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GUIDED

MISSILE

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U. S. ARMY
ARTILLERY AND MISSILE SCHOOL
Guided Missile Department
Fort Sill, Oklahoma

U.S. ARMY
ARTILLERY AND MISSILE SCHOOL
Guided Missile Department

*GM 3000
Feb 65

Fort Sill, Oklahoma
Reference Note
THE PERSHING GUIDE];) MISSILE SYSTEM
"PART ONE
INTRODUCTION
l.

REFERENCES

TM 5 - 1450-202-12, TM 9 - 1400 - 375 -1 0/1, TM 9-1400-375-10/2 / l,
TM 9 -1 400-375 -1 0/2/2, TM 9 -11 00 - 375 -12., TM 9 - 1410-375-12, TM 9 1430-376-14 , TM 11- 5820-469 - 10 , TM 9 - 1450 - 375 - 14, TM 9 - 8140 - 37524, TOE 6-6 15T, TOE 6 - 6 16T , TOE 6 - 617T and TOE 6 - 6 19 T.
2.

INTRODUCTION

The Pershing is the U. S . Army's longest range field artillery guided
m issile. In 1958, after the development of the first generation of m i s siles , which i ncluded the Redstone missile system, the Army deter mined that sufficient advances had been made in missile technology to
warrant the development of a completely new missil e system to replace
the Redstone. This new system, named in honor of General John J.
Pershing and developed with the Mart in Company as the .prime c ontractor,
utilizes many "state of the a rt " advances which provide greatly increased
mobility and range and allow a significant reduction in size, weight a nd
reaction time . Other outstanding improvements include ground support
equipment designed fo r maximum t ac tic a l and strategic mobility, elec tronic computation of firing data , and automatic test and checkout equip ment. The Pershing system also includes a specially designed communication set whi ch is unique within the artill ery and allows extremely reli able communications over great distances (99. 9 pe r cent r eli ability at
1 60 kilomete r s) . The Per shing is normally employed in gener a l support
of a field Army.
3.

OBJECTIVE

The objec tive of this referenc e note is t o provide students a t the U. S,
Army Artillery and M i ssile School with an unclassified reference which
outlines the salient features of the Per s hing m is sile system. Since the
Pershing is rela tively new, this material is base d on doctrine, concepts,

,~supersedes GM 3000, Apr 64.

and equipment configuration which are subject to change . The Pe r shing
is a nuclear delivery system; therefore, in the discussion of tactical
concepts , it is assumed that the field army is deployed for nuclear com bat.
PART TWO
EXPLANATI ON
4.

CHARACTERISTICS

a . The Pershing field artillery ballistic missile has the following
t ech nical char C:t eristics :
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(1)

Length -- 34. 6 feet (10 . 38 meters) .

(2)

Di ameter -- 40 inches (1. 02 meters) .

(3)

Weight - - 10 1 275 pounds .

(4)

Range -- 185 - 740 kilomete r s.

( 5)

Propuls i on - - solid p r opellant, t wo - stage.

( 6)

G ui danc e- - ine r t i a l.

( 7)

Warhead - - n u clear .

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Tactical char acteristics of the Pershing are as follows :
(1)

The system is mounted on tracked vehicles .

(2)

All elements are transportable by phase II aircraft.

(3)

All elements necessary for firing are transportable by helicopter .

(4)

The guidance system and fuzing system are immune to
e l ectronic countermeasures .

(5)

The communication syst em allows separation up to 160 kilom eters bet ween t he battery and the battalion headquarters.

GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

The Pershing system is designed to achieve minimum reaction time
w i th maximum mobility and reliability. Mobility is provided the firing
battery by mounting all Pershing-peculiar equipment, including commu n i cati on equipment, on four tracked vehicles , designated the XM474E2

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missile equipment carrier . The XM474E2 is a modification of the Mll3
armored personnel carrier and is specifically designed to transport the
Pershing system. Mounting kits permit interchange of any of the four
Pershing loads from vehicle to vehicle without modification of the basic
vehicle structure . The XM474E2 is lightweight and unarmored . It is
capable of sp eeds up to 35 miles per hour and has a cruising range of 3 20
kilometers . It can travel i n swamps and streams to a depth of l. 3 meters
and climb 60 perc ent inclines. It is powered by a 215 - horsepower , VB
engine .
a . Warhead Vehicle . One XM474E2 carries the warhead section
(fig 1), two chests containing the azimuth laying equipment, and a con tainer ca rrying the missile air fins . This vehicle also mounts a collapsi ble -davit assembly which is used to mate the war head section to the
mis sil e at the firing position.

Figure 1.
b.

Warhead vehicle .

The Erector-Launcher.
(1)

The erector -launcher (fig 2) is normally transported on an
XM474E2 tracked vehicle; however, it may be transported by
helicopter . The erec tor - launcher performs the following
functions:
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(~)

Serves as a platfo r m for assembly of the missile body
sections.

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Supports the assembled missile, les s warhe ad sec tion,
during transit on the XM474E2 carrier .

(~)

Provide s a platform fo r warhead mating to the m issil e
body section, for horizont a l test and checkout of the
missile, and for azimuth l aying ope.r ations while th e
missile is horizontal.

(~)

Erects the missile and, if necessa r y, recaptures it and
returns it to a horizontal position.

(~)

Rotates the missile to the heading of the g ui dance platform
after erection.

(i,)

Delivers electrical power , conditioned ai r , high - pressure
a ir, test a n d chec k out s~gnals, and control signals to the
m issil e through the cabl e mast.

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(2)

The erector-launcher has fou r' major assemblies : the transport e r, the erector, the launcher , and the cable mas t .
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Transporter. The transporter is a fou r- w he eled, tr aile rtyp e vehicle that can be towed or can be carried on the
XM474E2 carrier. The e r ector and the launcher are
mo unted on t he transporter. The tra n spo rter furnishes
electrical and m echanical control for erector and
launcher functi ons . During the fi ring se quence, signals
from the p ro g r ammer test station contr ol the functi ons o{
the e r ector - launcher. Hand cranks can be used to
manually oper a t e equipment on the tr anspo rter when
power is not avail a ble or for maintenance purposes .
Erector. The erector supports the missile du ring assem bl y operations, during tra~e l while assembl ed (less th e
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warhead section), during test and checkout in the horizon I (> " .,
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along th e sides of th e erec tor boom suppo rt t he body section trucks and provide a wo r king platform for personnel
during assembly operations. The erecto r is raised1
l owered by actuators mounted on the tr ansporte r.

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Launcher. After the missil e is e r ected and the erecto r
is low e re d , the launcher supports the missile and rotates
i t to the firing azimuth . A blast deflecto r under t he
l a uncher deflects the rpi ssile exhaust away from the
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erector-launcher . The launcher is leveled by automatically
operated jacks; however, the launcher can also be leveled
manually when necessary .
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Cable mast. With the exception of the cable connected to
the missile tail plug, a ll connections to the missile during
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the ~refiring sequence are made through the cable mast.
Cables conduct guidance and burst selection signals to the
missile, test and checkout signals to and from the missile,
and electrical power to the missile until its own power
system is energized. Conditioned air and high-pressure
air are routed through air hoses. The cable mast is
automatically separated from the missile an instant before
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Erector- launchE!t (mounted on XM474E2).

~- Programmer-Test Station and Power Station Vehicle . A third
XM4 74E2 (fig 3) c arries the programmer test station and power station.
(1)

Power station . The power station (PS) produces both electri cal
and pneumatic outputs for the Pershing system. The e l ectrical
outputs are DC and AC power. The pneumatic outputs are high
pressure a ir and conditioned air . The power outputs are used
at the firing position to operate the m i ssile and its ground support equipment and at the battery assembly a rea to test the

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Programmer -test station and powe r s t ation vehicle.

system equipment. The power stat ion can operat e a pproxi mately 2 hours with a full t a nk of fuel.
(2)

Progr amme r test station. The Pe rshing's fast reaction tim e
is made possible to a g r eat extent by the automati c features
inc orporated in the programmer test station (PTS). The PTS
contains c ompletely automatic, transistorized, self-ver ifying
equipment with a malfunction detecti on a n d isolation capability .
Th e puLPose of the PTS is to det ermine whether the missile is
flightworth y , to compµte the firing data, and t o insert the re quired presets into the missile and energize it for flight.
Withi n the P'IS a re three func t ional groups of equipment- -the
fire data c omputer, the pe r ~eral equipment, and the test and
che d out equipment . The oper a tor ' s consol e provides count down c ontrol a nd monitoring as well as c ontrol and monitorin g
of the fire data c o m puter .

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Fire data computer . The fire data computer is a general
purpose, digital computer . Its purpose is to solve the
Pershing gunnery problem. Using the desi r ed height of
burst and the anticipated weather conditions at the ta r get
area, the computer solves the gunnery problem in about 40
seconds . This gunnery data, which will cause the wa r head
to detonate at the target, is produced in the form of test
and preset val ues which are u&ed to test the guidance and
control sections ; to select slant altitude and pitch pro g r ams; to preset velocity, displ acement, and time into the
guidance computer; and to preset the warhead. These
values a r e stored in t he computer's memory and are made
available to the peripheral equipment when called for .
Al though the fire data computer is normally used to solve
the gunnery problem , it can be programmed to isolate
malfunctions to a computer chassis . The PTS operator
can then replace the maliunctioning chassis and con tinue operations . If a replacement chassis is not avail able , a fire data computer in another battery can be used
to solve the gunnery problem for the test and preset
values . These values can the be manually entered into
the programmer test station by use of the periphera l
equipment .

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Peripheral equipment. The purpose of the peripheral
e g uip.E1 e ~ is to preset and test the missile guidance com ponents and to d ~
mine whether they ~ re fli gh!wo rjhy .
The pe ripher al c ~uip ment will then preset the missile
guida_!l£ e components and warhead for f!lsht . The peri pheral eci_u.iil.m,ent functions as the electrical link between
the fire data computer and the missile . The sol ution t o
t he gunner y p r oblem that i s stored in computer memory
contains , i n binary form, the va r iable data used t o preset
guidance components for test and flight . During the count down , the periphe r al equipment will automatically extract
thi s infor mation from the computer , convert it to analog
info r mation, and insert it into the missile . In the event
of computer failure it is possible to use an operable com puter in another firing battery to solve the gunnery prob lem . The solutions to the problem are then recorded on
a fire mission data sheet which is given to the PTS
operator whose computer is malfunctioning. The peri pheral equipment then provides the operator with the
manual capability of presetting and testing the missile
guidance components .

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Test and checkout equipment. The test and checkout
(T&CO) equipment is located inside the PTS to the right
of the control console . Its purpose is to sequentia lly
energize, test, and launch the missile. It also displays
the status of the countdown. When tests are completed
s a tisfactorily, the T&CO equipment will indicate that con trol may be transferred to the remote firing panel, which
may be emplaced up to 152 meters from the base of the
l aunche r . When the command to fire is given, the T &C O
equipment initiates and controls the automatic l aunch
sequence through missile l iftoff. Should a faulty compo nent be detected or the results of a test become invalid
prior to th e command to fire, the T&CO stops th e count down , initiates a malfunction search to d etec t the fault, and,
in most cases , initiat es a power shutdown . Malfunction
isolation equipment is located in the T&CO assemblies .
The malfunction equi pment will check various points for
the presence of 28 volts . The absence of 28 volts at any
monitor point will cause a malfunction indication to be
displayed, indicating that the fault lies within the missile
or the ground support equipment, and will further isolate
the trouble to a particular component.

(~)

Radio Terminal Set AN/TRC - 80 . A fourth XM474E2
carries the radio terminal set which houses the AN/TRC 80 tropospheric scatter radio (fig 4) . The unit is com pletely self-contained and includes a 10-kw generator
located in a compartment at the rear of the hutment . The
pack mounts a 2 . 4 - meter inflatable, parabolic dish
antenna . The AN/TRC-80 has the capability for one duplex
voice channel and one half-duplex teletype channel for
point - to - point communications over a range o f 160 ki lometers. The radio termina l set is normally emplaced at
some dis t ance from the tactical firing position - -up to a
maximum of 3. 2 kilometers . A three-man crew can put
the set into operation within 10 minutes after . moving into
position. Tropospheric scatter radio uses a technique
whereby SHF radio waves a re scattered in th e troposphere
and are th en picked up by a receiving station using a
directional antenna pointed at that particular spot in the
sky. The troposcatter process is very directional and, as
such, p rovides a high degree of immunity to jamming and
interception .

MISSILE PROPULSION AND STRUCTURE

The Pershing missile is designed to lift the warhead from the surface
of the earth, transport the warhead to a point in space, and impart suf ficient velocity to the warhead at a desired angle and direction so that the
warhead, when released, w ill follow a true ballistic trajectory to a
8

Figure 4 .

Radio termina l set AN/T RC- 80 .

sel ected t arget . To do this, the Pershing missile uses two solid propellant rocket motors and a guidance and control section. One motor
provides the thrust fo r each stage . The warhead i s the fourth section
of the missile (fi g 5) . The fou r sections are secured with three splice
bands . Each splice band has four segments ( A , fig 5) . The first
stage and the warhead splice band segments are fastened with two ex plosive bolts to facilitate inflight separation .
a . Constr uction . The first - stage section houses the rocket moto r
whGh provides the initial th r u st fo r mo r e than one - hal f of the t o t al ac celeration time ( B , fig 5) . The rocket motor consists of a combustion
chambe r partially filled with a propellant, a throat with a diameter so
designed that it will maintain th e de sired combustion chamber p r essure ,
and a nozzle design ed to acceler ate the pressurized gas to ambient pres sure at the exit end of the nozzle. At the forward end of the combustion
chambe r is a p y r ogen unit (i gniter). The pyrogen unit is used to ignite
the sol id propellant within the rocket mot or .
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b. Oper ation . The functioning of the rocket motor is based on
Ne;-ton 's third law of motion: For e ach action there is an equal and op posite r eaction . ~hen the propellant of the rocket motor is ignited, the
forward thrust (F) is equal to the mass (M) of the gas that is exhaused,
multiplied by the acceleration (A) of the gas through the nozzle of the
rocket motor (F = MA). The design of the nozzle and throat provide for
the maximum acceleration possible. Constant chamber pressure, and
therefore constant thrust, is maintained by design of the propellant configuration and throat and nozzle opening .
c , Control Surfaces. Another integral part of the motor section is
three sets of air fins and jet vanes displaced 120° apart around the aft
end of each motor. Each set of fins and vanes have a common mechani cal connection to an electrical-mechanical hydraulic actuator. The air
fins provide a control surface when the missile has sufficient velocity
and is passing through relatively dense atmosphere. The jet vanes are
mounted so that they extend into the rocket motor I s exhaust gas . The
jet vanes assist the air fins by providing an additional control surface to
deflect the high velocity exhaust gas when the missile has l ow velocity
as at liftoff. The second- stage rocket motor ( C , fig 5) utilizes jet
vanes to provide control of the missile when the missile is passing
through rarified or low density a tmosphere. The fins of the second stage
have a much larger surface area than do those of the first stage; this
helps compensate for the lower air density.
(7)
d, Exploding Bridgewire. Within each initiator for the rocket motor
pyr°7igen unit, the thrust termination ports, and the missile splice bands
is an exploding bridgewire (EBW) device . An EBW device contains a
piece of platinum wire and a pentaephyritetranitrate (PETN) charge, a
standard ordnance explosive. When 2, 500 volts of direct current are
applied ac ross the platinum wire, the wire vaporizes and the energy is
used to set off the PETN charge. The PETN charge, in turn, will ignite '
the pyrogen units , trigger open the thrust termination ports, or cause
a splice band bolt to explode. The 2, 500-volt direct c urrent is stored
across a capacitor until a signal is received from the guidance and con trol section to discharge the voltage across the platinum wire .
7.

TRAJECTORY THEORY

When a howitzer is fired , the trajectory that the projectile w ill follow
is governed by the angle of launch (elevation), initial velocity (powder
char ge), gravity, aerodynamic drag, and atmospheric conditions . The
path that the p r ojectile follows is a ballistic trajectory and is parabolic
in shape. The Pershing missile is fired from a position inside (under)
the parabolic path which a ballistic projectile no r mally follows (fig 6) .
After liftoff, the Pershing's center of gravity is guided to a point in
space on th e desired ballistic trajectory. At that point the warhead is
released with a velocity vector that will be the same as the velocity
vector of a projectile fired from a howitzer.

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Pershing trajectory.

GUIDANCE AN D CONTROL SYSTEM

The Pe r shing missile uses an inertial guidance s y stem to solve the
basic requirements of navigation - -guidance and attitude control ( D ,
fig 5) . The guidan c e a nd control section monitors the position a nd the
velocity of the missile's cent er of gravity with respec t to the desired cut off velocity alon g the trajectory. Attitude control devic es m onitor the
position of the missile about its center of gravity to maintain c orrect
o ri entation with respect to the direction of travel.
~ - Inertial Guidance . The ine r tial guidance system uses on - board
gyroscop e s and accele r omete rs to detect and measure the a ttitude errors
and accelerations that the missile may encounter.
b . Basic P rinciples , Any unbalanced for c e a cting on the missil e re sults in a ccelera tion of the m i ssile. Acceleration is the r a t e of change
of velocity. The device c apable of measuring a c c eleration is known as
an accelerometer . By design, an accelerometer c an m e a sure either
positi v e or nega tiv e accel era tions . When an acceler ometer is coupled
with a d e vic e capabl e of performing the mathemati c a l oper a tion known
as integr a tion, an output equivalent to velocity can be obta ined. Velocity
may be either positive or negative in direc tion . When velocit y i s routed
into an integrator, the output of the integrator will be displa cement .
Therefore, if an acceler omet er is oriented to measure accel erations to
the left and right of the flight path, that a c e eleratio n can be integrated
once to provide vel o c ity i nformat ion and a second time to d etermine the
dis t ance the missil e has moved away from the presel ec ted flight pat h
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(displacement). This velocity and displacement information is used to
correct the missile to the desired flight path .
~ · Theory of Operation. Before flight, the firin g azimuth , velo city
and d isplacement a re c omputed and preset into the Pershing guidance
s y stem . The p~set values a re referencedto t he Pershi;g 's "Z~r dinate
~ a t the firing position (fig 7) . During flight , accelerations of the
missile's cente r of g ravity along these coordinates are integr at ed t o
obtain actua l velocity. The velocity is then integrated to obtain the displacement of the missile ' s center of gravity, which is then compar ed to
the preset values . The difference between the preset and the ac tual
values is used to determine the commands necessary to bring ~ i s ; :
sile' s center of gra::d,ty 1:iack_!:o'"'fue fra j ec to r x_. The thrustte rmination
sign3I will be tra nsmitted when the preset values are equa l and ~pposi!_:
to the actual vaha..e s .

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Pershing coordinate system .

~ . ?ershing Guidance Components . The Pershing g uidance and c ontrol section components (fig 8) consist of: (1) a stabilized p latform which
is the reference for sensing devices to measur e attitude e rrors and
carries the accel e r omete rs which detect and measure th e acc eleration
of t he missile ' s center of gravity , (2) a guidance computer which generates the necessary signals to keep the m issile 's cente r of gravi t y on
the desired trajectory and which a lso solves fo r thru st termination , (3)
a con trol compute r to sum both a t t itude and guidance errors and to gen 13

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Guidance and control section components .

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erat e signal s to m o ve the appropriate control surface, (4) three
e l ectr ical - mechani cal - hydraul ic actuators to turn control surfaces for
th e purpose of maneuvering t he missil e to a position that will reduce the
err o r s s ensed by the attitude sensors and accelerometers to zero, and
(5 ) an e l ectr ical power supply system .
(1)

Stabilized platform . The heart of the Pershing inertial guid ance system is the stabilized platform, Model 120, known as
the ST - 120 (fig 8 and 9) . Stabilized with gyroscopes , the
ine r tial platfor m p r ovides a space fixed r eference for attitude
control and carries and orients three accelerometers to detect
and measure the acceleration of the missile's center of g r avity
along the Per shing coordinates . Before firing, the ST - 120 is
automatically leveled to the local horizontal and pointed along
the firing azimuth. Platform orientation is maintained wit h
the use of the gyroscopes until warhead separation.

(2)

Guidance computer . The flight data (velocity and position of
the missile's center of gravity along the trajectory) is preset
i nto t he gui dance computer prior to flight . The guidance com puter has three channels - - slant range, s l ant altitude, and cross
range . The acce l erometers on the ST - 120 a r e int egr al par ts
of the guidance channels and supply the inflight info r mation re quired by the guidance computer .

14

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Slant range (SR) . The slant range ace elerometer is
mounted on the S T-1 20 with its sensitive axis perpendic ular to the slant range coordinate . Oriented in this
manner, the slant range ac e elerometet provides velocity
information along this coordinate . The velocity information is fed into the guidance computer, where it is integrated to give displacement information along the slant
... range coordina te . The guidance computer, using the
changing values of velocity and displacement, computes
( ' for thrust termination of the second-stage rocket moto r
at the proper point in space with the desired velocity a nd
provides a "good guidance" signal to the warhead .

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SLANT ALTITUDE
ACCELEROMETER

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'- CROSS RANGE
COORDINATE

CROSS RANGE
ACCELEROMETER

LOCAL HORIZONTAL
Figure 9 .

ST - 120 gyroscope and accelerometer orientation.

1

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15

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9.

(E_)

Slant altitude (SA). The s l ant al titude program gene r ato r
of the guidance compute r represents a desired slant a ltitude velocity . The slant altitude accelerometer on the
S T-1 20 measures the actual velocity of the missile ' s c enler
of g r a vit y a l ong the slant altitude c oordinate for compa.ri son with the desired programmed velocity. The differen c e
represents a slan t a l t itude velocity error , which is integ r ated to p1·ovide s l ant altitude displac ement error
information . Th ese two error signals, slant altitude
velocity and d isplacement, are c hanneled into the cont r ol
computer to cause the control surfaces lo maneuver the
missile , cane eling the slant altitude error.

(~)

C r oss r ange (CR). The cross range a c celerometer
detects, measures, and integrates lhe ac c eleration of the
missile 's ce nt er of gravity along the cross range coordinate, which is pe rpendicular to the plane of l he t r a jec t ory.
The velocity information is routed into the c ross range
channel and integrated to yield clisplacement. The veloc i t y
and displacement information are routed to the contr ol
computer to cause the contr ol surfaces to maneuver the
missile's center of g r avit y back to the flight path . Any
input t o the c r oss r ange channe l will be interp r eted as an
error and will be cor r ected .

(3)

Control comput e r. Th e contr ol computer receives a ttitude
errors (roll , pitch, and yaw signals) from the stabiliz ed plat form and guidance errors (cross range, slant alti tude , vel ocity , and displacement signals) from the guidance computer .
The signals received a re then summed, amplified , and routed
t o the appro priate control surfaces .

( 4)

Powe r system. Inflight power is suppl ied by two 28 - volt batteries . The batteries are automaticall y activated just prior t o
flight. One battery supplies the necessary DC power for the
si x hydraulic actuator packages. The second battery drives a
115 - volt, AC, 400 - cycl e inverter w hich supplies all necessar y
AC pow er to the guidance components.

FIRING OPERA TIONS

a . Battalion Employment. The Pershing battalion is o rganized with
a h;adquarters and headquarters battery, a service battery, and four firing batteries. Prop;;, pos itioning of the firing batteries will permit an
overlap with weapons of shorter r ange and will allow c over ag e of any
targ et of interest to the field army by more than one firing b a ttery. The
tactical situation may frequently dictate relatively long distances between
the b attery and the battalion positions.

16

b. Normal Means of Movement. Although the Pershing system is
tra~sportable by fixed-wing ai r craft or by helicopter , the normal method
of displacing is by tracked and wheeled vehicles. A ground movement by
organic vehicles allows the shortest reaction time . In order to move the
equipment and personnel of the firing element, the following vehicles are
used:

(1)

Four XM474E2 tracked vehicles .

(2)

Two 1/4-ton trucks (with trailers)- - one for the battery com mander and the other for the firing platoon leader.

(3)

One 3/4- ton truck (with trailer) -- to carry communication and
cryptographic equipment .

(4)

One zf - ton t ruck (with trailer)--to carr y spare parts and
winterization equipment, when required.

(5)

One 5 -ton wrecker .

(6)

Three 5 - ton trucks- - wh en a disassembled missile is to be
transported in containers .

c. Typical Fire Mission. To execute a fire mission, the four
tracked vehicles move into the p r esur veyed firing position in a prearr anged order to minimize vehicula r movement. The warhead vehicle
enters the firing position first , passing over the firing stake in the gen eral di r ection of fire. The erecto r-l auncher vehicle follows the warhead
vehicle and stops when the rear of the vehicle is appro>.-imat ely ove r the
firing stake . When these vehicles are positioned, they should be pointing •vithin 71 mils of the target azimuth to facilitate laying ope r ations with
the miss ile horizontal. The vehicle carrying the programmer test sta tion and the power station is positioned i mmediately to the right of the
erector-launcher vehicle and about 6 feet fo r ward of it. The vehicle
carrying the radio t erminal set is emplaced in an area consistent with the
tactical situation and suitable for communication requirements. The
countdown sequence, consisting of 1 1 phases, each logically named, may
then be started .

..

( l)

P r e l iminary phase. The preliminary phase includes the
arrival and positioning of the vehicles a t the firing position .
System cables are connected, the power station is started and
AC and DC power a re applied to the p rogrammer test station
and the erector -launche r . The warh ead is e l ectrically mated
to the G&C section and the erector-launche r is prepared for
firing .

17

(2)

.s

....

(3)

Presetting phase. Missile guidance system test and preset
functions for simulated fligh t are pe r formed during the presetting phase . Alinement of the ST-120 to the firing azimuth
is sta rted .

(4)

Testing phase . Simul ated launch sequence and flight sequence
are performed during the testing phase. All on-board missile
components are exercised to insure proper operation during
flight .

(5)

Resetting phase,. During the resetting phase the missile g ui d ance system is preset fo r flight , the erector-launcher is
readied for erec ti on , and horizontal l aying is completed.
(See page 19),

(6)

Erecting phase . The missile is erected (vertical) on the
l auncher during the erecting phase .

(7)

Laying phase . The missile is automatically level ed and
alined to the ST -12 0 du r ing the laying phase .

(8)

Monitoring phase. A 40 - second test of the accelerometers
and check on the alinement of the ST-120 is performed during
the monitoring phase .

..\- (9)

Second laying phase. A li gnment of the ST - 120 to the firing
azimuth is verified during the second laying phase . (See page
19).

3

~-

,~

Power phase . During the power p h ase, DC power is applied to
the missile and the inverter , the guidance computer, and the
control computer are energized. The ST -1 20 is conditioned
and uncaged. Firing data is entered intt> the fire data computer which then computes the guidance presets and solves
the gunnery problem .
J
f

3

( 10)

Remote phase . During the remot e phase, cont r ol of the mis sile fo r f i ring is transfe rr ed to the r emote firing panel
approximat e l y 152 mete rs away .

(11)

Firing phase . The firing phase begins with the pressing of
the firing buttons . This initiates the l aunch sequence, termi n ating with first-stage ignition and liftoff.

Note : If a trouble which may be correc ted occurs during the count down, the system may be placed in a short hold condition eithe r manually
by the PTS operator or automati cally by th e test and checkout equipment.
When the trouble i s co rr ected, the countdown w ill continue from the
p o i n t of th e hol d.

18

..

..

10.

PERSHING LAYING PROCEDURES

Pershing presents the a r tillery with a new challenge in laying accuracy
by virtue of being the Army's longest r ange missile . Therefo r e, g r eater
accuracy in laying is necessary than heretofore required for any other
artillery wea:pon . Full utilization of the Pershing's inherent capabilities
depends on the artilleryman ' s skill in laying the missile .

.!:· The system used to lay the Pershing missile on its firing azimuth
is relatively simple. The Pershing laying method pe rmits the ST -1 20
guidance platform to be alined to the fi r ing azimuth before erection of the
missile and allows verification of this alinemement after erection, just
prior to firing. The l aying system also permits the firing azimuth to be
changed after the mis sil e is vertical in the event another target is
selected .
b . Preliminary firing position sur vey includes the e stablishment of
an orienting line (OL) and a firing stake . If the location of the target is
known prior to occupation of the firing position, a line denoting the
app r oximate target azimuth is established for use in po sitioning the
erector-launcher (EL) v e hicle .
~ · The equipment us e d t o lay the Per shin~ missi~ con_tists of t hr.ee
Wild T2 theodolites.i. on~ounted on a stan.p.ard tripod and two mounted on
special tripods with transla tion devices to a llow l a teral translation of the
i nstrument without repositioning the tripod (fig 10) ; an M2 aim ing cir cle;
~ n d a the odolit e control box (fi g 11), which is used to position the ST - 120
on th e desired azimuth. The normal arrangement of the equipment during laying is illust r ated in figure 12 rf) .

(1)

The theodolite on the standard tripod is empl aced over the
stake marking th e nea r end of the orienting line. This instr ument is called the orienting station theodolite (OST) and
provides di r ectional contr ol .£o r the other instruments .

(2)

A second theodolite , called the horizontal l aying theodolite
(HLT). is mounted on a special metal tripod and translation
device , which a llows lateral translation . The horizontal laying
theodolite is emplaced near the window of the guidance and
control secti on for opti cal viewing of the po rro prism . The
Porr o prism is a mi rror -like device whic h is mounted on the
ST - 120 so that its reflec tin g sur face faces at a right angle to,
1 600 mils less than, th e ST - 120 heading . After the HLT has
been oriented by the OST, the HLT operat o r rota tes the instr u ment until the scales of the instrument indicate the value of the
firing az i muth . The ope r ato r th en moves the theodolite along
the translation device, if necessary , until this instrument
poin t s to the window on the side of the guidance and control
section . To insure accuracy , the HL T operator reorients his
instrument on the OST befo r e proceeding to lay the ST-120.

19

Fi g ure 10 .

Th e odolite , t r a nsla t i on devi ce , a n d met a l trip o d .

20

5

6

12

ORD H44820

Figure 1 1.

Theodol ite control box.

He then uses the theodolite control box to adjust the headi ng of
the ST-120 until the line of sight of the instrument coincides
exactly with i t s reflection from the Porro prism . The ST - 120
is now layed on the firing azimuth .

·'

(3)

The launcher aiming circle (LAC) is emplaced over the center
of the launch pad . The pur pos e o( the launcher aiming circle
is to dete r mine~
on which to emp!Jl,c.e the third theodolite,
known as t h e ver_!igl.la ying theodolite (VLT) .

(4)

The verti cal laying t heodol ite , which is also provided with a
translation device , is used to verify the heading of the ST - 120
aft er th e m i ssile h as been e r ected . The theodol i t e co n t r ol
box w h ich was us e d a t t he I-I LT is moved to the VLT w hil e the
miss il e is b eing e r ec ted. Afte r t he missil e is ve rtical, it
automatically r o t a t es until it is a li ned with t h e ST - 120 . Usi ng

21

the control box, the VLT o per a t or can, if necessary, cor r ect
the ST-120 heading by rotating the erected missile and the
ST - 120 , which have been slaved t ogether. The VLT operat o_r
continues to monitor the ST -12 0 headin g until th e immediate
firing area is evacuated just prior to firing time. During this
t ime final adjustments can be made to ke ep the missile and
ST- 120 alined to the fi ring azimuth.

AZIMUTH OF FIRE

i

"

ST-120 HEADING

HLT

16
METERS

30-50
METERS

TOOLT

Figure 12

(D .

Installation of instruments .

MISSILE HORIZONTAL

MISSILE VERTICAL

Step I
Orientation of th e
gu id ance platform
on the firing
azim uth

Figure 12 .

Step 2
Missile rotated until
olined with
guidance
pla tform

@ .

Missi l e ·and guidance
platform maintained on
the firing
azimuth

Major steps in azimuth laying.
22

l l.

MISSILE FLIGHT SEQUENCE

At a specific point in the countdown, control is transferred to a remote firing panel (fig 13), and at T-0 the command to fire is given.
~· Fir st- Stage Ignition. When the first- stage rocket motor is ignited,
the Pershing lifts off the launcher (fig 14) . Milliseconds after liftoff,
the missile begins to pitch, or tilt, away from the vertic al and toward the
target at a predetermined rate. Initial thrust is provided by the firststage rocket motor, which burns out completely regardless of target
range .
b. Coast Period. After first-stage burnout, the missile enters a
coast period (fig 15) . The time length of this coast period depends on the
range from the launcher to the target. The coast period is determined
by the fire data computer and is preset into the missile prior to firing.
~ · Fir st - Stage Separation, Second-Stage Ignition. At the end of the
coast period, the first inflight separation occurs between the first and
second stages. The explosive bolts on the first - stage splice bands are
detonated, and the first stage is separated (fig 16). The second stage is
ignited, accelerating the remaining missile sections a l ong the flight path.
During second-stage burning the guidance computer in the missile constantly monitors the velocity and position of the missile's center of
gravity. When the proper values are sensed by the guidance computer-when the missile is tangent to the ballistic trajectory and has gained the
proper velocity- - the cutoff signal is generated. At this time, the second
and last inflight separation takes place . Explosive bolts between the war head and guidance and control section are detonated and the warhead is
separated from the guidance and control section (fig 17) . Simultaneously
three thrust termination ports in the forward end of the second-stage'
rocket motor blow open, terminating the second - stage thrust . Milli seconds after warhead separation, a shaped charge on each side of the
second - st age motor is detonated (fig 18) . Detonation of the shaped
charges insures a clean warhead separation. At separation, the warhead
section (reentry body) is spin stabilized to assist it on its true ballistic
trajectory to the target .
d . Reentry. As the warhead section reenters the earth ' s atmosphere
(fig- 19) it is subjected to extreme temperatures from aerodynamic heating. Protection from these high temperatures is achieved by an ablative
coating which burns or melts away during reentry , thus shielding the warhead section from the intense heat encountered.

23

Figure 13 .

Remote fire panel.

24

Figure 14 .

First - stage ignition .

25

_,

Figure 15.

Coast period .

26

Figur e 16.

First- stage separation and second-stage ignition.

27

Figure 1 7.

Thrust termination.

28

Figur e 18 .

Case venting .

29

Figur.e 19.
12.

Warhead reentry.

ENVIRONMENT CAPABILITIES

The Pershing can be employed within a wide range of environmental
extremes including high winds, high humidity, high or low temperatures
(fig 20) salt spray, and darkness or low visibility.

Figure 20 .

Environmental capab ility.

30

~· Winterization Equipment. Winterization equipment is necessary
in extremely cold c limates to maintain certain Pershing equipment at an
operational temperature. The winte rization equipment consists of gasolin e operated heaters and e lectric blankets. This equipment is effective
in temperature ranges of -65° to +50° F and is utilized as determined by
the commander.
(1)

A 15, 000 -BT U -per-hour, gasoline - fired heater is mounted in side the programmer test station (fig 21) for use during
extreme cold. The heate r operates on fuel which is pumped
fron:i the carrier fuel tank or from an external source .

Figure 21.
(2)

Programmer test station winterization equipment .

Two 150, 000 - BTU -pe r-h our heaters are used during extreme
cold to heat the radio terminal set and the power station (figs
22 and 23). The heater for the radio terminal set is used to
preheat the inflatable antenna during erection and preparation
for storage in order to prevent cracking of the antenna . The
heater for the power station is used to preheat the power station before its turbine engine is started.

31

Figure 22.

Radio terminal set winterization equipment.

b. Missile Blankets. Four thermostatically controlled blankets are
supplied to maintain the missile sections at the required temperatures.
First- and second-stage body section blankets maintain the respective
section skin temperatures at 2° + 8° C (35° + 15° F), the guidance and
control section blanket maintain;- the temperature of the guidance and
control section skin at approximately 28° + 8° C (82° + 15° F), and the
warhead blanket maintains the warhead se;tion at an operational temperature of -32° C (-25° F) or above. All the blankets operate on
120/208-volt, 3-phase, 60- or 400-cps power. The warhead blanket uses
a 28-volt DC circuit to heat the blanket when the warhead section is
mounted on the carrier M474. Conditions under which the blankets are
used vary, depending on the length of time the sections are to be exposed
to specific temperatures and wind velocities. When used, the secondstage and the guidance and control section blankets are removed prior
to erection of the missile, but the first-stage and the warhead section
blankets may be removed after erection. The blankets are held in place
on the missile by hook and pile tape fasteners to permit rapid installation
and removal.

32

OPCR,i, TE 1-lEATI:R l'OR lO MINUTES.
DISCONNECT DUCTING, CLOSE
WINTE~IZAT!ON OOOR

Figure 23 .

Power station winterization equipment.

c . Theodolite Sun and Wind Shi eld. During operations unde r normal
weather conditions, an umbrella device is used to shield the theodolites .
However, under extr eme weather c on diti ons, special canvas tents with
zipper opening sides are used to shield the theodolites from the sun and
wind .

33

d. Prism Shield. An awning type device is used on the guidance and
control section to shield the Porro prism from the sun. This device,
which is detached from the missile shortly before liftoff, prevents the
reflection of sunlight from the window in the missile into the eyes of
the VLT operator.
13 .

AIR TRANSPORTABILITY

Tactical mobility is fu r ther enhanced by the ability to move all the
necessary firing equipment by helicopter . In adc
. 1, the Pershing was
specifically designed for transport by fixed-wing aircraft to achieve
strategic mobility.
a . In order to transport the Pershing system by fixed - wing aircraft
or by helicopter, several pieces of special handling equipment are provided.
(1)

Rack bar jacks . Four rack bar jacks (fig 24) are used to load
the various equipment packages on the XM4 74 1 s . The jacks are
operated by four men working in unison . The rack bar jacks
are used only in the absence of a 5- ton wrecke r .

Figure 24.

Rack bar jacks .

34

(2)

Dolly sets. Wheel and axle arrangements (fig 25) are attached
to the equipment packs to allow them to be towed on the ground
and to provide limited mobility when the equipment is not
loaded on the tracked vehicles .

(3)

Body section l ift trucks. Body section lift truck!' (fig 25) are
used to transport the missile sections when the firing elements
are moved by fixed wing airc r aft or helicopter . These trucks
are equipped with tow bar s.

b. All elements of the weapon syst em except the 5 - ton wrecker can
be transported by .L4 C - 1..f 3 aircraft. All ele~
s includi ng t h e wrecker
can be t r ans p o r ted in 11 Cl30B aircraft. - In aircraft operations , the
programmer test station, power station, and radio terminal set are
mounted on dolly sets, and t he missile sections are loaded on body section lift trucks. However, the equipment mount ed on the warhead vehicle
is no t unl oaded. All four t r acked vehicles are t ransported to the fo r ward
airstrip by aircraft. When the aircraft a r rive at the prescribed destination, the equipment is unloaded, demobilized, and mounted on the tracked
vehicles with the rack bar jacks, if no w r ecker is available . Missile
assembly is conducted as in no r mal ground operations if the wrecke r is
available or as in helicopter operations, using a modified 3/ 4 - ton t r uck .
~· Fourteen f H - 47 (Chinook) c~ go helicopters are requi r ed to t ransport the necessary equipment for firing . Two helicopters transport the
advance party and then return to assist in bringing the main body fo r ward.
The CH - 47 helicopt er has a r ange o f 200 miles When t r ansporting 6, 600
poun~
car go . The Chinook normally requires at l east a 200 - foot
clearing in which to land. All of the equipment no r mally carried on t he
t racked vehicles is needed at the firing position; however, because of
the load limitations of t he helicopte r s, t he fou r t racked vehicles cannot
be t ransported. The programmer t est station, power station, and radio
terminal set are mounted on dolly sets. The azimuth laying equipment
must be man - handl ed . Afte r i t is removed from its car r ier, the erector launcher is maneuvered on its own wheel s . One body section l ift truck is
used to transport the first - stage motor section , and a second body section
lift t ruck ca r r i es the second - stage motor and the guidance control sec tion. A warhead trailer is used to t r ansport the wa r head section . A 3/ 4 t on truck (M37Bl) equipped with a davit (fig 25) is requi r ed to move the
mobilized equipment at the firing position and to mate the warhead section.

35

BlCTOI-UUNCHB
CAHIB AOAl'TB KITS

PIIOGUMMB-TIST
STAOON. POWB
"AOON CAIIIB
ADAPTII KITS

CAIIIU IOAIDING U.DDB

~~
IOOY 5lCT10H CIADLH

IODY SKTION SUNG

DOUY TltUCI< SET

BODY SfCTION YIUCl<S

ORO H,89.5.5

Figur e 25 .

Special handling equipment.

36

14.

CONTAINERS

T he containers for the fou r sections of the Pe r shing missile (fig 26)
are of welded steel construc t ion and are designed to protect the missil e
sections from shock, vibration, and weather during transit and sto r age .
T hey are also designed t o perm i t a compl e t e el ectrical checkout of the
missile sections without being opened. The warhead section container is
t o p open ing , wh er eas th e g u idance and contr o l section containe r and the
two motor section containers are end openi ng . All four of th e containe r s
are reusabl e .

1

FIRST-STAGE CONTA I NER

'2

Figure 26.

GU I DANCE" AND CONTROLSECT I ON CONTAtNEH
'

Missile section containers .

37

a. Descri ption. The con t aine rs a re sealed at atmospheric pressur e
and- the humidity is controlled by a prescri bed amount of d_esiccant stored
inside the cont ainers . The pe r cen t of humidity is continuousl y monito r ed
by a humidity indicator in each contain er . Strip heaters inside the motor
s ection c ontainers protect the moto r sections from damaging cold. Each
motor sec t ion container has a te mpe rature monitor assembly for detecting
whether the motor section has been subjected to excessivel y col d or hot
temperat ures . The guidance and control section is maintained at its
operational temperature by an electric heating blanket whi c h i s issued
with the m i ssil e. Shear mounts and hydraulic shock abso r bers inside the
containers p r otect the missile body sections from shock and vibration.
T he motor sections and guidance and control section containers a re
equipped with monito r assemblies for detecting whether the missile sec tions have been subjected to e xce ssive amounts of shock.
b. T r ansportation. Th e missile sections are normally transported
in the containers on extra- long wheelbase 5 - ton trucks. Three trucks
are required to transport one complete missil e.
15.

PERSHING MISSILE TRAINER

a . General. One Pershing missile trainer is authorized each TOE
Pe; shing firing battery. It is used t o develop a nd mai ntai n individual and
team proficiency in a ll operations a nd procedures for which the battery is
responsible. The missile trainer consists of -( 1)

A ballasted fir st-stage motor section with air fins and jet
vanes and associated hydr aulic packages.

(2 )

A ballasted second- stage motor section with air fins and jet

vanes a nd associated hydraulic packages.

b.

(3)

An electrically and mechanically operable guidance and control
section.

(4)

A type X nuclear warhead section.

Characteristics.
(1)

The missil e t r aine r duplicates all handling, test and checkout,
maintenance , and prefiring c haracteristics and responses of
the tactical miss il e when used in conjunction with the tactical
ground support equipment . It is sufficiently rugged to withstand repeated handling and sufficientl y reliable to permit extended periods of oper ation.

(2)

The missile trainer and components have the same external
configurati on and th e same size, weight, and center of gravity
as the tactical sections a nd components .

38

c.

16 .

(3)

Internal assemblies installed in the missile trainer are
mounted in the same locations and in t h e same manne r as the
tactical assemblies and a r e such that the handling characteris t ics are the same.

(4)

All assemblies or components in the tactical system which are
removable, r eplaceabl e, or adjustable at the organizational
level are also removable, replaceable , or adjustable i n th'e
missile trainer .

(5)

The trainer is compatible with the tac t ical w i nterization kit .

(6)

The missile sections of the traine r are compatible with the
ope r ati onal shipping contai ners so that t he missile sections
can be electrically checked out without being removed from
their shipping containers.

Maintenance Requirements.
( l)

The missile trainer requi r es normal o r dnance maintertanc e and
supply support.

(2)

The missile traine r is compatible with the tool sets and t h e
test equipment is sued with ope r ational equipment at the organizational maintenance level. No special tools or auxil iar y test
equipment is requir e d .

PERSHING ORGANIZATION

The Pe r shing battalion (fig 27) consists of a headquarters and headquarters battery with an organic signal maintenance section, a service
batte r y wit h organic o r dna• : e and engineer e l ement s; and four firing
batteries.

FA BN
PERSHING
OFF
36

w0

EM
587

3

I

I
SVC BTRY

HQ & HQ BTRY
f

15

3

120

I

q

5

6

175

.
r_

3 6>

...

I

Figure 27.

I

4

NOTE: SECURITY PLATOON AUGME,NTATION
IN SVC BTR Y - I OFF AND 50 EM NOT INCLUDED
IN TOTALS.

- --

I
I

Field a rtillery batta lion, Pershing.

39

"' "'

FA BTRY
73

..

To t A'-

18

~· Headquarters and Headquarters Battery. The headquarters and
h eadquarters batte r y (fig 28) provides nor ma l support, including re con n aissan ce and survey communications, operational control, and admin istration for all elements of the battalion . Communication between the
headquarters battery and t he four firing batteries (fig 30) is p r ovided by
the AN I TRC-80 r a dio terminal set . T his pow e rful and highl y directional
radio insure s an extremel y relia ble and vi rtually jam-proof communi ca tion link to distances up to 160 kilometers .

w
0

,

0

.,,/o Fl"

"'/D

15

~J,••

120

HO IBTRY

BN HO
I

I

1 0 19

1 0 13

1

0 & ij PLAT HQ

COMM IPLAT HQ

0 0 2

0

BTRY HO

LN ISEC

0 0 4

I

0

9

I

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1 3 11

0 0 9

AVN SEC

MEO SEC

0 19
WIRE I SEC

0

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RAD SEC

0

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SIG MAINT

Figure 28.

Headquarte r s and headquarters batte ry, Pershing .

b. Service Battery . Service battery is organized to provide logistic a l , motor maintenance , and personnel administrative support to the
battalion . T h e batt ery ' s m iss ion is to procure , break down , a nd d i s tribute a ll c l asses of supplies to units of the battalion, to maintai n ap propri ate supply and pe r sonnel records, a nd to perform a portion of
equipment maintenance functions . The ammunition platoon performs
battalion missile resupply and stores a porti on of the battalion bas i c
load of missiles.
~ · Pershing Missile Battery . Each of th e four missil e batteries
(fig 30) constitutes a fi re unit and contains th e necessary personnel and
equipment for proc es sin g fire data for assembling, te s ting , erecting , and
firing missiles and for or ganizational maintenance of the missiles and
ground support equipment. The missile batte ries provide their own

40

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Figur e 29 .

Sh·vice battery, Pershing .

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PERSHING
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HEADQUARTERS
2 0 19

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F i e l d. a r tille r y batte r y , P er s h ing.
41

internal communication, mess, sur vey, and limited organizational auto motive mainten a n ce . T hey also transport a portion of the basic load of
m i ssiles .
l 7.

MAI NTENANCE CONCEPT

a . O r ganizational Maintenance Functions. The firing batte ry perfo r m s organizational maint enance, to include inspecting, testing, cleaning , servic in g, preserving, lubricating, a nd repair by replacement and
adjusting, as required, of the missile and ground support equipment.
Most missil e malfunctions are co rr ected in t he firing battery b y r eplac ing complete missile sec tions . Defective grou nd suppo rt equipment com ponents and miss i le sections a r e r eturned to the ordnance equipment
maintenance platoon or the engeinner equipment maintenance section of
service batt ery when the required repairs exceed the scope of main t e nance of the fi r ing batter y.
b . Field Maint enance Functions. Field maint enance is p erformed b y
the-ordnance equipment maintenance platoon and the engineer equipment
maint enance section of service battery and the signal maintenance sec tion of headquar ters battery. Field mai ntenance includes isolation of
fau l ts in as semblies, subassembl ies, and modules tha t are v11i thin thei r
capabilities t o r epair.
c . Special Test Equipment. Several items of special tes t equipment
a r e used to implement the "block replacement" maint enance concept of
the P ershin g system.
(1 )

Simulator test adapter. The simulato r test adapter (STA) is
used in conjunction with the programm e r test stati on and the
power station t o test m i ssiles , less warhead s, without r e moving them from their containers . This item of equipment
is o r ganic t o the firing batte r y.

(2)

Sys t em test s tation. The system test station (STS) is an item
of fie l d maintenance test equipment. One STS is provided fo r
the o rdnance equipment maintenance platoon of t he service
battery . The STS i s operated in conjunction with t he programmer test station and power station. It detects and isol a tes
malfunctions down to assembly level within the missile
section s .

(3)

Components test station. The components test station (CTS)
is a lso an i tem of field maintenance te st equi pment ; one is
allocated to the service batter y . The CTS is operated in c on junction with the programmer test station and the power
station. It de t ects and isolates malfunctions down t o the sub as s embl y l evel w ithin the faulty assembli es detec ted by the
STS . It cont a ins three fac ilities- - the main , or automati c , fa cility; the special, or manual, facility; and the card and relay
test fac ility .
42

PART THREE
SUMMARY
18.

SUMMARY

The Pershing weapon system was designed to provide long-range nu clear fires in support of the field army . Its design a l so provides maximum tactical and strategic mobility, allows greater dispersion of units ,
and provides for high tactical reliability and accuracy in minimum reaction time , Of equal importance are the capability of the Pershing to
operate in all kinds of climate and terrain with special environmental
equipment, the development of a missile trainer to insure maximum crew
training, and the insurance of maximum equipment readiness and operability by a well- p l anned maintenance concept.

Figure 31 .

19 .

Nuclear detonation.

SPECIAL NOTES

L 402. 1 ARMY-FT. S I LL •

43

OKLA .

I