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Long crested

• If all the constituting waves of an open
ocean travel in the same direction,
they are called ‘long crested’ waves
• Infinitely long crests remain straight
and parallel
• Long crested waves are never
experienced outside the confines of
the towing tank (sometimes, approximations
may be found at sea)

influence of coastlines and bottom topography and the presence of wave systems originally generated elsewhere ensure that a truly long crested wave is a rarity .Real Ocean Waves • The real waves in an ocean will be travelling in many different directions • There will however be one primary direction. more or less aligned with the direction of the wind • Changes in wind direction.

Short crested waves • The presence of more than one long crested wave system results in alternate enhancement and cancellation of wave crests and troughs • This phenomenon gives rise to a wave system with a spread of wave directions and is called a ‘short crested’ seaway .

Wave directionality • The analysis and prediction of wave properties at a particular point on the ocean surface needs to take account of the directionality of the wave components • The concept of superposition of regular wave trains can be extended to include directionality .

• It is convenient to ignore this fact and assume that the wave system is long crested. this may give acceptable results. it cannot be ignored .Therefore.• A wave energy spectrum derived from a record of surface elevations obtained at point in ocean will contain contributions from several different wave directions. • The degree of wave spreading has a profound influence on some ship motions (particularly roll). For many purposes.