus (Cat. CCIV. and a convex lip. they probably come from the outskirts. including a dedication to Apollo. Many of the pieces in this section are much earlier than the sculptures presented above. Christine Lilyquist (1996).51. Purchased by subscription.. pls. 22–29. 1874–76 (74. Thus. 1874–76 (74. offer an important reference point. references  Unpublished. (14. Research Scientist in the Department of Scientific Research. 513. Chavane 1990. references  Unpublished. Kalavassos or Maroni. when Cesnola does give an indication. Terracotta examples of the same shape but with a rounded base. to the catalogue of sculptures. The majority of these pieces do not have a findspot and. 512 Flask Late Bronze Age Gypsum (alabaster) H. 5⅛ in. there are three alabaster vases bearing syllabic inscriptions.c. (20. pp. It is a flask rather than an alabastron. 563. Vases in “Alabaster”: Gypsum or Calcite (cat. Cat. The Cesnola Collection includes a large group of vases called “alabasters. Cat. 197. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Masson 1966.contents catalogue chapter 13 Other Stone Artifacts introduction Cesnola added vases and other small stone objects.1 James H. CC–CCIII. 9½ in. (24. and a flat base. cf. 575. (13 cm) Myres 1623 The Cesnola Collection.2 cm) Myres 1627 The Cesnola Collection. from Golgoi–Ayios Photios. however. elongated shape. 509 Flask Late Bronze Age Calcite (alabaster) H. For alabaster vases. The long neck narrows at the top and there is a ring in low relief below the partly broken mouth. V.51.2 They all have a narrow.  605. without lugs. Karageorghis 1973–74. Purchased by subscription. the mortars Cat. pls. In addition to those that were dispersed in the two Anderson sales of 1928. dating from the end of the fourth century b. As with the other works.

vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 513 reference  Cesnola 1877. 512 Cat. now much worn and difficult to distinguish exactly.contents cat. 509 cat.1. The neck is decorated with triangles containing progressively smaller ones. 3¾ in.51. cat. each containing diminishing forms of the same shape. The body then tapers toward the torus-shaped foot. pl. The lower zone shows a horizontal band of lozenges and triangles. The mouth is very wide and the rim is convex. reference  Cesnola 1903. marked by horizontally pierced lugs on opposite sides. Purchased by subscription. CXI. The upper zone contains leaf-shaped motifs with fillers in the interstices. one of which is broken.5 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1635 The Cesnola Collection. cat. 511 cat. (9. 509–562) 385 . XVIII.5137) description  The flask has a globular belly with two loop handles. all in relief. pl. 513 Miniature lentoid flask Late Bronze Age (?) Veined alabaster H. 1874–76 (74. The body is embellished with two zones of ornament. The lip shows three bands in relief. 510 description  The flask’s neck widens to the shoulder.

 XLIII. at the base is a band of tongues over semi-circles. 517 . 386 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat. V.2450) Cat. 57⁄16 in.9 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1622 The Cesnola Collection. pl. Purchased by subscription. narrow base. 514 Tall flask Early Geometric period (?) Gypsum (alabaster) H. elongated description  The body tapers to a vase widens toward the base. pl. Purchased by subscription. The neck is tall and narrow. above and below. the other lug is broken. Karageorghis 2000a.51.  XVIII. 114. no. pl. are certainly later than the vase itself. Cesnola 1903. pl. The loop handle extends from the thickened lip to the shoulder. 515 Cat. cat. 514 cat. 254.7a–b. references  Cesnola 1877. 515 Jug Late Bronze Age Calcite (alabaster) H.51.1–3. There is a small pierced lug. 9¼ in. A line of stacked chevrons bisects the body vertically.  CXIII.5 cm) “From Maroni” Myres 1659 The Cesnola Collection. (23.9. At the top of the body is a band of concentric semi-circles over a band of tongues. The two inscriptions. 1874–76 (74. though unintelligible. 516 references  Cesnola 1903. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. CXLI. Masson 1961/1983. no.5085) description  The thin. (13.

7 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1628 The Cesnola Collection.5117) Cat.5123) description  The jug has a globular description  The bowl is ribbed horizontally. 3⅜ in. The lower end of the handle terminates in a short projection. 520 reference  Unpublished. 518 Stemmed bowl Late Bronze Age Gypsum (alabaster) H.10. 517 Jug Late Bronze Age (Late Cypriot II) Calcite (alabaster) H. (8. 519 Cat. (14. (15. 1874–76 (74. 115. Purchased by subscription. Cat.4 cm) Myres 1629 The Cesnola Collection.  XVIII. Karageorghis 2000a.51. cat.5126) description  The stem and foot are missing. Diam. 519 Stemmed bowl Late Bronze Age Gypsum (alabaster) H. The lower two-thirds is restored. references  Cesnola 1877.51. reference  Cesnola 1877. XVIII.4 cm). The foot is disk-shaped. 1874–76 (74. bronze. pl. pl. 413⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.contents cat. pl.5107) Cat. The point of attachment of the foot is preserved. Cesnola 1903. or silver.5111) description  The form imitates Base-Ring I ware pottery jugs. 2⅛ in. description  The vase imitates a belly and a disk-shaped foot. pl. Purchased by subscription. 516 Jug Late Bronze Age Calcite (alabaster) H. There are numerous breaks that have been repaired.51. They probably contained perfumed oils or opium. CXIII. (5. vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 3⅞ in. Purchased by subscription. Cesnola 1903.6 cm) Myres 1637 The Cesnola Collection. There are several breaks on the rim. (9. D. the spaces in between are concave. 1874–76 (74.8 cm) Myres 1630 The Cesnola Collection.51. pl. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. (5. references  Cesnola 1877.3 cm) Myres 1636 The Cesnola Collection. V. 509–562) 387 . The upper end of the handle extends in low relief around the top of the neck. 61⁄16 in. 518 cat. 520 Miniature jar Late Bronze Age Gypsum (alabaster) H. pl. the spaces in between are concave.51. Cat. 21⁄16 in.2 cm). The bowl is ribbed horizontally. reference  Cesnola 1877.  XVIII. XVIII.  CXIII. Mycenaean jar of terracotta.8. 513⁄16 in. no. (12.

1874–76 (74. description  The globular flask has cat. 4⅞ in.5090) references  Unpublished.51. 1874–76 (74.5158) description  There are traces of bronze on the surface. pl. 55⁄16 in. (12. reference  Cesnola 1885. 521 Cat. 1. 8¼ in. 523 cat. commentary  The flask is similar to an example from the royal necropolis of Sidon. 2. references  Unpublished. The lip curves out. 521 Alabastron (flask) Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H.6 cm) Myres 1625 The Cesnola Collection. 522 Alabastron Classical period Limestone H.51.51. (21 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1674 The Cesnola Collection. 522 388 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat. 1874–76 (74.51. Purchased by subscription. Cat. more probably. commentary  The shape is similar to that of an alabastron from the royal necropolis of Sidon:1 the date is Archaic or. one of which is broken. reference  Unpublished. The absence of the foot. 524 Alabastron (flask) Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. (12. (13. XCII. Hamdi Bey and Reinach 1892.5 cm.603. Classical.5088) Cat. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription.contents description  There is a small break on the out-curving lip. The asymmetrical alabastron has a wide lip. There are two small lugs on the upper part of the body.5091) description  The body is extremely globular. cat. p. 524 . the out-turned lip. 11. Cat.4 cm) Myres 1626 The Cesnola Collection. 523 Alabastron (flask) Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. The interior is pierced to a depth of only 2. Ibid. 1874–76 (74. 4⅞ in. and the two small lugs associate the vase with a series of globular alabastra. two lugs at the top.4 cm) Myres 1624 The Cesnola Collection. fig. Purchased by subscription.1 1.

two salient lugs. (21 cm) Myres 1608 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. and an out-turned lip. (6. 528 vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. Purchased by subscription.5086) Cat. 8¼ in. Purchased by subscription. references  Unpublished. references  Unpublished. Purchased by subscription. references  Unpublished. a flaring neck. (16 cm) Myres 1605 The Cesnola Collection.51. (15 cm) Myres 1619 The Cesnola Collection. 211⁄16 in.51.5141) description  The globular flask has two rounded lugs. pear-shaped alabastron has small lugs. and a convex rim. Purchased by subscription.5089) description  The alabastron has small pierced vertical lugs. 525 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Alabaster H.contents Cat. 526 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. 1874–76 (74. 527 cat.51. 525 Cat. references  Unpublished. cat. Cat. the lip convex. 1874–76 (74. a narrow neck. and a ring-shaped lip. 509–562) 389 .5092) description  The alabastron has a description  The pear-shaped profile. one placed higher than the other. 528 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H.8 cm) Myres 1640 The Cesnola Collection. 527 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. a squat wide neck. 526 cat.51. 65⁄16 in. cat. The neck is narrow. 515⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.

Purchased by subscription.5102) description  The alabastron has description  There are two lugs on two small lugs. the body and a wide. a short neck. 5½ in. 529 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. and a convex lip. and a convex lip. 531 cat. 390 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat. (13. 1874–76 (74. slightly convex lip.51. references  Unpublished.51. references  Unpublished. (22. 8¾ in. 529 cat. 1874–76 (74. 532 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Gypsum (alabaster) H. 530 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H.2 cm) Myres 1604 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. 5⅜ in. (14 cm) Myres 1606 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat. flattened base. Purchased by subscription. 530 Cat.8 cm) Myres 1618 The Cesnola Collection. and a convex lip. 532 .5099) Cat. rounded lugs.7 cm) Myres 1615 The Cesnola Collection. (13. a flaring neck. Purchased by subscription.5100) description  The very elongated description  The alabastron has a alabastron has two small lugs. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. references  Unpublished.51.51. a flaring neck. 531 Alabastron Archaic or Classical period Calcite (alabaster) H. Cat. references  Unpublished. 57⁄16 in.5095) Cat.

contents

cat. 533

cat. 534

Cat. 533
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 5⅜ in. (13.7 cm)
Myres 1613
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5103)

Cat. 535
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 43⁄16 in. (10.7 cm)
Myres 1656
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5105)

description  There are two lugs on

description  The miniature alabas-

the body and a wide, slightly convex lip.

tron has two lugs with thickened ends
and a wide lip. The surface shows traces
of burning.

references  Unpublished.

Cat. 534
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 5¼ in. (13.3 cm)
Myres 1617
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5104)

references  Unpublished.

description  There is some surface

Cat. 536
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 39⁄16 in. (9 cm)
Myres 1639
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5106)

damage. The alabastron has rounded
lugs and a narrow, convex lip.

description  The alabastron has

references  Unpublished.

cat. 535

cat. 536

two lugs and a wide, convex lip. There is
a hole at the top of the body.
references  Unpublished.
vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 509–562)

391

contents

cat. 537

Cat. 537
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 43⁄16 in. (10.6 cm)
Myres 1647
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5112)

Cat. 539
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 10¼ in. (26 cm)
Myres 1601
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5118)

description  The alabastron has a

description  The lip is missing and

single lug below a ring in relief. The
neck narrows toward the top. The lip
flares out.

both lugs are broken. The veining of the
stone is particularly pronounced and
beautiful.

references  Unpublished.

references  Unpublished.

Cat. 538
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 10⅛ in. (25.7 cm)
Myres 1609
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5124)

Cat. 540
Alabastron
Archaic or Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 11 in. (27.9 cm)
“From Amathus”
Myres 1602
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5120)

description  The

alabastron is
particularly large in size. The two vertical
lugs are pierced. The neck is short, with
a slightly thickened lip.
reference  V.

Karageorghis

description  The slender alabastron

has two vertical lugs and a convex lip.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CX.4.

2000a,

no. 310.

392 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts

cat. 538

Cat. 541
Alabastron
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 7⅞ in. (20 cm)
“From Amathus”
Myres 1607
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5084)
description  The alabastron has

two lugs above a short trapezoidal tab in
low relief. The neck is short and the lip
slightly convex.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CX.3

Cat. 542
Alabastron
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 51⁄16 in. (12.8 cm)
Myres 1616
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5087)

contents

description  There are two lugs

above a short trapezoidal tab in low
relief. The neck widens slightly and the
lip is convex.
references  Unpublished.

Cat. 543
Alabastron
Classical period
Alabaster
H. 1015⁄16 in. (27.8 cm)
“From Amathus”
Myres 1603
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5125)
description  The alabastron has

two vertical pierced lugs above a short
trapezoidal tab in low relief. The neck is
short and the lip convex.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CX.6

cat. 539

cat. 540

cat. 541

cat. 542

cat. 543

vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 509–562)

393

contents

cat. 544

cat. 545

Cat. 544
Alabastron
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 6½ in. (16.5 cm)
Myres 1620
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5096)

Cat. 546
Alabastron
Classical period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 6⅞ in. (17.5 cm)
Myres 1612
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5093)

description  The elongated alabas-

description  The alabastron has

tron has two vertical lugs above a short
trapezoidal tab in low relief. The neck
flares out. The lip is convex.

two vertical lugs. The lip is wide and
slightly convex.

cat. 546

references  Unpublished.

references  Unpublished.

Cat. 545
Alabastron
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 6⅜ in. (16.2 cm)
Myres 1611
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5097)

Cat. 547
Alabastron
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 7½ in. (19.1 cm)
Myres 1610
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5094)
description  The narrow alabas-

description  The alabastron has

two vertical lugs above a short trapezoidal tab in low relief. The lip is convex.

tron has two rounded lugs. The neck is
short. The lip is slightly convex.
references  Unpublished.

references  Unpublished.

394 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts

cat. 547

contents

Cat. 548
Alabastron
Classical period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 5¼ in. (13.3 cm)
Myres 1614
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5101)

description  The large “alabastron”

has a flat base, no neck, and a flat mouth.
One of the two lugs is broken. Four
Phoenician letters that are difficult to
interpret and three vertical lines (the
number 100?) are incised under the
mouth.
references  Cesnola 1894, pl. CXLI.1048;
Ceslnola 1903, pl.  CXXIII.22; Teixidor 1976,

cat. 548

description  The alabastron has

p. 66, no. 24; Amadasi and V. Karageorghis 1977,

two vertical lugs. The neck is short and
the lip flares.

p. 133, D5.

references  Unpublished.

Cat. 550
Squat lekythos
Classical period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 57⁄16 in. (13.8 cm)
Myres 1658
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5116)

Cat. 549
“Alabastron”
Classical period (?)
Dark alabaster
H. 10⅝ in. (27 cm), D. 311⁄16 in. (9.3 cm)
“Found at Citium in a tomb with
another large alabastron, and a large
marble sarcophagus.”
Myres 1825
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.2295a)

description  The underside of the

lekythos is missing. The surface is in
poor condition (owing possibly to fire,
then humidity). The globular body has a
short, narrow neck. The mouth is
damaged.
references  Unpublished.

cat. 549

cat. 550

vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 509–562)

395

contents

Cat. 553
Pyxis with a lid
Classical period (?)
Calcite (alabaster)
H. of body 915⁄16 in. (25.2 cm), H. of lid
2½ in. (6.4 cm), Diam. of body 14¼ in.
(36.2 cm), Diam. of lid 57⁄16 in. (13.9 cm)
“Found near Citium”
Myres 1660
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5121a, b)
description  The pyxis is a much
cat. 551

Cat. 551
Flask with a stopper
Classical or Hellenistic period
Calcite (alabaster)
H. 37⁄16 in. (8.8 cm)
Myres 1633
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5110)
description  The shape combines

features of an alabastron, with its lugs,
and of a squat lekythos, with its rotund
body and flat base. The narrow neck is
closed by a stopper with a wide flange.
references  Unpublished.

cat. 552

Cat. 552
Flask
Classical or Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 213⁄16 in. (7.2 cm), Diam. 3½ in.
(8.9 cm)
“From Amathus”
Myres 1638
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5114)

enlarged and truncated version of an
alabastron with two lugs. The lip is
broad and flat. The small knobbed lid
may not belong.
references  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXI.5; V.
Karageorghis 2000a, no. 372.

description  The

flat-bottomed
flask with its two small lugs imitates the
top of an alabastron. The lip is wide and
slightly convex.
references  Cesnola 1903, pl.  CX.5;
V. Karageorghis 2000a, no. 374.

cat. 553

396 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts

contents

description  The handle remnants,

which start on top of the shoulder and
end at the top of the neck, as well as the
shape of the long, narrow neck, suggest
a loutrophoros. The object has a tall,
articulated foot, two rows of beads on
the join of the body and shoulder, and a
lip in two degrees. The partially broken
stopper is in place.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXIII.5.

Cat. 555
Miniature amphora
Hellenistic period
Alabaster
H. 4 in. (10.2 cm)
Myres 1650
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5135)
description  The
cat. 554

Cat. 554
Loutrophoros or amphora
Second half of the 4th century b.c. or
early Hellenistic period
Veined alabaster
H. 81⁄16 in. (20.5 cm)
Myres 1648
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5133)

surface
is
damaged. The amphora has a wide,
articulated foot. On the shoulder are
two broken handles. The long, narrow
neck ends in a wide mouth with a ring at
the top. The shape is similar to that of
a hydria.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXIII.1.

Cat. 556
Miniature amphora
Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 33⁄16 in. (8 cm)
Myres 1655
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5132)
description  The foot is missing,

the mouth askew, and the handles are no
more than short, oblique lugs. There is a
fillet in low relief where the neck joins
the shoulder.
references  Unpublished.

Cat. 557
Miniature amphora
Hellenistic period
Alabaster
H. 2¾ in. (7 cm)
Myres 1654
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5129)
description  The foot is missing,

the handles are no more than short,
oblique lugs. There is a fillet in low
relief where the neck joins the shoulder.
The wide mouth is well articulated into
a narrow upper section and a wider
lower one.
references  Unpublished.

cat. 555

cat. 556

cat. 557

vases in “alabaster”: gypsum or calcite (cat. 509–562)

397

contents

Cat. 558
Miniature pointed amphora
Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 5½ in. (14 cm)
Myres 1649
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5130)

Cat. 560
Miniature amphora
Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 2¾ in. (7 cm)
Myres 1652
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5136)

description  The surface is partially

description  The surface is damaged

damaged and there are two holes on the
body. The shape is that of a Rhodian
amphora. The base is pointed and the
high handles angular. There are two
incised lines on the top of the lip.

and the foot missing.

reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXIII.2.
cat. 558

Cat. 559
Miniature amphora
Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 211⁄16 in. (6.8 cm)
Myres 1651
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5131)
description  The foot is missing

and the handles are short, rather vertical
lugs. The large mouth is articulated into
two parts.
references  Unpublished.

cat. 559

references  Unpublished.

Cat. 561
Unguentarium
Hellenistic period
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 511⁄16 in. (14.5 cm)
Myres 1657
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5134)
description  The surface and lower

part of the body are damaged. There are
concentric lines in low relief on the
shoulder and the flaring mouth is
partially broken.
references  Unpublished.

Cat. 562
Small bowl
Archaic or Classical period (?)
Gypsum (alabaster)
H. 23⁄16 in. (5.5 cm), Diam. 315⁄16 in. (10 cm)
Myres 1653
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by
subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5128)
description  The lip of the bowl

curves in strongly.
reference  Cesnola 1903, pl. CXII.2.

cat. 560

398 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts

cat. 561

cat. 562

 116. two vertical handles attached to the neck. 563–577) 399 .5109) description  The ovoid body is decorated with a background of incised lozenges. Karageorghis 2000a. and a wide mouth. pl. (12 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1673 The Cesnola Collection.605. cat. pl.8 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1643 The Cesnola Collection. XCII. Purchased by subscription. 565 Miniature jar Archaic or Classical period (?) Limestone H. and triangles above. a leaf motif below. oinochoe is summarily worked. The wide mouth is poorly rendered.  XVIII. Purchased by subscription. and narrow mouth.5157) Cesnola 1903.5156) description  The amphora has a description  The flat base and asymmetrical vertical handles. one of which is not pierced.6 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1673A The Cesnola Collection. 566 vases in other materials (cat. The handles are attached to the body and each is pierced by a small hole. XCII. references  Cesnola 1877.51.599.2. reference  Cesnola 1885. 563–577) Limestone (or Chalk) Cat. reference  Cesnola 1885.51. 563 Miniature amphora Late Bronze Age (12th century b. It has a disk-shaped foot. 1874–76 (74. CXI. (11. 411⁄16 in. 411⁄16 in.) Limestone H. cat. The interior is hollowed to a depth of only 5 cm. pl. 563 Vases in Other Materials (cat.c.contents cat. 1874–76 (74. pl. Between the two zones of ornament and below the leaves are hatched bands between fillets in low relief. no. Purchased by subscription. 566 Small oinochoe Classical period (?) Chalk H. (13. 564 Miniature amphora Archaic or Classical period (?) Chalk H. V. 5½ in. pl. reference  Cesnola 1885. Purchased by subscription. thick handle. It has a wide. 55⁄16 in. XCII. (14 cm) From the necropolis of Golgoi Myres 1672 The Cesnola Collection. flat base.5161) Cat. 1874–76 (74.51.51.597. 1874–76 (74. 564 cat. description  The jar is summarily worked. 565 Cat. Cat.

Purchased by subscription. (3. one of which perforates the side. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. 570 Bowl Uncertain period Limestone H.1 cm) Myres 1539 The Cesnola Collection. 124. 568 Cat.7 cm) Myres 1697 The Cesnola Collection. 19⁄16 in.7. Diam. Diam. 19⁄16 in. description  The strainer consists of a small bowl perforated with holes. Cat.51. (5. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription.9 cm). no. 567 Strainer Uncertain period Limestone H. (3. CXIV.contents Other Stones cat. (4 cm).¾ in.8 cm). 569 Bowl Uncertain period Limestone H. 17⁄16 in. pl. Diam.6 cm).5 cm) Myres 1699 The Cesnola Collection. 3¾ in. Purchased by subscription.51.4 cm) Myres 1698 The Cesnola Collection. Diam. 572 Small bowl Late Bronze Age Vesicular basalt H. 55⁄16 in. 568 Strainer Uncertain period Limestone H. (11.5 cm) Myres 1522 The Cesnola Collection. cat. 19⁄16 in.2 cm) Myres 1700 The Cesnola Collection. description  The bowl has a flat base.51. reference  V.5150) description  The small bowl has a ring-shaped foot and an in-curved edge.51. On the exterior is a decoration of hatched triangles and there are diagonal lines inscribed on the inside lip. Purchased by subscription.5152) Cat. 2 in. Karageorghis 2000a. Cat. 47⁄16 in. 571 Miniature bowl Late Bronze Age (12th century b. 1874–76 (74. references  Unpublished. references  Unpublished. (4 cm). 1874–76 (74. (4 cm). Diam.) Chlorite H. Diam.5026) description  The bowl has a small. references  Unpublished. reference  Cesnola 1903. (1.c. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74. 567 cat. There are superficial holes. horizontal lug.5177) references  Unpublished. 571 . (9.51. 4½ in.5044) description  The strainer consists of a small bowl perforated with holes. 400 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat.51.5153) Cat. (13. 570 Cat. (11. 4⅝ in. 569 cat. 1½ in. (11.

5 cm) Myres 1538 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. (5.8 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1541 (lid) and 1543 (vessel) The Cesnola Collection.5024) description  The bowl is ribbed horizontally and has a narrow foot.5 cm). (4. 1874–76 (74. Diam. See. Cat. 573 Cat. Cat. 211⁄16 in. which is decorated with inscribed circles and points. V. vases in other materials (cat. (6. for example. Diam. pl. 23⁄16 in.51. 1874–76 (74. no. 574 Miniature amphora with a lid Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 23⁄16 in. references  Cesnola 1903.5023a [vessel] and b [lid]) description  The lid fits into the cat. 1⅞ in. 563–577) 401 . (5. Purchased by subscription. the neck straight. Karageorghis 2000a. The body is full. 117. 573 Miniature stemmed bowl Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 572 cat.8 cm). The base of each handle forms a circular element in low relief. CXV. 574 neck of the amphora. with three projecting knobs imitating the rivets of metal vases.5. references  Unpublished.contents cat.51. 518 and 519 (gypsum).

1874–76 (74.4 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1560 The Cesnola Collection. CXV. no. p. 578 Necklace with 36 biconical beads Late Bronze Age Chlorite L. 119. Amulets (cat. no. and a lozenge motif around the lip. 53⁄16 in. (11. Cat. 576 402 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat. (13. 1874–76 (74. triangles on the shoulder. of this modern assemblage are of slightly different sizes. Karageorghis 2000a. Teixidor 1976.  2.3.  67. 26½ in. no. 577 Miniature jar Late Bronze Age Chlorite H.  26. XXII.3 cm) (approximate length of modern reconstruction) Myres 1548 The Cesnola Collection.5050) description  There is a hole in the description  The elongated body is center. Masson and reference  Cesnola 1903. Pendants.1 cm) Myres 1540 The Cesnola Collection. V.  247. 576 Miniature amphora Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 577 . CXV.5 (lid).51. 1874–76 (74. (67. 578–582) Cat.2. 575 Lid Late Bronze Age Chlorite Diam. Sznycer 1972. vertical handles. reference  Cesnola 1903. (9. pl. Purchased by subscription.9 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1542 The Cesnola Collection. 411⁄16 in. V. 120.3.5009) description  The biconical beads references  Cesnola 1877. pl. 1874–76 (74. references  Cesnola 1903. pls.  128–30.  40.51. The two vertical lugs are pierced.5008) Cat.contents cat. p. The underside is worked for insertion into the mouth of a vase.  XIX. Karageorghis 2000a. Three signs on the foot were probably inscribed later and are difficult to interpret. pp.51.  p. fig. Around it is a rosette and a zone of crosshatched triangles.51. pl. cat. Purchased by subscription.5057a) description  The amphora has two slim. Masson 1961/1983.1. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. 311⁄16 in. CXIV. 575 Cat. There are vertical bands on the neck and the lower part of the body. no. Beads. decorated with vertical grooves.

The head is covered with thick rectangular curls. 8. Purchased by subscription.. commentary  Two comparable examples found in the necropolis of Amathus1 suggest that the findspot given by Cesnola is correct. 1874–76 (74. pl. has the shape of a human head with a pointed beard and features of a black African.5010) description  The smiling head has the features of a black African.5 cm) Myres 1551 The Cesnola Collection.contents Chlorite H. 10.5011) description  The triangular pendant perforated.5013) description  The pendant is not Cat. pp.51.9 cm) Myres 1546 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. V.51. 1874–76 (74. (2. Reyes 2001.”2 1.5012) Cat. 11. The reverse is smooth.2. references  Unpublished. 1⅛ in. 582 Pendant Archaic period Steatite H. commentary  Comparable examples are known at Amathus. 578 references  Cesnola 1903. (2. but furnished with a small knob at the upper end around which a thread could be tied. (3 cm). cat. 581 Pendant Archaic period shaped with a perforation at the top. Purchased by subscription. W. 578–582) 403 . 1874–76 (74. (2. references  Unpublished.  CXIV. (2. no. On the underside is a small oval area in relief. The hair is indicated by drilled holes. 1⅛ in. See Reyes for pendants with features of Africans: “head-pendants and head-seals are especially at home in the area around Amathus and Kourion. The object is perforated transversely through the forehead.1 1. A hole in the bottom may be a fault in the stone rather than human-made. Purchased by subscription. pendants. nos. 580 Pendant Late Bronze Age Serpentinite H.51.9 cm) Myres 1547 The Cesnola Collection. Ibid. 36. beads. 579 Pendant Late Bronze Age Serpentinite H. Karageorghis 1988. 15⁄16 in. Cat. p. 28. 1 in. 2.4 cm) From Amathus Myres 1550 The Cesnola Collection. amulets (cat. 34–35. V.51. 1874–76 (74. Cat. fig. 13⁄16 in. Karageorghis 1988. description  The pendant is bell- references  Unpublished.

 2. 1874–76 (74. 588.3 cm) Myres 1503 The Cesnola Collection. p. figs. (4. V. often hour-glass shaped or tapering. (5. 2. 583–590) This type of object was interpreted as a “mace head” by Myres.7 cm) Myres 1504 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. 211.5020) Cat.6 cm) Myres 1501 The Cesnola Collection. 587 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. (7 cm) Myres 1502 The Cesnola Collection.5015) references  Unpublished. 585 cat.51. Cat. Purchased by subscription.5016) references  Unpublished.51. fig. 111⁄16 in. 3. references  Unpublished. and one that is “oblong-oval with a usually tapering hole through the transverse axis” (Cat. 533. through the centre” (Cat. 23⁄16 in.51. Purchased by subscription. Cat. p. 584 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. Kourou 1994. Purchased by subscription. 308.contents Mace Heads (?) (cat.30012 and several examples in bronze from the Cesnola Collection.5017) references  Unpublished. 113⁄16 in. 587 1. 589. (5. 1874–76 (74.1. no.3 cat.4 cm) Myres 1506 The Cesnola Collection.1 Åström discerns a type that is “spherical or roughly spherical with a hole. 3¼ in.5018) Cat.51. 2¼ in. 587. Kourou 1994. Purchased by subscription. 588 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. Åström 1972.51. references  Unpublished. 584. 585 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. 583 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H.51. 586 cat. then by Lena Åström.5 cm) Myres 1505 . Karageorghis 2000a. (8. 585). Cat. unlike the agate example 74. Purchased by subscription. cat. These stone objects from the end of the Bronze Age are not included in Nota Kourou’s study. 584 cat.  586. 1–3. (4. 2¾ in. 583. 586 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. 590). 1874–76 (74. 583 404 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts Cat. 1874–76 (74.

593 The Cesnola Collection. 591 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age Chlorite Diam. references  Unpublished. 115⁄16 in.5001) references  Unpublished. 590 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. Cat. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.51.5022) references  Unpublished.51.contents cat. Purchased by subscription. (4. 1874–76 (74. (3. 1874–76 (74.5000) description  Around the central description  Around the central hole are circles in low relief against a background of punctate dots.2 cm) Myres 1557 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. Cat. 588 cat. (3. 592 cat. references  Unpublished. CXV. spindle whorls (cat. 591 cat. 23⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74. Cat. 1874–76 (74.51.1. 591–598) reference  Cesnola 1903.5019) Spindle Whorls (Cat. pl. The whorl serves as a flywheel to extend the rotation of the spindle and provide a counterweight as the fibers are pulled and twisted.5003) Cat. 590 cat. hole are circles in low relief against a background of punctate dots.51. Purchased by subscription.6 cm) Myres 1507 The Cesnola Collection. used to spin thread.51.8 cm) Myres 1555 The Cesnola Collection.51.9 cm) Myres 1508 The Cesnola Collection. Cat. 1 in. (5. 1874–76 (74. 591–598) 405 . 593 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Chlorite Diam.5 cm) Myres 1558 The Cesnola Collection. 589 cat. (2. 589 Mace head (?) Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. 1¼ in. Purchased by subscription.5021) references  Unpublished. 1¼ in. The spindle whorl is placed on the shaft of a spindle. 592 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age Chlorite Diam.

5 cm) Myres 1559 The Cesnola Collection. 598 description  An incised line surrounds the hole in the center. 598 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Chlorite Diam. 594 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Chlorite Diam. 1⅜ in. Cat. (3.51. Purchased by subscription. 1⅜ in. incised semi-circles with the center point indicated. references  Unpublished. 13⁄16 in.51. . 597 Cat. 406 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts cat. references  Unpublished. references  Unpublished. references  Unpublished.contents cat. 1874–76 (74.8 cm) Myres 1553 The Cesnola Collection. 1½ in. incised lines are incised circles with a punctate dot in the center. (3 cm) Myres 1554 The Cesnola Collection. 111⁄16 in. 597 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Schist Diam.5002) description  Around the central description  Between two pairs of hole are two concentric incised lines. Purchased by subscription. 594 cat.5007) description  Between two incised lines at the outer edge are incised semi-circles. references  Unpublished. 596 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Micaceous schist Diam. Purchased by subscription. (4. 1874–76 (74. Cat. around the edge. 595 cat.5004) Cat.5 cm) Myres 1556 The Cesnola Collection.5005) description  Around the central hole are three incised lines and. 1874–76 (74.51. Between two incised lines at the outer edge are oblique strokes.51.4 cm) Myres 1552 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. (3. Purchased by subscription. (3. Purchased by subscription.51. 595 Spindle whorl Late Bronze Age (?) Chlorite Diam.5006) Cat. 596 cat. 1874–76 (74.

600 cat.contents cat. 601 cat.4 cm) Myres 1516 The Cesnola Collection.8 cm) Myres 1520 The Cesnola Collection. 31⁄16 in.51. 599 Mortars and Pestles (cat. 1874–76 (74. pl. 602 Pestle Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. Cat.51. 599 Pestle Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 1874–76 (74.8 cm) Myres 1519 The Cesnola Collection. 211⁄16 in. Cat. 1874–76 (74. 2⅜ in. Purchased by subscription.2 cm) Myres 1517 The Cesnola Collection. 27⁄16 in.4 cm) Myres 1518 The Cesnola Collection. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription.51.51. 602 Cat.5035) references  Unpublished. mortars and pestles (cat. not Cesnola 1903. (6. 604 references  Unpublished.5036) references  Unpublished.51. 603 references  Unpublished. 601 Pestle Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 604 Pestle Late Bronze Age Andesite H. cat.5034) references  Unpublished. 599–625) 407 . (6. Purchased by subscription.4. Purchased by subscription. 2⅛ in. Cat.51.5039) cat. 1874–76 (74.5038) references  Unpublished. Purchased by subscription. CXIV. 599–625) Cat. (6. Purchased by subscription. Cat. error of Myres. (7. 603 Pestle Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. 1874–76 (74.5037) cat. 2½ in. (6 cm) Myres 1515 The Cesnola Collection. (5. 600 Pestle Late Bronze Age Chlorite H.

reference  Buchholz 1963. 101⁄16 in.5 cm). Purchased by subscription.5139) cat.51. 606 Cat. references  Cesnola 1903. 1874–76 (74. Each leg shows two superposed metopes. no.contents cat. 16.4. 1874–76 (74. 605 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age Chlorite H. (8.51. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. (14. no.9 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1631 The Cesnola Collection. (10. Diam. 17⁄16 in.8.6 cm) Myres 1531 The Cesnola Collection. Diam. (25. 607 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age or Geometric period Basalt H.51. Diam. The metopes contain two intersecting diagonal lines with each of the fields filled with a dotted circle. short legs. (13 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1533 The Cesnola Collection.5048) description  The mortar has quite description  The three legs of the description  The mortar has three tall legs. 511⁄16 in. V. 123. 5⅛ in. B30. Purchased by subscription.7 cm).3 cm). 121.  CXII. references  Cesnola 1903. cat. 45⁄16 in. Karageorghis 2000a. 607 408 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts . 606 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age Gypsum (alabaster) H. mortar are decorated with engraved motifs. p. pl. 3¼ in.5055) Cat. (3. CXV. pl. 605 Cat. V. no. Karageorghis 2000a.

 16. 610 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age or Geometric period Chlorite H. Diam. Diam. 609 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age Basalt H. pl.2 cm). description  The mortar has three Cat. 611 mortars and pestles (cat. 41⁄16 in. 611 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age or Geometric period Basalt H. (10. p. (3. description  The mortar has three description  The mortar has three reference  Buchholz 1963. Purchased by subscription.51.2 cm) Myres 1532 The Cesnola Collection.5053) Cat. (6. B36. Purchased by subscription. 27⁄16 in.5052) quite tall legs. 5⅝ in. short legs. p.6 cm) Myres 1536 The Cesnola Collection.contents cat.51. 1874–76 (74. short legs.3 cm) Myres 1537 The Cesnola Collection. 599–625) 409 . 608 Cat. 16.6 cm). reference  Cesnola 1903. cat. reference  Buchholz 1963. no. 5¾ in.51. Purchased by subscription. no.51. (7. B34. (14. 3 in. (14. (12. no.5056) Cat. CXV. 413⁄16 in. Diam. 1874–76 (74. B35.5057) description  The mortar has three quite tall legs. 16. reference  Buchholz 1963. 1874–76 (74. 608 Three-legged mortar Late Bronze Age or Geometric period Chlorite H. 610 cat. 1874–76 (74. p. 1½ in. 609 cat.3 cm) Myres 1535 The Cesnola Collection.9. Purchased by subscription.8 cm).

1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74. (13. Traces of fire on the interior suggest that the object may have served as an incense burner. 19⁄16 in. 612 cat.2 cm) Myres 1524 The Cesnola Collection.6. 13⁄16 in. 613 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Basalt H. 613 cat. (13 cm) Myres 1534 The Cesnola Collection. 1⅛ in. Diam. 5⅛ in. 6⅞ in. 27⁄16 in. (11. Diam. references  Unpublished. no. Purchased by subscription. pl.contents Cat. Purchased by subscription.5046) description  The bowl has a ring foot and the edge is slightly nicked. 16.3 cm). 614 cat. p. 614 Stemmed mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Gabbro H. (2.9 cm).51. (17. Diam. wide legs. (6. 1874–76 (74.4 cm) Myres 1523 The Cesnola Collection. Diam.5 cm) Myres 1526 The Cesnola Collection.51. Purchased by subscription.5051) cat. 1874–76 (74. 4½ in. . reference  Cesnola 1903.5047) 410 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts description  The shallow bowl has a short stem. Purchased by subscription. 615 Cat.51. CXV. Cat. (3 cm). Cat. 615 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Andesite H. reference  Buchholz 1963. 53⁄16 in. 612 Four-legged mortar Late Bronze Age or Geometric period Chlorite H.51. references  Unpublished. B33. (4 cm).5041) description  The mortar has a ring description  The mortar has four foot and an in-curving lip.

51. (16 cm) Myres 1525 The Cesnola Collection. 619 description  The plate or mortar has a ring foot and the rim curves up. Purchased by subscription. 599–625) 411 . 616 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Chlorite H.5054) Cat. (3.51.7 cm).contents Cat. in-curving rim. (2. Diam. 1874–76 (74. 8 in. (3. mortars and pestles (cat. (20. 61⁄16 in. 619 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Basalt H. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. (21 cm) Myres 1529 The Cesnola Collection. 11⁄16 in.5049) description  The plate has a ring foot and a low. Purchased by subscription. 618 cat. references  Unpublished. 617 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Chlorite H.51. references  Unpublished. 1874–76 (74.3 cm) Myres 1530 The Cesnola Collection. (15. references  Unpublished. Cat. Cat. Diam. 8¼ in.5 cm) Myres 1521 The Cesnola Collection. 616 cat. 65⁄16 in.5 cm). 617 cat. 1⅜ in.51. Diam. cat. references  Unpublished.5043) description  The bowl is shallow and the lip is nicked. Diam. 1874–76 (74.5 cm). Purchased by subscription.5042) description  The lip of the vessel indicates that it had a lid. 115⁄16 in. (5 cm). 618 Mortar or bowl Late Bronze Age Basalt H. 1⅜ in.

620 cat. 19⁄16 in.5040) description  The small plate has a description  The plate has a ring ring foot and a slightly in-curving rim. (2 cm). 622 cat. Purchased by subscription. 1874–76 (74. (14 cm) Myres 1632 The Cesnola Collection. 621 cat. Diam. 412 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts Cat. (4 cm). 71⁄16 in. (13 cm) Myres 1527 The Cesnola Collection.5127) . references  Unpublished. (5 cm). 1874–76 (74. 620 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Basalt H. 115⁄16 in. 623 cat. references  Unpublished. 13⁄16 in. 5⅛ in.51. 1874–76 (74. 5½ in.51. 625 Cat. 622 Mortar or deep bowl Late Bronze Age? Gypsum (alabaster) H. Diam.51. 621 Mortar or plate Late Bronze Age Vesicular basalt H.5045) Cat. Diam. Purchased by subscription. 624 cat. (18 cm) Myres 1528 The Cesnola Collection. in-curving rim. Purchased by subscription. foot and a low.contents cat.

Whetstones or Polishers (cat. 1874–76 (74. (7 cm).51. 626–631) Cat. 3 in.6 cm) Myres 1511 The Cesnola Collection. (3. Cat. 2⅜ in. three lugs with an incised line along the top. 1874–76 (74. 628 Whetstone or polisher Late Bronze Age (or earlier period) Micaceous schist L. (6 cm) Myres 1513 The Cesnola Collection. has two lugs. Purchased by subscription. 2¾ in. Cat.7. 626–631) 413 . CXII.5138) cat. pl. references  Unpublished. 1874–76 (74. Purchased by subscription. 628 and a pouring spout with a hole to the interior.51. one of which is broken. and a shallow incised line perpendicular to the lip. 627 reference  Cesnola 1903.5028) Cat. 3¾ in. (9.6. 1⅜ in. (7. 19⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.5 cm) Myres 1641 The Cesnola Collection.6 cm) Myres 1509 The Cesnola Collection. Purchased by subscription.9 cm) Myres 1645 The Cesnola Collection. (7. There are finely serrated toolmarks on the outside and edge. The pouring spout is not very functional. 627 Whetstone or polisher Late Bronze Age (or earlier period) Schist L. pl. L. reference  Cesnola 1903. 1874–76 (74.5 cm) Myres 1669 The Cesnola Collection. 624 Mortar Uncertain period Limestone H. CXII.5030) references  Unpublished. 315⁄16 in. whetstones or polishers (cat.5 cm). 626 Whetstone or polisher Late Bronze Age (or earlier period) Schist L. cat. and a small pouring spout.51. Diam. Purchased by subscription. The outer wall of the vase to either side of the spout is in low relief.5032) references  Unpublished.contents description  The bowl has a flat base. as well as a pouring spout with three appendages. references  Unpublished. Cat. references  Unpublished. L.51. There are toolmarks on the outside. two handles with three projecting appendages. 626 description  The irregularly shaped bowl has three lugs.51. 1874–76 (74.51.5140) description  The small deep bowl cat. Purchased by subscription. 9¼ in. Cat. 3 in. only one of which is well preserved. (9. Purchased by subscription. Max. (4 cm).5154) description  The mortar has a ring base. 623 Mortar or deep bowl Late Bronze Age? Gypsum (alabaster) H. 625 Miniature press Uncertain period Gypsum (alabaster) H. (23.

 311⁄16 in.3 cm) Myres 1510 The Cesnola Collection. 55⁄16 in. 1874–76 (74.4 cm) Myres 1512 cat. 631 Whetstone or polisher Uncertain period Limestone L. Purchased by subscription. (4. Cat.1 cm) Myres 1514 The Cesnola Collection.c. (13. references  Unpublished.contents Other Objects (cat.4 cm) Myres 1644 The Cesnola Collection. Cat.5119) cat. Purchased by subscription. A rosette is sculpted in relief on the inside of the bowl. 2½ in.51. (9.1.5033) description  There is a hole at the Cat. 111⁄16 in. no. 1874–76 (74.3 cm) “From Amathus” Myres 1544 The Cesnola Collection.3 cm). cat. pl. Karageorghis 2000a. 2⅞ in. 631 The Cesnola Collection. (4. her lower legs are missing. L. references  Cesnola 1877. (7. 1⅝ in.5029) references  Unpublished. 630 Cat. 1874–76 (74.51. Purchased by subscription.5031) references  Unpublished. 629 description  The handle is in the cat. Cesnola 1903. Purchased by subscription. Purchased by subscription. shape of an elongated nude woman. (6.51.5025) top that does not pierce the object entirely. 633 Miniature bathtub 12th or 11th century b. Chlorite H.  XVIII. 630 Whetstone or polisher Uncertain period Sandstone L. 632 414 catalogue chapter 13 other stone artifacts . 632 Ladle 12th or 11th century b. 629 Whetstone or polisher Uncertain period Basalt L. 118. Gypsum (alabaster) L.51. 632–635) Cat.51. V. CXII. 1874–76 (74. pl. The surface is very damaged. 1874–76 (74.c.

There are Cat. 81⁄16 in. triangular appendage perforated for hanging.2.5122) description  The object has the cat. 632–635) 415 .5 cm) Myres 1688 The Cesnola Collection. 41⁄16 in. consists of a six-petaled rosette with a small hole in the center (compass point). pl. no. on only one side. 122.5182) cat. V. the smooth central part of which is concave. Concentric circles fill the bands to either side of the center. 633 four incised concentric circles around the outer perimeter. 634 shape of a bobbin.51. There are knobs at each end. references  Cesnola 1903. Around the rosette are four incised concentric circles and then a zone of slanting lines alternating with triangles and punctate dots. description  The thin disk has a references  Unpublished. (10. Purchased by subscription. 634 Disk with geometric decoration Uncertain period Limestone L. Purchased by subscription. Cat. 635 other objects (cat.contents description  The bathtub narrows at the center of the long sides. 1874–76 (74. 1874–76 (74. 635 “Bobbin” with geometric decoration Uncertain period Magnesite L. which have lugs in very low relief.3 cm) Myres 1642 The Cesnola Collection. (20. The decoration. cat. references  Unpublished. CXV.51. Karageorghis 2000a.

contents Maps of Cyprus K Lapethos • Ayia Irini • Lapethos • Ayia Irini • Vouni • Lefka Soli • • Morphou • Vouni • Lefka Soli • • • Polis Chrysochous (Marion) • Polis Chrysochous (Marion) C Y PRU S C Y PRU S Tro o d o s M o u nt a i n s Tro o d o s M o u nt a i n s • • Kouklia (Palaepaphos) s Lefkoniko ins n•t a a Mou y r e n i(Chytroi) •KKythrea Kyrenia• Kalavassos • Phasoula Nea Paphos • • Kouklia (Palaepaphos) Ky r e n i a M ain ount Patriki • • Amathus Phasoula • Kalavassos • • Kourion • Limassol•Amathus •• Episkopi Kourion • Limassol •• Episkopi pa P s • su ns l ul a Patriki • Golgoi • • Maroni Athienou Maroni Athienou • Mediterranean Sea Mediterranean Sea Malloura • Malloura • Black Sea Black Sea GREECE GREECE CRETE CRETE Mediterranean Sea Mediterranean Sea AS IA M INO R AS IA M INO R C Y P RUS C Y P RUS EGYP T EGYP T 416 maps of cyprus K ar i en • Karpassia a • Voni (Chytroi) •Lefkoniko • Kythrea •Salamis • Nicosia • Voni Enkomi • (Ledra) • Famagusta •Salamis • Nicosia Enkomi • (Ledra) Arsos • Potamia • Famagusta • Leucolla • •AthienouArsos •Akhna Dali • (Golgoi–Ayios Photios) Politiko • Potamia (Idalion) Akhna • • Malloura (Tamassos) Athienou • • • Leucolla • Dali PylaPhotios) (Golgoi–Ayios Politiko • Alambra •• (Idalion) Malloura • (Tamassos) Pyla Alambra •Pyrga • (Kition) • Larnaca Pyrga • • Larnaca (Kition) Morphou • Nea Paphos Kyrenia• ar Pe s pa n ni Karpassia M ES O P O TAM IA M ES O P O TAM IA S YR IA S YR IA Golgoi • Golgoi Cemetery Golgoi Cemetery Ayios Photios • • Photios • Ayios Cesnola’s Cesnola’s “first temple” •main • • Cesnola’s Cesnola’s temple “first temple” main temple .

2369 74.51.51.2311 74. 503 506 549 204 447 256 255 254 20 454 482 442 445 443 419 175 129 448 354 422 423 452 421 396 395 449 453 414 450 424 455 451 338 339 505 504 456 514 491 496 490 Accession No.2573 74.51.2515 74.2506 74.2458 74.51.2463 74.2571 74.51.2513 74.2518 74.51.51.2550 74.51.2324 74.2455 74.51.2489 74.2505 74.2537 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.2340 74.51.51.51.2470 74.2554 74.51.51.2493 74.51.51.2483 74.2403 74.51.2567 74.2551 74.2503 74.51.2572 74.2524 74.2552 74.2560 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.2509 74.51.2466 74.51. No.51.2559 74.2465 74.51.2570 74.2467 74.2402 74. 495 302 208 103 112 80 12 85 86 251 357 90 22 49 11 65 50 59 60 37 7 457 488 356 42 26 234 167 113 487 480 479 483 486 484 489 494 8 472 474 458 Accession No. 230 248 245 69 187 244 9 32 188 193 196 13 27 171 365 58 46 380 382 6 14 277 220 322 321 439 169 192 276 179 48 35 235 5 45 173 278 30 73 3 243 concordance 417 .2547 74.2295a 74.51.2452 74.51.51.2563 74.2313 74.2574 74.2267 74.51.2456 74.51.51. No.51.51.2358 74.2306 74.51.51.2355 74.51.51.2472 74.2521 74.2576 74.51.2575 74. 74.51.2451 74.51.51.2507 74.2541 74.51.2523 74.2525 74.51.51.51.51.2544 74.51.2556 74.2540 74.51.51.51.51.2462 74.51.51.2546 74.2367 74.51.2336 74.2501 74.51.2464 74.51.2414 74.51.2437 74.2477 74.2474 74. b 74.51.2548 74.2268 74.2488 74.51.51.2495 Cat.51.2469 74.51.51.51.51.51.2562 74.2491 74.2317 74.51.51.51.51.51.2366 74.2526 74.2528 74.2494 74.51.51.2549 74.2312 74.51.51.51.51.2303 74.2564 74.2511 74.51.2565 74.2566 74.2516 74.51.2531 74.51.51.2454 74.51.2337 74.2510 74.2460 74. 74. No.51.51.2370 74.2356 74.2457 74.51.2413 74.51.2536 Cat.2478 74.2368 74.51.51.2539 74.51.51.51.51.2479 74.2500 74.51.2502 74.2362 74.2320 74.2319 74.51.51.51.2357 74.2520 74.51.51.2338 74.2482 74.2543 74.51.51.2538 74.2318 74.2339 74.2519 74.2545 74.2504a.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.2309 74.2498 74.51.51.2532 74.2476 74.51.51.2534 74.51.2372 74.51.2561 74.51.2496 74.51.2461 74.2542 74.2352 74.2508 74.contents Concordance Accession No.51.2490 74.2481 74.51.51.2522 74.51.51. 74. 471 473 430 470 306 47 231 172 242 250 246 55 226 232 217 70 218 66 195 247 249 224 71 223 219 190 215 62 33 68 214 216 213 275 199 227 222 170 229 15 74 Accession No.51.51.51.51.2533 74.2558 74.51.51.51.51.51.2485 74.51. No.2499 74.2577 Cat.51. 74.2492 74.2475 74.51.2497 74.51.2517 74.2310 74.2555 74.51.2468 74.51.2527 74.2459 74.51.51.2568 74.2553 74.2557 74.51.51.51.51.2535 74.2530 74.2450 74.2471 74.2512 74.51.2480 74.2569 74.51.51.51.2487 74.51.2529 74.51.2473 74.51.2453 Cat.51.51.2484 74.51.2514 74.

2619 74.51.2600 74.51.51.51.2645 74.2617 74.2590 74.2673 74.51.2707 74.2711 74.2629 74.51.51.2709 74.51. 74.51.2677 74.51.51.2683 74.51.2588 74.51.2614 74.2687 74.2723 74.51.2763 74.51.2646 74.2749 74.51.2724 74.2700 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.2710 74.2702 74.51.51.2721 74.51.2601 74.51.2591 74.51.2589 74.2636 74.51.2720 74.51.51.2642 74.2580 74.2608 74.2648 74.2662 74.51.51.2699 74.2712 74.51.51.51.51.2667 74.51.2703 74.2610 74.51.51.2655 74.51.2582 74.2616 74.51.51.51. No.2631 74.51.51.2611 74.2618 74.51.51.51.2725 74.51.2716 74.51.2675 74.2696 74.51.51.51.2739 74.51.51.2638 74.51.51.2695 74.51.2752 74.2652 74.51.51.2717 74.2730 74.2729 74.2764 74.51.2743 74.51.2746 74.2651 74.51.51.2654 74.2684 74.2621 74.51.2735 74.51.2671 Cat.2688 74.2668 74.2765 Cat.51.51.2686 74.2650 74.2583 74.2756 74.51.51.contents Accession No.51.2607 74. 295 263 288 376 146 209 203 159 282 355 364 210 294 281 337 335 333 336 334 359 363 182 361 362 360 309 308 350 352 165 157 267 155 270 273 272 271 252 268 261 253 265 262 260 259 258 269 .2586 74.51.51.51.51.2679 74.51.2761 74.51.51.2670 74.2701 74. No.2728 74.51.51.2656 74.2737 74.2660 74.2751 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.2732 74.51.51.51.2757 74.2657 74.2694 74.51.51.51.2713 74.2745 74.2644 74.2594 74.51.2587 74.2750 74.2691 74.2681 74. 74.2639 74. 317 304 493 319 315 102 121 98 446 75 366 367 305 429 475 358 233 200 202 122 108 93 111 464 463 96 266 316 303 301 313 307 312 57 318 320 300 325 370 374 377 373 441 128 147 351 180 Accession No.51.51.2722 74.2596 74.51.51.2741 74.2672 74.2622 74.51.51.2641 74.2637 74.2593 74.51.2658 74.51.51. 310 311 368 237 381 426 28 343 341 342 344 53 4 340 40 178 44 371 418 468 427 176 54 72 109 51 29 61 283 314 201 238 349 348 39 345 228 492 492 435 104 116 177 67 25 375 110 418 concordance Accession No.2731 74.2748 74.51.2698 74.51.51.51.2599 74.51.51.2734 74.51.51.2579 74.51.2736 74.51.2581 74.2592 74.2604 74.51.51. 326 324 117 323 43 372 444 124 476 236 114 174 144 125 145 239 347 19 138 241 417 21 331 181 153 149 279 286 287 158 150 332 292 293 291 183 184 211 126 123 221 160 297 298 296 284 299 Accession No.51.2625 74.2584 74.51.2719 74.2689 74.51.2744 74.2602 74.2613 74.51.51.2753 74.2661 74.2740 74.2659 74.51.51.51.2627 74.2738 74.51.51.51.51.2609 74.51.51.51.2634 74.51.51.2603 74.51.51.51.51.2666 74.2597 74.2714 74.51.51.51.51.51.2708 74.2647 74.51.51.2754 74.2653 74.2697 74.51.2715 74.51.51.2632 74.51.2762 74.2755 74.51.2682 74.2624 Cat.2605 74.51. No.2635 74.51.2598 74.2706 74.2678 74.51.2692 74.51.2643 74. 74.51.51.51.51.51.2615 74.2595 74. 74.2727 74.2633 74.51.2640 74.2620 74.51.51.2704 74.51.2718 Cat.2680 74.2612 74.2693 74.51.2674 74.51.2726 74.2733 74.51.51.2759 74.51.51.51.2630 74.2623 74.2628 74.51.51.2626 74.51.2690 74.2578 74.51.51.2676 74.2742 74.51.51.51.2669 74.51.2747 74.51.51.51.51.51.51. No.51.2606 74.2705 74.2649 74.2585 74.2665 74.51.2685 74.2760 74.2663 74.51.2664 74.2758 74.51.51.

51.5017 74.51.51.2815 74.5052 74.2878 74.2879 74.51.2848 74.51.51.2867 74.51.2794 74.51.51.51.5038 74.51.51.51.2811 74.2838 74.51.5031 74.2776 74.2840 74.2804 74.2818 74.51.51.51.5043 74.2795 74.51.5035 74.2874 74.51.51.2768 74. 425 379 328 95 133 205 206 194 329 115 89 120 198 118 88 477 485 97 280 101 105 99 84 76 87 327 79 81 83 82 478 481 240 94 17 23 18 2 16 459 440 397 467 469 1 78 36 Accession No.5033 74.51.51.5053 74.2782 74. No.51.2790 74.5049 74. No.2807 74.51.51.2834 74.51.51.2773 74.2802 74.2856 74.2797 74.5048 74.5089 74.51.51.5057a 74.2799 74.5084 74.2766 74.51.51.2859 Cat.2779 74.2822 74.51.2801 74.51.5015 74. No.51.51.51.51.51.51.2809 74.5039 74.51.51.5000 74.51.2821 74.51.5040 74.2775 74.5090 74.2865 74.2836 74.51.5023a.51.51.5083 74.51. 626 629 627 630 628 631 599 602 604 603 600 601 621 613 617 616 572 620 615 614 607 619 577 612 611 610 618 605 608 609 576 509 541 515 526 542 521 527 523 524 528 546 547 529 544 545 510 concordance 419 .51.2837 74.2858 74.51.5010 74.51.2791 74.51.2868 74.51.5097 74.2783 74.51.51.51.2843 74.51.5092 74.2769 74.2786 74.51.2847 74.2817 74.5098 Cat.2806 74.5041 74.5027 Cat. 274 257 330 164 498 161 166 353 162 156 502 507 154 163 508 285 431 168 264 151 501 140 92 143 139 152 499 127 500 497 433 434 432 134 135 142 141 137 132 131 130 207 106 136 24 91 212 Accession No.5051 74.51.51.51.51.5007 74.2778 74.2863 74.51.5004 74.51.5020 74.51.51.2842 74.51.51.2796 74.2844 74.51.51.51.2855 74.51.51.51.51.2877 74.51.2800 74.51. b 74.51.51.2814 74.51.51.2853 74.2826 74.51.2833 74.2830 74.51.5025 74.51.5002 74.51.2793 74.5037 74.2819 74.51.51.2823 74.5054 74.5011 74.2876 74.5022 74.51.51.5045 74. 74.2835 74. 74.2784 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.5016 74.51.5042 74.51.5014 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.2852 74.2873 74.51.5028 74.5055 74.5088 74.51.2828 74.5006 74.2851 74.51.51.2832 74.2854 74.5018 74.51.51.2812 Cat.5021 74.2805 74.51.5047 74.51.51.2866 74.51.2771 74. 10 31 38 77 460 461 436 462 63 41 225 64 56 52 438 465 466 437 185 593 592 596 591 594 597 595 598 575 578 581 582 579 580 378 586 587 583 584 588 585 589 590 574 573 633 571 428 Accession No.51.5008 74.5057 74.51.51.5003 74.51.5096 74.2789 74.2780 74.51. 74.51.2841 74.2777 74.5012 74.51.51.2857 74.2849 74.51.51.5026 74.51.51.51.51.2820 74.2808 74.2870 74.51.2869 74.2772 74.2875 74.51.51.2850 74.51.51.5044 74.2781 74.5056 74.51.5034 74.2831 74.5086 74.51.5095 74.51.2810 74.51.5036 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.2864 74.51.5050 74.2803 74.51.51.51.51. No.51.5019 74.2770 74.51.51.2767 74.2787 74.51.5087 74.51.2816 74.2792 74.5009 74.5094 74.2860 74.5005 74.2845 74.2788 74.51.51.51.2871 74.51.51.2813 74.2861 74. 74.contents Accession No.5046 74.51.51.2825 74.2872 74.5032 74.5013 74.2839 74.51.2824 74.2785 74.51.5024 74.51.51.51.5085 74.51.51.5091 74.51.51.51.51.51.2846 74.51.2774 74.51.5030 74.51.2829 74.51.51.51.51.2827 74.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.5001 74.5093 74.51.5029 74.51.51.2798 74.

51.5164 74.51.contents Accession No.51.5175 74. No.415 41.51.51.51. 74.51.5128 74.51.5170 74.51.51.5103 74.51.5154 74.5124 74.412 41.5138 74.5141 74.51. 74. No.160.51.51.5171 74.5151 74. b 74.5146 74.5142 74.51.5150 74.5156 74.410 41.51.5127 74.51.5140 74.51.5180 74.5153 74.5159 74.5117 74.5102 74.5182 Cat.51.414 41.51.160.57.57.23 74.51.51.51.417 41.5143 74.5105 74.5126 74.51.51.5136 74.51.5148 74.5121a.5178 74.51.5168 74.51.51.5120 74.5174 74.163 344 34 100 107 119 191 197 189 346 .51.5122 74.5130 74.5139 74.5114 74.5107 74.51.5160 74.5111 74.5167 74.51.51.51.5134 74.5165 Cat.51.51.51.51.51.51.5158 74.163 41.5109 74.5118 74.51.5149 74.5163 74.51.51.51.5145 74. 409 405 403 404 406 402 394 400 401 408 398 569 407 399 393 385 634 74.5119 74.5129 74.5157 74.51.51.5132 Cat.5101 74.160.5133 74.5166 74.51.5116 74.5147 74.5100 74.51.51.51.5137 74. 554 561 555 560 513 623 606 625 525 387 388 392 391 389 390 386 420 570 416 568 567 624 415 566 565 522 383 384 564 413 410 412 411 Accession No.5179 74.5172 74.57.51.51.51.51.51.5112 74.51.51.51.5113 74.5115 74.51.51.5152 74.51.5155 74.5106 74.21 74.5161 74.22 74.51.51.5176 74. No.51.51.160.51.5104 74.51.411 41.5125 74.51. 74.160.5144 74.5135 74.57.5162 74.51.51.51.51.5177 74.416 41.51.51.5169 74.57.51.51.51.5181 74.160.51.51. 530 531 548 532 533 534 535 536 516 563 551 517 537 512 552 511 550 518 539 632 540 553 635 520 538 543 519 622 562 557 558 559 556 420 concordance Accession No.51.24 74.5099 74.5123 74.51.51.160.25 289 290 186 148 369 41.5110 74.5131 74.5173 74.160.51.

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