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Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

- Britain generally achieved change through reforms rather than revolutions!
Reforming Parliament!

1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament & 2 political parties !
A. = far from democratic!
1. e.g. members of the House of Commons were elected, but only 5% can vote!
2. the wealthy people also could veto any bill passed!

Reforming Press for Change!


long-standing laws kept many people from voting!

II. 1820s, reformers ended the restriction on religions!

A. e.g. the Catholics & non-Anglican Protestants!
III. during Industrial Revolution, rural towns (e.g. Manchester) had no seats allocated in
A. because they had not existed as population centers in earlier times!

Reform Act of 1832!


1830, Whigs & Tories battled over a bill to reform Parliament!

A. Whig Party: represented middle-class & business interests!
B. Tory Party: rich people whose income were based on argiculture!

II. supporters chanted: "The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill!"!
III. the Great Reform Act passed in 1832!
A. redistributed seats in the House of Commons!
1. giving representation to large towns & cities!
2. eliminating rotten boroughs!
B. enlarged the electorate (people allowed to vote); granting suffrage to more men!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

C. kept a property requirement for voting!

IV. did not bring full democracy, but middle-class men can vote!
V. nobles remained powerful in the government & economy!

The Chartist Movement!


reform bill were useless to the rural or urban workers!

A. they demanded a more radical change!

II. 1830s, Chartists (protesters) drew up the People's Charter that demanded:!
A. universal male suffrage!
B. annual parliamentary elections!
C. salaries for members of Parliament!
D. a secret ballot: allow people to vote without announcing them publicly!
III. Two petitions with over a million signatures was ignored!
IV. 1848, they prepared a third petition & organized a march on Parliament!
A. feared the government that suppressed the march!
V. Chartists unsuccessfully declined but the ideas they established were slowly passed later on!

The Victorian Age!


Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901!

II. exercised little real political power, but set the tone for what is now called the Victorian age!

Symbol of a Nation's Value!


embodied the values/ideals that included!

A. duty!
B. thrift!
C. honesty!
D. hard work!
E. respectability!

II. embraced a strict code of morals & manners for herself!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

A Confident Age!
under Victorian Age & the expansion of the British empire, the working-class & middle-class felt
great confidence in the future!
lots of social reforms were pushed for a greater social & economic justice!

A New Era in Britain Politics!


1860s, old political parties regrouped under new leadership!

A. Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party!
B. William Gladstone evolved the Whigs into the Liberal Party!

II. the two alternated as prime minister and fought important reforms!

Expanding Suffrage!

Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867!

A. gave the vote to many working class men!

II. 1880s, Liberal Party extended suffrage!

A. gave the vote to farmworkers & most other men!
III. by the end of the century, most Chartist ambitions had been achieved!
IV. Britain transformed from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy!
A. a form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by & responsible to the

Limiting the Lords!


early 1900s, bills passed by the House of Commons were rejected by the House of Lords!

II. 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords!
A. e.g. power to veto tax bills!
III. the Lords resisted & got threatened by the Commons!
IV. the House of Lords backed down & had less power = uprise of the House of Commons!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016


- struggling of women's suffrage!
- 1815 to 1914, Parliament responded to a series of social & economic reforms!
- British controlling over Ireland also became a problem!
A Series of Reforms!

early & mid-1800s, Parliament passed important new laws!

A. most controversial e.g. issue of free trade: trade between countries without quotas,
tariffs, or other restrictions!

Free Trade & the Corn Laws!


early 1800s, taxed foreign imports to protect local economies!

II. free traders are usually middle-class & business leaders!

A. agreed to the laissez faire!
III. if abolished, merchants would have larger markets!
IV. 1820s, some tariffs repealed!
V. fierce debate over the Corn Laws which imposed high tariffs on imported grain!
A. corn = cereal grains!
B. kept the price of grain high for framers & landlords!
C. make bread cheaper for workers!
D. open up trade in general!
VI. repealed in 1846, after the widespread crop failures!
VII. Liberals profited until the economic hard times in the late 1800s!
A. which impose tariffs on may goods again!

Campaign Against Slavery!


1700s, enlightenment thinkers established the thoughts of the evilness of slavery!

II. under the pressure of the reformers, the abolition movement slowly took off!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

A. abolition movement: the campaign against slavery & the slave trade!
III. 1807, Britain were the first to abolish slave trade!
IV. Congress of Vienna had condemned slavery but took no action!
V. British started to preach the immorality of slavery!
VI. 1833, a law passed banning slavery in all British colonies!

Crime & Punishment!


early 1800s,more than 200 crimes/capital offenses resulted death penalty!

A. bodies were not buried but used for college studies!

II. 1850, reformers reduced the number of capital offenses!

A. death penalty was only reserved for murder, piracy, treason & arson!
III. many were even transported to penal colonies!
A. e.g. Australia!
IV. reforms also improved prison conditions & outlawed imprisonment due to debt!

Victories for the Working Class!


1840s, social conditions were improved!

II. early 1900s, reforms designed to help men, women & children whose labour supported the
new industrial society!

Improving Working Conditions!


working conditions in the early industrial age was dangerous!

II. Parliament passed laws to regulate conditions in factories & mines!

A. 1842, women & children under 10 were forbade to work in mines!
B. 1847, limited women & children to work 10 hours a day!
C. later in the 1800s, the government regulated safety conditions in factories & mines!
1. inspectors were sent to check!
D. other laws set minimum wages & maximum working hours!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

The Growth of Labour Unions!


labour unions were outlawed at first, but under pressure, government & businesses slowly
accepted them!

II. 1825, trade unions were made legal!

A. remained illegal to go on strike!
III. without restrictions, unions spread & won rights such as:!
A. higher wages!
B. shorter hours for workers!
C. laws to improve the lives of the working-class!
IV. unions soared from 1890 to 1914!

Later Reforms!

From late 1800s to early 1900s, the two political parties enacted social reforms to help the
A. Conservative Party: improved public health & housings!
B. Liberal Party: free elementary education for all children & opened up government jobs
based on merit rather than wealth & birth!

II. Fabian Society promoted gradual change through legal means rather than violence!
A. a socialist organization founded in 1883!
B. small in number but huge influence on British politics!
III. 1900, Labour Party: socialists & union members in the form of political party!
A. surpassed the Liberal Party in 1920s!
IV. early 1900s, passed social welfare laws to protect the poor & disadvantages!
A. modeled on Bismarck's ideas!
B. e.g. insurances & pensions!
C. why Marxism gained only a little support in Britain!
1. reforms proved that democracy was working!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

The Struggle to Win Votes for Women!


women struggled against strong opposition for the right to vote!

II. some opposed suffrage!

Suffragists Revolt!

early 1900s, Emmeline Pankhurst (leading suffragist) believed that only aggressive tactics
would bring victory!
A. e.g. interrupting Parliament by shouting "Votes for Women!" until carried away!
B. collected petitions & organized public demonstrations!

II. when there were no results, they used 'tactics' that were necessary to achieve victory!
A. smashed windows!
B. burnt buildings!
C. risked lives actions!
III. "There is something that governments care far more than human life, and that is the security
of property, so it is through property that we shall strike the enemy."!

Victory at Last!

middle-class women who disapproved the actions slowly demanded votes for women!

II. 1918, the Parliament finally granted suffrage to women over 30!

Instability in Ireland!

1100s, English conquered Ireland!

II. 1600s, settlers colonized Ireland!

III. Irish never accepted British rule!
IV. many Irish were in desperate poverty!
A. had to pay high rents to absentee landlords!
1. they owned huge land but did not live on them!
B. Catholics had to pay tithes to England Church!
V. resistance & rebellion were common!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

Irish Nationalism!

1800s, Irish nationalists campaigned vigorously for freedom & justice!

II. Leader: Daniel O'Connell (a.k.a. the Liberator)!

A. organized Irish Catholic League!
B. held mass meetings to demand repeal of unfair laws!
C. "My first object, is to get Ireland for the Irish"!
III. under pressure, conditions were improved!
IV. 1829, Catholic Emancipation Act passed!
A. allowed Irish Catholics to vote!
B. hold political office!
V. but many injustice remained!
A. landlords could evict tenants at will!
B. teaching & speaking of Irish language was forbade!

Struggle for Home Rule!


the potato famine caused the distrust of Irish towards Britain!

A. landlords shipped the crops out of Ireland even though there was a shortage!

II. 1850s, organized the Fenian Brotherhood!

A. to liberate Ireland from British rule by force!
III. 1870s, Charles Stewart Parnell became nationalists' leader!
A. rallied Irish members of Parliament to press for home rule!
1. home rule: local self-government!
IV. the "Irish question" disrupted English politics!
A. Gladstone pushed for reforms!
1. ended the use of tithes money!
2. eased the hardship of tenant farmers!
3. prevent charging of unfair rents!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

4. protected tenants' rights & the land they worked!

- Franco-Prussian War ended French dominance in Europe!
- Third Republic rose from the ashes of the Second Empire of Napoleon III!
France Under Napoleon III!

Napoleon III rose to power after the revolution of 1848!

II. bourgeoisie see him as a strong leader & lower classes had hope on him!
A. his name reminded people of his glorious uncle!
III. but he brought neither glory nor an empire for France!

Limits on Liberty!

Second Empire looked like a constitutional monarchy but ruled as a dictatorship!

II. assembly was voted by universal male suffrage, but officials 'managed' elections so that
supporters of the emperor would win!
III. debates were limited & newspapers faced strict censorship!
IV. 1860s, he lifted some censorship & gave the legislature more power!
V. issued a new constitution that extended democratic rights before the war!

Promoting Economic Growth!


France prospered at mid-century!

II. promoted investment in industry & large-scale ventures such as!

A. railroad building!
B. urban renewal!
III. Ferdinand de Lesseps (entrepreneur) built the Suez Canal in Egypt!
A. linked the Mediterranean with the Red Sea & Indian Ocean!
IV. workers enjoyed some benefits of economic growth!

Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

A. legalized labour unions!

B. extended public education to girls!
C. created a public health program!
V. yet many lived in poverty!

Foreign Adventures!

failures were in foreign affairs!

A. 1860s, he tried to put Maximilian on the throne of Mexico!
1. but Mexican patriots resisted fiercely!
2. United States protested!
3. failed after 4 years!
B. France helped Italy to defeat Austria!
1. gained Nice & Savoy!
2. Italy became rival to France!
C. France & Britain won the Crimean War!
1. losses > small foothold in the Middle East!
D. = failures costed the successes!

A Disastrous War With Prussia!


Prussia was the biggest threat to France!

II. Bismarck lured Napoleon to declare war in 1870!

III. Franco-Prussian War was disaster for France!
A. Napoleon III was captured!
B. German forces encircled Paris!
1. starved the Parisians that they caught rats to eat!

Challenges of the Third Republic!


Second Empire ended after Napoleon's capture!

II. republicans set up a provisional (temporary government)!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

A. that evolved into France's Third Republic!

III. 1871, the new National Assembly accepted a harsh peace with Germany!
A. surrendered two provinces!
B. pay a large sum of money!

The Paris Commune!


1871, rebels set up the Paris Commune!

A. like radical government!
B. to save the Republic from royalists!

II. rebels were called communards!

A. made up of workers, socialists & bourgeois republicans!
B. rejected the harsh peace!
C. dreamed of creating a new socialist order!
III. National Assembly ordered the Paris Commune to disband!
A. refused and government sent troops!
B. civil war raged!
C. suppression left bitter memories that deepened social divisions within France!

Government Structure!

Third Republic remained in place for 70 years!

II. had two-house legislature!

A. Chambers of Deputies: elected by universal male suffrage was more powerful!
B. Senate: elected the president of the republican !
III. premier (prime minister) had the real power!
IV. France had many parties reflecting the wide splits of the country!
A. e.g. royalists, constitutional monarchists, moderate republican & radicals!
B. no party win a majority in the legislature!
C. they had to form coalitions of various parties!
V. each party had their own beliefs = unstable!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

A. e.g. 10 years of Third Republic had 50 different coalitions governments were formed &

Political Scandals!

political scandals shook public trust in the government!

A. General Georges Boulanger rallied royalists & ultranationalist to revenge on Germany!
1. accused of plotting to overthrow the republic!
B. nephew of the president was selling nominations of Legion of Honor!
1. the highest award in France!

Anti-Semitism & the Dreyfus Affair!


1894, Alfred Dreyfus accused of spying for Germany!

A. was not allowed to give evidences in trial!

II. military elite hated this high-ranked Jewish army officer!

III. condemned to life imprisonment on Devil's Island!
A. a desolate penal colony!

Deep Divisions!

Dreyfusards upheld ideals of justice & equality with massive anger!

A. mostly liberals & republicans!

II. Emile Zola wrote an article charging the army & government suppressing the truth!
A. convicted of libel: publication of false & damaging statements!
III. 1906, court finally cleared all of his charge & restored his honors!

Calls for a Jewish State!


ideas of religious toleration was spread across Europe during the Enlightenment!

II. anti-Semitism rose again in the late 1800s!

A. often lower middle class who felt insecure!
B. became nationalists and hate outsiders!
III. Dreyfus affair stirred Theodor Herzl to form their own state where they would have rights!
A. like Jerusalem before the Romans destroyed it!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

B. launched Zionism!
1. a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in the ancient homeland!
2. organized the First Zionist Congress in 1897!

Reforms in France!

Dreyfus affair shook France to achieve serious reforms in the early 1900s!
A. e.g. public education were to reduce the power of the roman Catholic Church!

Separating Church & State!


repressed Church involvement in government!

A. church was a conservative force that oppressed progressive policies!

II. government closed many Church related institutions!

III. 1905, passed a law to separate Church & state!
A. stopped paying the clergies!
B. none of them would have the treatments form the government!
C. but they had the freedom of worship!

Women's Rights!

women gained some right from the Napoleonic Code!

II. 1890s, women's rights movement grew!

A. e.g. 1896, married women can own earnings!
III. 1909, the French Union for Women's Suffrage was founded!
A. favored legal protests!
IV. liberal men were reluctant about it!
A. feared they would vote for Church & conservative causes!
V. women won the votes after WWII!

Looking Ahead!

1914, France was!

A. the largest democratic country in Europe!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

B. economy was prosperous!

C. second largest colonies!
D. waiting for a chance to avenge on Germany!
1. until WWI happened!

- 1800s, American was!
- growing economy!
- the Constitution & Bill of Rights held out the hope of political & religious freedom!
- more important reforms were made in the 19th century!
Territorial Expansion!

followed a policy of expansionism!

A. extending the nation's boundaries!
B. first from Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River!
C. 1803, Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the country!
1. effort made by President Thomas Jefferson!
D. 1846, expanded to Florida, Oregon & Texas!
E. Mexican War (1846 - 1848) added California!
F. 1867, brought Alaska form Russia!
G. 1898, annexed Hawaii!

II. pride & confidence led them to want to spread their nation across the globe!
A. a.k.a Manifest Destiny!

Expanding Democracy!

1800, America had the most liberal suffrage!

A. but still far from democracy!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

B. e.g. problems with women's rights & racism!

Calls for Abolition!


early 1800s, people started to call for the end of slavery!

A. William Lloyd Garrison wrote antislavery newspapers!
B. Frederick Douglass spoke in the North about his experience as a slave!

II. 1850s, battle over slavery intensified!

A. states were either proslavery or antislavery!
III. 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' convinced many people about the evilness of slavery!

Women's Rights Movement!


women began to protest the laws & customs that limited their lives!

II. 1848, the fist women's rights convention organized in New York!
A. passed a resolution based on the Declaration of Independence!
B. goal was to create equality between men & women!

The Civil War & Its Aftermath!


slavery issue drove the United States into Northern & Southern states!

II. 1860, President Abraham Lincoln opposed extending slavery!

A. Southerners feared:!
1. the abolishment of slavery !
2. the federal government would infringe on their states' rights!

North Versus South!


southern states seceded (withdrew) from the Union after the election!
A. they formed the Confederate States of America!
B. this sparked the Civil War (1861 - 1865)!
1. south had less people, resources & industry!
a) yet, they fought fiercely!
2. finally surrendered in 1865!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

C. costed 600,000 lives!

Challenges for African Americans!


during the war, Emancipation Proclamation was issued!

A. slaves in the South were declared free!

II. after the war, three amendments to the Constitution!

A. banned slavery throughout the country!
III. granted political rights to the African Americans!
IV. still, state laws imposed segregation in the south!
A. legal separation of the races in public places!
B. despite the Fifteenth Amendment, they prevented the African Americans to vote !

Economic Growth & Social Reform!


after the civil war, America led the world in industrial & agriculture production which led to:!
A. political stability!
B. private property rights!
C. a free enterprise system!
D. an inexpensive supply of land!
1. labour supplied by immigrants!
E. growing network of transportation & communications technologies!
1. aided businesses in transporting resources & finished products!

Business & Labour!


1900, great monopolies controlled the whole industries!

A. Andrew Carnegie: largest steel company!
B. John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil Company dominated the world's petroleum industry!

II. big businesses brought tremendous profits, but the workers did not enjoyed!
A. workers suffered the same conditions in the Industrial Revolution!
1. formed labour unions!


Chapter 11: Growth of Western Democracies !

[1815 - 1914]

Monday, January 18th, 2016

a) e.g. American Federation of Labour!

b) sometimes erupted into violent confrontations, but slowly made gains!

Populists & Progressives!


farmers had to go through the economic hard times in the late 1800s!

II. 1890s, they joined city workers to support the Populist party!
A. never was a major party!
B. but reforms became laws!
1. e.g. 8 hours of work a day!
III. 1900, Progressive also pressed for change!
A. ban child labour!
B. limit working hours!
C. regulate monopolies!
D. give voters more power!
E. obtaining voting rights for women!
1. succeeded in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect